Anda di halaman 1dari 10

A.

TORISM
1. Konstruksi Kalimat Dengan Kata Kerja Bantu Sebagai Predikat
Konstruksi kalimat dengan modals meliputi kalimat positif (affirmative
sentences),kalimat ingkar (negative sentences), dan kalimat
pertanyaan (interrogative sentences)
a. Kalimat Positif (Affirmative Sentences)
Pola : SUBJECT + MODAL + VERB 1 + OBJECT + ADVERB
MODAL
SUBJECT VERB 1
PRESENT PAST
CAN
I
MAY
YOU COULD
MAY
HE MIGHT
WILL
SHE MIGHT
MUST
IT WOULD
SHALL STUDY
WE HAD TO
(I/WE)
YOU SHOULD
OUGHT TO
THEY
HAD BETTER

Contoh : I can speak English


He could stay here as he like
It ought to be here right now
Yuna had better go now
Catatan:
 Semua subjek mendapat bentuk modal yang sama sebagai predikat, kecuali
shall. Yang menjadi predikat dari shall adalah I dan We saja.
 Bentuk lampau dari must adalah had to.

Page 1
2. Kalimat Ingkar (Negative Sentences)
Pola : SUBJECT + MODAL + NOT+ VERB 1 + OBJECT + ADVERB
MODAL
SUBJECT NOT VERB 1
PRESENT PAST
CAN
I
MAY
YOU COULD
MAY
HE MIGHT
WILL
SHE MIGHT
MUST NOT STUDY
IT WOULD
SHALL
WE HAD TO
(I/WE)
YOU SHOULD
OUGHT TO
THEY
HAD BETTER

Contoh : I can’t speak English


She will not (won’t) talk to him tomorrow
It ought not to be here right now
Catatan:
 Untuk OUGHT TO dan HAD TO, not diletakkan di antara OUGHT dan
TO dan HAD TO
 OUGHT TO + NOT = OUGHT NOT TO, HAD TO + NOT = HAD NOT
TO
 Kecuali may dan had better, semua kata kerja bantu (modals) mempunyai
bentuk singkat (contraction)
CAN NOT = CAN’T
MIGHT NOT = MIGHTN’T
SHALL NOT = SHAN’T
WILL NOT = WON’T
COULD NOT = COULDN’T
SHOULD NOT = SHOULDN’T
WOULD NOT = WOULDN’T
MUST NOT = MUSTN’T

Page 2
3. Kalimat Pertanyaan (Interrogative Sentences)
a. Yes-No question
Pola : MODALS + SUBJECT + VERB 1 + OBJECT + ADVERB
Contoh :
Can you speak English ? Yes, I can No, I can’t
Ought it to be here right now ? Yes, it ought to No, it ought not to
Had they to let me go ? Yes, they had to No, they hadn’t to

Catatan :
1. Subjek diletakkan di antara ought dan to dan had dan to
2. (Ought I to speak english now?)
3. (Had they to speak English yesterday?)
4. Semua modals pada umumnya digunakan dalam bentuk simple present
tense kecuali had to dan could. Kedua kata ini dapat digunakan dalam
bentuk past tense
5. Shall dipakai hanya dengan subject I atau We

b. Information question
Pola :
1. Menanyakan Subjek : WHO/WHAT + MODAL + VERB 1 + OBJECT +
ADVERB ?
WHO/WHAT MODAL VERB 1 OBJECT ADVERB
Who can Help Me Now ?
What Will Chase The cat Tonight ?

2. Menanyakan Yang Lain : QUESTION WORD + MODAL + SUBJECT +


VERB 1
QUESTION ASKING
MODAL SUBJECT VERB 1
WORD ABOUT
What Object
Can I Study
Where Place

Page 3
When Time
Why Reason
how Means/why

4. Somewhere/Anywhere/Nowhere/Everywhere/Everything
 Somewhere (disuatu tempat/ entah dimana)
 Anywhere (kemana saja /dimanapun/dimana saja /disembarang
tempat)
 Nowhere (gak kemana-mana)
 Everywhere (dimana-mana )
Example :
1. Segalanya telah berubah. (Everything has changed)
2. Kemana saja kamu pergi,aku akan ikut. (Everywhere you go, I shall
follow)
3. Uang bukanlah segala-galanya. (Money isn`t everything)
4. Gak bisa kutemukan walaupun sudah kucari dimana-mana . ( I can`t find
it though I`ve lookedeverywhere.)
5. Wanita tua itu gak kemana-mana, tinggal di rumah saja. (The old lady
went nowhere, just stayed at home.)
6. Dimana ya kacamataku? Aku menaruh kacamataku tapi entah dimana
ya? (Where are my glasses? I put them down somewhere. )
7. Duduklah dimanapun kamu suka. (Sit anywhere you like)
8. Pergilah ke China atau dimana saja… (Go to China or anywhere…)

Remember!
1. Everything dan everywhere membutuhkan bentuk tunggal kata kerja:
E.g.
a. Everything has changed.
b. Everything is ready.

Page 4
2. Nowhere digunakan dalam kalimat positif.
a. `Wanita tua itu gak kemana-mana, tinggal di rumah saja.` Dalam
bahasa Inggris dikatakan `The old lady went nowhere, just stayed
at home. Bukan The old lady didn`t go nowhere.
b. `Dokument itu tidak dapat ditemukan. `Dalam bahasa Inggris
dikatakan `The papers are nowhere to be found.` Bukan `The
papers are not nowhere to be founUse “Will/Won’t” For Promises:
I‘ll send you an e-mail.
I won’t tell anyone your secret.
He‘ll pay you back tomorrow.
We won’t forget your birthday.
Use “Will” For Offers:
a. I‘ll buy you a drink.
b. My secretary will help you with the paperwork.
Use “Will” For Decisions Made In The Moment:
a. “Would you like potatoes or rice?”
“I‘ll have the rice.”
b. “Which shirt do you like?”
“Well, the red one is cheaper, but I prefer the color blue. I‘ll take the blue
one.”
Use “Will/Won’t” Or “Going To” For Predictions Or Statements About The
Future:
a. My company‘s going to move its headquarters overseas next year.
b. Your wife will love those flowers – they’re beautiful!
c. The economy isn’t going to improve much this year.
d. He won’t pass the test. He hasn’t studied at all.

Use I think… will and I don’t think… will to express thoughts about the future.
Don’t use I think… won’t. (it doesn’t sound natural).

Page 5
B. THE EARTH
1. Will / Won’t
Will is used to express :
a. Pure future or colorless future,i.e. the future action without being
influenced by promise, intention, or will
EXAMPLE
 I was born in 1980. I will be twenty five next year. (Whether I want
it or not)
b. Promise, determination or certainty in the future. (Compare: future
with going to which indicates a will or intention)
EXAMPLE
 In the country, the air is fresh and life is easy. You will enjoy living
there.
 I’m sorry I couldn’t pay you back last week. I will give your Rp
10.000.-
 I will pass all my exams this semester; I don’t want to fail again
(determination)
c. Refusal, when used in the negative.
EXAMPLE
 I will not(won’t) come to his party unless he asks me to. (=I refuse
to come to his party ….)

2. Definite the or no article + noun


a. The Articles
The articles are words (called the determiners) thet come before nouns and
modify the nouns in a way that either generalize or particularize the nouns
There are two kinds of articles : the indefinite article a or an which is
generally used with a singular countable noun, and the definite article the
which may be used with a singular or plural countable noun and uncountable
noun.
The study on articles does not only deal with when we use the articles, but
also when we do not use the articles or zero articles.

Page 6
1. Indefinite articles a or an
The Rules:
Indefinite articles a or an is mainly used to give the meaning of one, any
(whatever, thus generalization) to a singular countable noun: a book, a man,
an apple.
EXAMPLE :
 Tell me a story. (one and any/whatever story)
 I want to read a magazine. (one and any/whatever magazine)

The Exceptions:
a. a/an is used with singular names of a profession, trade, or class.
EXAMPLE
 He is an engineer
 His Father is a clerk
 He is a Javanese
b. In a lot of other fixed expressions/idioms which you may acquire as
you encounter them in the course of your study
EXAMPLE
 Make a difference, make a living, make a remark, make a point of
 Take a trip, take a break, take a rest, take a picture, take a
vacation, take a look at
 Do favor, become reality, tell lie, play joke on
 It’s a pity, all of a sudden; it’s a shame, have a headache, in a
hurry, as a rule, as a matter of fact, for a long time

2. The definite articles ‘the’


The Rules:
a. The definite ‘the’ is used when the noun is an identified one, that
is, when we believe that hearer knows which person, thing, or
place the noun refers to. The noun is considered to be identified
when :
1. The noun has been mentioned before

Page 7
EXAMPLE
 He gave me a book. The book is about history
 I met a girl yesterday. The girl was my friend’s daugter
2. The noun is followed by a phrase describing the noun
 The book on the dean’s desk is mine
 The man in the corner is my brother
3. The noun is understood from the situation or when it is the only
thing in the place or area
 “Close the door”, said the teacher. (the students, of course,
know which door is meant).
b. Names of the oceans: the Atlantic, the Pacifis, etc
c. Names of musical instruments: the violin, the guitar, the piano, etc
d. With the superlative degree of adjectives or adverbs: the best, the
tallest, the most quickly-settled dispute, etc

The Exceptions :
a. With names of some countries: the United State, the Netherlands,
the Philippines, etc.
b. With names of some rivers: the Thames, the Nile, the Mississipi,
etc.
c. In a lot of other fixed expressions/idioms:
 Make the beds, clear the table, wash the dishes, tell the truth
 By the way, in the long run, in the least, on the one hand, on the
orher hand, on the contrary, on the whole.

3. Zero articles or no articles


The Rules:
a. With uncountable nouns or countable nouns plural when the
meaning is general or unspectific.
EXAMPLE
 Work is necessary
 Coffee comes from Brazil

Page 8
 Books are printed on paper
 Men are stronger than women
b. With proper names:
 Persons’ names: Ahmad, Fatimah, John, etc.
 Continents: Europe, Asia, Africa, etc.
 Countries: Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, etc., (but see exceptions
above)
c. With names of sports: volleyball, football, badminton, etc.
d. With names of diseases: pneumonia, polio, cancer, etc.
(Exceptions: a headache, a fever, a cold, the flu).

The Exceptions:
In a lor of other fixer expressions/idioms:
 By car, by bus, by train, etc., by hand, by heart, by mistake, by
accident.
 In addition, in fact, in front of, in case (of), in trouble, in general,
in particular
 Make friends, make money, make love, take care of, take revenge,
take pity on, take pride in, take part in, shake hands

Page 9
REFERENCES

Departement of Research and Development of Syllabus Kulliyatul


Mu’allimin Al-islamiyah (KMI). English Grammar for Class Four. Ponorogo :
Darussalam Press. 2001
Mahmud, Nasrun. English For MuslimUniversity Students 7th Edition.
Jakarta : PT. Siwibakti Darma, 2013
http://www.wordsmile.com/pengertian-contoh-kalimat-modal-auxiliary-
verbs. ( Diakses pada 21 September 2016 pukul 19.00 WIB)

Page 10