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# Sine and cosine series

B.Tsoniff
E-mail: tsoniff@gmail.com

Solution.
1.
n

z
r 1
2 r 1
is a geometric progression series with the first term z and common ratio z2.

 n 1 
n z  z  1
2n z  n 
n  z 

r 1
z 2 r 1

z2 1
 z
 1
z 
 z 

1
z  cos  i sin   cos   i sin 
z
1 1
z  2 cos  z  2i sin 
z z
1
z n  cos n  i sin n  cos n  i sin n
zn
1 1
zn   2 cos n zn   2i sin n
zn zn
 n 1 
n z  n  2i sin n sin n
n  z 

r 1
z 2 r 1
z
 1
  cos n  i sin n 
2i sin 
  cos n  i sin n 
sin 
z 
 z 

## Imaginary part of the left-hand side is

 n 2 r 1  n
Im   z    sin  2r  1
 r 1  r 1
Imaginary part of the right-hand side is

 sin n  sin 2 n
Im   cos n  i sin n  
 sin   sin 
Therefore
n
sin 2 n

r 1
sin  2r  1 
sin 
2.
Operation of summation and operation of differentiation are commutative
n n n
  2r  1 cos  2r  1   sin  2r  1  
d d
sin  2r  1
r 1 r 1 d d r 1

n
d sin 2 n

d
sin  2r  1 
d r 1 d sin 