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Grinding with Ball Mill Systems

EDM
Ball Mill

Ball Mill

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
What is a End Discharge Mill (EDM)?
Air outlet
2st Compartment

I t
Intermediate
di t diaphragm
di h (Fine Grinding)

1st Compartment
(Coarse Grinding)

Mill feed arrangement

Mill discharge

Drive

Gearbox with pinions


Air inlet

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
EDM

EDM =
E d Discharge
End Di h Mill

Product discharge
at mill end

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Elements of Ball Mill - Overview

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Mill Drive Concepts
Drive Concepts for
Ball mills

Girth gear Drives Girth gear units Central drives

Single pinion concept Single drive with Two-way power splitting


(< 2'500 kW) two pinions reducer
(< 5'000 kW) (< 6'000 kW)

Double-pinion concept Double drive with Planetary gear reducer


(< 5'000 kW) four pinions (< 12'000 kW)
(< 10'000 kW)

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Example Planetary Gear Drive
Planetary gear reducer concept MAAG
 Two gear stages with three planets
 All shafts with friction bearings
Annulus
 Pinions, planets surface-hardened
 Annulus through-hardened Planets

Gear coupling

Drive arrangement Sun pinions


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Gear Box Internals
Parallel shaft gear reducer (two way power branch)

 All gears surface-hardened and


ground

 All shafts with roller bearings

 Key point::
Face load distribution of the
LS-gear stage

Low speed gear


stage

Bearings with excentric sleeves


to optimise the face load distribution

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Potential Technical Problems Drive

Girth gear drives - Fundamental 1. Axial/radial runout


Problems
2. Alignment of the drive trains
5 2 3 3. Uneven power splitting
4. Centre distances variable
5
5. F
Face load
l d di
distribution
t ib ti

1 6. Sealing of the girth gear


7. Girth gear is through hardened
only,
l ffatigue
ti strength
t th iis lilimited
it d

4  Dynamic behaviour
 A lot of individual rotating masses
risk of resonance vicinities
5 6 7
 Torsional/structural vibrations
 Pinion shaft bending vibrations
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Gearboxes

Gear reducer
Polysius Combiflex

Planetary Gear
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Potential Damages Drives
Breakage damage (pinions)
 Cause: Inadequate transverse
load distribution, brittle material
Fatigue breakage

I iti l d
Initial damage:
Pitting on the pitch line

Secondary damage:
Tooth breakage
g

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Potential Problems Drive
Single pinion drive (2’300 kW)
 Breakage failure of the pinion in the
gear reducer
 Heavy (active) pitting on the drive
pinion
 Possible Cause: 1
- Inadequate load distribution (1)
- Overload of the tooth flanks (2)

2 1

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Mill Bearing
Advantages slide shoe bearings:
No size and capacity limitation of the
mill
Simple design of wear plates

Far higher limit of gas temperature at


mill inlet (e.g. for drying with heat
generator)

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Feed Arrangements for Ball Mills

(Slurry mill)

Preferred design today

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Feed Arrangement (Example Step Feeder)
Material feed

Ventilation air

 Advantages
 Good mill ventilation
 Easy
y to maintain
 Simple design

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Elements of Ball Mill – Overview (Internals)

External
elements
Mill ffeed
d Mill Mill di
discharge
h Mill
arrangement Mill head Mill shell bearing arrangement drive

Head Grinding Shell Intermediate Retention Discharge


li
liners media
di li
liners di h
diaphragm ring
i di h
diaphragm
Internal
elements

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Overview Internal Elements

A Coarse grinding
compartment
B Intermediate
diaphragm
C Fine grinding
compartment
D Discharge
diaphragm
E Grinding media
F Retention ring

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Liners for Coarse Grinding

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Lifting Height Requirements (1st Chamber)
 This criteria has to be
confirmed case by case h0
through evaluation of the
coarse grinding.
 Rule of thumb: h must be
greater than 50 [mm]

1st chamber lining at end of lifetime


h > 0.5 ho
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Classifying Liner for Fine Grinding (2nd Chamber)

Rotation sense

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Head Liners

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Open Diaphragm (Drying Chamber Diaphragm)

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Intermediate Diaphragm
2nd Compartment
Fine Grinding
Intermediate diaphragm

1st Compartment
Coarse Grinding

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Function of Intermediate Diaphragm

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Intermediate diaphragm

 Slot opening in 1st chamber


 Material flow control system
 Centre screen
 Grates in the second chamber
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Discharge diaphragm

Discharge diaphragm

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Discharge Diaphragm

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Material Quality and Application of Shell Liners

Material Chemical Hardness Remarks


Composition (HRC)
Manganese Recommended for small mills.
Steel 12 – 14% Mn 40 Deformation of liners for large
mills
ill (i
(initial
iti l surface
f h
hardness
d
20 – 25 HRC)

Low chromium Less deformation than


alloy cast 2 – 3% Cr 40 - 42 manganese liners.
liners Suitable
for large and small mills
liners

High
g chromium Most used material. Suitable
alloy cast 12 – 15% Cr 50 - 55 for big and small mills (Notch
impact strength 4 – 10 J/cm2)
liners

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Life Time of Shell Liners

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Grinding Media
Coarse grinding Ø 90 – 50 [mm]

Fine grinding Ø 50 – 12 [mm]


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Grinding in Ball Mill

Fine grinding (2nd chamber)


Cascading of grinding media

A
A

Coarse grinding (1st chamber)


Cataracting of grinding media

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Ball filling degree (f)

98
93
Power [%]

85

Typical range
75

20 25 30 35 40 - 45 f [%]
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Steps of Grinding

Coarse
C Medium
M di Fine
Fi
Grinding Grinding Grinding

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Coarse Grinding: Parameters for Optimising

Power parameters Efficiency parameters


 Filling degree  Ball charge (filling degree &
 Chamber lengthg composition)
p )
 Mill diameter  Liner design
 Liner design and condition  Intermediate diaphragm settings
 Mill speed  Mill ventilation

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Grinding Media

4,4 [t/m3] 4,6 [t/m3] 4,7 [t/m3]

Bulk weight of a grinding media charge in a two chamber mill with


classifiying liner
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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Grinding Media (1st Compartment)

1.Compartment
Ø Ball [mm] Weight [ t ] Percent [%]

90 25.0 25.0
80 35 0
35.0 35 0
35.0
70 25.0 25.0
60 15.0 15.0

Total 100.0 100

Average ball weight [g] 1667


Spec. media surface [m2 / t ] 10.2

Holcim Standard for 1st Compartment

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Grinding Media (2nd Compartment)
 Holcim Standard for OPC > 3’200 [cm2/g], closed circuit
system

2.Compartment
Ø Ball [mm] Weight [ t ] Percent [%]

50 20.0 10.0
40 20.0 10.0
30 32.0 16.0
25 32.0 16.0
20 42.0 21.0
17 54.0 27.0
15

Total 200.0 100


Average ball weight [g] 41
Spec media surface
Spec. [m2 / t] 32 8
32.8

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Material Quality of Grinding Media

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Specific Wear Rates of Grinding Media

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Mill Efficiency

[%R] [cm2/g]
acc
acc. Chamber 1 Blaine
(coarse grinding) Blaine Value
Chamber 2
(fine grinding)

Sieve Residues

mill length [m] [m]

longitudinal sieving graph


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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Lifting Liners Effects

Li
Liner-Lifting
Lifti : l
low hi h
high
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Optimum Material Level 1st Chamber

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Optimum Material level 2nd chamber

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Mill Ventilation

 Main Tasks Mill Ventilation:


 Material transport
 Cooling
 Removal of fines
 Fluidisation of material
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Cooling and Heating Possibilities
Product
Air
Dust ladden air
H2O
Moist additive Hot gases

Hot clinker Cooling air

H 2O

Cooling air Product

Hot gases
H 2O H2O

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07
Fine Grinding and Mill Cooling
PROBLEM SOLUTION
 Insufficient
su c e t mill coo
cooling
g  Adapted
p mill cooling,
g,
lead to material playing with:
agglomeration on balls  Clinker temperature
and liners  Mill ventilation
il i
 The grinding is not any  Water injection

more done by balls  Use of grinding aid


against material but by (temporary solution
material against material because expensive)

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Water Injection Systems

counter current no water


Product injection
1st 2nd Comp. temp. [°C]

130
counter
120
current
110
Air from
Air from co-current
blower 100
H2O blower H2O
co-current 90
(Double)
Rotary union 80
1st 2nd Comp.
Mill length

H2O 2nd Comp.

H2O 1st Comp.

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HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07