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SPECIFICATION FOR COVERED COPPER AND

COPPER ALLOY ARC WELDING ELECTRODES


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SFA-5.6

(Identical with AWS Specification A5.6-84R.)

Scope material, has passed the tests required for classification,


This specification prescribes requirements for the clas- and that the material meets also all other requirements
sification of covered copper and copper alloy electrodes of this specification.
for shielded metal arc welding. It includes compositions
in which the copper content exceeds that of any other
element. 4. Rounding-Off Procedure
Note: No attempt has been made to provide for the classification of For purposes of determining conformance with this
all grades of copper and copper alloy welding electrodes. Only the
specification, an observed or calculated value shall be
more commonly used have been included.
rounded to the nearest 1000 psi for tensile and yield
The values stated in U.S. customary units are to be regarded as the
strength, and to the “nearest unit” in the last right-hand
standard. S1 units are given as equivalent values to the U.S. customary
units. The standard sizes and dimensions in the two systems are not place of figures used in expressing the limiting value
identical, and for this reason, conversion from a standard size or for other quantities in accordance with the rounding-off
dimension in one system will not always coincide with a standard size method given in ASTM E29, Standard Recommended
or dimension in the other. Suitable conversions, encompassing standard Practice for Indicating Which Places of Figures are to
sizes of both can be made, however, if appropriate tolerances are
be Considered Significant in Specified Limiting Values.
applied in each case.

PART A — GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


1. Classification PART B — TESTS, PROCEDURES, AND
1.1 The welding materials covered by this specifica- REQUIREMENTS
tion are classified on the basis of chemical composition 5. Summary of Tests
of the undiluted weld metal as specified in Table 1.
1.2 Material classified under one classification shall Tests required for each classification are specified in
not be classified under any other classification in this Table 2.
specification.

2. Acceptance 6. Retest
Acceptance of the material shall be in accordance with
If any test fails to meet its requirement, that specific
the provisions of AWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement
test must be repeated twice. The results of both tests shall
Guidelines.
meet the requirement. Specimens for retest may be taken
from the original test assembly or from one or two new
3. Certification test assemblies.
The manufacturer certifies by affixing the marking For chemical analysis, retest shall be for the specific
required in Section 18 that the material, or representative element which failed to meet the requirement.

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TABLE 1
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIREMENTS FOR UNDILUTED METAL
Composition, Weight, Percenta,b

Cu Total
AWS UNS Common Including Other
Classification Numberc Name Ag Zn Sn Mn Fe Si Nid P Al Pb Tl Elements

ECu W60189 Copper Remainder f f 0.10 0.20 0.10 f f 0.10 0.02 — 0.50
ECuSi W60656 Silicon bronze Remainder f 1.5 1.5 0.50 2.4 to 4.0 f f 0.01 0.02 — 0.50
(copper silicon)

ECuSn-A W60518 Phosphor bronze Remainder f 4.0–6.0 f 0.25 f f 0.05 to 0.35 0.01 0.02 — 0.50
ECuSn-C W60521 冧 (copper-tin) 冦 Remainder f 7.0–9.0 f 0.25 f f 0.05 to 0.35 0.01 0.02 — 0.50

ECuNie W60715 Copper nickel Remainder f f 1.00–2.50 0.40–0.75 0.50 29.0–33.0 0.020 — 0.02 0.50 0.50
(70/30)

154
ECuAl-A2 W60614 Aluminum bronze Remainder f f f 0.50–5.0 1.5 f — 6.5 to 9.0 0.02 — 0.50

ECuAl-B W60619 Aluminum bronze Remainder f f f 2.5–5.0 1.5 f — 7.5 to 10.0 0.02 — 0.50
2004 SECTION II

ECuNiAl W60632 Nickel aluminum Remainder f f 0.50–3.5 3.0–6.0 1.5 4.0–6.0 — 6.0 to 8.5 0.02 — 0.50
bronze
ECuMnNiAl W60633 Manganese-nickel Remainder f f 11.0–13.0 2.0–6.0 1.5 1.0–2.5 — 5.0 to 7.5 0.02 — 0.50
aluminum bronze

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NOTES:
a. Analysis shall be made for the elements for which specific values or an “f” are shown in this table. If, however, the presence of other elements is indicated in the course of routine analysis,
further analysis shall be made to determine that the total of these other elements is not present in excess of the limits specified for ‘total other elements’ in the last column in the table.
b. Single values shown are maximum.
c. SAE/ASTM Unified Number System for Metals and Alloys.
d. Includes cobalt.
e. Sulfur shall be restricted to 0.015 percent for the ECuNi classification.
f. Those elements must be included in total of other elements.

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TABLE 2
SUMMARY OF MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR TESTING
Base Metala (ASTM Specifications and UNS Numbers)
AWS Transverse Guided
Classification Chemical Analysis Tension Testb Bend Testb

B152 or B11
ECu B152 or B11 C12200 B152 or B11 C12200 C12200
B96 or B97
ECuSi B96 or B97 C65500 B96 or B97 C65500 C65500
ECuSn-A B103 C51100 B103 C51100 B103 C51100
ECuSn-C B130 C52100 B130 C52100 B130 C52100
ECuNic B122 C71500 B122 C71500 B122 C71500
ECuAl-A2 B169 C61400 B169 C61400 B169 C61400
ECuAl-B B148 C95400 B148 C95400
ECuNiAl B148 C95800 B148 C95800 B148 C95800d
ECuMnNiAl B148 C95700 B148 C95700 B148 C95700d

NOTES:
a. Tests are required only where base metals are designated. All welding for chemical analysis, all-weld-
metal tension tests, and transverse guided-side-bend tests shall be done with the test plates in the flat
position.
b. When desired, steel, A36 or equivalent, may be substituted for the designated copper alloy. When this
is done, surfacing welds shall be applied to the groove faces of the joint. Surfacing shall be accomplished
with electrodes of the same classification as those being tested and may be done in the flat position.
c. Groove weld usability tests shall be conducted for the ECuNi classification as per Fig. 3.
d. Bend radius shall be in accordance with 11.

7. Weld Test Assemblies as shown in Fig. 2 using base metal of the appropriate
type specified in Table 2 and the Tension test and Bend
Two test assemblies are required for all except ECuNi
test columns of Table 2. Testing of this assembly shall
classification. This classification requires three test
be as specified in Sections 9 and 10.
assemblies as follows:
(1) A weld pad, Fig. 1, for chemical analysis of the 7.3 Groove Weld for Usability Test. A test assembly
undiluted weld metal shall be prepared for electrodes of the ECuNi classifica-
(2) A groove weld, Fig. 2, for mechanical properties tion and welded as shown in Fig. 3, using base metal of
and soundness of the weld metal the appropriate type specified in Table 2 including Notes.
(3) A groove weld, Fig. 3, for usability of ECuNi The welding position shall be as specified in the Usability
electrodes test column of Table 3 for the different sizes of electrodes
of the ECuNi classification. Testing of the assembly shall
7.1 Weld Pad. Base metal of a convenient size, of
be as specified in Section 11.
the type specified in Table 2, and in the Chemical Analysis
Column of Table 2 (including Note b to that Table), shall
be used as the base for the weld pad shown in Fig. 1. 8. Chemical Analysis
The surface of the base metal on which the weld metal 8.1 Details of the test are specified in 8.2 and 8.3.
is deposited shall be clean.
The pad shall be made with multiple passes and layers 8.2 Weld deposits or fractured portions of all-weld-
of weld metal deposited in the flat position. The slag metal tension test specimens may be employed for the
shall be removed after each pass. The temperature of the determination of weld metal chemical analysis. Weld
base metal shall be not less than 60°F (16°C) prior to metal shall be deposited in layers in the flat position using
welding, and the interpass temperature shall not exceed the base material specified in Table 2. In case of dispute,
300°F (150°C). The dimensions of the completed pad deposit dimensions shall be as specified in Fig. 1.
shall be as shown in Fig. 1 for each size of electrode.
8.3 Samples for analysis shall be free from all foreign
Testing of this assembly shall be as specified in Section 8.
matter. To avoid dilution, a minimum height of 5⁄8 in.
7.2 Groove Weld for Mechanical Properties and (16 mm) of weld metal shall remain after removal of the
Soundness. A test assembly shall be prepared and welded sample for analysis.

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FIG. 1 DIMENSIONS OF WELD FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS TEST PAD

8.4 Weld metal analysis may be made by any suitable 9.3 The test assemblies shall be prepared and evalu-
method. In case of dispute, the chemical analysis proce- ated in accordance with 9.3.1, 9.3.2, and 9.3.3.
dure in the latest edition of the following ASTM specifi- 9.3.1 The weld shall merge smoothly with the sur-
cations shall be the referee method: face of the plate. Any reinforcement must be reasonably
E62-XX Photometric Methods for Chemical Analysis uniform and shall not exceed 3⁄32 in. (2.4 mm).
of Copper and Copper-Base Alloys
E75-XX Chemical Analysis of Copper-Nickel and 9.3.2 In preparation for radiography, the backing
Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloys strip and any excessive reinforcement shall be removed
from the test assembly. Any surface irregularities that
might mask or be confused with radiographically
9. Radiographic Test rejectable indications shall be removed from the face and
9.1 Radiographic examination for classification is root of the weld by any suitable mechanical means.
required only for ECuNi electrodes. 9.3.3 The weld shall be radiographed in accordance
9.2 The groove weld for radiographic test shall be with ASTM Method E142, Controlling Quality of Radio-
made in accordance with Fig. 3. Test assemblies for the graphic Testing. The sensitivity level shall be 2-2T.
3
⁄32 in. (2.4 mm) and 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm) electrodes shall be 9.3.4 The usability of the electrode is acceptable
welded in the vertical position. Test assemblies for the if the radiograph shows no cracks, no zones of incomplete
5
⁄32 in. (4.0 mm) and 3⁄16 in. (4.8 mm) diameter electrodes fusion, and no rounded indications in excess of those
shall be welded in the flat position. The groove weld for permitted by Figs. 4A, B, C and D according to the
tensile and bend tests for 5⁄32 in. (4.0 mm) and 3⁄16 in. thickness of the test assembly. A rounded indication is
(4.8 mm) electrodes (Fig. 2) may be radiographed in lieu an indication whose length is no more than three times
of the assembly in Fig. 3. its width on the radiograph. Rounded indications may be

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FIG. 2 TEST ASSEMBLY FOR TENSILE AND BEND TEST

circular, elliptical, conical, or irregular in shape, and they shown in Fig. 2. The welding shall be done in the flat
may have tails. The size of a rounded indication is the position, as stated in Table 2. Tension tests shall be con-
largest dimension of the indication, including any tail ducted in the as-welded condition and in accordance with
that may be present. Slag indications shall be evaluated the tension test section of the latest edition of AWS B4.0.
as porosity. When evaluating the radiograph, 1 in. (25 Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Welds. Test
mm) on each end of the weld, and rounded indications specimen dimensions shall be as shown in Fig. 5.
less than 1⁄64 in. (0.4 mm) shall be disregarded.

10. Tension Test 11. Bend Test


10.1 One all-weld-metal tension test specimen shall 11.1 Test specimens shall be prepared in accordance
be machined from the groove weld described in 7.2 and with Fig. 2.

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FIG. 3 GROOVE WELD FOR RADIOGRAPHIC TEST (ECuNi ONLY)

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TABLE 3
MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS
Tensile
Strength,
Min
AWS Elongation in. 4 ⴛ D
Classification ksi MPa Gage Length, Percent, Min.

ECu 25 170 20
ECuSi 50 350 20
ECuSn-A 35 240 20
ECuSn-C 40 280 20
ECuNi 50 350 20
ECuAl-A2 60 410 20
ECuAl-B 65 450 10
ECuNiAl 72 500 10
ECuMnNiAl 75 520 15

11.2 When required in Table 2, test specimens (in 13. Standard Sizes and Lengths
the as-welded condition) shall be bent in conformance
with the side-bend test sections of the latest edition of Standard sizes and lengths of electrodes shall be as
AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing shown in Tables 4 and 5. In all cases, standard size refers
of Welds. A 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) thick specimen shall be to the diameter of the core wire.
uniformly bent through 180 degrees over 3⁄4 in. (19 mm)
radius in any suitable jig except that ECuAl-A2, ECuNiAl 14. Core Wire and Covering
and ECuMnNiAl specimens shall be uniformly bent using
14.1 Diameter of the core wire shall not vary more
the radius specified in Fig. 6. Positioning of the specimens
than ±0.003 in. (±0.08 mm) from the standard size speci-
for bending shall be such that the welded joint will con-
fied. Length shall not vary more than ±3⁄8 in. (±10 mm).
form to this radius after bending. The side of the bend
with the greater discontinuities, if any, shall be in tension, 14.2 The core wire and covering shall be concentric
and the weld shall be at the center of the bend. Figures to the extent that the maximum core-plus-one covering
7A and 7B show two typical bending jigs from the latest dimension shall not exceed the minimum core-plus-one
edition of AWS B4.0 and are dimensioned for bending covering dimensions by more than 7 percent of the mean
a 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) thick specimen over a 2T radius. dimension for 3⁄32 in. (2.4 mm); 5 percent of the mean
dimension for sizes 1⁄8 and 5⁄32 in. (3.2 and 4.0 mm); and
11.3 After bending in accordance with 11.2, the con-
4 percent of the mean dimension for 3⁄16 in. (4.8 mm). The
vex surface of the transverse guided-side-bend test speci-
concentricity may be measured by any suitable means.
mens shall exhibit no cracks or open discontinuities in
the weld metal exceeding 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) measured in any 14.3 Core wire and covering shall be free of defects
direction. Small checks or cracks at the edges of the test which would interfere with uniform performance of the
specimen shall be disregarded. electrode.
11.3.1 The guided-bend test jig. Fig. 7B is recom-
mended when steel is used as base metal for the test 15. Exposed Core
assembly (see Table 2, Note b).
15.1 The exposed core on the grip end (for making
contact with the electrode holder) shall be as shown in
Table 6.
PART C — MANUFACTURE, IDENTIFICATION,
AND PACKAGING 15.2 The arc end of each electrode shall be sufficiently
bare and the covering sufficiently tapered to permit easy
12. Method of Manufacture
striking of the arc. The covering shall cover the core wire
The welding materials classified by this specification for at least one-half of the circumference of the electrode
may be made by any method yielding product conforming at a distance of two-thirds the diameter of the core wire,
to the requirements of this specification. or 3⁄32 in. (2.4 mm), whichever is smaller.

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FIG. 4A ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR 1⁄4 in. (6.4 mm) TEST PLATE

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FIG. 4B ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) TEST PLATE

161
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FIG. 4C ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) TEST PLATE

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FIG. 4D ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) TEST PLATE

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SFA-5.6 2004 SECTION II

FIG. 5 ALL-WELD-METAL TENSION TEST SPECIMEN DIMENSIONS

16. Electrode Identification 18. Package Marking


All electrodes shall be identified as follows: 18.1 The following product information (as a mini-
mum) shall be legibly marked so as to be visible from
16.1 At least one legible imprint of the AWS classifi- the outside of each unit package:
cation shall be applied to the electrode covering within
18.1.1 AWS specification and classification num-
21⁄2 in. (65 mm) of the grip end of the electrode.
bers. (Year of issue may be excluded.)
16.2 The number and letters of the imprint shall be 18.1.2 Supplier’s name and trade designation.
of bold block type of a size large enough to be legible.
18.1.3 Standard size and net weight.
16.3 The ink used for imprinting shall provide suffi-
18.1.4 Lot, control, or heat number.
cient contrast with the electrode covering so that the
numbers and letters are legible, both before and after 18.2 All packages of welding materials, including
welding as it is normally done. individual unit packages enclosed within a larger pack-
age, shall carry (as a minimum) the following precaution-
16.4 The prefix letter E in the electrode classification
ary information prominently displayed in legible type:
may be omitted from the imprint.
WARNING:
17. Packaging PROTECT yourself and others. Read and understand
17.1 Welding materials shall be packaged to protect this information.
against damage during shipment and storage under nor-
mal conditions. FUMES AND GASES can be dangerous to your
health.
17.2 Standard packages shall be as agreed upon
between the supplier and purchaser. ARC RAYS can injure eyes and burn skin.

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FIG. 6 NOMOGRAM FOR SELECTING MAXIMUM BEND RADIUS FOR ALLOWABLE SPECIMEN THICKNESS (FOR
CLASSIFICATIONS ECuAl-A2, ECuNiAl AND ECuMnNiAl)

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SFA-5.6 2004 SECTION II

ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. W Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection.
WARNING: W Do not touch live electrical parts.
W Read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions W See American National Standard Z49.1 Safety in Weld-
and your employer’s safety practices. ing and Cutting published by the American Welding
W Keep your head out of the fumes. Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Rd., P.O. Box 351040,
W Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both to Miami, Florida 33135; OSHA Safety and Health Stan-
keep fumes and gases away from your breathing zone, dards, 29 CFR 1910, available from U.S. Government
and the general area. Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

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FIG. 7A GUIDED-BEND TEST JIG

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FIG. 7B ALTERNATE GUIDED-BEND TEST JIG

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TABLE 4
STANDARD SIZES OF ELECTRODES
Standard Sizes, Diameter of Core Wire,
in. (mm)
3 1 5 3
AWS ⁄32 ⁄8 ⁄32 ⁄16
Classification (2.4) (3.2) (4.0) (4.8)


ECu
ECuSi
ECuSn-A X X X X
ECuSn-C
ECuNi
ECuAl-A2 X X X X
ECuAl-B — X X X
ECuNiAl — X X X
ECuMnNiAl X X X X

TABLE 5
STANDARD LENGTHS OF ELECTRODES
Diameter of Core Wire Standard Length
in. mm in. mm


3 9 and 230 and
⁄32 (0.093) 2.4
12 300
3.2


1
⁄8 (0.125)
5 4.0 14 350
⁄32 (0.156)
3 4.8
⁄16 (0.187)

TABLE 6
EXPOSED CORE ON GRIP END OF THE ELECTRODE
Distance From
Grip End to
Full Thickness
Bare Portion of Covering
Electrode Diameter (minimum) (maximum)
in. mm in. mm in. mm
5 1 1
⁄32 and 4.0 ⁄2 13 1 ⁄4 30
smaller
3 3
⁄16 4.8 ⁄4 19 11⁄2 40

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SFA-5.6 2004 SECTION II

Appendix
Guide to AWS Classification of Copper and Copper Alloy
Arc Welding Electrodes
(This Appendix is not a part of AWS A5.6-84 Specification for Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes, but is included for
information only.)

TABLE A1 A1.4 It is recognized that supplementary tests may


HARDNESS OF COPPER AND COPPER ALLOY WELD be necessary to determine the suitability of these elec-
METAL DEPOSITED USING COVERED ELECTRODES trodes for applications involving properties not consid-
AWS Classification Brinell Hardness ered in this specification. In such cases, additional tests to
determine such specific properties as corrosion resistance,
ECu 20 to 40 Rockwell F
ECuSi 80 to 100 (500 kg load)
mechanical properties at low and high temperatures, and
ECuSn-A 70 to 85 (500 kg load) suitability for welding combinations of dissimilar metals
ECuSn-C 85 to 100 (500 kg load) may be required upon agreement between the purchaser
ECuNi 60 to 80 (500 kg load) and supplier.
ECuAl-A2 130 to 150 (3000 kg load)
ECuAl-B 140 to 180 (3000 kg load)
ECuNiAl 160 to 200 (3000 kg load) A2 Method of Identification
ECuMnNiAl 160 to 200 (3000 kg load) A2.1 The system for identifying the electrode classi-
fications is as follows:
NOTE: Hardness values as listed above are average values for
undiluted weld metal deposited in accordance with the specification. A2.1.1 The letter E at the beginning of each number
This table is included for information only, hardness testing is not indicates a covered electrode.
required under this specification.
A2.1.2 The chemical symbol Cu is used to identify
the electrodes as copper-base alloys, and the additional
chemical symbol, such as Si in ECuSi, Sn in ECuSn, etc.,
indicates the principal alloying element of each classifi-
cation or group of similar classifications. Where more
A1 Introduction than one classification is included in a basic group, the
A1.1 The specification itself is intended to provide individual classifications in the group are identified by the
both the manufacturer and the purchaser of copper and letters A, B, C, etc., as in ECuSn-A. Further subdividing is
done by using a 1, 2, etc., after the last letter, as the 2
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copper alloy welding electrodes with a means of produc-


tion control and a basis of acceptance through mutually in ECuAl-A2.
acceptable, sound, standard requirements.
A1.2 This guide has been prepared as an aid to pro- A3 Ventilation During Welding
spective users of the copper and copper alloy electrodes A3.1 Five major factors govern the quantity of fumes
covered by this specification in determining which classi- in the atmosphere to which welders and welding operators
fication of electrode is best suited for a particular applica- are exposed during welding. These are:
tion, with due consideration to the particular requirements A3.1.1 Dimensions of the space in which welding
for that application. Each of the basic classification groups is done (with special regard to the height of the ceiling).
is discussed in the parts of this guide that follow. A3.1.2 Number of welders and welding operators
A1.3 Tests for hardness are not included in this speci- working in that space.
fication. For reference, however, a chart of typical hard- A3.1.3 Rate of evolution of fumes, gases, or dust,
ness values is included as Table A1. according to the materials and processes involved.

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PART C — SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS, ELECTRODES, AND FILLER METALS SFA-5.6

A3.1.4 The proximity of the welder or welding A4.4 ECuSn Classification (Phosphor Bronze).
operator to the fumes as they issue from the welding ECuSn electrodes are used to join phosphor bronzes of
zone, and to the gases and dusts in the space in which similar compositions. They are also useful for joining
the welder or welding operator is working. brasses and, in some cases, for welding them to cast iron
A3.1.5 The ventilation provided to the space in and carbon steel.
which the welding is done. ECuSn weld metals tend to flow sluggishly, requiring
preheat and interpass temperatures of at least 400°F
A3.2 American National Standard Z49.1, Safety in (205°C) on heavy sections. Postweld heat treatment may
Welding and Cutting (published by the American Weld- not be necessary, but it is desirable for maximum ductil-
ing Society), discusses the ventilation that is required ity, particularly if the weld metal is cold worked.
during the welding, and should be referred to for details.
A4.4.1 ECuSn-A electrodes are used primarily to
Attention is particularly drawn to the Section of that
join base metal of similar composition. They also may
document entitled “Ventilation.”
be used to weld copper if the resultant weld metal has
adequate electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance
A4 Description and Intended Use of Filler Metal for the specific application.
A4.1 Copper and copper alloy covered electrodes A4.4.2 ECuSn-C electrodes have higher tin content
generally operate with dcep and the coverings often are resulting in weld metals of higher hardness, tensile and
hygroscopic. yield strength than ECuSn-A weld metal.
A4.1.1 The supplier should be consulted regarding: A4.5 ECuNi Classification (Copper-Nickel). Elec-
(a) Specific operating parameters and positions trodes of the ECuNi classification are used for shielded
(b) Recommended storage conditions and recondi- metal arc welding of wrought or cast 70⁄30, 80⁄20, and 90⁄10
tioning temperatures copper-nickel alloys to themselves or to each other. They
A4.1.2 The weld area shall be free from moisture also are used for welding the clad side of copper-nickel
and other contaminants. clad steel. Preheating generally is not necessary.

A4.2 ECu Classification (Copper Electrodes). ECu A4.6 ECuAl Classification (Aluminum Bronze)
electrodes are generally manufactured from deoxidized A4.6.1 The copper-aluminum electrodes are used
copper wire (essentially pure copper with small amounts only in the flat position. For butt joints, a 90 degree single
of deoxidizers added) and may be used for shielded metal V-groove is recommended for plate thicknesses up to and
arc welding of deoxidized coppers, oxygen-free coppers, including 7⁄16 in. (11 mm), and a modified U- or double V-
and tough pitch (electrolytic) coppers. The electrodes are groove is recommended for the heavier plate thicknesses.
also used to repair or surface these base metals as well Preheat and interpass temperature should be as follows:
as to surface steel and cast iron. Mechanically and metal-
lurgically sound joints can best be made in deoxidized A4.6.1.1 For iron-base materials, 200 to 300°F
coppers. Reactions with hydrogen in oxygen-free copper, (95 to 150°C).
and the segregation of copper oxide in tough pitch copper A4.6.1.2 For bronzes, 300 to 400°F (150 to
may detract from joint efficiency. However, when highest 210°C).
quality is not required, ECu electrodes may be success-
A4.6.1.3 For brasses, 500 to 600°F (260 to
fully used on these base metals. ECu electrodes may also
315°C).
be used for clad restoration on copper-clad vessels if
precautions are taken to minimize dilution effects. Pre- A4.6.2 ECuAl-A2 electrodes are used in joining
heats to 1000°F (540°C) may be required. aluminum bronzes of similar composition, high strength
copper-zinc alloys, silicon bronzes, manganese bronzes,
A4.3 ECuSi Classification (Silicon Bronze). ECuSi
some nickel alloys, many ferrous metals and alloys, and
electrodes contain approximately three percent silicon
combinations of dissimilar metals. The weld metal is
plus small percentages of manganese and tin. They are
also suitable for surfacing wear- and corrosion-resistant
used primarily for welding copper-silicon alloys. ECuSi
bearing surfaces.
electrodes are occasionally used for the joining of copper,
dissimilar metals, and some iron-base metals. Silicon A4.6.3 ECuAl-B electrodes deposit weld metal
bronze weld metal seldom is used to surface bearing having higher tensile strength, yield strength, and hard-
surfaces, but often is used to surface areas subjected to ness with a correspondingly lower ductility than ECuAl-
corrosion. A2 weld metal. ECuAl-B electrodes are used for repairing

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SFA-5.6 2004 SECTION II

aluminum bronze and other copper alloy castings. ECuAl- requiring high resistance to corrosion, erosion, or cavita-
B weld metal also is used for high strength surfacing of tion in salt and brackish water.
wear- and corrosion-resistant bearing surfaces. A4.6.5 ECuMnNiAl electrodes are used to join
A4.6.4 ECuNiAl electrodes are used to join or or repair cast or wrought manganese-nickel-aluminum
repair cast or wrought nickel-aluminum bronze materials. bronze materials. These weld metals exhibit excellent
These weld metals also may be used for applications resistance to corrosion, erosion and cavitation.
--`,``,`,`,,,``,,,,`,``,`,`,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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