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1. Pavlov found that placing food in front of the dog increased the saliva flow.

In this
situation, the increased saliva flow was a(n)

a. unconditioned stimulus (US)

b. unconditioned response (UR)

c. conditioned stimulus (CS)

d conditioned response (CR)

2 According to Skinner, the most important aspect of operant behavior was that it:

a. was elicited by a known stimulus

b. could be explained by Pavlovian principles

c. was controlled by its consequences

d. produced a satisfying state of affairs.

For Skinner, the environment was important because it:

a. elicited behavior

b. selected behavior

c. provided the organism with the opportunity to test its expectancies

d. allowed the organism to develop a cognitive map

According to Skinner, punishment is widely used in efforts to modify behavior because


a. is the most effective method available

b. is reinforcing to the punisher

c. weakens undesirable behavior just as reinforcement strengthens desirable behavior

d. has the advantage of increasing stress tolerance in those who are punished

One of Thorndike.s most important findings from his experiments on cats in

puzzle boxes was that
A. punishment was very effective in modifying the cats behaviour.
B. the cats behaviour was easy to negatively reinforce.
C. the cats learned to obtain a reward through trial and error.
D. the cats behaviour was difficult to reinforce.
Question 31
Thorndike.s notion that behaviours that are reinforced tend to be repeated is
known as
A. the punishment principle.
B. the law of effect.
C. Pavlovian conditioning.
D. negative reinforcement.
Question 32
In operant conditioning an important connection forms between the
A. unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus.
B. stimulus and whatever occurs before it.
C. unconditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response.
D. behaviour and the reinforcement that follows it.
Question 33
Many of Skinner.s original experiments used
A. an operant conditioning chamber.
B. a Pavlovian conditioning laboratory.
C. children.
D. cats in puzzle boxes.
Question 34
In Skinner.s original experiments, which schedule of reinforcement led to the
most rapid acquisition of learned
A. continuous reinforcement schedule
B. continuous punishment schedule
C. Þ xed interval schedule
D. variable ratio schedule
Question 35
In Skinner.s original experiments, behaviour that had been conditioned by
which type of schedule was found
to be the most difÞ cult to extinguish?
A. variable schedule
B. Þ xed schedule
C. continuous reinforcement schedule
D. punishment schedule
Question 36
Which type of learning is seen as discouraging bad behaviour instead of
encouraging positive behaviour?
A. positive reinforcement
B. modelling
C. negative reinforcement
D. punishment
Question 37
In classical conditioning, the learned response is _____________, while in
operant conditioning the learned
response is ________________.
A. voluntary ,reflexive
B. spontaneous; involuntary
C. reflexive; voluntary
D. involuntary; reflexive
If you are using operant conditioning principles to train a dog, then any
punishment you deliver should be administered ______ an unwanted response
from the dog. Any reward you administer should be administered _______ a
desired response from the dog. If you are using classical conditioning to train
a dog, the conditioned stimulus should be administered _______ the dog.s
A. after; after; after
B. after; before; after
C. after; after; before
D. before; before; after

45. Using operant conditioning, which of the following is not a method that
can be used to change behavior?

a. negative reinforcement

b. punishment

c. counseling

d. positive reinforcement

e. shaping

What do we call the practice of reinforcing closer and closer

approximations of a desired behavior ?

a. modeling

b. shaping

c. classical conditioning

d. social learning

e. aping

Which of the following can be used in shaping behavior?

a. positive reinforcement

b. diminishment

c. reaction

d. manipulation
e. unionization

What is it called when a desired response is followed by the termination

or withdrawal of something unpleasant?

a. negative reinforcement

b. positive reinforcement

c. manipulation

d. elimination

e. psychic withdrawal

Which of the following statements about positive and negative

reinforcement is not true?

a. They both result in learning.

b. They both strengthen a response and increase the probability of


c. They tend to weaken behavior and decrease its subsequent frequency.

d. They are effective shaping tools.

e. They are often used in learning.

According to research, which of the following is a schedule of

reinforcement that promotes the greatest resistance to extinction?

a. continuous

b. fixed interval

c. variable interval

d. fixed ratio

e. negative

According to research, which of the following is a schedule of

reinforcement that promotes the greatest resistance to extinction?

a. continuous
b. fixed interval

c. variable interval

d. fixed ratio

e. negative

In general, _____ reinforcement schedules tend to lead to higher

performance than _____ reinforcement schedules.

a. variable; fixed

b. fixed; intermittent

c. fixed; variable

d. variable; ratio

e. fixed; static

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What are the five main components of a computer system?

CPU, CD-rom, mouse, keyboard, sound card

Memory, Video Card, Monitor, Software, Hardware.
Modem, Keyboard, Word Processor, Printer, Screen.
CPU, memory, system bus, input, output