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AIIMS - 2011 : Questions

(1) Which of the following features can be said to be a true defining feature of living beings without any
exception ?

(A) They can digest their food. (B) All of them can reproduce.

(C) They can regenerate. (D) They can respond to external stimuli.

(2) Bacteria, fungi, lower plants survive in adverse conditions by whom ?

(A) Diapause. (B) Suspended growth (C) Migration (D) Formation of thick walled spores

(3) Which statement is correct regarding mosses ?

(A) They have dominant and independent sporophyte.

(B) Their antherozoids require water for fertilization.

(C) Their archegonia produce many eggs.

(D) Their antherozoids are multi flagellated.

(4) Assertion A : In angiosperms, transport of food and water is more efficient than gymnosperms and

Reason R : In angiosperms longitudinally arranged sieve elements and vessels with perforated
end walls are present.

(5) Cell theory was proposed by

(A) a botanist. (B) a Zoologist.

(C) a botanist and a zoologist. (D) a psychologist.

(6) In a 50 gm living tissue, what would be the amount of water?

(A) 15-25 gm. (B) 25-30 gm. (C) 35-45 gm. (D) 70-90 gm.

(7) Which of the following is not a characteristic of meiosis ?

(A) It involves two stages of DNA replication one before meiosis I and another before meiosis II.

(B) It involves recombination and crossing over.

(C) Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II.

(C) Nuclear membrane disappears during prophase.

(8) After glycolysis, fate of glucose in mitochondrial matrix is.

(A) Oxidation. (B) Reduction.

(C) Oxidative decarboxylation. (D) Hydrolysis.

(9) Assertion A : Enzymes lower down the activation energy of the reactant molecule to make its
transition into product easier.

Reason R : Enzymes are highly substrate specific catalysts.

(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(10) Assertion: A geneticist crossed two plants, he got 50 % tall and dwarf progenies.

Reason: It follows Mendelian law as one of the parent plant might be heterozygous.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(11) Which of the following is correct?

(A) Henking discovered the small Y-chromosome.

(B) Drosophila also shows XX-XY sex determination like human.

(C) Birds have ZZ-ZW sex determination, where females are ZZ and males are ZW.

(D) Grasshoppers show XX-XY sex determination.

(12) Given figure shows:

(A) structure of lenticel. ±ìÔVÖß

(B) hydathod showing gaseous vapour exchange. mentary cells
cook cambium
(C) fungus reproducing by spore formation.

(D) algae reproducing by spore formation.


(13) Identify the given figure P, Q, R, S and T


(A) Marginal Axile Free central Parietal Basal.

(B) Marginal Parietal Free central Axile Basal. P Q

(C) Marginal Axile Parietal Free central Basal.

(D) Marginal Axile Parietal Basal Free central. R S

Atmosphere N2

Biological N2 Industrial N2 Electrical N2

fixation fixation P

NH3, ® No–2 , ® No–3

Soil 'N' pod


Decaying biomass Plant biomass

Animal biomass

(P) (Q)
(A) Mineralisation Demineralisation.
(B) Ammonification Denifrification.
(C) Denifrification Ammonification.
(D) Denifrification Mineralisation.
(15) In active transport, carrier proteins are used, which use energy in the form of ATP, to
(A) transport molecules against concentration gradient of cell wall.
(B) transport molecules along concentration gradient of cell membrane.
(C) Transport molecules against concentration gradient of cell membrane.
(D) transport molecules along concentration gradient of cell wall.
(16) Ps-II occurs only in.
(A) Stroma. (B) Granal thylakoids (C) stromal lamella (D) matrix
(17) Which of the following statement is correct?
(A) Photorespiration is useful process.
(B) C4 Plants are more efficient than C3 plants.
(C) C3 plants are more efficient than C4 plants.
(D) Photorespriation is absent in C3 plants but present in C4 plants.

(18) Assertion A : water that enters into a plant cell through diffusion makes it turgid.

Reason R : Entry of water into the cell through diffusion develops wall pressure inside the cell.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(19) Assertion A : Movement of materials inside phloem is bidirectional i.e. it can be both upward or
Reason R : Movement of molecules inside xylem is unidirectional. i.e. always upwards.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(20) Assertion A : Protons or hydrogen ion produced by photolysis of water accumulate in the lumen of
Reason R : Photolysis of water takes place in inner membrane of thylakoid.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(21) Assertion A : Plant growth as a whole is indefinite.
Reason R : Plants retain the capacity of continuous growth throughout their life.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(22) What is the Characteristic of tapetum?
(A) It does not store food. (B) It is multi nucleated.
(C) It is multi layered structure. (D) It nourishes the megaspore.
(23) Cleistogamy is leading over anthesis because
(A) Pollination agent is not required. (B) It assures heterozygosity.
(C) It favours insect pollination. (D) It allows xenogamy.
(24) Assertion: In some species of asteraceae and pocecae seeds are formed without fertilization.
Reason: Formation of fruit without fertilization is called parthenocarpy.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.

(25) Kingdon Animalia is characterized by
(A) Direct dependence on autotrophs. (B) Indirect dependence on autotrophs.
(C) Absence of chlorophyll. (D) Absence of cell wall.
(26) Which of the following is a correct match?
(A) Frog – External ears.
(B) Earthworm – muscular gizzard, typhlosole.
(C) Human – fat globule, 10 pairs of cranial nerves.
(D) Cockroach – Chilopoda.
(27) Assertion A : Blood in Cockroach is colourless haemolymph with no respiratory pigment.
Reason R : Respiration in cockroach occurs through diffusion in haemolymph.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(28) Which of the following elements is present in very less quantity in the body ?
(A) K (B) Ca (C) Mg (D) Cu
(29) Assertion A : Glycerides are important nutrients for body.
Reason R : Glycerides are hydrolysed into glycerol and fatty acids which are further absorbed in
intestine by the formation of chylomicron.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(30) Which of the following is an incorrect statement ?
(A) Blood group ‘O’ person have A and B antigens on RBCs.
(B) Eosinophils resist infections and are associated with allergic infection.
(C) RBC’s contain carbonic anhydrase.
(D) T wave of normal ECG represent of drpolarization of ventricle.
(31) The opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle is guarded by the valve named.
(A) Bicuspid valve. (B) Tricuspid valvue (C) Mitral valve (D) Semilunar valve
(32) Assertion A : Blood group ‘O’ have anti-A and anti-B antibodies.
Reason R : It does not have any antigens.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(33) Assertion A : S.A. node induces excitatory impulses in heart.
Reason R : S.A. node is self excitatory.

(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(34) Which one of the following is correct regarding the excretion?
(A) Large amount of water from renal filtrate is reabsorbed in DCT and a less amount is reabsorbed
by PCT.
(B) The descending limb of loop of henle is completely impermeable to salts.
(C) Malpighian corpuscle is found in medulla region of Kidney.
(D) The colour of urine is pale yellow and is slightly alkaline in nature.
(35) Which of the following statement is incorrect regarding fermentation?
(A) Propionibacterium is used to ferment the cheese.
(B) The puffed up appearance of dough is due to the production of CO2 gas.
(C) Fermentation in muscle produces ethanol
(D) Toddy is made by fermenting sap from palms.
(36) Tendon and ligament are examples of ?
(A) Dense regular connective tissue (B) Dense irregular connective tissue
(C) Loose connective tissue (D) Specialized connective tissue
(37) Skeletal muscles appear striated due to presence of two characteristics proteins in alternating dark
and light bands. Which of the following is a correct match of the protein with its light refractive
property and colour ?
Protein Colour Property
(A) Myosin Light Anisotropic
(B) Actin Dark Anisotropic
(C) Myosin Dark Isotropic
(D) Actin Light Isotropic
(38) If medulla oblangata is destroyed then which of the following functions will be effected ?
(A) No thermoregulation (B) No vision
(C) No memory (D) No response when pricked with needle
(39) Assertion : Organ of corti rests on tectorial membrane.
Reason : It helps to maintain equilibrium of body.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(40) Which of the following statements is correct ?
(A) ï Monkey, apes and humans exhibit estrous cycle

(B) Urine is pale yellow and slightly alkaline
(C) Lots of enzymes are present in bile juice
(D) Ovulation in humans is spontaneous
(41) In assisted reproductive technology where gametes have been fertilized in vitro, which of the following
is practicable for embryo transplantation in fallopian tube ?
(A) Only embryo up to 8 blastomeres if zygote is not transplanted
(B) Only zygote is transplanted not embryo
(C) either embryo or zygote with 8 blastomere phase transplanted
(D) morulla with 8-24 celled stage is transplanted in fallopian tube
(42) Assertion A : Now a days amniocentesis is banned
Reason R : Amniocentesis gives the information of any abnormality in the foetus and many other
complications regarding pregnancy can be detected.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(43) Assertion A : Corpus luteum is produced by Grafian follicle after ovulation.
Reason R : It secretes estrogen which is necessary to maintain pregnancy.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(44) Which of the following statement is correct ?
(1) Common cold - droplet infection (2) Typhoid - contaminated food and water
(3) AIDS - shaking hands (4) Ringworm - using infected towels
(A) 1 and 2 (B) 3 and 4 (C) 1 and 3 (D) 1, 2 and 4
(45) Assertion A : Sporozoites of malarial parasite enter in the human body due to biting of freshly born
female anopheles mosquito, whose mother was a carrier of malarial parasite.
Reason R : Male and female gametocytes of malarial parasites are formed in the human intestine.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(46) Which of the following evidences does not favour the Lamarckism concept of inheritance of acquired
characters ?
(A) Absence of limbs in snake (B) Melanization in peppered moth
(C) Presence of webbed toes in aquatic birds (D) Lack of pigment in cave dwelling animals
(47) What are labelled phases P, Q and R in given sigmoidal
growth curve ?

(P) (Q) (R)

(A) Stationary Lag Lag

(B) Lag Stationary Lag

(C) Lag Lag Stationary

(D) Lag Lag Stationary

(48) Monarch butterfly escapes from predators by
(A) Foul smell (B) bitter taste (C) colour combination (D) rough skin
(49) In vehicles, catalytic converters are used.
(A) to increase mileage of vehicles (B) to convert CO2 into carbonates
(C) to increase the efficiency of lead mixed petrol (D) to convert CO to CO2
(50) Which of the following is best method of germplasm conservation ?
(A) Herbarium (B) Botanical garden (C) Seed bank (D) Zoological park
(51) Which of the following statements is correct ?
(A) Lion and leapord show convergent evolution.
(B) Cryptic camouflage is seen in Biston betularia.
(C) Natural selection is responsible for extinction of dinosours.
(D) Homo habilis and homo erectus are closely releated.
(52) Assertion A : Amount of organic biodegradable compounds present in water is measared by the
BOD of that water.
Reason R : During biodegradable organic compounds, oxygen is released by bacteria.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(53) Assertion A : Algal blooms are formed in nutrient less water.
Reason R : Algal blooms in water turn it unfit for human congumption, but cause enormous growth
of fish.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.

(54) Assertion A : A mangrove tree growing in marshy place has pneumatophores.

Reason R : Pneumatophores help in better anchorage to marshy soil.

(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.
(55) What is the source of Eco R1 ?
(A) Escherichia coli R I (B) Escherichia coli R.I.13
(C) Escherichia coli RY 13 (D)  Escherichia coli RX 13
(56) First clinical gene therapy was given in 1992 to a 4 years old girl for ?
(A) Adenine deficiency (B) Growth deficiency
(C) Adenosine deaminase deficiency (D) adenosine deficiency
(57) Which of the following statment is correct ?
(A) Aspergillus niger is used for producing cyclosporin A.
(B) Activated sludge is digested by aerobic bacteria to produce marsh gas
(C) Fleming, Chain and Florey were awarded with nobel prize for discovering penicillin
(D) BOD is amountof oxygen produced by bacteria on decompostion
(58) Which of the following options is a correct match of phonomenon and its explanation ?
(A) reverse transcription PCR - many copies of a DNA sequence
(B) Central dogma ® RNA ® DNA ® Protein ® RNA
(C) RNA silencing ® use of ds-RNA to stop the expression of ss-RNA
(D) Transcription ® process of formation of RNA and proteins
(59) Which of the following statement is correct ?
(A) Catalytic converter can seperate particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 micrometers
(B) Histones are acidic in nature that forms core for DNA packaging
(C) Lactobacillus is not present in dough used in idli formation
(D) Template with polarity 5' ® 3' has continuous DNA replication
(60) Assertion A : A gene from bacillus thuringiensis is incorporated in plant genome to increase their

Reason R : Bacillus thuringiensis has Bt toxin producing gene, which kills the larva of insects.
(A) A and R both are true and R is correct explanation of the A.
(B) A and R both are true and R is not correct explanation of the A.
(C) A is true and R is false.
(D) A is false and R is true.

AIIMS - 2012 : Questions
(121) Which of the following is correct regarding respiration in adult frog ?
(A) In water - Skin, gills (B) On land - Skin, buccal cavity
(C) In water - Skin, buccal cavity (D) On land - Skin, lungs, gills
(122) Which of the following is correctly matched ?
(A) Monstera - Fibrous root (B) Dahila - Fasciculated root
(C) Azadirachta - Adventitious root (D) Basil - Prop roots
(123) The 'cells of Rauler' are :
(A) secretory cells of endometrium in uterus
(B) inner cell mass of blastocoel
(C) outer cells of trophoplast in contact with uterine wall
(D) cells of trophoblast, in contact with inner cell mass of blastocyst

(124) Which is correctly labelled with respect to the given diagram ?

A rN
(A) B : Logistic curve

Population density
(B) C : Carrying capacity dN §K-N·
rN ¨ ¸
dt © K ¹

(C) C : Exponential curve

(D) A : Carrying capacity

(125) Deuteromycetes are known as fungi imperfecti because :
(A) their zygote undergoes meroblastic and holoblastic cleavage
(B) only asexual stages are known
(C) they have aseptate mycelium
(D) they are autotrophic
(126) Abscisic acid is known as the stress hormone because it :
(A) breaks seed dormancy (B) induced flowering
(C) promotes leaf fall (D) promotes closure of stomata
(127) Choose the correct statement :
(A) hPL plays a major role in parturition
(B) Foetus shows movements first time in the 7th month of pregnancy
(C) Signal for parturition comes from fully developed foetus and placenta
(D) Embryo's heart is formed by the 2nd month of pregnancy
(128) One of the world's most poisonous fish toxins is released by :
(A) clown fish (B) sword fish (C) eel fish (D) puffer fish
(129) Na+/K+ pump is associated with :
(A) passive transport (B) active transport (C) osmosis (D) imbibition
(130) Which one has the largest species variety in India ?
(A) Wheat (B) Maize (C) Rice (D) Potato
(131) Photorespiration shows formation of :
(A) sugar but not ATP (B) ATP but not sugar
(C) both ATP and sugar (D) neither ATP not sugar
(132) The microscope usually used for seeing living cells or tissues is :
(A) compound microscope (B) electron microscope
(C) phase contrast microscope (D) light microscope
(133) Which of the following is correctly labelled ?

(A) P : Reissner's membrane

(B) Q : Scala vestibuli

(C) R : Basilar membrane

(D) S : Tectorial membrane

(134) In aerobic respiration, total number of ATP molecules formed from 1 glucose molecule is.
(A) 28 (B) 32 (C) 36 (D) 38
(135) Which of the following cartoon characters does not share its name with that of a gene ?
(A) Tintin (B) Popeye (C) Asterix (D) Obelix
(136) Apiculture is associated with which of the following groups of plants ?
(A) Grapes, maize, potato (B) Sugarcane, paddy, banana
(C) Guava, sunflower, strawberry (D) Pineapple, sugarcane, strawberry
(137) Which of the following is correctly labelled for the given figure ?
Chart : Non-cyctic photophosphorylation

Light R ADP+Pi e–acceptor /

¯ 2 Electron ATP 2

Transport / 2 NADP+

S/ LHC /
H 2O o 2e   2H   [O]
(A) P : PS II; Q : PS I; R : e- acceptor, S : LHC
(B) P : LHC; Q : e- acceptor; R : PSI; S : PS II
(C) P : PSI; Q : PS II; R : e- acceptor; S : LHC
(D) P : e-acceptor; Q : LHC; R : PS II; S : PS I
(138) During muscular contraction, which of the following events occur ?
(i) H - zone disappears (A) (i), (iii), (iv) and (v)
(ii) A - band widens (B) (i), (ii) and (v)
(iii) I - band reduces in width (C) (i), (iv) and (v)
(iv) A - Width of A bank is unaffected (D) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(v) M-line and Z line come closer
(139) The release of chemical messenger from synaptic vesicles is under the influence of these
ion(s) :
(A) Cl – (B) Fe +2 and S +2 (C) Ca +2 (D) Mg +2 and Sr +2
(140) Cattle ranches are known to causes acute green house effect. This is due to :
(A) mechanized milking practices
(B) methanogenic bacteria in rumen
(C) edecomposition of left over fodder
(D) decomposition of organic remains in faeces
(141) Kranz anatomy is usually associated with
(A) C 3 plants (B) C 4 plants (C) CAM plants (D)C 3 -C 4 intermediate plants
(142) Microtubule depolymerizing drug such as colchicine is expected to :
(A) inhibit spindle formation during mitosis
(B) inhibit cytokinesis
(C) allow mitosis beyond metaphse
(D) induce formation of multiple contractile rings.
(143) Catecholamine in a normal person induces :
(A) intense salivation (B) alertness
(C) decrease in heart beat (D) excessive Urination
(144) Select the option having all the correct characteristics :

Structure Percentage Function

(A) 0.3 - 0.5 Phagocytic

(B) 0.5 - 1.0 Secrete histamine and serotonin

(C) 30 - 40 Defence against parasites

(D) 30 - 40 Allergic reactions

(145) Plants with inferior ovary usually bear :
(A) pseudocarps (B) berries (C) aggregate fruits (D) seedless fruits
(146) Oxygen binding to haemoglobin in blood is :
(A) directly proportional to the concentration of CO2 in the medium
(B) inverselyproportional to the concentration of CO2 in the medium
(C) directly proportional to the concentration of CO in the medium
(D) independent of the concentration of CO in the medium
(147) Leghaemoglobin is produced in response to :
(A) respiration (B) photosynthesis (C) fatty acid synthesis (D) N2 fixation
(148) The extinct human ancestor, who ate only fruits and hunted with stone weapons was :
(A) Ramapithecus (B) Australophithecus (C) Dryopithecus (D) Homo erectus
(149) What is common between earthworm and Periplaneta ?
(A) Both have red coloured blood (B) Both possess anal styles
(C) Both have malpighian tubules (D) Both have segmented body
(150) In a normal adult, ascending order of concentration of following molecules is :
(A) K > Na > Fe > cu (B) Na > K > cu > Fe
(C) Fe > Na > K > cu (D) Na > Fe > K > cu
(151) Which of the following statements is incorrect about G0 phase ?
(A) Mitosis occurs after G0 phase.
(B) Biocatalysts can be used to exit G0 phase
(C) Cell volume keeps on increasing during this G0 phase
(D) Cell metabolism occurs continuously in G0 phase
(152) Beads on string like structures of P are seen in Q, which further condense to form chromosomes in R
stage of cell division ?
(A) Chromonema Chromatin Metaphase
(B) Chromatin Chromatid Metaphase
(C) Chromonema Chromosome Anaphase
(D) Chromonema Chromatid Anaphase
(153) RNA interference is essential for the :
(A) cell Proliferation (B) cell defence
(D) cell differentiation (D) micropropagation
(154) Select the option having all correctly matched pairs :
Column-I Column-II
(A) Alkaloids (i) Carotenoid; Anthocyanin (A) (P-i) (Q-ii) (R-iii)
(B) Pigments (ii) Vinblastin; curcumin (B) (P-ii) (Q-iii) (R-i)
(C) Drugs (iii) Morphine; Codeine (C) (P-iii), (Q-ii) (R-ii)
(D) (P-i) (Q-iii) (R-ii)
(155) Dust, oolong and brick are varieties of :
(A) coffee (B) pepper (C) tea (D) lavang
(156) Ventricular disastole occurs due to a/an :
(A) organ system (B) cell organelle (C) tissue (D) organ
(157) Plants having the above given floral diagram are :
(A) leguminous
(B) dicotyledous
(C) medicinal and perennial
(D) having pinnately compound leaves
(158) Select the correct statement :
(A) Particulate matter of size 10 mm can create severe damage to the lungs
(B) Particulate mater of size greater thant 2.5 mm can get trapped in lungs and cause problems
(C) Particulate matter of size less than 2.5 mm penetrate deep into lungs
(D) None of the above

(159) Perbrine in silkwoms is caused by

(A) Dugesia (B) Monocystis (C) Nosema (D) Plasmodium
(160) Which of the following is a homopolysaccharide ?
(A) Heparin (B) Inulin (C) Pectin (D) Hyaluronic acid
* Direction : In the following questions (161-180), a statement of assertion (A) is followed by a
statement of reason (R), Mark the correct choice as :
(A) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion
(B) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion
(C) Assertion is true but reason is false
(D) Both assertion and reason are false

(161) Assertion A : There are 34 biodeiversity hotspots in the world.

Reason R : High level of species richness is a criteria for selection of a biodiversity hotspot.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(162) Assertion A : Inbreeding increases homozygosity, thus exposes harmful recesive genes, which are
eleminated by selection.

Reason R : Continued inbreeding reduces fertility and productivity.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(163) Assertion A : Some marine animals find it difficult to live in fresh water and vice versa.
Reason R : Some animals can tolerate a narrow salinity range, while others can tolerate a wide
salinity range.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(164) Assertion A : Mylein sheath insulates the nerve fibre and prevents its depolarisation.
Reason R : Nerve impulses are conducted more rapidly in non - myelinated nerve fibres than in
myelinated ones.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(165) Assertion A : Frog can change its colour, according to its surroundings.
Reason R : It is a way of mimicry to capture preys.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(166) Assertion A : Less iodine intake causes goitre.
Reason R : Less iodine in body decreases thyroxine secretion.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(167) Assertion A : Hb Hb denotes the homozygous condition for sickle-cell anaemia.
5 5

Reason R : It occurs due to substitution of glutamic acid by valine at the 6th position of b-chain of
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(168) Assertion A : Excess Mn in soil, can adversely decrease Mg, Fe and Cu concentrations in the soil.
Reason R : Mn increase rate of photosynthesis, thereby increasing absorption of Mg, Fe and
Ca from soil.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(169) Assertion A : A middle aged woman is reported to have small breasts and undersized uterus.
Reason R : Her genotypic analysis shows XO condition of allosomes.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(170) Assertion A : In proximal convoluted tubule glomerular filtrate becomes hypertonic to blood plasma
Reason R : HCO3- is absorbed only in the proximal convoluted tubule.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(171) Assertion A : Complexity of classifiction increases from kingdom to species.
Reason R : Common characters increase from kingdom to species.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(172) Assertion A : In a terrestrial ecosystem detritus food chain is the major conduit for energy flow.
Reason R : Solar energy is the direct source for energy supply in a detritus food chain.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(173) Assertion A : Filarial worm is transmitted to humans by Culex mosquito.

Reason R : Culex prefers to breed in fresh water.

(A) (B) (C) (D)
(174) Assertion : AIDS is caused by the HIV, a retrovirus.
Reason : Retroviruses have RNA genome.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(175) Assertion : A male if found to be lacking facial hair and pubic hair.
Reason : It is a case of hyposecretion of testosterone from Leydig's cells of testes.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(176) Assertion : Extra oxygen consumption in human body is known as oxygen debt.
Reason : The extra oxygen is required by the body to oxidise the accumulated lactic acid
produced during strenuous exercise.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(177) Assertion : Emulsification is necessary for the digestion of fats.
Reason : After fats are emulsified, the action of enzyme amylase gets significantly increased.
(178) Assertion : In jaundice, the skin and mucous membranes assume a yellowish hue.
Reason : yellow prigment bilirubin imparts pale yellow colour to blood plasma.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(179) Assertion : No taste sensation is evoked when drop of distilled water is put on human tongue.
Reason : Man does not possess taste buds for tasting water.
(180) Assertion : Oxytocin is also known as Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
Reason : Oxytocin can cause an increase in the renal reabsorption of water.
(A) (B) (C) (D)

AIIMS - 2013 : Questions

(121) Stinging capsules (nematocysts) are found in :
(A) wasp and honeybee (B) scorpion and cobra
(C) sea pen and sea fan (D) cactus and venus flytrap
(122) Which of the following is a cloning vector ?
(A) DNA of Salmonella typhimurium (B) Ti plasmid
(C) Amp' and Tet' Loci (D) Ori minus pBR322
(123) India is one of the twelve megadiversity countries with ______ of genetic resources of the world
(A) 12.1% (B) 18.1% (C) 38.1% (D) 8.1%
(124) Which of the following is not an invasive species ?
(A) Parthenium hysterophorus (B) nelumbo (lotus)
(C) Lantana camera (C) Eichhonria crassipes

(125) Intercalated discs are characteristic of muscles found in :
(A) heart (B) thigh (C) urinary bladder (D) stomach
(126) In which of the following sets of organisms, does the external fertilization occur ?
(A) Echinodermata and mosses (B) Hemichordata and ferns
(C) Amphibians and algae (D) Reptiles and gymnosperms
(127) Starting from the maximum, arrange the following male reproductive accessory organs in the correct
order, based on the amount of secretion poured into urethra.
(i) Prostate gland (ii) Seminal vesicle (iii) Bulbourethral gland
(A) (i) > (ii) > (iii) (B) (iii) > (ii) > (i) (C) (ii) > (iii) > (i ) (D) (ii) > (i) > (iii)
(128) Which of the following contraceptive devices make uterus unsuitable for implantation ?
(A) Progestasert (B) Copper T (C) Lippe's loop (D) Multiload
(129) In Millers' experiment, he used a mixture of CH4 NH3 H2 and watervapour in a closed flask to mimic
early earth conditions. What was the temperature at which this flask was kept ?
(A) 800o C (B) 1200o C (C) 200o C (D) 400o C
(130) Sexual stage (gametocytes) of Plamodium occurs in :
(A) Salivary glands of mosquito (B) Human RBC
(C) Intestine of mosquito (D) Human liver
(131) Occurrence of triploid (3n) primary endosperm nucleus is a characteristic feature of :
(A) Algae (B) Gymnosperms (C) Angiosperms (D) Bryophytes
(132) From the following groups, select the one which has only secondary metabolites ?
(A) Arbrin, cellulose, arginine, tyrosine
(B) Glycine, gums, serine, diterpenes
(C) Carotenoids, phenylalanine, curcumin, rubber
(D) Conclavin-A, morphine, codeine, vinblastin
(133) In a diploid cell, at which stage of cell cycle, the amount of DNA is doubled ?
(A) G1 and G2 phase (B) G0 Phase (C) S, G2 and M phase (D) S phase
(134) Sporopollenin is a constituent of pollen exine. It can be degraded by the action of :
(A) enzymes (B) high temperature (C) strong acids (D) cannot be degraded
(135) The pollen grains of rice and wheat lose their viability in __ minutes of their release.
(A) 30 (B) 10 (C) 60 (D) 90
(136) After double fertilization, a mature ovule has :
(A) 1 diploid and 1 haploid cell (B) 1 diploid and 1 triploid cell
(C) 2 haploid and 1 triploid cell (D) 1 haploid and 1 triploid cell
(137) Genetically modified (GM) crops can be produced by
(A) recombinant DNA technology (B) somatic hybridization
(C) cross breeding (D) micropropagation
(138) Which of the following is a palindromic sequence ?
(A) 5' - CGTATG - 3', 3' - GCATAC - 5' (B) 5' - CGAATG - 3', 3' - CGAATG -5'
(C) 5' - GAATIC - 3', 3' - CTTAAG - 5' (D) 5' - GACTAC - 3', 3' - TACGAC - 5'
(139) C4 plants have better productivity because :
(A) C4 plants absorb more light (B) C4 plants absorb more CO2

(C) C4 plants does not carry photorespiration (D) C4 plants have more amount of Rubisco
(140) Match the source gland with its respective hormone and function and select the correct option :
Source gland Hormone Function
(A) Anterior pitutary Oxytocin Contraction of uterine muscles
(B) Anterior pitutary Vasopressin Induces reabsorption of water in nephron
(C) Thymus Thymosin Proliferation of T-lymphocytes
(D) D - cells of islets of Langerhans Glucagon Uptake of glucose into the cell
(141) Which of the following microbes is correctly paired with its function ?
(A) Aspergillus niger - Production of lactic acid
(B) Trichoderma polysporum - Lowers blood cholesterol
(C) Saccharomyces cerevisine - Production of citric acid
(D) Methanogenic bacteria - Gobar gas formation
(142) Match Column-I with Column-II and select the correct option from the codes given below :
Column-I Column-II
(A) Chlorophyta (i) Equisetum (A) (a-ii) (b-iii) (c-iv) (d-i)
(B) Lycopsida (ii) Chara (B) (a-iv) (b-i) (c-ii) (d-iii)
(C) Phaeophyta (iii) Selaginella (C) (a-ii) (b-iii) (c-i) (d-iv)
(D) Sphenopsida (iv) Ectocarpus (D) (a-iv) (b-i) (c-iii) (d-ii)
(143) Which of the following gastric secretions is correctly matched with its source ?
(A) Pepsin - Chief cells (B) Chymotrypsin - Parietal cells
(C) HCI - Goblet cells (D) Mucus - Oxyntic cells
(144) Which of the following is true for a recessive disease in family A and B ?
Family A Family B

(A) In family A, both the parents are homozygous recessive

(B) In family B, both the parents are homozygous dominant
(C) In family B, both the parents are heterozygous recessive
(D) In family A, both the parents are heterozygous recessive
(145) Which of the following is true for excretion in humans ?
(A) Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed in PCT by simple diffusion
(B) DCT is impermeable to water
(C) On an average, 25-30 gm of urea is excreted out per day
(D) Maximum reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle

(146) Which of the following is not true for inbreeding ?
(A) It causes inbreeding depression after a few generations
(B) It always increases the productivity
(C) It is used to produce a pure line
(D) It leads to homozygosity
(147) Which of the following is the correct floral formula for the diagram given below ?

(A) Br, †, , EPi, K5or(5) C5 A(¥), G


(B) †, , K(5), C5 A(5), G(2)

(C) % , , K(5) , C1+2+(2) , A(9)+1, G1

(D) † , , P3+3or (3+3),A3+3, G(3)

(148) Which of the following is true for the function of labelled parts in the diagram below ?

(A) A - Blind spot - Image is formed here

(B) B - Fovea - No visual activity is present
(C) C - Cornea - Helps to hold lens in place
(D) D - Iris - Visible coloured portion of eye
(149) Which of the following is true for the labelled parts in the figure below ?

(A) A - Z-line - located at centre of I - band

(B) B - Thin filament - occurs in A - band only
(C) C - Thick filament - confined to I - band
(D) D - H-zone - located at centre of M-line

(150) Which of the following is correctly matched without exception in regard to plant classification ?
(A) Family - Poaceae - ae (B) Division - Pteridophyta - phyta
(C) Class - Bryopsida - sida (D) Genus - Solanum - um
(151) What is the oxidation state of iron in haemoglobin ?
(A) Fe- (B) Fe+2 (C) Fe+3 (D) Fe+4
(152) In the given table, some organisms are classified into categories. However, there is one exception.
Select the option with correctly mentioned exceptional organism.
Organisms Category Exception
(A) Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor Fungi Mucor
(B) Cacti, Venus flytrap Plants Cacti
(C) Ascaris, Nereis, Wuchereria Aschelminthes Nereis
(D) Scorpion, Prawn, Anopheles Arthropoda Prawn

(153) Select the correct pair amongest the following.
(A) Spring wood - light colour, high density
(B) Spring wood - dark colour, low density
(C) Autumn wood - light colour, high density
(D) Autumn wood - dark colour, high density
(154) Which of the following organelles contain DNA ?
(i) Mitochondria (ii) Chloroplasts (iii) Golgi bodies (iv) Ribosomes
(A) (i) and (ii) (B) (ii) and (iii) (C) (i) only (D) (iv) only
(155) Carbon dioxide (CO2) diffuses into blood from tissue site and passes to alveolar site in the form of:
(A) bicarbonate; 70% (B) bicarbonate; 20-25%
(C) carbaminohaemoglobin; 60-70% (D) carbaminohaemoglobin; 7%
(156) Select the option having all the correct characteristics :
Structure Percentage of WBCs Function

(A) 0.3 - 0.5 Phagocytic

(B) 0.5 - 1.0 Secrete histamine and serotonin

(C) 30 - 40 Defense against parasites

(D) 30 - 40 Allergic reactions

(157) Chromatin is made up of :

(A) DNA and protein
(B) DNA and histone
(C) DNA, RNA, protein
(D) RNA, histone and oil bodies
(158) A large quantity of urban sewage is drained to nearby village river. Which among the given conditions
would happen after mixing of sewage into the river ?
(i) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of receiving water body increases
(ii) Dissolved oxygen of receiving water body decreases
(iii) It will not cause mortality among fishes and other aquatic creatures
(iv) It will lead to nutrient enrichment of receiving water body
(159) Which of the following plant growth regulators (PGRs) promotes root initiation, flowering and induced
parthenocarpy ?
(A) Gibberellin (B) Auxin (C) Cytokinin (D) Ethylene

(160) Which of the following is a secondary pollutant ?
(A) Carbon dioxide (B) Nitrogen oxides
(C) Peroxyacyl nitrates (D) All of these
Instructions : In the following questions (161-180), a statement of assertion (A) is followed by a
statement of reason (R). Mark the correct choice as :
(A) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(B) If both asertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(C) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(D) If both assertion and reason are false.
(161) Assertion : A mutual exchange of sperms occurs between two earthworms during mating.
Reason : Mature sperms and egg cells and nutritive fluid are deposited in cocoons produced by
gland cells of clitellum.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(162) Assertion : On plotting the length of the root against time, a linear curve is obtained.
Reason : An elongating root exemplifies arithmetic growth.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(163) Assertion : Small intestine is the principal organ for absorption of nutrients.
Reason : Absorption of water, simple sugars and alcohol etc. takes place in small intestine.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(164) Assertion : On touching radial artery in our wrist, we feel pulse waves.
Reason : The heart beats originate from the sinoatrial node (SA node) on the right atrium.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(165) Assertion : In a regular medical examination of a small population, a 35 years old lady was found to
have higher levels of oestrongens, progesterone in her blood.
Reason : The lady is 12 weeks pregnant.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(166) Assertion : While working on Staphylococci, Alexander Fleming observed that Penicillium notatum
inhibits the growth of the bacteria.
Reason : This inhibiting chemical was commercially extracted and its full potential was
established by Alexander Fleming.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(167) Assertion : Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces acetic acid.
Reason : Trichoderma polysporum produces blood cholestrol lowering agent.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(168) Assertion : Protostele is the simplest stele.
Reason : Protostele is the most advanced type of stele.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(169) Assertion : Rice field is an ecosystem for plants and animals.
Reason : Gut of human/animals is an ecosystem for flora and fauna.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(170) Assertion : Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genome.
Reason : Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi body are the cell organelles which have their own
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(171) Assertion : Now-a-days, the biodiversity is declining with an accelerated rate.
Reason : Exotic species are considered to be a major cause of extinction of species.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(172) Assertion : Meiosis II is similar to mitosis.
Reason : Meiosis I cannot occur in haploid cells.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(173) Assertion : Periodic abstinence is a natural method where couples abstain from coitus.
Reason : Coitus from day 5-10 should be avoided because this is the time of ovulation.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(174) Assertion : Corpus callosum connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
Reason : Association areas are responsible for complex functions like intersensory association of
memory and communication.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(175) Assertion : Only a boy child could be born with a substitution of glutamic acid by valine on 6th codon
of beta-chain of haemoglobin.
Reason : The gene for the above mutation is found on Y-chromosome.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(176) Assertion : The efficiency of C4 plant is more than those of C3 plant.
Reason : C4 plants are more efficient in picking CO2.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(177) Assertion : Cattles feed on leaves of maize to get nutrition for growth and development.
Reason : A number of symbiotic bacteria are present in rumen of cattle.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(178) Assertion : All proteineous enzymes have a three-dimensional structure.
Reason : The secondary structure of protein is according to the amino acids present inside the
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(179) Assertion : Glutamine contains amide group.
Reason : Isoelectric point of glutamine is 7.
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(180) Assertion : Duodenum is the main organ of small intestine.
Reason : In duodenum, digestion and absorption mainly occurs.
(A) (B) (C) (D)

AIIMS - 2011
(1) (D) The most obvious and technically complicated feature of all living organisms is their ability
to sense their surroundings or environment and respond to these environmental stimuly
which could be physical, chemical or biological. All organisms, from the prokryotes to the
most complex eukaryotes can sense and respond to environmental cues eg. Photoperiod
affects reproduction in seasonal breeders, both plants and animals. Consciousness
therefore, becomes the defining property of living organisms. There are many organisms
which do not reproduce eg. mule. Thus, reproduction can not be an all-inclusive defining
characteristic of living organisms. However no non-living object is capable of reproducing
or replicating by itself.
(2) (D) Bacteria, fungi and lower plants survive in adverse conditions through formation of thick
walled spores. Algae form resting spore or akinetes which are thick walled spores and
store food material. In fungi, thick walled perennating spores called chlamyvospores are
formed. Bacteria form endospores which is probably the most resistant living thing known.
They may remain alived in boiling water for more than 2 hours.
(3) (B) In mosses the sporophytes (i.e. the diploid body) are short - lived and dependent on the
gametophyte. In the presense of water, sperms from the antheridia swim to the archegonia
and fertilization occurs, leading to the production of a diploid sporophyte. The sperm of
mosses is biflagellate, i.e. they have two flagella that aid in propulsion. Since the sperms
must swim to the archegonium, fertilization can not occur without water.
(4) (A) Vessels are much elongated tubes which are closed at either end and are formed by the
union of several short, wide and thickned cells called vessel elements. The end walls of
vessel elements are transverse or oblique. They are other completely dissoved. The
condition is called simple perforation plate. In a few cases the end wall is called multiple
perforation plate. Sieve tubes are elongated tubular conducting channels of phloem formed
of several cells called sieve tube elements or members or sieve tube cells. Sieve members
are placed end to end. The end walls are generally bulked out. He may be transverse or
oblique. They have many small pores or sieve pits. Due to the presence of sieve pits end
walls are commonly called sieve plates. In some cases the end walls of sieve elements
possess more than one porous area. Such an end wall is called compound sieve plate.
Gymnosperms and pteridophytes lack these two vascular structures i.e. vessels and sieve
elements. In angiosperms presence of vessels and sieve elements in addition to all other
vascular tissues make their food and water transport more efficient.
(5) (C) Cell theory was proposed by German botanist M.J. Schleiden and another german, a
zoologist T.S. Schwann in 1839.
(6) (C) Water is the most abundant chemical compound in living organism. In a cell, water
occupies 70-90% of the cellular mass. So, in 50 grams of living tissues 35-45 grams of
water would be present.
(7) (A) Chromosome replication occurs once but meiosis has two M-Phases each with its own
karyokinesis and cytokinesis. As a result chromosome number is halved. The transition

period between M-phase I (Meiosis I) and M-phase II (Meiosis II) is short and without
DNA replication. It is called interkinesis.
(8) (A) After glycolysis, pyruvate forms acetyl Co-A which under goes oxidation to form CO2 and
H2O through Krebs' cycle in mitochondrial matrix.
(9) (B) Enzymes are highly substrate specific that is (ie). they catalyze the reaction of a particular
substrate only. They facilitate occurence of a reaction and transition of a reactant into
product a chemical reaction S ® P (where S is the subtrate and P the product or
products) will take place when a certain number of S molecules at given instant possess
enough energy to attain an activated condition called the transition state, The enzyme
combines transiently with the substrate to produce a transient state having a lower energy
of activation then that of substrate alone. This results in acceleration of the reaction ones
the products are formed, the enzyme (or catalyst) is free or regenerated to combine with
another molecule of the subtrate and repeat the process.
(10) (A) It can be explained as follows :
or 50% tall, 50% dwarf progeny

Tt X tt
Heterozygous Homozygous
Parents: : Tall Dwarf

Tall : Dwarf
Progeny :
Progency 1 : 1
Tall Dwarf

(11) (B) Hermann Henking discovered the X chromosome while studying insects in the early 1890s
The sex chromosomes in birds are opposite of that is humans. Human males are
heterogametic (XY), females are homogametic (XX). In birds males are homogametic (ZZ)
and females are heterogametic (ZW) The "W" is the sex determining chromosome just as
the Y in humans. A bird with a W is always female. In grasshopper there is no Y
chromosome. So a grasshopper with one X chromosome (Symbolized as XO) is normally a
male while a grasshopper with two X chromosome (XX) is normally a female.
(12) (A) The figure shows structure of lenticel which facilitates gasgeous exchange and transpiration
These are aerating pores in the bark of woody trees. These are surrounded by loosely
arranged thin walled complementary cells enclosing ntercellular spaces for gaseous
(13) (C) These are different arrangements of ovule attachment to inner surface of ovary wall (P)
represents marginal, (Q) represent axile, (R) represents parietal, (S) represents free
central, (T) represents basal placentation.
(14) (C) In given diagram (P) represents dinitrification and (Q) represent ammonification.
Dentrification is conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas by some microorganisms eg.
Pseudomonas denitrificans, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Micrococcus dentrificans
Ammonification is conversion of dead remains of living organisms into ammonia with the
help of microorganisms like Bacillus ramosur, B vurgaris, B mesentericus etc.

(15) (C) In active transport, carrier proteins which are located at membrane, use energy in the form
of ATP to transport molecules againts concentration gradient of cell membrane

transportation rate reaches maximum when all carrier proteins are being used or are
saturated These proteins are very specific to certain substances and are sensitive to

(16) (B) Photosystem II mostly occurs in the appressed regions of granal thylakoids.

(17) (B) C4 plants are more efficient than C3 plants because they have little photorespiration while
in C3 plants more than half of photosynthetic carbon get lost in photorespiration C4 plants
are more efficient in picking up CO2 even in low CO2 concentration because of high

affinity of CO2 with PEP (Phosphenol pyruvic acid).

(18) (C) Cell's turgidity is due to turgor prossure. Turgor pressure is the pressure which develops in

confined part of an osmotic system due to osmotic entry of water into it. It is also called
hydrostatic pressure or pressure potential. The force exerted by cellwall over the protoplast
is called wall pressure. Normally wall pressure is opposite and equal to turgor pressure

except when the cell becomes flaccid.

(19) (B) Long distance bulk movement of substances that occurs through conducting or vascular

tissues of plants is called translocation. There are two vascular tissues, xylem and phloem.
Xylem translocation is mainly from roots to aerial parts. It passes water with mineral salts,
some organic nitrogen and hormones i.e. unidirectional phloem translocates organic

substances and inorganic solutes first from leaves to all other parts of plant and storage
organs. Storage organs re-export organic nutrients to those parts which require the same as
newly formed leaves and fruits i.e. it is bidirectional.

(20) (B) The first step in photosynthesis is light driven oxidation (splitting or photolysis) of water. It
provides the electrons for photosynthetic electron transport chains as well as protons for

establishment of proton gradient. It occurs on lumenal side of thylakoid membrane. During

photolysis, water is oxidised to oxygen, protons and electrons. Protons accumulate in the

(21) (A) Unlike, animals, plants donot stop growing after reaching maturity. They continue to grow
and bear new roots, leaves, branches, flowers, etc. While roots, stems and their branches

have indfinite growth, other organs like leaves, flowers and fruits, show limited or definite
growth. The appear and fall off periodically and sometimes repeatedly. In lower plants,
growth is diffused as every cell can divide and enlarge. Higher plants possess. Specific
areas which take part in the formation of new cells. These area are called meristems.

Meristems are of three types - apical, intercalary and lateral. Cells of meristematic region
have capacity to divide and self perpetuate. They produce cells which lose the capacity to
divide and enter G0 phase for undergoing differentiation to form particular tissues and

organs. The meristem which is consumed and formation of an organ is called determinate
meristem. The meristem which continues its acivity throughout life of the plant is called
indeterminate meristem. It is reason behind indefinite growth of plants.

(22) (B) Tapetum is innermost one cell thick layer of microsporangium wall. The cells of this layer

are radially enlarged and store food. The cells are multinucleated and provide nourishment

to developing microspores or pollengrains.

(23) (A) Cleistogamous flowers do not open at all. In such flowers, the anthers and stigma lie close

to eachother Anthers when dehisce in the flower buds, pollengrains come in contact with

the stigma to effect pollination. Thus cleistogamous flowers are autogamous there is no

chance of cross Pollination. So no pollination agent is required in these flowers.

(24) (B) Formation of seeds without fertilization is called apomixis. It leads to clonal reproduction in

which all off springs are by and large genetically identical to the parent. The egg contains a

full complement of genes and does not need to fuse with a sperm to produce a zygote.

Apomixis provides for the perpetuation of traits favourable to individual survival but

eliminates the longer-term evolutionary advantage of biparental inheritance. In asteraceae,

various genera and individual species of the order asterales are known to reproduce by

apomixis (setting of seeds without fertilization), either completely or in addition to normal

sexual means. In poaceae about 35 genera produce seeds without fertilization. On the other

hand, parthenocarpy is development of fruits without fertilization. The fruit resembles a

normally produced fruit but is seedless, e.g. pineapple, banana, cucumber, grape, orange,

grapefruit etc.

(25) (D) The main criteria for classification used by whittaker includes cell structure, thallus

organization, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationships. So, absence of

cell wall is one of the main characteristics of animal kingdom.

(26) (B) Frogs do not have external ears. Instead, they have an eardrum of sorts, called a
tympanum, which is just behind each eye. Typhlosole are internal folds of the intestine or

intestinal inner wall. Typhlosole occurs in bivalve mollusks, lampreys and some annelids and
echinoderms. The gizzard, also referred to as the wentriculus, gastric mill and gigerium is
an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including birds, reptiles, earthworms
and some fish. This specialized organs constructed of thick, muscular walls is used for
grinding up food; often rocks are instrumental in this process. Its certain insects and
mollusks, the gizzard features chitinous plates or teeth. Humans have 12 pairs of cranial
nerves. Cockroach belongs to class insecta of phylum arthropoda.
(27) (C) The colourless blood or haemolymph of cockroach has a clear plasma and numerous white
corpuscles called haemocytes. Being devoid of any respiratory pigment, it does not serve
for gaseous exchange. Its plasma contains about 70% water. Rest of it is composed of
amino acid, uric acid, proteins, sugars, fats and salts of sodium, potassium, calcium and
magnesium. Transportation of these materials between different parts of body is the main
function of haemolymph. In all terrestrial insects, like cockroach, every tissue of body is
direct contact with atmosphereic air for gaseous exchange. A complicated system of
numerous shiny, transparent and branched air tubes or tracheae is found for this purpose in
the haemocoel cavity. Atmospheric air enters into and escapes out from this system
through ten pairs of slit-like apertures called stigmata or spiracles, located on lateral sides
of body.
(28) (D) Trace elements or microelements (iron, iodine, zinc, manganese, cobalt, copper,
molybedenum) are required in very small amounts to our body.
(29) (C) Glycerides, mainly trigly cerides are a principle form of fats present in our food. During
digestion, fats are digested to form monoglycerides and free fatty acids. They first become
dissolved in the central lipid portions of bille micelles which are soluble in chyme. In this
form, the monoglycerides and free fatty acids are carried to the surfaces of the microvilli
of the intenstinal cell brush border and then penetrate into the interior of the epithelial cells,
which is possible because the lipids are also soluble in the epithelial cell membrane. This
leaves the bille micelles still in the chyme, where they function again and to help absorb
still more monoglycerides and fatty acids.
After entering the epithelial cell, the fatty acids and monoglycerides are taken up by the
cell's smooth endoplasmic reticulum; here they are mainly used to form new triglycerides
that are subsequently released in the form of chylomicrons through the base of the
epithelial call to flow upward through the thoracic lymph duct and empty into the circulating
blood. Thus, chylomicrons help in transport of glycerides through blood circulation to
various body parts.
(30) (D) The T wave represents repolarization of ventricles. The end of the T-wave marks the end
of systole. The P-wave represents the electrical excitation of artria, which leads to

contraction of both atria. The QRS complex represents the depolarisation of ventricles,
which initiates the ventricular contraction.

(31) (B) The opening between right atrium and right ventricle is gaurded by a valve formed of three
muscular flaps or cusps, the tricuspid value.

(32) (B) ABO blood groups are determined by the gene I. There are three alleles, IA, IB IO of this
gene. Proteins produced by the IA and IB alleles are called A antigen and B antigen. People
with blood group A have the A antigen on surface of their RBCs and antibodies against
antigen B in their plasma. Persons with blood group B have B antigen on their RBCs and
antibodies against A antigen in their plasma. Individuals with AB blood group have both
antigen A and antigen B on their RBCs, and no antibodies for either of antigens in their
plasma. Individuals with AB blood group have both antigen A and antigen B and no
antibodies for either of antigens in their plasma. Type O individuals ae without A and B
antigens on RBCs but have antibodies for both these antigens in their plasma.

(33) (B) Sinu-auricular node or SA node is located in the wall of right auricle, below opening of
superior venacava. The S-A node has unique property of self excitation, which enables it to
act the "pacemaker" of the heart. It spontaneously initiates a wave of contration which
spreads over both auricles more or less simultaneously along muscle fibres that fan out
from the pacemaker.

(34) (B) In descending limb of loop of Henle, the water is reabsorbed from filtrate flowing in it due
to increasing osmolarity of interstitial fluid sodium and other solutes are not reabsorbed
here. The filtrate becomes hypertonic to blood plasma. All nephrons have their renal
malphigian corpuscles in cortex. Cortical nephrons have their loop of Henle in renal medulla
near its juction with renal cortex, while the loop of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons is
located deep in renal medulla. they are called juxtamedullary because their renal corpuscle
is located near the medulla (but still in the corter)

(35) (C) Fermentation in muscle produces lactic acid in our bodies Certain muscle cells, called fast
twitch muscles, have less capability for storing and using oxygen than other muscles.When
we run, these muscles run short of oxygen, the fast twitch muscles begin using lactic acid,
fermentation. This allows the muscle to continue fermentation. This allows the muscle to
continue to sunction by producing ATP by glycolysis.

(36) (A) Fibres and fibroblasts are compactly packed in the dense connective tissues. Oriention of
fibres show a regular or irregular pattern and are called dense regular and dense irregular
tissues. In the dense regular connective tissues, the collagen fibres are present in rows
between many parellel bundles of fibres. Tendons, which attach skeletal muscles to bones
and ligaments which attach one bone to another are examples of this tissue.

(37) (D) Each actin (thin) filament is polymerised protein made up of two 'F' (fibrous) actin strands
helically wound to each other. Each 'F' actin is polymer of monomeric 'G' (Globular) actins.
It is light in colour and shows isotropic property.
(38) (D) Medulla oblongata is part of vertebrate brain stem, derived from hindbrain, that is
continuous with spinal cord. Its function is to regulate the reflex responses controlling
respiration, heartbeat, blood pressure, and other invountary processes. It gives rise to many
cranial nerves.
(39) (D) The organ of corti lies on basilar memberane. It contains a series of electromechanically
sensitive cells. i.e. hair cells. They are receptive organs that generate nerve impulses in
response to sound vibrations. Thus, organ of corti is actually the organ that perceives
sound. Minute hairs project upward from hair cell and they are embedded in the tectorial
membrane. Equilibrium of body is maintained with the help of semi-circular canals, utricle
and sacule of internal ear.
(40) (D) Great apes, humans goes through a menstrual cycle while monkey goes through estrous
cycle, urine is light yellow colored watery fluid which is slighthy acidic. Bile juice doesnot
contain any digestive enzymes.
(41) (A) In in vitro fertilization (IVF-Fertilization out side the body in almost similar conditions as
that in the body). Followed by embryo transfer (ET), ova from the wife / donor (female)
and sperms from the husband / donor (male) are collected and are induced to form zygote
under simulated conditions in the laboratory. The zygote or early embryos (with upto 8
blastomeres) could then be transferred into the Fallopian tube (ZIFT-Zygote Intra Fallopian
Transfer) and embryos with more than 8 blastomeres, into the uterus (IUT-Intra Uterine
Transfer), to complete its further development.
(42) (B) Amniocentesis is foetal sex determination and disorder test based on chromosomal pattern
in amniotic fluid surrounding developing embryo. The amniotic fluid contains cells from
foetus skin and respiratory tract. These cells are cultured and are used to determine
chromosomal abnormalities (Down's syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome) and metabolic
disorders (phenylketonuria, Sickle cell anoemia) of foetus. But now - a - days instead of
positive uses of amniocentesis it is being used for female foeticide sex of foetus is
determined using amniocentesis and then if it turns out of to been a female one, foetus is
aborted. That is why amiocentesis has been banned in India.
(43) (B) After ovulation the empty Graafian follicle contains a blood clot which is called corpus
haemorrhagic. Its granulosa cells continue to proliferate develop yellow carotene pigment a
lutein and get converted into lutein cells. This converts the ruptured follicle into yellow body
called corpus luteum. It becomes a temporary endorine gland secreting progesterone with
small quantity of estrogen in absence of fertilization, after few days, corpus luteum

ultimately stops activity, loses yellow colour, begins to degenerate, then it is called corpus
albicans. If fertilization occurs and foetus is implanted in endometrium, the trophoblast cells
of developing placenta secrete a hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hcG). This
hormone, like LH maintains the corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone and estradiol
by it. These 2 hormones check the breakdown of endometrium of uterus Thus corpus
luteum helps to maintain pregnancy.

(44) (D) Common cold can take place from one person to other as it is a communicable in nature. A
healthy person can get infected by being in close vicinity of infected person when he / she
sneezes, coughs, as droplets generated by sneez and cough contain infecting agents.
Typhoid occurs by intake of contaminated water and food. While ringworm is one of the
skin disease which can transfer from one person to other by the use of infected towel and
handkerchief. AIDS doesnot occur or transfer by shaking hands.

(45) (B) A healthy person acquires infection when a female Anopheles mosquito, containing
infective stages of parasite in its salivary glands, bites him for sucking his blood, The
mosquito punctures the host's skin by its proboscis and first introduce some saliva into
blood stream. Along with saliva, thousands of sporozoites contained there in are also
inoculated sporozoites represent infsective forms of parasite. These are small spindle -
shaped, slightly curved or sickle - shaped, and uninucleate organisms, measuring 11-12 P m
in length and 0.5 - 1 P m in width After infection sporozoites enter liver cells here after a
few divisions, micrometacryptomerozoites are formed that enter RBCs and gametocytes
are formed here in RBCs.

(46) (B) Industrial melanism is an adaptation where the moths living in the industrial areas developed
melanin pigments to match their body to the sootcovered surroundings. The phenomenon
provides an excellent example of operation of selection in natural conditions.

Industrial melanism, therefore, presents an excellent example of natural selection (proposed

by Darwin), but it is not the example of acquired characters proposed by Lamarck.

In caves, due to absence of light, the body of the animals lacks pigmentation, e.g. Proterus
anguinus. In pythons and related snakes rudimentary pelvic girdle and traces of hind limb
are present. They form small clawed projections externally, but internally there are vestiges
of an ilium, femus, tibia and a claw. In aquatic birds and flying frog, the feet are webbed
which sustain it in the prolonged leaps to which it is adapted.

(47) (D) When a graph is plotted taking into consideration time on one hand and growth rate on
other hand as 'S' shaped curved is obtained. It is called "Grand period of growth" This total
growth period is divided into 3 stages.
(1) Initial lag phase

(2) Middle log phase

(3) Final stationary phase

(48) (B) Monarch butterfly escapes from predators because of its bitter taste. Viceroy butterfly
(Basi larcbia archippus) mimics monarch butterfly to escape from predators.

(49) (D) Catalytic converters have platinum-palladium and rhodium metals as catalyst. It converts
more harmful carbonmonoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons into less harmful carbondioxide
and water.

(50) (C) endangered plants may be preserved in part through seed bank or germplasm bank. The
term seed bank sometimes refers to a cryogenic laboratory facility in which the seeds of
certain species can be preserved for up to a century or more without losing their fertility. It
can also be used to refer to a special type of arboretum where seeds are harvested and
crop is rotated. For plants that cannot be preserved in seed banks, the only other option for
preserving germplasm is invitro storage, where cuttings of plants are kept under strict
conditions in glass tube and vessels

(51) (B) The peppered moth (Biston betularia)is a temperate species of night-flying moth peppered
moth evolution is often used by educators as an example of natural selection peppered
months are cryptically camouflaged against their backgrounds when they rest on tree trunk.

(52) (C) Organic biodegradable pollutants in water are measured by BOD. (Biological oxygen
Demand) is oxygen demanded or required by bacteria and other decomposers to oxidise

(53) (D) Algal blooms are a result of eutrophication. Eutrophication involves change in biological
productivity and nutrient content of water body, eutrophication literally means 'well
nourished or enriched' eutrophication become excessive, when abnormally high amount of
nutrients from sewage, fertilizers, animal wastage and detergent, enter, streams and lakes
causing excessive growth or blooms of micro-organisms They are harmful for both humans
and aquatic arganisms eutrophication results in higher BOD and reduced dissolved oxygen
in water body. It causes death of fish and other aquatic animals.

(54) (C) Mangroves which form shallow littoral forests near seashores areas are halophytes.
Mangrove grow in physiologically dry environment (waer is available in plenty but in the
form of concentrated salt solution). These plants develop shallow rootings due to water
logged environment where oxygen scarcity prevails To ensure proper aeration in root
system, plants produce respiratory roots on pneumatophares which are negatively geotropic
peg-like projections above ground with numerous pores or lenticels for gaseous exchange.

(55) (C) Eco R I is type II restriction endonuclease enzyme extracted from eco RY 13 bacteria. It
can recognize and cleave 5' - GAATTC -3' palindromic sequence and is widely used in
biotechnology experiments.

(56) (C) Gene therapy is a procedure of introducing copies of healthy gene to replace defective
gene responsible for disease developement. The first clinical gene transfer took place on
22nd May 1992 for correction of adenosine deaminase enzyme deficieney

(57) (C) Aspergillus nigar is used for commercial and industrial production of certain chemicals like
citric acid. Activated sludge is digested by anaerobic bacteria to produce marsh gas. BOD
is amount of oxygen required by bacteria for decomposition

(58) (A) Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a variant of Polymerase
Chain Reaction (PCR), a laboratory technique commonly used in molecular biology to
generate many copies of a DNA sequence, a process termed "Amplification". In RT-PCR,
however, an RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement
(Complementary DNA, or cDNA) using the enzyme reverse transcriptase and the resulting
cDNA is amplified using traditional PCR or Real-Time PCR. Reverse transcription PCR
(RT-PCR) is not to be confused with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Q-PCR/qRT-
PCR), RNA silencing (also called as post-transcriptional gene silencing PTGS) refers to a
family of gene silencing effects by which the expression of one or more genes is down
regulated on entirely suppressed by the introduction of an antisense (single stranded) RNA
molecule. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a
sequence of DNA.

(59) (A) According to central pollution control Board (CPCB) particulate size 2.5 micrometers or
less in diameter (PM 2.5) are responsible for causing greatest harm to human health.
These fine particulates can be inhaled deep into lungs and can cause breathing and
respiratory symptoms, such as irritation, inflammations and damage to lungs and premature

(60) (A) Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium found in soil worldwide. Several strains can infect and
kill insects. Due to this property, through genetic engineering, gene coding for insecticide is
incorparated into plant genome. Plant having this gene are insect resistant thus high yielding
e.g. Bt cotton is usually resistant to ballworm disease of cotton. It is 1st genetically
modified crop of India. This produce its own insecticide, as it contain a gene from soil
bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis

AIIMS - 2012
(121) (B) In frog three types of respiration occurs to suit its amphibious mode of life. These are
cutaneous, buccopharyngeal and pulmonary respiration. Cutneous respiration occurs through
the thin, moist, highly vascular and naked skin. It takes place in water as well as on land.
Buccopharyngeal respiration occurs on land via thin, vascular, moist lining of
buccopharyngeal cavity. Pulmonary respiration takes place when the frog is outside the
water. It occurs by lungs of adult frog.
(122) (B) Fasciculated root is a type of adventitious root. In this case, roots are swollen which occur
in clusters from lower nodes of stems, e.g., Asparagus, Dahlia, etc.
(123) (D) The blastomeres in the blastocyst are arranged into an outer layer called trophoblast and an
inner group of cells attached to trophoblast called the inner cell mass. Inner cell mass looks
like a small knob at one pole which gives rise to the embryo and is called the embryonal
knob. The trophoblast does not take part in the formation of the embryo proper. It remains
external to the embryo and gives rise to the extraembryonic membranes, namely, chorion
and amnion, for the protection and nourishment of the embryo. The trophoblast cells in
contact with the embryonal knob are known as cells of Rauber.
(124) (D) The given figure shows population growth curve, in which A is carrying capacity, B is
exponential growth curve and C is logistic growth curve.
(125) (B) Deuteromycetes are commonly known as imperfect fungi bacause only the asexual or
vegetative stages of these fungi are known. The deuteromycetes reproduce only by asexual
spores known as conidia. The mycelium is septate and branched. Some members are
saprophytes or parasites while a large number of them are decomposers of litter and help
in mineral cycling. Some examples are Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Trichoderma.
(126) (D) Abscisic acid acts as a general plant growth inhibitor and an inhibitor of plant metabolism.
ABA inhibits seed germination. ABA stimulates the closure of stomata in the epidermis and
increases the tolerance of plants to various kinds of stresses. Therefore, it is also called the
stress hormone.
(127) (C) Parturition is induced from the fully developed foetus and the placenta. Parturition involves
foetal ejection reflex which are mild contractions of the placenta. This reflex triggers
release of oxytocin from the maternal pituitary which acts on the uterine muscles and
causes stronger uterine contractions and that further stimulates secretion of oxytocin. This
stimulatory reflex between uterine muscle contraction and oxytocin secretion continues
resulting in stronger contractions and eventually leading into expulsion of the baby out of
the uterus.
(128) (D)
(129) (B) Sodium-potassium pump (Na+-K+) is a membrane transport protein that exchanges sodium
ions (Na+) for potassium ions (K+). It transports 3 Na+ outwards for 2K+ into the cell,
thus maintaining the differential concentrations of each ion across the plasma membrane.
The process requires energy in the form of ATP, being a form of active transport.
(130) (C)
(131) (D) Photorespiration is the light dependent process of oxygenation of ribulose biphosphate
(RuBP) and release of carbon dioxide by the photosynthetic organs of a plant. Normally

photosynthetic organs do the reverse in the light, i.e., uptake of CO2 and release of O2. At
high temperature, RuBP carboxylase functions as oxygenase and instead of fixing carbon
dioxide (C3 cycle), oxidises phosphoglyceric acid and a 2-carbon phosphoglycolate.
Photorespiration does not produce energy or reducing power. Rather, it consumes energy.
Further, it undoes the work of photosynthesis. There is 25% loss of fixed CO2. Therefore,
photorespiration is a highly wasteful process. This happens only in case of C3 plants. C4
plants have overcome the problem of photorespiration.
(132) (C) Phase contrast microscope was developed by Zernicke. (1935, Nobel Prize 1953) to
observe living cells and the events occurring in them (e.g., Spindle formation, movement of
chromosomes, endocytosis, exocytosis). It is similar to optical microscope except that it has
an annular diaphragm in the condenser and a transparent phase plate at the back focal
plane of objective. The microscope converts differences in refractive indices into
differences in brightness.
(133) (D) A - Basilar membrane
B - Scala media
C - Reissner's membrane
D - Tectorial membrane
134 (C) The net gain from complete oxidation of a glucose molecule in aerobic respiration is 36
ATP molecules. 10 molecules of NADPH2 (2 from Glycolysis + 8 from Kreb's cycle) yield
= 10 x 3 = 30 ATP, 2 molecules of FADH2 yield = 2x2 = 4 ATP and glycolysis also yields 2
ATP. Therefore, total release of ATP per hexose will be = 30 + 4 + 2 = 36 ATP.
135 (A)
136 (C)
137 (C) A - Photosystem I (PS I)
B - Photosystem II (PS II)
C - e- acceptor
D - LHC (Light Harvesting Complex).
138 (A) Muscle contraction is brought about by sliding of the actin filaments over myosin When a
muscle fibril contracts, its A band remains constant and I band shortens. H disappears as
the actin filaments slide over myosin of each sarcomere may overlap each M line.
139 (C) When an impulse arrives at the synaptic knob of the axon, it depolarizes the presynaptic
membrane and increases its permeability of calcium ions (Ca+2) Ca+2 ions from the
synaptic cleft pass into the synaptic knob via voltage gated channels. Sudden rise in the
cytosolic concentration of Ca+2, causes the release of a chemical, called neurotransmitter
substance, from small synaptic vesicles present there into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis
through the presynaptic membrane.
140 (B) Cattle ranching refers to practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for
meat and wool, etc. The area of landscape meant primarily for cattle ranching is called a
ranch. The practice has lead to accelerated deforestation and contributed to increased
methane gas concentration in atmosphere. Whatever cattle eat; is subjected to the action of
methanogens (bacteria) harbouring the stomach (rumen) of cattle. The action of these
bacteria on food material produces methane gas which is released through cattle faecal
waste into the earth's atmosphere where it absorbs heat just like carbon dioxide,
contributing to global warning.
(141) (B) The C4 plants are adapted to dry tropical regions and have greater productivity of biomass.
They have special type of leaf anatomy known as Kranz anatomy. In this type of anatomy

the bundle sheath cells form several layers around the vascular bundles; they are
characterized by having a large number of chloroplasts, thick walls impervious to gaseous
exchange and no intercellular spaces.
(142) (A) Colchicine is an alkaloid derived from the autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale. It inhibits
spindle formation in cells during mitosis so that chromosomes cannot separate during
anaphase, thus inducing multiple sets of chromosomes. It does not affect cytokinesis.
(143) (B) The adrenal medulla secretes two hormones called adrenaline or epinephrine and
noradrenaline or norepinephrine. These are commonly called as catecholamines. These are
rapidly secreted in response to stress of any kind and during emergency situations and are
called emergency hormones or hormones of fight or flight. These hormones increase
alertness, pulillary dilation, piloerection (raising of hairs), sweating, etc. Both the hormones
increase the heart beat, the strength of heart contraction and the rate of respiration.
Catecholamines also stimulate the breakdown of glycogen, lipids and proteins.
(144) (B) The structure in option (b) is of a basophil. Basophils are granular WBCs and are the least
(0.5-1 per cent ) of the total WBCs. They secrete histamine, serotonin, heparin, etc. and
are involved in inflammatory reactions.
(145) (A)
(146) (B) Bohr's effect is the phenomenon whereby the affinity of the respiratory pigment i.e.,
haemoglobin in the blood for oxygen is reduced when the level of carbon dioxide is
increased. An increase in carbon dioxide concentration makes the blood more acidic which
results in decrease in the efficiency of the uptake of oxygen by haemoglobin molecules.
This facilitates gaseous exchange, because more oxygen is released in the tissues where
the amount of carbon dioxide is rising due to metabolic activity. In its reverse, more oxygen
is taken up at the lungs where the amount of carbon dioxide is low.
(147) (D) Bacteria like Rhizobium and Frankia live free as aerobes in the soil but are unable to fix
nitrogen. They develop the ability to fix nitrogen only as a symbiont when they become
anaerobic. They are unable to fix nitrogen by themselves. Roots of a legume secrete
chemical attractants. Bacteria collect over the root hairs and form an infection thread
enclosing the bacteria. Infection thread grows alongwith multiplication of bacteria. Bacteria
stop dividing and form irregular polyhedral structures called bacteroids. In an infected cell
bacteriods occur in groups surrounded by host membrane. The host cell develops a pinkish
pigment called leghaemoglobin (LHb). It is oxygen scavenger and is related to blood
pigment haemoglobin. It protects nitrogen fixing enzyme nitrogenase from oxygen.
(148) (B)
(149) (D) Segmentation occurs in three highly organized phyla-annelida (earthworm), arthropoda
(Periplaneta) and chordates. The body is often divided both externally and internally into a
number of segments (metameres) e.g., annelids. Segmentation is mostly external in
arthropods and mainly internal in man and other chordates.
(150) (A)
(151) (A) G0 phase is the stage of inactivation of cell cycle due to non-availability of mitogens and
energy rich compounds. The cells in this phase remain metabolically active and usually
grow in size assuming particular shape (cell differentiation). Cell enters G0 phase from a

cell cycle checkpoint in the G1 phase. G1 phase checkpoint (restriction point) takes the key
decision whether the cell should divide, delay division or enter resting stage. Cells then
remain in G0 phase until there is a reason for them to divide. Several biocatalysts can help
a cell in G0 phase to proceed through cell division when required.
(152) (A) The "beads-on-a-string" structure is seen in electron microscope of isolated metaphase
chromosomes. The chromosomes form the gene bearing portions of the chromosomes.
Basically chromosomes is made up of nucleosome chains. Nucleosome chain gives a beads
on string appearance under electron microscope. Nucleosome is the fundamental packaging
unit in eukaryotic chromosomes.
(153) (B) RNAi is a regulatory mechanism for an estimated 30% of all protein-coding genes (in
mammals). It helps to protect cells against certain viruses by targeting viral RNA for
destruction. It helps to silence potentially disruptive transposons in the genome by
destroying RNA copies arising from transposon replication. RNAi is a precise and efficient
tool for knockout of specific genes when studying gene function in experimental organisms.
It also has potential for new forms of targeted gene therapy.
(154) (C) Alkaloids- Morphine, Codeine
Pigments - Carotenoids, Anthocyanin
Drugs- Vinblastin, Curcumin.
(155) (C) Four main types of commercial tea are generally recognized in the trade. These are black
tea (China, India, Sri Lanka), green tea (China, Japan and Taiwan), oolong tea (Taiwan)
and brick tea (China). Dust or fannings are left over small part of tea leaves, which are
also widely used.
(156) (C) The cardiac cycle consists of one heart beat or one cycle of contraction and relaxation of
the cardiac muscle. The contraction phase is called the systole while the relaxation phase is
called the diastole.
(157) (C) The given floral diagram is of liliaceae family. This family is a characteristic representative
of monocot plants. Most plants of this family are good ornamentals, source of medicine,
vegetables and colchicine.
(158) (C) Particulate matter mainly includes dust, soot particles, volatile hydrocarbons, some sulphate
and metallic residues emitted into the air by sources such as factories, power plants, vehicles,
etc. PM is usually divided into different classes based on size ranging from total suspended
matter (TSP) to PM-10 (particles with diameter of 10 m or less) to PM-2.5 (particles with
diameter of 2.5 m or less). Smallest particles pose highest human health risk. Larger particles
(< 10 m) can easily be expelled from lungs through mucus but finer particles (<2.5 m)
penetrate deep in lungs and can cause severe lung damage including lung cancer.
159 (C) Pebrine or pepper disease is caused by protozoan Nosema bombycis. The parasite infects
eggs and is therefore, transmitted to next generation. It kills caterpillars.
(160) (B) Homopolysaccharides or homoglycans are those complex carbohydrates which are formed
by polymerization of only one type of monosaccharide monomers. For example, starch,
glycogen, inulin, cellulose, chitin, etc.
Agar, pectin, hyaluronic acid, heparin, etc., are heteropolysaccharides.
(161) (B) Hot spots are areas with high density of biodiversity or megadiversity which are also the
most threatened ones. Ecologically hot spots are determined by four factors.
(i) Number of species/species diversity.
(ii) Degree of endemism
(iii) Degree of threat to habitat due to its degradation and fragmentation.
(iv) Degree of exploitation.
Myers (1988) initially identified 12 hot spots. Today the number of hotpots identified by
ecologists is 34 covering an area less than 2% of land surface with about 20% of human
population living there.
162 (B) When the offsprings are produced by self fertilization or breeding between closely related
parents it is called inbreeding. Inbreeding results in increase in homozygosity. The most
revealing impact of inbreeding is the loss of vigour and physiological efficiency of the
organisms characterized by reduction in size. A number of lethal and defective characters
appear in the population which has undergone inbreeding (selfing). This loss of fitness in the
progenies or decline in character expression with decreased heterozygosity arising from self
mating is known as inbreeding depression or inbreeding decline. Continued inbreeding reduces
fertility and even productivity. But the inbreeding progeny with lethal and harmful recessive
genes being homoozygous express these traits which otherwise remain hidden in
heterozygous individuals. Natural selection works upon these individuals and eliminate them.
Gradually, such genes get eliminated from the population.
163 (A) For aquatic organism salt concentration (measured as salinity in parts per thousand) is a
mojor factor for their survival. Salinity of different aquatic habitats varies greatly. It is less
than 5 per thousand parts in the sea and more than 100 per thousand parts in some
hypersaline lagoons. Many fresh water animals cannot live for long in sea water and vice
versa because of the osmotic problems they would face due to the change in relative tonicity
of the surrounding water with cytoplasm. It may result into endosmosis or exosmosis
accordng to the conditions. The tolerance of organisms to the salinity range varies. Some
organisms are tolerant of a wide range of salinities and are called euryhaline e.g. salmon,
while some can tolerate only a narrow range of salinity i.e., stenohaline e.g., shark.
164 (C) In non-myelinated nerve fibres, the ionic changes are repeated over the membrane all
along the length of the fibre. So, the action potential flows all along the membrane over the
entire length of the fibre. But in myelinated fibres, the ionic changes and the consequent
depolarisation can take place only at the nodes of Ranvier free from myelin sheath,
because the myelin sheath between the nodes insulates the fibre and prevents its
depolarisation. So, the action potential in fact jumps from one node to the next. This is
called saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Because of this, nerve impulses do not have
to run all along the myelinated nerve far more rapidly in myelinated fibres than in the non-
myelinated ones.
165 (C) Frogs are able to change the colour of their skins to match with that of the surroundings. It
makes them hard to be noticed by enemies. This is a type of protective colouration known
as camouflage not mimcry. Changes in colour are possible by dispersion or concentration of
special amoeboid pigment cells in their skin.
166 (A) Simple goitre or endemic goitre is the enlargement of thyroid gland accompanied with
cretinism or myxoedema. It occurs in case of hyposecretion of thyroxine. To compensate
for lower secretion of thyroxine from cells, thyroid gland enlarges to accmmodate more
secretory cells. It is caused due to dietary deficiency of iodine. to form normal quantities of
thyroxine about 1 mg/week of ingested iodine is required in the form of iodides.
167 (B) Sickle cell anaemia is an autosomal hereditary disorder in which the erythrocytes become
sickle shaped. The disorder or disease is caused by the formation of an abnormal
haemoglobin called haemoglobin-s denoted as Hbs. Thus, the genotype of an individual
homozygous for sickle cell anaemia is written as HbsHbs.
168 (D) Manganese (Mn) is a micronutrient. Excess of it in soil can cause manganese toxicity
characterized by brown spots surrounded by chlorotic veins. It occurs due to (i) reduction
in uptake of iron and magnesium (ii) inhibition of binding of magnesium to specific enzymes
(iii) inhibition of calcium translocation into shoot apex. Therefore excess of manganese
(Mn) causes deficiency of iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca).
Hence the toxicity symptoms of Mn are actually combined deficiency symptoms of Fe, Mg
and Ca.
169 (A) Females having 45 chromosomes (2A + X0) are affected with Turner's syndrome.
Individuals having Turner's syndrome have female sexual differentiation but ovaries are
rudimentary. Other associated phenotypes of this condition are short stature, webbed-neck,
broad chest, lack of secondary sexual characteristics and sterility. Thus, any imbalance in
the genetic information necessary for normal sexual development.
170 (D) In proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) about 65% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed
normally. Here most of the solutes are reabsorbed making the filtrate isotonic to blood
plasma. HCO 3 is not absorbed in PCT.
171 (B) Classification involves hierarchy of steps, in which each step represents a rank or category,
called taxonomic category or taxon. All together constitute a taxonomic hierarchy as
Species ® Genus ® Family ® Order ® Class ® Phylum or division ® Kingdom.
Most common characters among individual members are found in taxon species. Common
characters decrease from species to kingdom and members of a kingdom have least
number of common characters. Similarly, complexity of classification decreases from
species to kingdom.
172 (C) There are two types of food chains: grazing food chain and detritus food chain. Detritus
food chains are those which start from the dead bodies of animals or fallen leaves etc. In
terrestrial ecosystems, detritus food chain is the major conduit of energy flow, while in
aquatic ecosystems, grazing food chain is the major conduit of energy flow. As the detritus
food chains depend upon the dead organic matter hence, these are not directly dependent
upon solar energy.
173 (C) Wuchereria (W. bancrofti and W. malayi), the filarial worms cause a slowly developing
chronic inflammation of the organs in which they live for many years, usually the lymphatic
vessels of the lower limbs, and the disease is called filariasis. The pathogen spread from
one human being to another through mosquitoes like Culex and to a less extent by
Anopheles and Aedes. The parasite resides in lymph vessels, connective tissues and
mesentery. It is manifestated by lymphoedema accompanied by thickening of subcutaneous
tissues and skin so that there is permanent swelling mostly of feet, legs, thighs, scrotal
sacs, breast etc. In Culex and other mosquitoes females are blood sucking while males
suck juices of flowers and fruits. Female Culex carries filarial worm from one person to
another. It prefers to breed in dirty water near human habitation.
(174) (B) Retrovirus is an RNA-containing virus that converts its RNA into DNA by means of the
enzyme reverse transcriptase. This enables it to become integrated into its host's DNA.
Some retroviruses can cause cancer in animals they contain oncogenes (cancer-causing
genes), which are activated when the virus enters its host cell and starts to replicate. The
special properties of retroviruses make them useful as vectors for inserting genetic
material into eukaryotic cells. The best-known retrovirus is HIV, responsible for AIDS in
(175) (A) Leydig's cells or interstitial cells of testes are large, polygonal cells that lie in the
connective tissue present between the seminiferous tubules. They secrete androgens, the
male sex hormones e.g., testosterone into the blood. Androgens control male sexual
characteristics including facial and pubic hairs.
176 (A) During strenuous exercise, the muscle does not get sufficient oxygen to meet its energy
needs immediately. So, it contracts anaerobically and accumulates lactic acid. During
recovery, the oxygen consumption of the muscle far exceeds than that in the resting state.
The extra oxygen consumed during recovery is called oxygen debt of the muscle.
177 (C) Being insoluble in water, fats and oils form large immiscible droplets in aqueous media but the
enzymes which hydrolyse fats and oils (called lipases) are insoluble in fats and soluble in
water. Therefore, lipases can act only on the water adjoining surfaces of fat droplets.
Evidently, the larger the surface area of fat droplets, the greater is the action of the lipase on
them. We know that the smaller the size of a droplet, the larger is its surface area relative to
its mass. Thus lipases can digest fat in significant amounts only when large fat droplets are
broken into tiny droplets to form a fine emulsion. This is the reason why emulsification is so
necessary for the digestion of fats. Enzyme amylase, on the other hand, is a starch-
hydrolysing enzyme which has no role in fat digestion.
178 (B) Bilirubin is a yellow pigment which arises from the catabolism of red pigment haemoglobin
of old and worn out RBCs. The pale yellow colour of blood plasma is largely due to the
presence of bilirubin. It has to be excreted into the bile and from there it is excreted out of
the body along with the faecal matter. If, all of the bilirubin can not be excreted from the
body then the skin and mucous membranes assume a yellowish hue, giving rise to the
condition called jaundice.
179 (A) No taste sensation is evoked when distilled water is put on human tongue because man does
not possess taste buds for tasting water. The taste buds present on the tongue send nerve
impulses to the brain which actually preceives the taste sensation. Some mammals such as
rhesus monkeys, pigs, cats and dogs possess some taste buds which send nerve impulses to
the brain when distilled water is applied on them. It seems, therefore, that water may
stimulate these taste buds to evoke taste sensation in these animals.
180 (D) It is not oxytocin, but the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone, ADH)
because it reduces the volume of urine by increasing the reabsorption of water from the urine in
the distal convoluted tubules, collecting tubules and collecting ducts in the kidney. It does so by
rendering the walls of those tubules permeable to water. Failure of secretion of vasopressin
leads to a reduced renal reabsorption of water and a consequent elimination of a large volume
of very dilute (hypotonic) urine.
Oxytocin is another hormone released by the posterior lobe of pituitary gland. Oxytocin
contracts the mammary glands, smooth muscles of uterus. Uterine contractions, stimulated by
oxytocin at the end of pregnancy, help in the child-birth or parturition, hence also called birth
hormone. The oxytocin - induced contractions of the mammry gland muscles help in the flow of
stored milk from the mammary glands, hence also called milk ejection hormone.

AIIMS - 2013

(121) (C) Stinging cells (cnidocytes or cnidoblasts or nematoblasts) are used for offence and defence.
These have nematocysts (the stinging organs), composed of capsule, shaft and thread tube.
The thread tube coils around the prey or attaches to it or injects a toxin, called hypnotoxin
which paralyzes the victim. They are found in cnidarians - sea pen (Pennatula), sea fan
(Gorgonia), etc.
122 (B) The DNA used as a carrier for transferring a fragment of foreign DNA into a suitable host
is called vehicle DNA or cloning vector or gene carrier. The Ti plasmid (tumour inducing
plasmid) is present in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a Gram negative soil bacterium that
infects a wide range of plants and causes tumorous growth specially at the root / stem
junction (crown gall). The Tiplasmid comprises the gene responsible for the tumorous
growth, gets incorporated into the genome of infected plant cells. This property is of
interest for genetic engineering as Ti plasmid can be used as DNA vector by replacing the
tumour inducing genes with the gene of interest and a marker gene to enable selection of
transformed cells. The Ti plasmid, is widely used in plant genetic engineering as a vector,
novel plant genes being spliced into the plasmid sequence by gene manipulation and thus
carried into the host plant cells. This provides the opportunity to develop new and better
(123) (D) The total number of species estimated us about 1.74 million. Out of these, the number of
known species in India is 1,42,000 or roughly 8.1% of the total though India has only 2.4%
land area. India with about 45000 species of plants and twice as many species of animals
is one of the 12 megadiversity countries of the world.
(124) (B) Non - native or alien species are often introduced inadvertently for their economic and
other uses. They often become invasive and drive away the local species. These species
are considered to be second major cause of extinction of species (the first being habitat
destruction). Lantana camara has replaced many species in forests of Central India.
Parthenium hystero-phorus has pushed out several herbs and shrubs from open places in
the plains. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was introduced in Indian waters to reduce
pollution. It clogged water bodies including wetlands at many places resulting in death of
several aquatic plants and animals. Nelumbo (lotus) is not an invasive species.
(125) (A) Cardiac muscle fibres are found in the wall of heart. They have dark intercalated discs at
intervals. These are specialized regions of cell membranes of two adjecent fibres. They
permit the wave of muscle contraction to be transmitted from one cardiac fibre to another.
(126) (C) When fertilization occurs outside the body of the organism, this type of gametic fusion is
called external fertilization or external syngamy. The external medium such as water is
required for this type of fertilization. Thus, in most aquatic organisms such as a majority of
algae, fishes and amphibians, external fertilization occurs.
(127) (D) Seminal vesicles produce alkaline secretion which form 60% of the volume of semen. The
secretion of the seminal vesicles contains fructose, prostaglandins, citrate, inositol, and
clotting proteins. Prostate gland produces a milky and slightly alkaline secretion which

forms 25% of the volume of semen. It possesses calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, enzymes
prefibrolysin, clotting enzymes, and prostaglandins. Bulbourethral glands or Cowper's glands
also secrete an alkaline fluid which neutralizes acids from urine in the urethera. Their
secretion contributes the least to semen but is very important.
(128) (A) All the options are examples of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). These are
plastic or metal objects which are inserted by doctors in the uterus through vagina. Lippe's
loop is non-medicated IUCD. CuT and Multiload are copper releasing IUCDs, which
suppress motility and fertilization capacity of sperms. Progestasert is a hormone releasing
IUCD which makes the uterus unsuitable for implanttation and cervix hostile to the sperms.

(129) (A)
(130) (B) Inside the red blood cells, oval-shaped merozoites stop proceeding with erythrocytic cycle
to increase in size and become rounded gametocytes. Male gameetocytes or
microgametocytes are smaller and contain a large diffused nucleus.Female gametocytes (or
mega gametocytes) are larger with a small compact peripheral nucleus. These do not
divide but remain as intracellular parasites within their host's blood corpuscles, until they
either die or are ingested by the vectors. They give rise to gametes in insects.
(131) (C) Endosperm is the food laden tissue which is meant for nourishing the embryo in seed
plants. In gymnosperms, it represents the female gametophyte and thus is haploid(n). In
angiosperms, the endosperm is a special tissue which is formed as a result of fusion of a
male gamete with diploid secondary nucleus of the central cell (vegetative fertilization or
triple fusion). The fusion product is primary endosperm cell having a triploid (3n)
endosperm nucleus.
(132) (D) Secondary metabolites are derivatives of primary metabolites which have no direct function
in growth and development of plants. These compounds are accessory rather than central
to the functioning, e.g., arbrin, cellulose, gums, diterpenes, carotenoids, curcumin, rubber
etc. Arginine, tyrosine, glycine, serine and phenylalanine are amino acids, which are
primanry metabolites.
(133) (D) S-phase is known as synthetic phase. In this stage replication of DNA takes place on the
template of the existing DNA and thus the amount of DNA per cell doubles. If the initial
amount of DNA is denoted as 2C, then it increases to 4C.
(134) (D) The outer layer of pollen grain is called exine. It is thick and smooth and culticularised.
The cutin is called sporopollenin. It is not degraded by any enzyme. It is not affected by
high temperature, strong acid or strong alkali. Thus, it is resistant to chemical and biological
decomposition. Because of sporopollenin, pollen grains are well preserved as microfossils.
(135) (A) Pollen viability is the period for which pollen grains retain the ability to germinate. Pollen
viability is little in flowers which are pollinated in bud condition. It is 30 minutes in rice and
wheat. It depends upon environmental conditions of temperature and humidity.
(136) (B) Double fertilization is the fusion of two male gametes brought about by a pollen tube fusing
to two different cells of the same female gametophyte in order to produce two different
structures. It is found only in angiosperms. In angiosperms, the pollen tube bursts open in
one of the two synergids to release the two male gametes. One male gamete fuses with

the egg or oosphere to form a diploid zygote or oospore. It is called generative fertilization.
The second male gamete descends down and fuses with the diploid secondary nucleus of
the central cell to form a triploid primary endosperm cell. It is known as vegetative
fertilization. Thus, after double fertilization, a mature angiospermous ovule contains one
diploid cell (zygote) and one triploid cell (endosperm). The haploid cells of the ovule such
as antipodals and synergids degenerate after fertilization.
(137) (A) Transgenic plants or genetically modified (GM) crops are those plants in which a foreign
gene has been introduced and integrated into the host DNA via recombinant DNA
technology. The transfer or introduction of a foreign gene results in the production of
desirable traits like disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicide resistance, etc.
(138) (C) The palindromes in DNA are base pair sequences that are the same when read forward
(left to right) or backward (right to left) from a central axis of symmetry. The following
sequence reads the same on the two strands in 5'- 3' direction. This is also true when we
read in the 3' - 5' direction.
5’ GAATTC  3’ Palindromicsequence
(139) (C) Presence of photorespiration is considered as a wasteful and energy consuming process in
crop plants which ultimately leads to reduction in final yield of crops. It is estimated that
during C3 photosynthesis, upto 50% of the CO2 fixed may have to pass through
photorespiratory process, thereby resulting in considerable decrease in photosynthetic
productivity. In C3 plants, there is little loss of photosynthetic activity on account of
photorespiration which is absent in C4 plants and hence they have better productivity.
(140) (C) Oxytocin is released by posterior pituitary. Vasopressin decreases the amount of urine by
increasing reabsorption of water from DCT and collecting tubules. It also stimulates the
contraction of walls of blood vessels, thereby raising the blood pressure. Glucagon
stimulates liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and thus raises the blood sugar
level. Thymus releases thymosin which aids in proliferation of T-lymphocytes.
(141) (D) Aspergillus niger carries out fermentation to form citric acid. Fungus Trichoderma
polysporum produces. cyclosporin through fermentative activity. Cyclosporin - A has
antifungal, anti-inflammatory and immuno suppressive properties. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(baker's yeast/brewer's yeast) is used in production of bread/alcohol. Methanogenic
bacteria carry out microbial decomposition of organic matter and aids in gobar gas
(142) (A)
(143) (A) Parietal cells (or oxyntic cells) secrete hydrochloric acid (HCI) and Castle's intrinsic factor.
Chief cells (or peptic cells) secrete gastric digestive enzymes as proenzymes- pepsinogen
and prorennin. HCI helps in converting pepsinogen to pepsin. Goblet cells secrete mucus
which helps to neutralise acid in stomach and protects stomach wall against HCI action.
(144) (D) In family P, if both the parents are homozygous recessive, then both should be diseased and
should have 100% diseased progeny. In family Q, if both parents are homozygous
dominant, they would not have got the recessive disease in first place. In family Q, if both
are heterozygous recessive, then also they would not have got the disease, neither 80% of
progeny would be diseased.
(145) (C) Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed in PCT by secondary active transport. Water,
sodium and chloride ions are reabsorbed in DCT. It is permeable to water. Maximum
reabsorption takes place within the PCT. Humans are ureotelic and excrete out 25-30 gm
of urea per day.
(146) (B) Inbreeding leads to increase in homozygosity. This, in recessive alleles, may cause
expression of harmful effects. Also, inbreeding depression may lead to loss of fitness in
progenies, thus decreasing productivity in some cases.
(147) (C) The given floral diagram is of family Fabaceae. Flower - zygomorphic, bisexual. Sepals -
five, fused. Petals- five, polypetalous, papiillionaceous corolla. Androeciu- ten, diadelphous.
Gynoecium - ovary superior monocarpellary, unilocular, marginal placentation, with many
(148) (D) A - Fovea centralis : Sharpest vision occurs here.
B - Blindspot : No image is formed here.
C - Ciliary body : It helps to hold the lens in position.
D - Iris : Visible coloured portion of eye.
(149) (A) A - Z line : located at centre of I - band.
B - Thin filament : occurs in both I - band and A - band.
C - Thick filament : occurs in A - band.
D - H-zone - present at the centre of A - band.
(150) (A) All plant families end with - ae suffix. However, it differs for division, class and genus.
(151) (B) RBCs contain haemoglobin. It has four polypeptide chains and four haem groups attached
to it or 4 atoms of iron in ferrous form (Fe+2), thus it can react with 4 molecules of oxygen
to from oxyhaemoglobin.
(152) (C) Nereis is classified under Phylum Annelida. It is a unisexual annelid and its reproductive
phase is called Heteronereis. It is usually called clam worm or sand worm or rag worm
which is found on the sea shore in the tubular burrows. Except the peristomium (first
segment) and last anal segment, each segement bears laterally one pair of fleshy
projections, the parapodia, used in swimming.
(153) (D) The yearly growth of secondary xylem is distinct in the area which experiences two
seasons, one favourable (spring or rainy season) and the other unfavourable (autumn,
winter and dry summer). The wood formed in a single year consists of two types of wood,
spring wood and autumn wood. The spring or early wood is much wider than the autumn
or late wood. It is lighter in colour and of lower density. Spring wood consists of larger and
wider xylem elements. The autumn or late wood is dark coloured and of higher density. It
contains compactly arranged smaller and narrower elements which In autumn wood,
tracheids and fibres are more abundant than those found in the spring wood.
(154) (A) Both mitochondria and chloroplast are semi-autonomous organelles as thery possess their own
DNA, RNA and 70S ribosomes to have sufficient functional independence from cellular
machinery. Chloroplasts DNA is bigger than mitochondrial DNA. However, genetic information
contained in these DNAs is limited. DNA is naked (without histone proteins) in both.
(155) (A) Blood is the medium of transport of O2 and CO2. Nearly 20-25% of CO2 is transported by
RBCs as carbaminohaemoglobin whereas 70% of it is carried as bicarbonate through
plasma. About 7% of CO2 is carried in dissolved state through plasma. The largest fraction
of CO2 is converted to bicarbonate ions (HCO3–) and transported in plasma. When CO2
diffuses into the RBCs, it combines with H2O, forming carbonic acid (H2CO3). H2CO3 is
unstable and quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions.
(156) (B) Options (a), (b), (c) and (d) show neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocyte
respectively. Neutrophils are the most abundant cells (60-65%) of the total WBCs and
basophils are the least (0.5-1%) among them. Neutrophils and monocytes (6-8%) are
phagocytic cells. Which destroy foreign organisms entering the body. Basophils secrete
histamine, serotonin, heparin, etc. and are involved in inflammatory reactions. Eosinophils
(2-3%) resist infections and are also associated with allergic reactions.
(157) (C) Nucleus contains nucleoli and chromatin network. Chromatin contains DNA and some
basic proteins called histones, some non-histone proteins and also RNA.
(158) (B) When sewage, having biodegradable organic matter is released in water body, micro-
organisms involved in biodegradation of organic matter in the receiving water body
consume a lot of oxygen to decompose the sewage and as a result there would be a sharp
decline in dissolved oxygen downstream from the point of sewage discharge, and biological
oxygen demand (BOD) would increase. Presence of large amount of nutrients is water
causes excessive growth of planktonic (free-floaiting) algae, called algal bloom. Algal bloom
causes deterioration of water quality and fish mortality.
(159) (B) Auxins promote root initiation at a concentration which otherwise is inhibitory for growth of
intact root. Auxins are often employed for inducing flowering in litchi and pineapple.
Application of auxins to unpollinated pistils make them develop into seedless fruits or
(160) (C) Secondary air pollutants are photochemically produced from primary pollutants and are thus
called photochemical oxidants.Ozone, peroxyacyl nitrates, aldehydes and phenols are
produced due to photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides and unsaturated
(161) (B) The earthworms are bisexual or hermaphrodite or monoecious and protandrous. The self-
fertilization is not possible in the earthworm bacause of the relative position of openings of
male and female reproductive organs, hence cross fertilization takes place.
During mating, two worms attach themselves with their ventral surfaces and become
opposed to each other in opposite direction to exchange packets of sperms called
spermatophores. Mature sperm and egg cells and nutritive fluid are deposited in cocoons,
produced by the gland cells of clitellum. The ova (eggs) are fertilized by the sperm cells
within the cocoon which then slips off the worm and is deposited in or on the soil. The
cocoon holds the worm embryos. After about 3 weeks, each cocoon produces two to
twenty baby worms with an average of four living.
(162) (A) In arithmetic growth, following mitotic cell division, only one daughter cell continues to
divide while the other differentiates and matures. The simplest expression of arithmetic
growth is exemplified by a root elongating at a constant rate. On plotting the length of the
organ against time, a linear curve is obtained.
(163) (C) Absorption of substances takes place in different parts of the alimentary canal, like mouth,
stomach, small intestine and large intestine. However, maximum absorption occurs in the
small intestine. Hence, small intestine is the principal organ for absorption of nutrients. The
digestion is completed here and the final products of digestion such as glucose, fructose,
fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids are absorbed through the mucosa into the blood
stream and lymph. Absorption of water, single sugars and alcohol, etc. takes place in
stomach. In larger intestine, absorption of water, some minerals and drugs takes place.
(164) (B) Pulse is the rhythmic contraction and relaxation in the aorta and its main arteries. It is a
regular jerk of an artery. The pulse rate is exactly the same as the heart rate because an
artery pulses every time the heart beats. Pulse is usually taken on the radial artery in the
wrist but it can be taken on any artery that flows near enough to the surface of the body
to be felt. The heart beat originates from the sinoatrial node (SA Node) - pacemaker,
which lies in the wall of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava. The
SA node is a mass of neuromuscular tissue. Another mass of neutomuscular tissue, the
atrioventricular node (AV node) is situated in the wall of the right atrium. The AV node
picks up the wave of contraction propagated by SA node. A mass of specialized fibres, the
bundle of His, originates from the AV node. the bundle of His divides into two brnaches,
one going to each ventricle. Within the myocardium of the ventricles, the branches of
bundle of His divides into a network of fine fibres called the Purkinje fibres. The bundle of
His and the Purkinje fibres convery impulse of contraction from the AV node to the
myocardium of the ventricles.
(165) (A) One of the hormones released by the placenta is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
This hormone is secreted by the trophoblast cells even before they become the chorion,
and is the hormone assayed in the pregnancy test. Because its action is almost identical to
that of luteinizing hormone (LH), hCG maintains the mother's corpus luteum. The corpus
luteum, in turn, continues to secrete oestrogens and progesterone, thereby preventing
menstruation and further ovulations. At around 10 th week, the secretion of human
chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by placenta declines, and the corpus luteum regresses as a
result. However, menstruation does not occur because placenta itself secretes oestrogens
and progesterone. In fact, the amounts of these two hormones secreted by the placenta far
exceed the amounts that are ever secreted by the ovaries. The high levels of oestrogens
and progesterone in the blood during pregnancy continue to inhibit the release of FSH and
LH, thereby preventing ovulation. They also help maintain the uterus and eventually
prepare it for labor and delivery, and they stimulate the development of the mammary
glands in the preparation for lactation after delivery.
(166) (C) Alexander Fleming while working on Staphylococci bacteria, once observed a mould
growing in one of his unwashed culture plates around which Staphylococci could not grow.
He found out that it was due to a chemical produced by the mould and he named it
penicillin after the mould penicillium notatum. However, its full potential as an effective
antibiotic was established much latter by Ernest Chain and Howard Florey.
(167) (D) Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol. A
bioactive molecule, cyclosporin A which is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-
transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Trichoderma polysporum.
(168) (C) Protostele is the simplest and considered to be the most primitive type of stele. It consists
of a solid core of xylem surrounded by the cylinder of phloem, enclosing no pith. other
types of steles have evolved from it in the course of evolutionary specialization. Protosteles
may be found in Selaginella, Lycopodium, Gleichenia and Lygodium among present day

(169) (B) The human digestive system carries about trillions of microorganisms colonising the gut
making an amazing ecosystem that live together in harmony. In this context human intestine
is said to be rich in flora and fauna. The microorganisms perform a lots of useful functions,
such as fermenting unused energy substrates, training the immune system, preventing
growth of harmful, pathogenic bacteria, regulating the development of the gut, producing
vitamins for the host (such as biotin and vitamin K), and producing hormones to direct the
host to store fats.
Fish culture is sometimes done in combination with a rice crop, so that fish are grown in
the water in the paddy field. Thus, a rice field is in example of ecosystem inhabiting both
plants and animals.
(170) (C) Refer answer 154.
(171) (B) The world is facing accelerated rates of species extinctions, largely due to human
interference. There are four major causes - (i) habitat loss and fragmentation, (ii) over-
exploitation, (iii) alien species invasions and (iv) co- extinctions. Non - native of alien
species are often introduced inadvertently for their economic and other uses. They often
become invasive and drive away the local species. The exotic species are considered to be
second major cause of extinction of species (the first being habitat destruction).
(172) (B) Meiosis consists of two divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. The first division of meiosis is
called heterotypic or reduction division.During this division the number of chromosomes is
reduced to half. The two chromatids of a chromosome become genetically different due to
crossing over. These chromatids are separated in the second division of meiosis. The
second meiotic division is known as homotypic or equational division, because the
chromosome number remains the same as produced after the end of the first division.
Though meiosis II is similar to mitosis. Meiosis II is not mitosis because (i) it always
occurs in haploid cells, (ii) it is not preceded by DNA replication, (iii) the two chromatids of
a chromosome are often dissimilar, (iv) the daughter cells formed after meiosis II are
neither similar to each other nor similar to the parent cell.
(173) (C) Periodic abstinence is a natural method of birth control in which the couples avoid or
abstain from coitus ( copulation or intercourse) from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle
because ovulation can occur during this period. The chances of fertilization are very high
during this period, therefore, it is called the fertile period.
(174) (B) The cerebrum is the largest and most complex of all the parts of the human brain. It
consists of left and right hemispheres connected by a large bundle of myelinated fibres, the
corpus callosum. Association areas interpret the input, store the input and initiate a
response in light of similar past experience. Thus, the association areas are involved in
memory, learning and reasoning.
(175) (D) Sickle cell anaemia is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder in which the erythrocytes
become sickle shaped under oxygen deficiency as during strenuous exercise and at high
altitudes. The disorder or disease is caused by the formation of an abnormal haemoglobin
called haemoglobin-S. As found out by Ingram (1956), haemoglobin -S differs from normal
haemoglobin -A in only one amino acid - 6th amino acid of B-chain, glutamic acid, is
replaced by valine due to substitution (transversion) of T by A in the second position of the
triplet codon (CTC) which is changed to CAC in th B- haemoglobin gene situated on
chromosome 11.
(176) (A) The efficiency of C4 plants is more than those of C3 plants because (i) C4 plants are more
efficient in picking up CO2 even when it is found in low concentration because of the high
affinity of PEP, (ii) concentric arrangement of mesophyll cells produces a smaller area in
relation to volume for better utilization of available water and reduce the intensity of solar
radiations, (iii) they can tolerate excess salts because of the presence of organic acids, (iv)
normal oxygen concentration is not inhibitory for the growth in contrast to C3 plants, (v)
they are adapted to high temperature and intense radiation of tropics.
(177) (A) The cattles, buffaloes, goats,sheep, deer and camels are herbivorous animals that feed on
plant leaves, twigs, etc. Their stomach consists of 4 chambers: rumen (paunch), reticulum
(honeycomb), omasum (psalterium) and abomasum (rennet). In the rumen, food undergoes
mechanical and chemical breakdown. Mechanical breakdown results from thorough
churning brought about by muscular contractions and aided by cornified surface of villi.
Chemical breakdown is caused by symbiotic microorganisms bacteria such as
Ruminococcus and ciliate such as Entodinium caudatum. These micoorganisms live as
symbionts in the rumen and reticulum of the stomach of the ruminants (e.g., cows and
buffaloes) and in the large intestine of other herbivorous mammals (e.g., horses and
donkeys) and release enzymes, cellulases, which act on cellulose and simplify it to short-
chain fatty acids. Cellulose is not digested in human being.
(178) (B) The secondary structure of proteins is the development of new stearic relationships of
amino acids present in the linear sequence inside the polypeptides. Some of the new
relationship are of regular nature and give periodicity to the structure. There are three
types of secondary structures - D - helix, b - pleated and collagen helix. They are held in
a particular structure due hydrogen bonds between oxygen of carboxylic group (-CO
group) of one amino acid residue and >NH group of another amino acid.
The protein enzymes have active sites which are capable of attracting and holding
particular substrate molecules by is specific charge, size and shape so as to allow the
chemical change. An active site consists of a few amino acid and their side groups which
are brought together in a particular fashion due to secondary and tertiary folding of a
protein molecule and its association with the cofactor, if any. Tertiary structure is bending
and folding of various types to form spheres, rods or fibres. It further brings new stearic
relationsships of amino acid specially those which are far apart in the linear sequence.
Tertiary structure is stabilized by several types of bonds- hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van
derWaal's interactions, covalent bonds, hydrophobic bonds. Tertiary structure gives the
protein a three dimensional configuration.
(179) (C) Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acid. Its side chain is an amide formed by replacing the
side chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group, making it the amide of
glutamic acid. In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid. The
isoelectric point is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net
electrical charge. The isoelectric point (pH) of glutamine is 5.65.
(180) (D) Principal organ for digestion and absorption for nutrients is small intestine. Small intestine is
distinguishable into three regions, a 'U' shaped duodenum, a long coiled middle portion
jejunum and a highly coiled ileum. Mainly iron, calcium and a amino acids are absorbed in
duodenum; fatty acids, glycerol, monosaccharides and vitamins are absorbad in jejunum,
and absorption of vitamin B12 bile salts and water occur in ileum.