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Communication, Management and Information Technology – Sampaio de Alencar (Ed.

)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-02972-9

The engineering andragogical in the device “blended learning”:


Case of the academic formation courses professionalizing
“development of a conceptual and methodological” setting

Bassiri Mustapha
Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Ben M’Sik Faculty of Sciences,
Hassan II University of Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco

Yalid Amal
Laboratory of Physical Chemistry Analytic, Ben M’Sik Faculty of Sciences,
Hassan II University of Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco

Said Belaaouad & Radid Mohamed


Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Ben M’Sik Faculty of Sciences,
Hassan II University of Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco

ABSTRACT: The system of higher education didn’t stop innovating and to renovate his/her/its aca-
demic pedagogy in the stake fundamental of development of the professional expertise’s aiming to answer
the needs of a society in constant mutation, to the difficulties of the job market, to the instability of
the professional careers and to the increasing complexity of the professions that requires a high level of
technification and automation. The involvement of the new technologies of information and NTIC com-
munication in this national strategy arena to for objectives to fight against unemployment and to improve
the competitiveness of the technological market globalized. This new orientation, bring us to think on the
restructuring and the requalification of the professionalizing formation splicing that vector of develop-
ment socio-economic Wittorski R., Ardouin T. (2012).
In the daily of the class, the professional academic formation of the young adults leash to think that it
is applicable to interest itself/themselves from afar of it to the methodological operative Andragogical via
the hybrid teaching in the goal of location of the logics of construction of the objects of teachings and
formalization of the educational scripts corresponds. The context of research that is ours, to know the
training in blended learning, allows us as a matter of course to interest us to the student as young learner
adult “concept of learning”, because this last constitutes the majority of the public schooled registered
in the degree course of full-time academic formation in order to get a complement of initial formation.
Within sight of what preceded the orientation of the engineering anagogical in device “Learning blended
has for objective to learn to learn” has to has according to the paradigm metacognitive Anderson, L. W.
Krathwohl and, D. R., and al (Ed.) (2001), that is to acquire the technological expertise’s that constitute
a powerful springboard for the development of the methodological, strategic expertise’s and communica-
tional wagers a teaching professionalizing, rather than to learn conceptual knowledge (exclusive solicita-
tion of the mechanisms of memorization and understanding according to the taxonomy of bloom).
The central question of our research expresses itself of the following manner: facing the difficulties of
location of the standards of conceptualization and formalization of an engineering Andragogical in the
hybrid teaching. What methodological gait is necessary—it to put in over to promote the courses aca-
demic professionalizing? and rationalization of the professionalizing academic formation, encouraging
the improvement thus their capacities to face and to solve complex and unpublished problems.
Two questionnaires have been submitted to the respondents: The first questionnaire intended to the
students: a specific sample of studying them of the faculty of the Ben sciences me Casablanca sik (variable
omen), organizing itself/themselves author of the following data: 1°) Their features (domain of survey;
demographic features; social and professional and the technical cleverness); 2°) Their needs and their
waiting in the comparing to the objectives of formations recommended in the notebook of prescription
special CPS; 3°) Identification of their training “styles the Learning Style Questionnaire, French version
abridged (LSQ-F) of Small fort, Goatherd, Théberge, Leblanc and Amyot (2000)”.

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The second questionnaire intended to the teachers (Variable program and product) to analyze the per-
ceptions of the respondents as for their own conception of the virtual formation” devices the objectives of
formations—the content, the didactical-educational means, modes of assessment recommended” to put
in inscription the models and the standards of formation adapted Me to the context of the Ben faculty sik
of Casablanca (survey of feasibility). Within sight of what precedes us proceeded to a gait of analysis of
the latent program while only keeping the units of training bearer of senses and meaningful information
in relation to the central question of research for the determination of the criteria’s: 1) the perception of
the respondents as for their own style of training and 2) the sense given by the respondents to their own
situation of on line training. The analysis of content has been kept like method of work for the treatment
of the data qualitative.

Keywords: Engineering anagogical; Blended Learning; education of the adults; educational engineering;
professional continuing education; professional didactics and training experiential
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1 INTRODUCTION transverse expertise. In this setting the arrival of


the technologies of information and the commu-
“The on line training constitutes a catalyst that nication made appear the place and the relevance
redoes the picture of the education, join in network of the new on line formation devices like one fash-
the academic establishments, answers the govern- ion of teaching to the first plan in the domain
mental orientations and oblige the professor to of the education and the training (Merriam and
think about his/her/its new role” L’autrice Caffarella 1991).
The universities Moroccans appear in this ori- The question of the rationalization and the
entation while becoming a space privileged of optimization of the teaching blended learning is
education to the values of citizenship and civic to put directly in relation with the problematic of
behavior, while granting a fundamental role to the the teaching of the adults in academic formation
construction of expertise’s technological, cultural course professionalizing, to this type of formation
and methodological pledge of professionalization to know the problem of massification and abun-
of the student’s profession “national charter of dance of formation in presently.
education and formation 1999”. Even though the Us survey of investigating appears in the proc-
teaching in presential constitutes the fashion the ess of research development of the quality of the
more used in the universities, the on line training programs of training of the adult learners in u
brings us to establish a new change of paradigm hybrid teaching. The project of integration of the
of the report to the knowledge “virtualization of educational practices of alternation “presently
the knowledge”. The faculty of the sciences well formation and from afar” in the degree course of
Me sik of Casablanca bestowed a project of inte- initial and continuous formation enrolls in the par-
gration and promotion of the NTIC support of adigm of the innovation and creativeness. Of this
teaching and scientific research. Jointly the assess- fact the analysis of the factors that influences the
ment of the descriptive of formation and the dif- conception of the objects, the educational activi-
ferent projects of research shows strong and well ties and the modes of assessment of the devices
the importance granted to the engineering of the remained tributary of an engineering simultane-
technological systems for the education and the ous andragogical mobilizing manner harmonious
formation that gave birth to the emergence of the and integrated the different determinants of the
“society of information” as powerful determinant situation of hybrid teaching (Students. Teacher in
of the economic and scientific progress (Glikman presently. Virtual educational Community. on line
2002). intelligent Guardian—Referential of expertise’s.
Leave elsewhere the growth important of the Nature of the Knowledge. Specificity of the for-
strengths of the academic students, the demand mation context).
of the job market in technological expertise’s, the This approach of the research-action will first
preparation of the students to a learning society make the accent on the analysis of the state of
and the requirements of the new approaches cur- art of the strong points, and of the opportuni-
ricular that grant a fundamental role to the facul- ties offered by the hybrid teaching, while insisting
ties of analyses, of reflection and to can of adapted on the measure of impact and the effects of these
to the technical and technological context “the new technologies, on the assessment of the feasi-
diversity of the virtual environments”, make that bility of their integration in the academic educa-
the traditional fashions of teaching in presently, tional scripts setting in .overs. Jointly this research
appear henceforth insufficient for the appropria- will permit the development of the devices of
tion and the construction of the disciplinary and engineering andragogical and expertise’s in this

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environment Blended Learning, articulating the that organizes the relation presumed from afar
contents formation and the needs of the learner’s between the teaching presently and teaching to end
adult goshawks of the strategies of collaborations to propose courses of training professionalizing
intelligent tutorials. This vision of assessment varied and adapted in the goal of optimization of
of the norms and standards that presiding to the process of training of the academic courses.
the establishment of the methodology of instru-
ments and mixed most tangible formalization of
the devices answers a problematic of innovation 2 THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE
and quality of the academic trainings. We will be
brought therefore to conceptualization and to the The setting that will serve to analyze the relation
setting up of a systemic modelling of the objects presumed between the engineering of formation
of teaching and activities educational support of andragogy and the professionalization of the
training, articulating the technological aspects, the courses of training of the students’ academic in
aspects psycho educational, the methodological teach it Blended Learning corresponds to the defi-
aspects and organizational of the hybrid context, nition of the setting of reference that we elaborated
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without omitting the aspects of the setting of ref- from the key concepts descended of different fields
erential reference” of the eligible national exper- of research. These concepts that also served to the
tise’s” and the features of the learners adult actors recession of the writings and to the definition of
of the auto-formation process. the conceptual and methodological setting of this
The recourse to a magazine of the scientific survey exploratory. We identified the following
literature of the mixed teaching, allowed us to domains thus: 1) the training in the formations
illuminate the standards of development and the hybrid and 2) the engineering of the formation
steps opened out in the process of formalization of the adults 3) the contributions of the profes-
of these devices. We kept therefore for our survey sional didactics (professionalization of the forma-
of research the focusing on the teaching Blended tion courses) 4) the theories of the sciences of the
learning splicing that technical device, model of education.
design instrumentalisation educational curricu- The analysis of the literature shows besides that
lar and processes of organization of the didactic one can distinguish two approaches of research
scripts and activities of teaching—training that mainly: The first approach searches for brings
has for crucial goal to provide to the fields of itself to the descriptive analysis that consists in
the education and the formation of the adults the analyzing the main theories of training of the
favorable conditions of the management of the adults and to determine the essence of the founda-
courses of auto formation and construction of tions theories orchestrate transferable in the action
the professional expertise’s. This fashion of hybrid and the act educational (epistemological reflection
formation requires the conciliation of the technical and praxeological). We will approach the theo-
requirements of the virtual environment “leaning ries of the autonomy and the independence thus
on an electronic technology” and the educational of Wedemeyer (1971), the theory of the incarnate
requirements of conception of the computerized industrialization [2] by Otto Peters (1988) or the
contents (module-based training) and pedagogical theory of the interaction and the communication
scenario of the educational activities. developed by Holmberg (2003) [3] that constitutes
The approach of the mixed formation founds itself from afar a powerful vector of the training.
on the conception of the environments of training He/it appears therefore important enough that the
susceptible to answer the principles of continuity, formation hybridizes permits us to raise the fea-
extension and complementarity of the teaching tures and the determinants of conceptualization
presently first of all and in a second place makes and formalization of the systems of this mixed for-
call in a cascade of stages of analyses systemic of mation. Our attention is carried more especially on
the components: Technological 1°—components the gotten results that can be reintroduced in the
of the computer resources 2°—profiles and needs gait of formation engineering in e-learning while
of the adult learner placed in the center of the respecting the instrumental aspect of the virtual
on line training system and that makes of him a environment.
dynamic and conscious actor of his/her/its train- The second approach is like the steps of research-
ing process, 3°—The approach socio constructivist development. It is about leading the development
and cognitivist of the training of the institutional of the deliverable mediatized in content of forma-
vision 4°—The theories of the systems of com- tion and activities educational support of teaching
munication and interaction sheltered by the vir- jointly. It is therefore about a prospective gait that
tual environment [1] (Golden 1998). If we leave has the tendency to erase the border between the
from the assumption that the formation Learning teaching presently and the training of new exper-
blended belongs to the category of the teaching, tise on line professionalizing.

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3 METHODOLOGY PRECONIZED bets in .over in the instrumentation of the numeric
platform and the standardization of the norms of
Between contingency and choice, between descrip- the teaching Blended Learning: Variable of omen,
tion and reconstruction of a methodological setting product and program is inseparable of the spe-
of conceptualization of the sessions of formation cificity of the training” presently context or from
of the professionals, this descriptive analysis and afar.” The report of fact that we could observe,
exploratory appears truly in the reflection of Jean underlined that the courses of formation differen-
Paul Sartre when it says “the man is characterized tiated translate the needs and the objectives of dis-
above all by the overtaking of a situation, by what tinctive formations according to the environment
it succeeds in making what one made it”. of training. The adult learner appears then like an
We note in the analysis of the state of the place, administrative actor, who elaborates himself his/
that the pedagogy of the adult learners represents the her/its own course of formation and of which the
“poor parent” of the device Blended learning, that valorization of his/her/its experience and his/her/
is more technical-centric than pedagogical-centric its intrinsic incentive bound to needs of masteries
thus. In this perspective he/it appears discriminat- and self-improvement. The conception of the mod-
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ing to put the focal on the determination of the elling of the two environments of trainings would
educational and didactic concepts of references, the allow us to put the designs of the different units of
devolved place to the adult learner and the model- teachings that encourage the development of the
ling of the procedures of screenplay of the objects of professional expertise’s forward. This modelling of
trainings and the steps tutorials of accompaniment. the objects of study drives the learners adulate to
This work of survey and research is in narrow mobilize some answers adaptive and systematic of
and symbiotic relation with my socio-professional the internal and external resources of every fash-
positioning descended of my trajectory of ion of training, while trying to establish the ties
consulting-formative in enterprise and my teacher’s and the bridges of continuity and rupture between
course—formative to the superior normal school of these two fashions of trainings. The conceptualiza-
Casablanca the Hassan University 2. These two ori- tion of the hybrid devices makes resort to a consen-
entations continue in a third tendency that presents sual approach: “behavior-socio-constructivist and
the specificity of my research works in progress in interactive of the training” that the rich and varied
engineering andragogy in the course professional- environments, centered on the personal profession-
izing “academic student’s doctoral thesis”. alization, exploring the global content of the two
The present research is a research of develop- devices and putting in relief the mechanisms of an
ment of the devices and convenient of hybrid for- intelligent guidance.
mation, that can provide to the field of the initial The objective of this survey exploratory and
formation the conceptual bases of construction descriptive was to understand better and to sur-
of the mixed formation devices, improving the round the foundations of the processes of instru-
quality of expertise’s constructed thus. We write mentalisation of the engineering of formation
down in an analysis deepened of the opportuni- professional of the adult learners in the environ-
ties offered “benchmarking” of the hybrid models ment Learning blended. For it, we studied the
and their impact professionalizing the student’s educational and didactic activities of conception,
profession. The specific question of the survey realization and assessment of the devices presently
expresses itself of the following manner: facing and from afar, whose crucial stake is the formali-
the difficulties of massification and unhooking of zation of these devices according to an arsenal of
the formation academic presential. What logical articulate methodological steps adapted to the aca-
of location, construction and formalization of the demic teaching context.
mixed formation devices also adapted either. They The object of this research aims to articulate
and that encourage the development of the profes- way very strong two measurements that are para-
sional expertises of the academic students. What dox and antinomy: the theoretical dimension [4]
steps of development and conceptualization of the and the operative dimension, The crossing and
teaching blended specific learning to the context the complementarity of these two aspects contrib-
of the faculty of the Ben sciences M sik? To con- utes to the setting in relief of a conceptual setting
ceive an engineering of the devices of formation of constructed of the key concepts of reference, that
the adult learners in a specific context of Blended encourage in a first time the exchanges between
formation as support of training, of orientation the theoretical foundations”. Epistemological” of
of the courses of formation and academic output. the process of formation engineering and the prag-
The development of this point allowed us to put a matic steps [5] Pastré P. (2004) and operative and
scheduling rational of the process of production that incites in a second time the users to appropri-
of the deliverable in place material and immate- ate these instruments and to use them in an adap-
rial on line, the formalization of the procedures tive and efficient way.

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The central question of research expresses itself praxiological in the mixed training environment,
of the following manner: facing the difficulties of while trying to identify the nature of the relations
location of the clear and explicit logics of construc- that becomes knotted between the different vari-
tion and formalization of the academic courses of able of the process teaching. Training, as well as
formation. What steps of development, formaliza- the measure of their impacts on the process of pro-
tion and conceptualization of the devices of hybrid fessionalization of the students. In the setting of
trainings? the training in presently, the question of the deter-
The setting that served to the analysis of the mination of the aspects of adult’s formation has
qualitative and quantitative data of research con- been demonstrated by numerous theoretical and
sists of four main measurements: The engineering empiric research. He/it appears therefore applicable
of formation and expertise’s, the management of enough and innovating that the formation Learn-
the project, the theories of trainings experiential [6] ing blended constitutes a vector of consecration of
kolb, D.To.1985 and the approaches andragogical. the values of autonomy and responsibility in the
These measurements are to put directly on the one Co-construction of expertise’s communicational,
hand in relation with the theories of interactivity methodological and technological in the different
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and connectivity of the technological instrument situations of trainings computerized “national


charter of education and the formation.”
Use combined of the teaching presently
4 CONCLUSION approaches and enrolls from afar in the gait of
continuous improvement of the quality of the
The adoption of the technologies of information trainings school “paradigm of change”, indeed
and communication modified the approach of the relevance of this Blended formation gait ques-
the formation experiential considerably, notably tions the preoccupations and the challenges that
because of the apparition of the generation Z of the education system Moroccan should raise,
the young adults that privileges the fashion par notably in relation to the economic and techno-
excellence 4C “communication. Connection. Col- logical internationalization, the adaptation and the
laboration. Creativeness” as gait of entry to the interaction with the environment, the innovation
training of sense, desire and interest. Thus, in light and the academic educational renovation, the set-
of the data collected the recourse to the devices of ting up of new technologies of information and
hybrid training in the higher education comes to the communication and the good governance and
palliate the limits of the teaching presently and to quality of the trainings of the adult learners. It
answer the real needs of the adult learners. is for it that, we will push from afar on the tools
We will attach to wonder about the question of and the techniques of the systems of information
research according to which: “What correspond- and the framing tutorial as well as the engineering
ences are necessary. her to establish between the andragogy—educational like springboard of for-
effects of the engineering andragogical and devel- mation of the courses professionalizing in the stake
opment of expertise’s professional” academic out- to allow the academic system to acquire the deter-
put, “at adult learners, in situation of training in mining factors of the essential competitiveness, in
a context of formation mixes”? Does the relative occurrence those relative to the technological and
under-question to research put the accent on the human resources to face an omnipresent competi-
verification of the nature of the reports between tion of the internationalization of the market.
the engineering andragogical and do the logics of He/it appears therefore that the presented theo-
screenplay of the hybrid teaching “Exist it an engi- retical knowledge and research on the engineering
neering andragogy clean to the formation of the andragogical is again in the embryonic phase. Even
adult learners, in situation of training, in a specific though several research descriptive and exploratory
context of hybrid formation?” What correspond- was interested in the formations to distances like
ences to observe between the engineering andrag- alternative of solution coveted permitting modeler
ogical and the output of the courses of formation the objects of study and the didactic activities in
of adult learners, in a specific context of formation the computerized environments of training, the
Blended Learning? How to characterize the mod- results don’t seem all in agreement with the foun-
elling of the objects of studies and activities andra- dations praxeological of the paradigms metacogni-
gogical and didactical-educational of the process tive and socio constructivists. Certain fashion of
of the professionalization of the courses academic, training tried to solve the problematic of on line
and this in an environment Learning blended? unhooking, massification or democratization of
The present doctoral research wants to contrib- access to the knowledge technical and technologi-
ute to the advancement of the knowledge in engi- cal. Other studies focus the attention on the hold
neering andragogical, while trying to describe and in account of the specificities of the learners adult
to surround his/her/its theoretical foundations and “styles of trainings” in the formations from afar,

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in order to increase efficiency of the formation Our warning was inspired from the subjects of
process [7] (Diaz & Cartnal 1999). However the [8] Minder, M. 1999 “he/it is not time to reconcile
different objects of study show difficulties of con- the currents cognitivists and behaviorist, to break
sensus, of homogeneity and harmonization of the with the fundamentalisms and to place the knowl-
concepts and methodologies used. edge to the learner’s service”.
To the term of our doctoral research, we would Admitting the assumption according to which
like to keep to conclude conceptualization and the the acquirements will be of as much more steady
formalization of the scripts didactics and didaxologie and efficient that they will be constructed accord-
(use and transfer of the scientific data in the gait of ing to the crossing of the different theoretical
teaching). He/it belongs us therefore to justify from contributions. In this setting the development of
the theoretical knowledge presented the arguments this point places us in a reflection axiological and
fundamental of instrumentalisation of situation “didactical-educational” praxiological based on
of teaching and training of the hybrid teaching in the cohabitation and the complementarity of the
relation with: 1) the training at the adults in narrow teachings (presently and from afar) while using
report with the principles andragogical of Knowles. the applicable elements of every fashion of for-
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2) The main features of the training in the forma- mation in direct relation with the referential of
tion blended structural Learning essentially on the expertise’s and the academic educational norms.
theories of the industrialization and interactivity. There is in every theory that founds the hybrid
3) The contributions of the professional didactics teaching and the engineering andragogical pro-
concerning the courses of professionalization. fessionalizing the principles and the operative
The finality aimed of this research survey is schemes [9] Vergnaud G. (1990). who will be capa-
therefore at least double. On the one hand, she/it ble to establish the diagnosis of the needs of the
addresses the academic teachers, inventors of the adult learners, to formulate some objectives and to
hybrid environments, directly and try to underline identify the material and human resources for the
the necessity to conceptualize and to formalize the development of the socio-professional expertise’s.
academic courses of formation professionalizing Of this fact he/it is incontestably necessary to lean
varied. But she/it also addresses the adult learners as on the engineering andragogical to frame and to
gait of incentive, of independence and autonomy of optimize the steps of teaching, the didactic tools,
training by report domain the traditional teaching. contextualizing the modes of accompaniment
The consistency of the hybrid programs offered (guidance, facilitation and mediation [10] Jaillet
should be conceived in his/her/its measurements of 2004 and of educational regulation of the fashions
exchanges through a better quality of interaction distance education or presence according to the
and communication, notably in the setting of work human and material context (ecological approach)
intelligent interactive tutorial. He/it takes of it out while trying to answer the problematic of the infla-
again therefore that the teaching Learning blended, tion and the obsolescence of the knowledge.
would be constructed of device of formation privi- Facing the world of the inflation of the knowl-
leging a new approach of scheduling where the tech- edge of the tracks of research future that could
nology constitutes the elements key of the success of prove to be interesting for the domain of the for-
the training of the liberty of choice of the content, mation engineering of adulates academic, would
of the quality didactic activities, of the educational be to identify if the subjective experience would
methods, of the rhythms of work and fashion of be one fashion of privileged training in the on line
varied training (synchronous or asynchronous). formation context. He/it would be also applicable’
He/it appears therefore alarming enough that the after having examined the the modelling of the
formation from afar and the teaching in presently formation courses identified with the academic
of the Blended Learning is not completely distinct output professionalizing.
and is part of a dynamic and interactive educa- The academic output passes therefore by a bet-
tional continuum that goes from an initial situation ter hold in account of the differences individual
of training very framed toward a situation of self- experiential. Concerning teaching in Learning
culture founds on the principles of autonomy and blended, he/it would also import to conceive
liberty. We write down here in the process of devel- progress of training differentiated according
opment of the supple situations of training to the to the needs of generation Z of connection and
breast of which the accent is put on the exploration, creativeness. This instrumental modelling of
the discovery and the training with his/her/its equals the virtual environment but also of the pres-
to solve some problems complex and unpublished, ently <Face to Face> according to the law of the
in a word of the actions conscientization, reflexive Pareto 80. 20 to give to the psycho-emotional
(Depover, Marton, Giardina 1998) and actualized dimension as vector of development of an emo-
in an environment interactive multimedia. tional and transcendent intelligence.

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Grille 1. Instrumentalisation and modelling of the engineering andragogique in devices blended learning.

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[1] Merriam, S.B. and Caffarella, R. (1991). Learning in Education, flight 4 (p. 550). New York: The MacMil-
adulthood. To understanding guide. San Francisco, lan Co12.
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Mahwah, N-J: Lauwrence Erlbaum Associâtes, [7] Diaz, D (1999) and Cartnal Comparing Student
79−86. Learning Styles in year online Outdistances Learn-
[4] Peter OH. (1998). Learning and teaching in outdis- ing Class and year equivalent Class one-campus.
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[5] Pastré P. (2004). “The role of the pragmatic concepts [9] Vergnaud G. (1990). “The theory of the concep-
in the management of the situations problems: the tual fields”. Research in math didactics, flight. 10,
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