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# THERMO-FLUIDS EXPERIMENT ...

LAMINAR AND
TURBULENT FLOW.

Aims:-
– To examine the nature of fluid.
– To investigate the condition for laminar and turbulent flow in
pipes.
– To investigate the qualitative effects of resistance to flow.

Introduction:
All fluid flow is classified into one of two broad regimes. These two
flow regimes are laminar flow and turbulent flow. The flow regime,
whether laminar or turbulent, is important in the design and
operation of any fluid system. The
amount of fluid friction, which
determines the amount of energy
required to maintain the desired
flow, depends upon the mode of
flow. This is also an important
consideration in certain
applications that involve heat
transfer to the fluid.

## Laminar Flow: Laminar flow is also

referred to as streamline or viscous
flow. These terms are descriptive of Figure 1: Turbulent and laminar flow (Uni. of
Cambridge, 2009)
the flow because, in laminar flow,
layers of water flowing over one another at different speeds with
virtually no mixing between layers, fluid particles move in definite
and observable paths or streamlines, and the flow is characteristic
of viscous (thick) fluid or is one in which viscosity of the fluid plays a
significant part.

## Turbulent Flow: Turbulent flow is characterized by the irregular

movement of particles of the fluid. There is no definite frequency as
there is in wave motion. The particles travel in irregular paths with
no observable pattern and no definite layers. (Integrated publishing,
2009)

1|Page
Water flow Water
tube manometer

Diagram(1):

524
mm
Shows the
equipments used in
experiment.

Mercury
manometer

3
mm

Control
Main water Valve
supply 2|Page
Pressure
tapping
Theory:
• For Transition region the following equations were used to
calculate the Reynolds number at the start of the transition
region:

## Re=ρudμ since V=Au, Thus, u=VA=4Vπd2

∴Re=ρ4Vπdμ

Where:
ρ=density kg/m3
u=average velocity (m/s)
d=diameter of the pipe m
μ=coefficient of absolute viscosity (kg/m.s)
V=Volume flow rate (m3/s)
A=Area of the pipem2

## • For the laminar flow region, the head lost is given by

Poiseuille`s equation:

hf=128×vlπgd4V
Where:
hf=head lost of water m
l=length of the pipe (m)
v=Kinematic viscosity (m2/s)
g=gravity (m/s2)
To find the slope of the straight line at laminar region the
following equation was used:

hfV=128×vlπgd4 (s/m2)

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• For the Turbulent region, the friction factor (f) can be found by:

– D’Arcy equation:
hfV2=32×flπ2gd4
– Blasuis’ equation:
f=0.079Re0.25
– Moody diagram (from lab sheet)

Procedure:-

## 1- Schematic diagram of the equipment was recorded.

2- The pipe diameter and the length of the pipe between the
pressure tappings were recorded.
3- The control valve was opened until a difference of about 5 cm
appeared on the water manometer.
4- The actual difference in the levels was noted and a known
quantity of water was collected in a known time, to get the
flow rate.
5- To reduce the possibility of error and for accuracy, the quantity
of water measured was ensured to be enough.
6- The minimum water collection time was ensured to be 30
seconds.
7- The procedure for levels of 7, 10, 12, 17, and 20 cm was
repeated. Then 5 cm steps were advanced until the limit of the
water-air manometer was reached. Then, readings were taken
in about 4 cm steps from the water/mercury manometer.
8- The temperature of the water was measured at each stage,
since the viscosity is a function of temperature.

4|Page
Results and Calculations:

## Head lost Head lost Volume Time of Volume flow Temp.

of water of collection collection rate
(℃)
mercury(c ml m3
(cm) (s) (m3/s)
m)

## 5.2 100 0.000 54.45 1.836×10-6 23

1
7.1 100 0.000 41.91 2.386×10-6 23
1
9.6 100 0.000 30.8 3.246×10-6 23
1
11.8 100 0.000 26.69 3.746×10-6 23
1
17.2 200 0.000 36.38 5.497×10-6 23
2
20.1 200 0.000 32.27 6.197×10-6 23
2
25.2 200 0.000 26 7.692×10-6 23
2
30.3 300 0.000 33.17 9.044×10-6 23
3
35.2 300 0.000 30.39 9.871×10-6 25
3
39.9 300 0.000 26.71 11.23×10-6 25
3
64.26 5.1 300 0.000 26.51 11.316×10-6 25
3
110.88 8.8 400 0.000 32.88 12.165×10-6 25
4
166.32 13.2 400 0.000 29.37 13.619×10-6 25

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4
215.46 17.1 400 0.000 22.78 17.559×10-6 25
4

## • Head lost of mercury readings cm were multiplied by 12.6 to

convert them to head lost of watercm.
• Volume collection readings were multiplied by 10-6 to convert it
from millilitres to m3
• Volume flow rate was calculated by dividing the volume
collection in m3over time of collection.

Table calculation:

## Head lost of mercury x 12.6 =5.2×12.6=64.26 cm .

V=Vt= 0.000326.51= 1.131×10-6 m3

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Graph: hf against V

7|Page
Calculation:

• Transition region:

## 1- Calculation of Reynolds number at the start the transition

region:

Re=ρ4Vπdμ
Where
Tempreture(T)=25+232=24 ℃ μ=0.000911 kg/m.s
ρ=997.38kgm3 d=0.003 m l=0.524m

## From the graph:

At the start of transition region V= 11.23×10-6m3s
Re= 997.38×4×11.23×10-6π×0.003×0.000911=5218.08

• Laminar region:

Comparing the slope of the hf/V graph with the value calculated
from Poiseuille’s equation:
v=9.13393×10-7 m2/s

hfV=128×vlπgd4= 128×9.13393×10-
7×0.524π×9.81×(0.003)4=24541.16 (s/m2)

## From the graph:

Two points were chosen from the straight line (11, 38), (8, 2.6)

hfV=(38-8)×10-2(11-2.6)×10-6=35714.28 (s/m2)

8|Page
• Turbulent region:

## a- At, hf=64.26×10-2 m V=11.316×10-6 m3s

Balsuis’ equation:
Re=ρ4Vπdμ= 997.38×4×11.316×10-6π×0.003×0.000911=5258.04

## f=0.079Re0.25= 0.079(5258.04)0.25= 9.277 ×10-3

b- At hf=166.32×10-2 m V=13.619×10-6m3s

Balsuis’ equation:
f=8.85×10-3

## c- At hf=215.46×10-2 m V=17.559×10-6 m3s

Balsuis’ equation:

f=8.312 ×10-3

Discussion:
The graph shows the laminar and turbulent regions with transition
point between them. At laminar region the line increased slowly
which was almost a straight line with gradient of 35714.28 (s/m2).
Then, at transition point at V= 11.23×10-6m3s the straight line curved
up rapidly which was not expected to happen. Then the curved line
was continuously increasing until the end of the graph. The graph
was not expected to show that rapid curved line after passing the
transition point. It should have shown that there is a transition
region between laminar and turbulent regions with slight curve. As a
result, the Reynolds number at the transition point Re=5218.08 was
higher than expected. At the laminar region the value of slope of the
hf/V graph and the theoretical value were compared and there was a
difference of 45.5%.
(hfV)graph-(hfV)theo(hfV)theo= 35714.28-24541.1624541.16=45.5%

Error Analysis:

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The value of Re at the transition point was higher than expected
which should be between 2000 and 3000. And the difference
between the theoretical and experimental laminar slops is 45.5%.
That is due to:

## 1- The water in the water manometer was jumping up and down

by ±5mm to ±10mm at all the stages so the readings were
estimated between the ranges.
2- The stop watch was used while the water flow was collected so
there might be inaccuracy in recording the readings of either
the water collected or the time of the collection.
3- The temperature was not constant so the average temperature
was calculated and that might caused slight error in the
calculation.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, it was learnt how to measure the head lost of fluid
flow and the volume flow rate for it. Reynolds numbers were
calculated to define the laminar, turbulent and transition regions of
the fluid flow in the experiment. The readings were recorded easily
with in all the stages. However, there were some errors in the
Reynolds number at the transition point and the slop of the graph at
laminar region. Furthermore, calculation of the Friction factor was
done for different values in turbulent region in order to observe how
it is varies.

References:
Integrated publishing. (2009), Laminar and Turbulent flow. (Accessed on
03, 11, 2009) from
http://www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1012v3/css/h1012v3_39.htm

## University of Cambridge. (Downloaded in 03, 11, 2009), Hydrodynamic

Voltammetry. From http://www.ceb.cam.ac.uk/pages/hydrodynamic-
voltammetry.html

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