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Report on Summer Training

May - June 2017 Haldia Refinery, Indian Oil Corporation Limited

_________ Department of Mechanical Engineering,
_________
Department of Mechanical Engineering,

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Contents

Topic

Page No.

Training Areas Covered

04

Acknowledgement

05

Introduction

06

Overview of Haldia Refinery

07

Haldia Refinery Plot Plan

08

Garage and Planning

09

Workshop

19

Fuel Oil Boiler

24

DHDS

26

Thermal Power Station

28

Lube Oil Boiler

36

Offsite

39

Once-through Hydro Cracking Unit

41

Findings

46

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Studynama’s Engineering Community is one of India’s Largest Community of BE & BTECH Students. About 79,182Computer Science (CSE/IT Engineering) Second/2nd Year Notes Electronics Engineering (ECE/ET/EC) Second/2nd Year Notes Electrical/EE Engineering Second/2nd Year Notes Mechanical/Automobile/IP Engineering second year notes BTech Civil/Structural Engineering Second Year Lecture Notes CSE/IT Computer Science Engg. Final/4th Year Notes Electronics Engineering (ECE/EC/ET) Third/3rd Year Notes Electrical/EE Engineering Third/3rd Year notes Mechanical/Automobile/IP Engineering fourth year notes BTech Civil/Structural Engineering Fourth Year Lecture Notes Computer Science Engineering (CSE/IT) Third/3rd Year Notes Electronics (ECE/ET/EC) Engineering Final/Fourth Year Notes Electrical/EE Engineering Fourth/4th Year Notes Mechanical/Automobile/IP Engineering third year notes BTech Civil/Structural Engineering Third Year Lecture Notes Advanced Java Programming eBook Antenna & wave propagation eBook Electrical Machine-1 pdf download Automobile engineering lecture notes Surveying 1 - eBook Web Technology - eBook Network analysis & synthesis notes Electrical machines-II eBook Engineering materials & metallurgy lecture notes SOM - strength of materials - eBook E-Commerce lecture VLSI engineering pdf Manufacturing Technology-1 Engineering Geology notes lecture notes EMI eBook lecture notes eBook And 12998 more free downloads for BE & BTech Students. Other Popular Links for Engineering Study Material: • En g ineerin g First Semester (Sem 1) NotesEn g ineerin g Second Semester (Sem 2) NotesEn g ineerin g chemistry pdf eBookEn g ineerin g Mechanics PDF Lecture NotesElectrical/EE En g ineerin g notesMechanical/Automobile/IP En g ineerin g notesPowerplant En g ineerin g Lecture NotesEngineering Mechanics lecture notes " id="pdf-obj-4-5" src="pdf-obj-4-5.jpg">

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Training areas covered:

Sl.

     

No.

Unit

Site Officer

Working Dates

1.

Garage and Planning

Dilip Parua

17.05.13

2.

Workshop

Arun Bakhetia

18.05.13

   

Debdut De

 

3.

FOB

B. Mete

23.05.13

   

Sameer Horo

 

4.

DHDS

N. Ameer

24.05.13

5.

TPS (Thermal Power Station)

S. Sagar A. K. Gupta

25.05.13

6.

LOB (Lube Oil Block)

Ranjan Naik

30.06.13

   

Tanbir Haider

 

7.

Offsite

Akash Lal

31.06.13

   

R. Palo

 

8.

OHCU

Mauriya

01.06.13

V. Dwivedi

Introduction

 

Baraurii Pipeline (HBPL) was commissioned. In

1972,

Indian Oil

launched SERVO, the

first

 

indigenous lubricant.

In

1974, Indian

Oil

– “petromeans rock and oleummeans oil.

Petroleum

is

derived

from

two

words

Blending Ltd. (IOBL) became the wholly owned subsidiary of Indian Oil. In 1975, Haldia Refinery was commissioned. In 1981, Digboi

Thus the word petroleummeans rock oil.

Refinery and Assam Oil Company's (AOC)

This

is

a

mixture

of hydrocarbons; hence it

marketing operations came under the control

cannot be used directly

and has

got

to

be

of

Indian Oil. In 1982, Mathura Refinery

and

refined.

Petroleum

is refined

in

petroleum

Mathura-Jalandhar Pipeline

(MJPL)

were

refinery.

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOC) is the flagship national oil company in the downstream sector. The Indian Oil Group of companies owns and operates 10 of India's 19 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 1.2 million barrels per day. These include two refineries of subsidiary Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (CPCL) and one of Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (BRPL). The 10 refineries are located at:

Guwahati

Barauni

Koyali

Haldia

Mathura

Digboi

Panipat

Chennai

Narimanam

Bongaigaon

Indian

Oil's

cross-country

crude

oil

and

product pipelines network span over 9,300 km.

It operates the largest and the widest network

of

petrol

& diesel

stations in

the country,

numbering around 16455. Indian Oil

Corporation Ltd. (Indian

Oil) was

formed in

1964 through the merger of Indian Oil Company Ltd and Indian Refineries Ltd. Indian Refineries Ltd was formed in 1958, with Feroze Gandhi as Chairman and Indian Oil Company

Ltd. was

established on 30th June 1959 with

Mr

S. Nijalingappa as

the first Chairman. In

1964, Indian Oil commissioned Barauni Refinery and the first petroleum product

pipeline from Guwahati. In 1965, Gujarat

Refinery

was

inaugurated.

In

1967,

Haldia

commissioned. In 1994, India's First

Hydrocracker Unit was commissioned at Gujarat Refinery.

In 1995, 1,443 km. long Kandla-Bhatinda Pipeline (KBPL) was commissioned at Sanganer. In 1998, Panipat Refinery was commissioned. In the same year, Haldia, Barauni Crude Oil Pipeline (HBCPL) was completed. In 2000, Indian Oil crossed the turnover of Rs 1,00,000 crore and became the first Corporate in India to do so. In the same year Indian Oil entered into Exploration & Production (E&P) with the award of two exploration blocks to Indian Oil and ONGC consortium under NELP-I. In 2003, Lanka IOC Pvt. Ltd. (LIOC) was launched in Sri Lanka. In 2005, Indian Oil's Mathura Refinery became the first refinery in India to attain the capability of producing entire quantity of Euro- III compliant diesel.

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Overview of Haldia Refinery

Haldia Refinery, one of the seven operating refineries of Indian Oil, was commissioned in January 1975. It is situated 136 km downstream of Kolkata in the district of Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, near the confluence of river Hoogly and Haldi. From an original crude oil processing capacity of 2.5 MMTPA, the refinery is operating at a capacity of 5.8 MMTPA at present. Capacity of the refinery was increased to 2.75 MMTPA through de- bottlenecking in 1989-90. Refining capacity was further increased to 3.75 MMTPA in 1997 with the installation/commissioning of second Crude Distillation Unit of 1.0 MMTPA capacity. Petroleum products from this refinery are supplied mainly to eastern India through two product pipelines as well as through barges, tank wagons and tank trucks. Products like MS, HSD and Bitumen are exported from this refinery. Haldia Refinery is the only coastal refinery of the corporation and the lone lube flagship, apart from being the sole producer of Jute Batching Oil. Diesel Hydro Desulphurisation (DHDS) Unit was commissioned in 1999, for production of low Sulphur content (0.25% wt) High Speed Diesel (HSD). With augmentation of this unit, refinery is producing BS-II and Euro-III equivalent HSD (part quantity) at present. Resid Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Unit (RFCCU) was commissioned in 2001 in order to increase the distillate yield of the refinery as well as to meet the growing demand of LPG, MS and HSD. Refinery also produces eco-friendly Bitumen emulsion and Microcrystalline Wax. A Catalytic De-waxing Unit (CIDWU) was installed and commissioned in the year 2003 for production of high quality Lube Oil Base Stocks (LOBS), meeting the API Gr-II standard of LOBS. Finished products from this refinery cover both fuel oil products as well as lube oil products.

Overview of Haldia Refinery

Fuel oil products include:

LPG

Naphtha

Motor spirit (MS)

Mineral Turbine Oil (MTO)

Superior Kerosene (SK)

Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF)

Russian Turbine Fuel (RTF)

High Speed Diesel (HSD)

Jute Batching Oil (JBO)

Furnace Oil (FO)

Lube oil base stocks are:

Inter Neutral HVI grades

Heavy Neutral HVI grades

Bright Neutral HVI grades

Besides the above, Slack wax, carbon black feed stock (CBFS), Bitumen and Sulphur are the other products of this refinery.

There are four main units in this refinery:

Fuel Oil Block (FOB)

Lube Oil Block (LOB)

Diesel Hydro De-Sulphurization Unit

(DHDS) Oil Movement & Storage Unit (OM&S)

In

order

to

meet

the

Euro-III fuel quality

standards, the MS Quality Improvement Project has been commissioned in 2005 for

production of

Euro-III

equivalent

MS.

The

refinery expansion to 7.5 MMTPA as well as a

Hydrocracker project has been approved, commissioning of which shall enable Haldia Refinery to supply Euro-IV and Euro III HSD to the eastern region of India.

Haldia Refinery Plot Plan

Haldia Refinery – Plot Plan

Haldia Refinery – Plot Plan Haldia Refinery – Plot Plan Figure: Haldia Refinery, Plot Plan 8

Figure: Haldia Refinery, Plot Plan

Chapter 1

Garage and Planning

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Garage and Planning

Diesel Engine

A

diesel

engine

(also

known

as

a compression-ignition engine) is an internal

combustion

engine

that

uses

the

heat

of

compression

to

initiate

ignition

to

burn

the

fuel

that

has

been

injected

into

the combustion chamber. This is in contrast to spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine

(gasoline

engine)

or

gas

engine

(using

a

gaseous fuel as opposed to gasoline), which uses a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. The engine was developed by German

inventor Rudolf Diesel in 1893.

The

diesel

engine has

the highest

thermal

efficiency of any regular internal or external

combustion

engine

due

to

its

very

high

compression

ratio.

Low-speed

 

diesel

engines

(as

used

in

ships

and

other

applications where overall engine weight is

relatively unimportant) can efficiency that exceeds 50%.

have

a

thermal

Diesel engines

are

manufactured

in

two-

stroke

and four-stroke

versions. They were

originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy

equipment

and

electric

generating plants

followed later.

How diesel engines work

The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (compression ignition rather than spark ignition).

In the true diesel engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 resulting in 40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.4 MPa) (about 200

psi)

in

the

petrol engine. This high

compression heats the air to 550 °C (1,022 °F). At about the top of the compression stroke, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a pre-chamber depending upon the design of the engine. The fuel injector ensures that the

fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel from the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay period during ignition and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft.

As well as the high level of compression allowing combustion to take place without a separate ignition system, a high compression ratio greatly increases the engine's efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio in a spark- ignition engine where fuel and air are mixed before entry to the cylinder is limited by the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not introduced into the cylinder until shortly before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not an issue and compression ratios are much higher.

Major advantages

Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines:

They

burn less fuel

than

a

petrol engine

performing

the

same

work, due

to

the

engine's

higher

temperature

of

combustion

and

greater

expansion

ratio. Gasoline engines are typically 30%

efficient while diesel engines can convert

 

over

45%

of

the

fuel

energy

into

mechanical energy (see Carnot cycle for

further explanation).

 

They

have

no

high

voltage

electrical

ignition system, resulting in high reliability

and easy adaptation to damp

environments. The absence of coils, spark plug wires, etc., also eliminates a source of

radio

frequency

emissions

which

can

interfere

 

with

 

navigation

and

communication

 

equipment,

which

is

especially important in marine and aircraft

applications.

 

The

life

of

a

diesel

engine

is generally

about twice

as

long as

that

of

a petrol

engine due to the increased strength of

parts

used.

 

Diesel

fuel

has

better

lubrication properties than petrol as well.

Diesel

fuel

is

distilled

directly

from

petroleum.

Distillation

yields

some

gasoline, but

 

the

yield

would

be

inadequate

without catalytic

reforming,

which is a more costly process. Diesel fuel is considered safer than petrol in many applications. Although diesel fuel will burn in open air using a wick, it will not explode and does not release a large amount of flammable vapor. The low vapor pressure of diesel is especially advantageous in marine applications, where the accumulation of explosive fuel- air mixtures is a particular hazard. For the same reason, diesel engines are immune to vapor lock.

For any

given

partial

load

the fuel

efficiency (mass burned per energy

produced) of

a

diesel

engine

remains

nearly constant, as opposed to petrol and turbine engines which use proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs. They generate less waste heat in cooling

and exhaust. Diesel engines can accept super- or turbo- charging pressure without any natural limit, constrained only by the strength of

Garage and Planning

engine components. This is unlike petrol engines, which inevitably suffer detonation at higher pressure. The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal, therefore diesel engines are used in underground mines.

Biodiesel is

an easily synthesized, non-

petroleum-based fuel

(through

trans-

esterification) which can run directly

in

many

diesel

engines,

while

gasoline

engines either need adaptation to runsynthetic fuels or else use them as an

additive to gasoline (e.g., ethanol added to gasohol).

Supercharging and Turbocharging

Most diesels are now turbocharged and some are both turbo charged and supercharged. Because diesels do not have fuel in the cylinder before combustion is initiated, more than one bar (100 kPa) of air can be loaded in the cylinder without pre-ignition. A turbocharged engine can produce significantly more power than a naturally aspirated engine of the same configuration, as having more air in the cylinders allows more fuel to be burned and thus more power to be produced. A supercharger is powered mechanically by the engine's crankshaft, while a turbocharger is powered by the engine exhaust, not requiring any mechanical power. Turbocharging can improve the fuel economy of diesel engines by recovering waste heat from the exhaust, increasing the excess air factor, and increasing the ratio of engine output to friction losses.

Garage and Planning

Turbochargers

A turbocharger, or turbo (colloquialism), from the Latin "turbō, turbin-" ("a spinning thing") is a forced induction device used to allow more power to be produced by an engine of a given size. A turbocharged engine can be more powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.

Turbochargers were

originally

known

as

turbosuperchargers

when

all

forced

induction

devices

were

classified

as

superchargers; nowadays the term

"supercharger"

is

usually

applied

to

only

mechanically-driven

forced

induction

devices. The key difference between a

turbocharger

and

a

conventional

super-

charger is that the latter is mechanically driven

from the engine, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is

driven by the engine's

exhaust gas turbine.

Compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbo-chargers tend to be more

efficient but less responsive. Twincharger refers

to

an

engine which has both

and a turbocharger.

a supercharger

Turbos are commonly used on truck, car, train, and construction equipment engines. Turbos are popularly used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines.

Operating Principle

In

most piston engines, intake gases are

"pulled" into the engine by the downward stroke of the piston (which creates a low- pressure area), similar to drawing liquid using a syringe. The amount of air which is actually inhaled, compared with the theoretical amount if the engine could maintain atmospheric

pressure, is called volumetric efficiency. The objective of a turbocharger is to improve an

engine's volumetric efficiency by increasing density of the intake gas (usually air).

The turbocharger's compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it before it enters into the intake manifold at increased pressure. This results in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The power needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived from the kinetic energy of the engine's exhaust gases.

Garage and Planning Turbochargers A turbocharger , or turbo (colloquialism), from the Latin "turbō, turbin -"

A turbocharger may also be used to increase fuel efficiency without increasing power. This is achieved by recovering waste energy in the exhaust and feeding it back into the engine intake. By using this otherwise wasted energy to increase the mass of air, it becomes easier to ensure that all fuel is burned before being vented at the start of the exhaust stage. The increased temperature from the higher pressure gives a higher Carnot efficiency.

The control of turbochargers is very complex and has changed dramatically over the 100- plus years of its use. Modern turbochargers can use waste gates, blow-off valves and variable geometry.

The reduced density

of intake

air

is

often

compounded by the loss of atmospheric density seen with elevated altitudes. Thus, a natural use of the turbocharger is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes, the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. At 5,486 metres (17,999 ft), the

air is at half the pressure of sea level, which means that the engine will produce less than half-power at this altitude.

Pressure Increase/Boost

In automotive applications, "boost" refers to the amount by which intake manifold pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the forced induction. The level of boost may be shown on a pressure gauge, usually in bar, psi or possibly kPa.

In aircraft engines, turbocharging is commonly used to maintain manifold pressure as altitude increases (i.e. to compensate for lower-density air at higher altitudes). Since atmospheric pressure reduces as the aircraft climbs, power drops as a function of altitude in normally aspirated engines. Systems that use a turbocharger to maintain an engine's sea-level power output are called turbo-normalized systems. Generally, a turbo-normalized system will attempt to maintain a manifold pressure of 29.5 inches of mercury (100 kPa).

In all turbocharger applications, boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system, including the turbo, inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. Over- boosting an engine frequently causes damage to the engine in a variety of ways including pre-ignition, overheating, and over-stressing the engine's internal hardware.

For example, to avoid engine knocking (aka detonation) and the related physical damage to the engine, the intake manifold pressure must not get too high, thus the pressure at the intake manifold of the engine must be controlled by some means. Opening the waste gate allows the excess energy destined for the turbine to bypass it and pass directly to the exhaust pipe, thus reducing boost pressure. The waste gate can be either controlled manually (frequently seen in aircraft) or by an

Garage and Planning

actuator (in automotive applications, it is often controlled by the Engine Control Unit).

Intercooling

When the pressure of the engine's intake air is increased, its temperature will also increase. In addition, heat soak from the hot exhaust gases spinning the turbine may also heat the intake air. The warmer the intake air the less dense, and the less oxygen available for the combustion event, which reduces volumetric efficiency. Not only does excessive intake-air temperature reduce efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation, which is destructive to engines.

Turbocharger

units

often

make

use

of

an

intercooler (also known as

a charge

air

cooler), to cool down the intake air.

Intercoolers are often tested for leaks during routine servicing, particularly in trucks where a

leaking intercooler

can

result

in

a

20%

reduction in fuel economy.

(Note that "intercooler" is the proper term for the air cooler between successive stages of boost, whereas "charge air cooler" is the proper term for the air cooler between the boost stage(s) and the appliance that will consume the boosted air.)

Garage and Planning

Transmission

A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam- Webster defines transmission as an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.

In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drive train, including clutch, gearbox, prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive), differential, and final drive shafts. In American English, however, a gearbox is any device that converts speed and torque, whereas a transmission is a type of gearbox that can be “shifted” to dynamically change the speed- torque ratio such as in a vehicle.

The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are also used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, and anywhere rotational speed and torque must be adapted.

Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios

(or simply “gears”), with the ability to switch

between them as speed varies. This switching may be done manually (by the operator), or

automatically. Directional (forward and reverse) control may also be provided. Single-ratio transmissions also exist, which simply change the speed and torque (and sometimes direction) of motor output.

In motor vehicles, the transmission generally is connected to the engine crankshaft via a

flywheel and/or clutch and/or fluid coupling. The output of the transmission is transmitted via driveshaft to one or more differentials, which in turn, drive the wheels. While a differential may also provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds (essential to avoid wheel slippage on turns) as it changes the direction of rotation.

Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation (for example, diesel-electric transmission and hydraulic drive system). Hybrid configurations also exist.

Manual type

Manual transmissions come in two basic types:

A

simple

but

rugged

sliding-

mesh or unsynchronized/non-

synchronous system, where

straight-cut

spur

gear

sets spin

freely,

and

must be

synchronized by the operator matching engine revs to road speed, to avoid noisy

and damaging clashing of the gears

The

now

common

constant-

mesh gearboxes, which can include non-

synchronised, or synchronized/synchromesh

systems,

where typically

diagonal cut helical (or

sometimes either straight-cut, or double- helical) gear sets are constantly "meshed"

together, and a dog clutch

is used for

changing gears. On synchromesh boxes,

friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used

in addition to the

dog clutch to closely

match the

rotational speeds of the two

sides of

the

(declutched) transmission

before

making

a

full

mechanical

engagement.

 

The former type was standard in many vintage cars (alongside e.g. epicyclic and multi-clutch systems) before the development of constant-

mesh manuals

and hydraulic-epicyclic

automatics, older heavy-duty trucks, and can still be found in use in some agricultural equipment. The latter is the modern standard

for on- and off-road transport manual and semi-automatic transmission, although it may be found in many forms; e.g., non-

synchronised

straight-cut

in

racetrack

or

super-heavy-duty

applications,

non-synchro

helical

in

the

majority

of heavy

trucks and

motorcycles and in certain classic cars (e.g. the

Fiat

500),

and

partly

or

fully

synchronised

helical

in

almost

all

modern manual-shift

passenger cars and light trucks.

Automatic type

Most modern cars

have

an

automatic

transmission that selects an appropriate gear ratio without any operator intervention. They primarily use hydraulics to select gears, depending on pressure exerted by fluid within the transmission assembly. Rather than using a clutch to engage the transmission, a fluid flywheel, or torque converter is placed in between the engine and transmission. It is possible for the driver to control the number of gears in use or select reverse, though precise control of which gear is in use may or may not be possible.

Automatic transmissions are easy to use. However, in the past, automatic transmissions of this type have had a number of problems; they were complex and expensive, sometimes had reliability problems (which sometimes caused more expenses in repair), have often been less fuel-efficient than their manual counterparts (due to "slippage" in the torque converter), and their shift time was slower than a manual making them uncompetitive for racing. With the advancement of modern automatic transmissions this has changed.

Attempts

to

improve

fuel

efficiency

of

automatic

transmissions

include

the

use

of

torque converters that lock up beyond a

certain

speed

or

in

higher

gear ratios,

Garage and Planning

eliminating power loss, and overdrive gears

that automatically

actuate

above

certain

speeds. In older transmissions, both technologies could be intrusive, when conditions are such that they repeatedly cut in and out as speed and such load factors as grade or wind vary slightly. Current computerized transmissions possess complex

programming that both maximizes fuel efficiency and eliminates intrusiveness. This is due mainly to electronic rather than mechanical advances, though improvements in CVT technology and the use of automatic clutches have also helped. The 2012 model of the Honda Jazz sold in the UK actually claims marginally better fuel consumption for the CVT version than the manual version.

For certain applications, the slippage inherent in automatic transmissions can be

advantageous. For instance, in drag racing, the automatic transmission allows the car to stop

with the

engine at a high rpm (the "stall

speed") to allow for a very quick launch when

the

brakes are released. In

fact, a common

modification is to increase the stall speed of

the transmission. This is even more

advantageous

 

for

turbocharged

engines,

where the turbocharger must be kept spinning

at high

rpm

by

a

large

flow

maintain

the

boost pressure

of exhaust to and eliminate

the

turbo lag that occurs

when the throttle

suddenly opens on an idling engine.

Garage and Planning

Cranes

A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a man. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in the construction industry for the movement of materials and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment.

Garage and Planning Cranes A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist,

The first construction cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks and were powered by men or beasts of burden, such as donkeys. These cranes were used for the construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were later developed, employing the use of human treadwheels, permitting the lifting of heavier weights. In the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were introduced to load and unload ships and assist with their construction some were built into stone towers for extra strength and stability. The earliest cranes were constructed from

wood, but cast iron and steel took over with the coming of the Industrial Revolution.

For many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the harnessed natural power. The first 'mechanical' power was provided by steam engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, with many remaining in use well into the late 20th century. Modern cranes usually use internal combustion engines or electric motors and hydraulic systems to provide a much greater lifting capability than was previously possible, although manual cranes are still utilised where the provision of power would be uneconomic.

Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms each tailored to a specific use. Sometimes sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings. For a while, mini - cranes are also used for constructing high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces. Finally, we can find larger floating cranes, generally used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships.

Fork-lifts

A fork-lift truck (also called a lift truck, a fork truck, or a fork-lift) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials. The modern fork-lift was developed in the 1960s by various companies including the transmission manufacturing company Clark and the hoist company Yale & Towne Manufacturing. The forklift has since become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing operations.

Counterbalanced fork-lift components

A typical counterbalanced forklift contains the following components:

Truck Frame - is the base of the machine

to which the mast, axles, wheels, counterweight, overhead guard and power source are attached. The frame may have fuel and hydraulic fluid tanks constructed as part of the frame assembly. Counterweight - is a mass attached to the

rear

of

the

forklift

truck

frame.

The

purpose

of

the

counterweight

 

is

to

counterbalance the load being lifted. In an electric forklift the large lead-acid battery

itself may serve counterweight.

as

part

 

of

the

Cab - is the area that contains a seat for

the

operator

along

with

the

control

pedals,

steering

wheel,

 

levers,

switches

and

a

dashboard

containing

operator readouts. The cab area may be open air or enclosed, but it is covered by the cage-like overhead guard assembly.

The 'Cab' can also be equipped with a Cab Heater for cold climate countries. -

Overhead

Guard

is

a

metal roof supported by

posts

at each

corner of

the cab that helps protect

the

operator

from

any

falling

objects.

On

Garage and Planning

some forklifts, the overhead guard is an integrated part of the frame assembly. Power Source - may consist of an internal combustion engine that can be powered

by LP gas, CNG gas, gasoline or diesel fuel.

Electric forklifts

 

are powered

by either

a battery or fuel cells that provides power

to the electric motors. The electric motors

used

on

a

forklift may be

either DC or AC types. Tilt Cylinders - are hydraulic cylinders

that are mounted to the truck frame and the mast. The tilt cylinders pivot the mast to assist in engaging a load. Mast - is the vertical assembly that does

the work of raising and lowering the load. It is made up of interlocking rails that also provide lateral stability. The interlocking rails may either have rollers or bushings as guides. The mast is driven hydraulically, and operated by one or more hydraulic cylinders directly or using chains from the cylinder/s. It may be mounted to the front axle or the frame of the forklift. Carriage - is the component to which the

forks or other attachments mount. It is mounted into and moves up and down the mast rails by means of chains or by being directly attached to the hydraulic cylinder. Like the mast, the carriage may have either rollers or bushings to guide it in the interlocking mast rails.

Load Back Rest - is a rack-like extension that is either bolted or welded to the carriage in order to prevent the load from shifting backward when the carriage is lifted to full height. Attachments - may consist of forks or tines that are the L-shaped members that engage the load. A variety of other types of material handling attachments are available. Some attachments include sideshifters, slipsheet attachments, carton clamps, multipurpose clamps, rotators, fork positioners, carpet poles, pole handlers, container handlers and roll clamps.

Garage and Planning

Tires

-

either

solid

for

indoor

use,

or pneumatic for outside use.

Attachments

Below is a list of common forklift attachments:

Dimensioning Devices

 

-

fork

truck

mounted dimensioning systems provide

dimensions for the cargo to facilitate truck

trailer space utilization and to

support

warehouse automation systems. The

systems normally communicate the dimensions via 802.11 radios. NTEP

certified

dimensioning

 

devices

are

available to support commercial activities that bill based on volume.

Sideshifter - is a hydraulic attachment

that allows the operator to move the tines (forks) and backrest laterally. This allows easier placement of a load without having to reposition the truck. Rotator - To aid the handling of skids that may have become excessively tilted

and other specialty

material handling

needs some forklifts are

fitted with

an

attachment that allows the tines to be rotated. This type of attachment may also be used for dumping containers for quick

unloading.

Fork

Positioner

-

is

a

hydraulic

attachment that moves the tines (forks)

together or apart. This removes the need

for the operator to manually

adjust the

tines for different sized loads. Roll and Barrel Clamp Attachment - A mechanical or hydraulic attachment used to squeeze the item to be moved. It is used for handling barrels, kegs, or paper rolls. This type of attachment may also have a rotate function. The rotate function would help an operator to insert a vertically stored paper into the horizontal intake of a printing press for example. Carton and Multipurpose Clamp Attachments - are hydraulic attachments that allow the operator to open and close

around a load, squeezing it to pick it up. Products like cartons, boxes and bales can be moved with this type attachment. With these attachments in use, the forklift truck is sometimes referred to as a clamp truck. Pole Attachments - In some locations, such as carpet warehouses, a long metal pole is used instead of forks to lift carpet rolls. Similar devices, though much larger, are used to pick up metal coils.

Slip Sheet Attachment (Push - Pull) - is a hydraulic attachment that reaches forward, clamps onto a slip sheet and draws the slip sheet onto wide and thin metal forks for transport. The attachment will push the slip sheet and load off the forks for placement.

Drum Handler

Attachment

-

is

a

mechanical attachment that slides onto

the

tines (forks). It

usually has a spring-

loaded jaw that grips the top lip edge of a

drum for transport. Another type grabs

around the

drum

in a manner similar

to

the roll or barrel attachments.

 

Telescopic

Forks

-

are

hydraulic

attachments that allow the operator to

operate in warehouse design for "double-

deep stacking", which means that two

pallet

shelves

are

placed

behind

each

other without any aisle between them. Scales -Fork truck mounted scales enable operators to efficiently weigh the pallets they handle without interrupting their workflow by travelling to a platform scale. Scales are available that provide legal-for- trade weights for operations that involve billing by weight. They are easily retrofitted to the truck by hanging on the carriage in the same manner as forks hang on the truck.

Any attachment on a forklift will reduce its nominal load rating, which is computed with a stock fork carriage and forks. The actual load rating may be significantly lower.

Chapter 2

Workshop

Workshop

Centrifugal

Pump

Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbo machinery. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. In the typical case, the fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits.

Common

uses

include

water,

sewage,

petroleum and petrochemical pumping. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational

energy.

How it works

Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts mechanical energy from a motor to energy of a moving fluid. A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid motion, and some into potential energy, represented by fluid pressure (Hydraulic head) or by lifting the fluid, against gravity, to a higher altitude.

The transfer of energy from the mechanical rotation of the impeller to the motion and

pressure of the fluid is usually described in terms of centrifugal force, especially in older sources written before the modern concept

of

centrifugal force as a fictitious force in a

rotating reference frame was well articulated. The concept of centrifugal force is not actually

required to describe the action of the centrifugal pump.

The outlet pressure is a reflection of the
The
outlet
pressure
is
a
reflection
of
the

pressure that applies the centripetal force that

Workshop Centrifugal Pump Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbo machinery. Centrifugal pumps

curves the path of the water to move circularly inside the pump. On the other hand, the statement that the "outward force generated within the wheel is to be understood as being produced entirely by the medium of centrifugal force" is best understood in terms of centrifugal force as a fictional force in the frame of reference of the rotating impeller; the actual forces on the water are inward, or centripetal, since that is the direction of force need to make the water move in circles. This force is supplied by a pressure gradient that is set up by the rotation, where the pressure at

the outside, at the wall of the volute, can be taken as a reactive centrifugal force. This was

typical

of nineteenth and early twentieth

century

writings,

mixing

the

concepts

of

centrifugal force in informal descriptions of effects, such as those in the centrifugal pump.

Multistage centrifugal pumps

A centrifugal pump containing two or more impellers is called a multistage centrifugal pump. The impellers may be mounted on the same shaft or on different shafts.

For higher pressures at the outlet impellers can be connected in series. For higher flow output impellers can be connected in parallel.

A

common

application

of

the

multistage

centrifugal

pump

is

the

boiler

feed

water

pump. For example, a 350 MW unit would

require two feed pumps in parallel. Each feed

pump

is

a

multistage centrifugal pump

producing 150 l/s at 21 MPa.

All energy transferred to the fluid is derived from the mechanical energy driving the impeller. This can be measured at isentropic compression, resulting in a slight temperature increase (in addition to the pressure increase).

Vertical centrifugal pumps

Vertical centrifugal pumps are also referred to as cantilever pumps. They utilize a unique shaft and bearing support configuration that allows the volute to hang in the sump while the bearings are outside of the sump. This style of pump uses no stuffing box to seal the shaft but instead utilizes a "throttle Bushing". A common application for this style of pump is in a parts washer.

Froth pumps

In the mineral industry, or in the extraction of oilsand, froth is generated to separate the rich minerals or bitumen from the sand and clays. Froth contains air that tends to block conventional pumps and cause loss of prime. Over history, industry has developed different ways to deal with this problem. One approach consists of using vertical pumps with a tank.

Workshop

Another approach is to build special pumps with an impeller capable of breaking the air bubbles. In the pulp and paper industry holes are drilled in the impeller. Air escapes to the back of the impeller and a special expeller discharges the air back to the suction tank. The impeller may also feature special small vanes between the primary vanes called split vanes or secondary vanes. Some pumps may feature a large eye, an inducer or recirculation of pressurized froth from the pump discharge back to the suction to break the bubbles.

Problems of centrifugal pumps

These are some difficulties faced in centrifugal pumps:

Cavitation - the net positive suction head

(NPSH) of the system is too low for the selected pump Wear of the Impeller - can be worsened

by suspended solids Corrosion inside the pump caused by the

fluid properties Overheating due to low flow

Leakage along rotating shaft

Lack of prime - centrifugal pumps must

be filled (with the fluid to be pumped) in order to operate Surge.

Workshop

Gear Pump

A gear pumps which is used as a meshing
A gear
pumps which
is
used as
a meshing

gears, to pump the fluid by displacement. They

are one of the most common types of pumps for hydraulic fluid power applications. The Gear pumps are also widely used in chemical installations to pump

fluid with

a certain viscosity. There

are two

main variations; external gear pumps which use

two external

spur

gears, and

internal

gear

pumps which use an external and an internal

spur

gear.

Gear

pumps

are

positive

displacement (or fixed displacement), meaning they pump a constant amount of fluid for each revolution. Some gear pumps are designed to

function as either a motor or a pump.

Theory of operation

Workshop Gear Pump A gear pumps which is used as a meshing gears, to pump the

External gear pump design for hydraulic power applications.

Workshop Gear Pump A gear pumps which is used as a meshing gears, to pump the

Internal

gear

(Gerotor)

pump design for automotive oil pumps.

Internal gear pump design for high viscosity fluids.
Internal
gear
pump design for high viscosity fluids.

(Gerotor)

Suction and pressure ports need to interface where the gears mesh (shown as dim gray lines in the internal pump images). Some internal gear pumps have an additional, crescent shaped seal.

Pump formulas:

Flow rate in US gal/min = Fluid Density x

Pump Capacity x rpm Power in hp = US gal/min x (lbf/in³)/1714

Generally used in:

Petrochemicals: Pure or filled bitumen,

pitch, diesel oil, crude oil, lube oil etc. Chemicals: Sodium silicate, acids, plastics,

mixed chemicals, isocyanates etc. Paint and ink.

Resins and adhesives.

Pulp and paper: acid, soap, lye, black

liquor, kaolin, lime, latex, sludge etc. Food: Chocolate, cacao butter, fillers, sugar, vegetable fats and oils, molasses, animal food etc.

Screw Pump

A screw

pump is a positive displacement

pump that use one or several screws to move

fluids or

solids

along the screw(s)

axis. In

its

simplest form (the Archimedes' screw pump), a

single

screw

rotates

in

a

cylindrical

cavity,

thereby moving the material along the screw's spindle. This ancient construction is still used in many low-tech applications, such as irrigation systems and in agricultural machinery for transporting grain and other

solids.

Development of the screw pump has led to a variety of multi-axis technologies where

carefully crafted screws rotate

in opposite

directions or remains stationary within a cavity. The cavity can be profiled, thereby creating cavities where the pumped material is

"trapped".

In offshore and marine installations, a three spindle screw pump is often used to pump high pressure viscous fluids. Three screws drive the pumped liquid forth in a closed chamber. As the screws rotate in opposite directions, the pumped liquid moves along the screws spindles.

Three-Spindle screw pumps are

used

for

transport of

viscous

fluids

with lubricating

properties. They

are

suited for

a variety

of

applications such as fuel-injection, oil burners,

boosting, hydraulics, fuel, lubrication, circulating, and feed and so on.

Compared to centrifugal pumps, positive displacements (PD) pumps have several advantages. The pumped fluid is moving axially without turbulence which eliminates foaming that would otherwise occur in viscous fluids. They are also able to pump fluids of higher viscosity without losing flow rate. Also, changes in the pressure difference have little impact on PD pumps compared to centrifugal pumps.

Workshop

Reciprocating

pumps

A reciprocating

pump

is

a

positive

plunger pump. It is often used where relatively

small quantity of

liquid is to be handled and

where delivery pressure is quite large.

Reciprocating pumps can be classified based on:

1.

Sides in contact with water

Single acting Reciprocating pump

Double acting reciprocating pump

2.

Numbers of cylinder used

Single cylinder pump

Two cylinder pumps

Multi-cylinder pumps

Chapter 3

Fuel Oil Block

FOB (Fuel Oil Block)

Fuel Oil Block

It was commissioned in August 1974, originally designed for processing light Iranian Aghajari crude but presently crudes like Arab nix (lube bearing) and Dubai crude (non lube bearing) are processed. The capacity has been increased from 2.5 MMPTA to 4.6 MMPTA.

Fuel oil block produces fuel oil from this block. It consist of eight subunits as given below:

Crude Distillation Unit (Unit 11 & 16)

Pre-fractionator section Topping Section: Atmospheric Distillation Unit (ADU) Naphtha Stabilization Unit Naphtha Re-distillation Unit Gas Plant (Unit 12)

De-ethaniser Amine washing LPG De-propaniser Merox Unit (Unit 13)

LPG extractive merox ATF/Gasoline sweetening merox Naphtha Treatment Unit (Unit 14)

Naphtha Caustic Wash Amine Absorption & Regeneration (Unit 15)

Fuel Gas Amine Absorption System Naphtha Pre-treatment Unit (Unit 21)

Catalytic Reforming Unit (Unit 22)

Kero HDS Unit (Unit 23)

Chapter 4

DHDS

Unit List of DHDS Block

DHDS

Unit List of DHDS Block DHDS Haldia Refinery, IOCL | 27
Unit List of DHDS Block DHDS Haldia Refinery, IOCL | 27

Chapter 5

Thermal Power Station

Thermal Power Station (TPS)

TPS is one of the two main wings of power in Haldia refinery of Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL). It is called CPP-I. The power unit called CPP-II is gas turbine units. CPP means captive power plant because both these units together supplies the total power required by the different units of the plants and also the IOCL Township nearby, i.e. the two generating units together fulfils the demand of the plant only.

Capacity of TPS

There are four steam turbines with four boilers for generating steam. BOILER I, II, III all are made by BHEL. Each of them is capable of delivering 125 tons of superheated steam per hour. There is a fourth boiler (BOILER IV) with a capacity of 150 tons of steam per hour which is made by ABB. Four steam turbines are there manufactured by BHEL each having a connectivity with all the boilers. The steam turbines act as the prime movers of four turbo generators rotating at 3000 rpm. Three of them (TG-1, TG-2, TG-3) have individual capacity of 10.5 MW and the fourth one (TG4) have a capacity of 16.5 MW. TG-4 is the most recently installed generator and its excitation system is ac excitation system (Brushless exciter using rotating diode rectifier).The first three generators are excited by DC exciter (using two DC generators) system.

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

The

process

flow

diagram

describes

the

process of steam generation and generation of electricity. The main components are as follows- COOLING TOWERS: The raw water

comes from IOCLs own water source along

with water from the nearby

HFC plant. This

Thermal Power Station

water is partly sent to the cooling towers in different units for cooling and then it is used as cooling medium in machines, heat exchangers, compressors for cooling. TPS itself uses large electrical motors for which cooling water is necessary. This water also goes to others units as service water, drinking water and fire water after sufficient processing. For TPS water is taken through the DM plant.

Demineralisation Plant (DM)

Here

the

water is

treated for removing the

minerals and radicals so that they cant create

erosion problems when heated in the boiler drum. The pH of the water is tested and then it

is

monitored nearly

7

by

adding

sufficient

acidic or basic materials. From here the water is sent to a surge tank which stores the water coming from different units and then operating on a level switch and PLC system sends the water to de-aerator by the help of a

pump.

De-aerator

 

One

of

the

feed

water

heaters

is

a

contact-type

open

heater, known

as

de-

aerator, others

being

closed

heaters.

It

is

used

for

the

purpose

of

de-aerating

the

feed water.

 

The

presence of

dissolved

 

gases

like

oxygen and carbon dioxide in

water

makes

the

water corrosive, as

they react with

 

the

metal

to

form

iron

oxide. The

solubility

of

these

gases

in

water

decreases

with

increase in temperature and becomes zero

at

the

boiling

or

saturation

temperature.

These gases are removed in the de-aerator,

where

feed water

is

heated

to

saturation

temperature by

the

steam extracted by

the

turbine. Feed water after passing through a

heat exchanger is

sprayed from

the top

so

as

to expose large surface area,

and

the

bled

steam

from

the

turbine

is

fed

from

the

bottom.

By

contact

the

steam

condenses and the

feed water

is heated

to

Thermal Power Station

the

saturation

 

temperature.

Dissolved

The

de-aerator

is

usually

placed

near

the

oxygen and

carbon

dioxide

gases

get

middle

of

the

feed water

system

so

that

released

from

the

water

and

leave

along

the

total

pressure

difference

between

the

with some vapour, which is condensed back

condenser

and

the

boiler

is

shared

to

the

vent

condenser, and

the

gases

are

equitably

between

the

condenser

pump

vented out.

 

and

the

boiler feed pump.

The feed water

To

neutralize

the

effect

of

the residual

heaters before the de-aerator are

open are

dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide gases

often

termed as high pressure

heaters and

those

after

the

de-aerator

are

termed

as

in

water, sodium

sulphite

or

hydrazine

is

low pressure heaters.

 

injected

in

suitable

calculated

doses

into

the

feed water

at

the

suction of the boiler

There are two de-aerator that supply water

feed pump.

 

to

the

four

boilers

of

the

thermal power

 

station.

 
Thermal Power Station the saturation temperature. Dissolved The de-aerator is usually placed near the oxygen and

Figure: De-aerator