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Laser as a communication medium can provide a good substitute for the present day
communication systems as the problem of interference faced in case of electromagnetic
waves is not there and high deal of secrecy is available. Laser communications offers a viable
alternative to RF communications for inter satellite links and other applications where high
performance links are a necessity. High data rate, small antenna size, narrow beam
divergence, and a narrow field of view are characteristics of laser communications that offer
a number of potential advantages for system design.
The purpose of the project is to determine the feasibility of replacing microwave
communications with laser communications to remote locations. This link is unreliable and
can be disrupted in fog or rain. The current system has a slow data rate of 1.54 Mbps,
equivalent to using a dial up modem on any individual computer. When this link goes down,
all communications to and from the stationare lost, leaving the station unable to carry out its
missions. The system proposed to solve this problem utilizes a long cavity laser operating at
1550 nm. The system will also use redundancies as well as spatial diversity of seven lasers to
achieve reliability and high data rates averaging 2.4 Gbps. The transmitter and receiver will
be set up on gimbals connected to a control system that ensures alignment based off a pulse
train on the receiver plate. This pulse train also ensures that the signal is penetrating the
atmosphere over the 8 mile distance. A comparison between the microwave and laser
communications was completed and future work includes implementing a proposed three
phase test plan.

A basic communication system is made up of three main parts being the transmitter, the
medium over which the message is being sent, and the receiver. A good example of this is
two people communicating from one side of a room to the other. If the person wants to
communicate with the other person, he/she speaks words towards the direction of the other
individual who receives the voice information and determines the message. This example is
much like how any general communication system works. First, the message is deter mined
that needs to be sent to the receiving end. The message is then sent to the transmitter. The
transmitter, much like the person’s mouth, is sending the signal containing the message from
one person to the other. This can be compared to using an antenna to send out a signal. The
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signal then must travel through some type of medium to reach the receiver. For the two
people talking, this medium would be air. But, sometimes this medium is some type of cable
or wire. The signal is then collected by the receiver, which is comparable to the person on the
receiving end hearing the sound of the person’s voice. Sometimes the signal can be
immediately understood, but other times the signal must first be decoded in order to
understand the message.







1 LDR 19









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4.1 LASER 14
4.2 555 TIMER 16
9.4.1 CD4033BMS 65
9.4.2 LM 7806 68
9.4.3 LM386 70
9.4.4 NE 567 74
9.4.5 NE555 TIMER 77
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Laser as a communication medium can provide a good substitute for the present day
communication systems as the problem of interference faced in case of electromagnetic
waves is not there and high deal of secrecy is available. Laser communications offers a viable
alternative to RF communications for inter satellite links and other applications where high-
performance links are a necessity. High data rate, small antenna size, narrow beam
divergence, and a narrow field of view are characteristics of laser communications that offer
a number of potential advantages for system design. The present paper involves the study of
wireless, open channel communication system using laser a carrier for voice signals. Using
this circuit we can communicate with your own neighbors wirelessly. Instead of RF signals,
light from a laser torch is used as the carrier in the circuit. The laser torch can transmit light
up to a distance of about 500 meters. The phototransistor of the r eceiver must be accurately
oriented towards the laser beam from the torch. If there is any obstruction in the path of laser
beam, no sounds will be heard from the receiver.


It is also called a capacitor or electrostatic microphone. Condenser means capacitor, which

stores energy in the form of an electric field. Condenser microphones require power from a
battery or external source. Condenser also tends to be more sensitive and responsive than
dynamic, making them well suited to capturing subtle nuances in a sound. The diaphragm
vibrates when struck by sound waves, changing the distance between the two plates and
therefore changing the capacitance. Specifically when the plates are closer together
capacitance increases and a charge current occurs and this current will be used to trigger the
transmitting section.


The transmitter section comprises condenser microphone. In transmitter the frequency is generated
which is used to match the frequency in the phase locked loop used in the receiver section. A switch S
is used to generate a tone which is transmitted by the transmitter to the receiver section so that
receiver can generate a tone so that the user near the receiver can know that any one at the
transmitting end wants to talks to him. The condenser mic used in the transmitter section is used to
convert the acoustic signals to the electrical signals which are modulated and send through a laser
beam used in the transmitter section.


Here we use the light rays coming from laser torch as the medium for transmission. Laser had
potential for the transfer of data at extremely high rates, specific advancements were needed in
component performance and systems engineering, particularly for space-qualified hardware. Free
space laser communications systems are wireless connections through the atmosphere. They work
similar to fiber optic cable systems except the beam is transmitted through open space. The laser
systems operate in the near infrared region of the spectrum. The laser light across the link is at a
wavelength of between 780 - 920 nm. Two parallel beams are used, one for transmission and one for


The receiver circuit uses an NPN phototransistor as the light sensor that is followed by a two
stage transistor preamplifier and LM386-based audio power amplifier. The receiver doesn't
need any complicated alignment. Just keep the phototransistor oriented towards the remote
transmitter's laser point and adjust the volume control for a clear sound.


A loudspeaker (or "speaker") is an electro acoustic transducer that converts an electrical
signal into sound. The speaker moves in accordance with the variations of an electrical signal
and causes sound waves to propagate through a medium such as air or water.

2.1 Optical and microwave communications system conceptual design for a realistic
interstellar explorer

B.G. Boone, R.S. Bokulic, G.B. Andrews, R.L. McNutt, Jr and N. Dagalakisb


The concept of a realistic interstellar explorer has been addressed by the Johns Hopkins
University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) with support from the NASA Institute for
Advanced Concepts (NIAC). This paper discusses the requirements, conceptual design and
technology issues associated with the optical and RF communications systems envisioned for
this mission, in which the spacecraft has a projected range of 1000 AU. Well before a range
of 100 AU interactive control of the spacecraft becomes nearly impossible, necessitating a
highly autonomous craft and one-way communications to Earth. An approach is taken in
which the role of the optical downlink is emphasized for data transfer and that of the
microwave uplink emphasized for commands. The communication system is strongly
influenced by the large distances involved, the high velocities (20 AU/year or ~ 95 km/s) as
well as the requirements for low- mass (~ 10 kg), low prime power (~ 15 W), reliability, and
spacecraft autonomy. An optical terminal concept is described that has low mass and prime
power in a highly integrated and novel architecture, but new technologies are needed to meet
the range, mass, and power requirements. These include high-power, “wall-plug” efficient
diode-pumped fiber lasers; compact, lightweight, and low-power micro-electromechanical
(MEM) beam steering elements; and lightweight diffractive quasi- membrane optics. In
addition, a very accurate star tracking mechanism must be fully integrated with the laser
downlink to achieve unprecedented pointing accuracy (~ 400 nrad RMS). The essential
optical, structural, mechanical, and electronic subsystems are described that meet the mission
requirements, and the key features of advanced technologies that need to be developed are
discussed. The conclusion from this preliminary effort is that an optical communications
downlink out to 1000 astronomical units (AU) is within the realm of technical feasibility in
the next 5-10 years if the identified technical risks for the new technologies can be retired.
2.2. Optical Communication Systems for Smart Dust

Yunbin Song


In this thesis, the optical communication systems for millimeter-scale sensing and communication
devises known as “Smart Dust” are described and analyzed. A smart dust element is a self-
contained sensing and communication system that can be combined into roughly a cubic -
millimeter mote to perform integrated, massively distributed sensor networks. The suitable
passive optical and fiber-optic communication systems will be selected for the further
performance design and analysis based on the requirements for implementing these systems.
Based on the communication link designs of the free-space passive optical and fiber-optic
communication systems, the simulations for link performance will be performed.
2.3 Toward a Wireless Optical Communication Link between Two Small Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles
M. Last, B.S. Leibowitz, B. Cagdaser, A. Jog, L. Zhou, B. Boser, K.S.J. Pister


A communication system between two autonomous micro air vehicles is proposed. Laser
communication offers advantages in range, power, and bandwidth when line of sight is
available. Beam steering is accomplished using gyro-stabilized MEMS micro mirrors. A
custom CMOS smart-pixel imager implements a 1Mbps receiver, including analog front-end
and variable-gain amplifier at each pixel. Algorithms are presented for initial link
establishment and maintenance.
2.4 Free Space Optical Laser Communication Link

A Free Space Optical (FSO) LASER Communication Link is presented. This project deals
with the development of a full-duplex FSO analogue / digital transceiver. In this information
age, the demand for high speed, high bandwidth communications channel, is ever increasing.
FSO is presented as a solution to these demands in that it is free to implement, easy to install
and of very high bandwidth. The reader is introduced to the FSO system of communication
and the development of a small scale communicator using laser as the carrier signal for
information transfer. Experimental results explain the performance of the completed system
and offer methods of maximizing efficiency of such FSO-based communication systems.


Fig shows the block diagram of laser based system for one way speech communication. It
comprises transmitter receiver and a common DC power supply section. The power supply
section at one end of the link provides regulated 6V to the receiver transmitter circuit. For
two way communication, you need to use an identical system with the positions of the
receiver and the transmitter reversed with this system.

In the transmitter the intensity of the laser beam is modulated by the output of an always on
code oscillator (operating at 10-15 kHz).Using a push to on switch the tone
oscillator(operating at 1-2khz) is momomentarily activated to alert the person at the receiver
end before starting a voice communication using the microphone.

The receiver receives the intensity modulated light signals through a light sensor and outputs
the code and 1 kHz tone/voice.
The circuit for detecting the code signals is built around a phase locked loop(PLL-1 ).The
absence of code signal indicates interception of the laser beam and activates an audio visual
warning at the remote receiver. For detecting the 1kHz call/tone signal, another phase locked
loop (PLL-2)is used. The call detection is indicated by a buzzer sound and an LED.


The transmitter circuit consists of a code oscillator, condenser microphone and an AF mixer

The code oscillator comprising IC NE555 (IC2) is wired as an astable multivibrator operating
at 10-15 kHz frequency. The actual oscillation frequency is decided by the timing
components including resistors R2 and R3, preset VR1and capacitor C4.We can adjust VR1
to vary the oscillation frequency to match with the centre frequency to match with the center
frequency of PLL-1 at the remote receiver end. The output of IC is fed to the base of the
mixer transistor T1 via diode D1 and level control pot meter VR3 and resistor R6.

Similarly, the tone/call oscillator comprising IC NE555 (IC3) is wired as an astable

multivibrator to provide a 1-2 kHz tone when tactile switch S1 is depressed. We can adjust
VR2 to change the tone frequency to match with the center frequency of PLL-2 at the remote
receiver end. Resistor R10 is used to pull reset pin 4 of IC3low when switch S1 is open.

The output of IC3 is also coupled to the base of the mixer transistor via capacitor C7,
resistor R7, preset VR4 and capacitor C9.Preset VR 4 is connected across the condenser
microphone to adjust the audio signals when someone speaks into the microphone. Preset
VR4 is used to vary the biasing signals.

The outputs of IC2 and IC3 and voice signals are mixed by transistor T1 to drive the laser
pointer LED. The mixer output modulates the intensity of light signals emitted by the laser
diode module in accordance with the level of the code oscillator and tone and audio signals
available at the bade of the mixer transistor.


The laser diodes can be constructed using a variety of different materials to produce
distinctive wavelengths. Semiconductor laser diodes produce a much higher output power
and highly directional beams compared to the LEDs. The laser must be operated with a large
drive current to get a high density of ready to combine electrons at the pn junction. The
transmitter circuit shows the output power vs. forward current characteristics of a laser diode.
We can divide it into spontaneous emission A and laser oscillation region B. The current
required for starting oscillations is called threshold current (Ith)while the forward (excitation)
current necessary for maintaining the diodes specified optical output is called its operating

For the 5mW laser shown in the transmitter circuit the typical values of threshold and
operating currents are 30mA and 45 mA, respectively. Keychain laser pointers available in
the market have a power output of 5mW with forward current limited to 20 to 5mA.Thus a
laser diode module of keychain type visible laser pointer may be used for this transmitter

The receiver consists of a light sensor, a signal preamplifier, audio amplifier code detector
(with audio/visual alarm) and call/tone detector with buzzer indication. It uses a light
dependent resistor (LDR) as the light sensor. The resistance of LDR varies depending on the
incident light intensity, which in turn is a function of its modulation by the mixed output of
code and tone or audio signals at the transmitter mixer stage. The output of the LDR sensor is
amplified by a two stage transistor preamplifier.
The preamplifier output is coupled via following capacitor into:
1. The audio power amplifier built around IC LM386
2. Phase locked loop (PLL-1) IC5.
3. Phase locked loop (PLL-2) IC6.
The preamplifier output is fed into input pin 3 of audio power amplifier LM386 (IC4)
through volume control potmeter VR7.Capacitor C28 bypasses the noise signal and higher
order frequencies representing the code signal. The audio output (comprising voice and tone
channels) from pin 5 of IC4 is coupled to loudspeaker LS1 through capacitor C30.
A snubber network comprising capacitors and resistors is used for output stability.IC LM386
is a low voltage audio amplifier. Its gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count
The preamplifier output, as stated earlier, is also connected to phase locked loopIC5 and
IC6.(each NE567) through capacitors C25 and C26,respectively.IC NE567 is a highly stable
phase locked loop with synchronous AM lock detection and power output circuitary.It is
primarily used as a frequency decoder, which drives load whenever a sustained frequency
falling within its its detection band is present with its self biased input. The center frequency
of the band and output delay is independently determined by external components.
IC5 is used to detect the 10-15 kHzsignal.In the absence of any input signal, the center
frequency of its internal free running, current controlled oscillator is determined by resistor
R19 and capacitor C9.Preset VR5 is used for tuning IC5 to the desired center frequency in the
10-15kHz range, which should match the frequency of the code generator in the transmitter.
The output at pin 8 of IC5 remains low as long as the transmitted code is detected by IC5.As
a result, LED1 lights up to indicate continuity of the optical link/path for communications.
When the laser beam is interrupted due to any reason, the output at pin 8 of IC5 goes high
to drive transistor T4 and its collector voltage falls to trigger monostable circuits built around
IC7 and IC9(each NE555),respectively. As a result, the output at pin 3 of these ICs goes high
for the predetermined time period. The time periods of timers IC7 and IC8 depends on the
values of resistor capacitor combinations R26-31 and R25-C34,respectively.Since output pin
3 of IC7 is connected to pin1 of decade counterCD4033 (IC9),it provides a clock pulse to
counter IC9 to increment its count, indicating interruption of the laser light beam. The current
count is shown on a 7 segment display (D1S1) connected to a 7 segment decoded outputs of
counter IC9.Resistor R30 is used as a current limiting resistor in the common cathode path of
For frequent interruptions of light beam, the output of decade counter IC9 keeps
incrementing the count. After the count reaches 9 the next interruption resets the counter and
it starts a fresh .The counter/display can also be reset manually by momentarily depressing
press to on switch S2.
As stated earlier, IC7 and IC8 are triggered simultaneously. Thus with each interruption of
the light beam, the output of IC8 is pulsed high for a predetermined time to provide around
3V(determined by the output of zener diode ZD1) to melody IC UM66(IC10).Thus IC10
generates a melodious tune whenever the light beam is interrupted. The output of IC10 is
amplified by transistor T5 to drive loudspeaker LS2.
For initiating a call, the person at the transmitter end depresses switch S1 to alert the
remote end person of an impending voice communication. Thus the modulated light output
from the transmitter contains 1-2 kHz tone component in addition to the 10-15 kHz code
oscillator output. After detection and preamplification,1-2khz tone is decoded by PLL-2
circuit build around IC6,whose center frequency is adjusted to match the frequency of
tone/call oscillator in the transmitter.
IC6 is thus used as the call detector.Reisitor R20 and capacitor C22 decide the center
frequency of its inbuilt oscillator in the absence of an input signal. Capacitors C23 and C24
serve as low pass filter and output filters respectively. Preset VR6 is used for tuning the
inbuilt oscillator.
Thus when the 1-2khz tone component is detected by IC6,its output pin 8 goes lo w to light
up LED3 as also sound piezobuzzer PZ1 to alert the receiver end person. Since the 1-2khz
tone component at the output of the preamplifier also passed through LM386 power
amplifier, the tone is heard from loudspeaker LS-1 as well.

For voice communication, the person at the transmitter end speaks into the mic while call
switch S1 is open. The modulated light beam contains the 10-15 kHz code frequency and
voice components. After demodulation at the receiver, the 10-15 kHz code frequency and
voice components. After demodulation at the receiver, the 10-15 kHz code component is
largely bypassed by capacitor C28 at the input of LM386, while the voice component (up to
3400Hz) is attenuated insignificantly. Thus speech is reproduced at the output of LM386 via
loud speaker LS1.The code component (10-15 kHz) is detected by PLL IC5 signifying
uninterrupted light path which is indicated by LED2 as explained earlier.

LASER is also known as Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A laser is
a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification
based on the stimulated emission of photons. Light emitters are a key element in any fiber
optic system. This component converts the electrical signal into a corresponding light signal
that can be injected into the fiber. The light emitter is an important element because it is often
the most costly element in the system, and its characteristics often strongly influence the final
performance limits of a given link. Laser Diodes are complex semiconductors that convert an
electrical current into light. The conversion process is fairly efficient in that it generates little
heat compared to incandescent lights. Five inherent properties make lasers attractive for use
in fiber optics.


 Gas lasers
 Chemical lasers
 Excimer lasers
 Solid-state lasers
 Fiber lasers
 Photonic crystal lasers
 Semiconductor lasers
 Dye lasers
 Free electron lasers
 Exotic laser


A LASER works on the principle of spontaneous emission. Spontaneous emission is the

process by which a light source such as an atom, molecule, nanocrystal or nucleus in an
excited state undergoes a transition to a state with a lower energy, e.g., the ground state and
emits a photon. Spontaneous emission of light or luminescence is a fundamental process that
plays an essential role in many phenomena in nature and forms the basis of many
applications, such as fluorescent tubes, older television screens (cathode ray tubes), plasma
display panels, lasers (for startup - normal continuous operation works by stimulated
emission instead) and light emitting diodes
Emission of a photon in a laser

4.2 555 TIMER

The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation
and oscillator applications. Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package
includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin
mini dual-in-line package. The 555 has three operating modes.

 Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator.
Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch
switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation
(PWM) and so on.
 Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED
and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms,
pulse position modulation and so on.
 Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip- flop, if the DIS pin is
not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches.


Pin Specification of 555 Timer

Pin No Signal Name


2 Trigger

3 Output

4 Reset

5 Control Voltage

6 Threshold

7 Discharge

8 Vcc

Sound is an amazing thing. All of the different sounds that we hear are caused by minute
pressure differences in the air around us. What's amazing about it is that the air transmits
those pressure changes so well, and so accurately, over relatively long distances. It was a
metal diaphragm attached to a needle, and this needle scratched a pattern onto a piece of
metal foil. The pressure differences in the air that occurred when you spoke toward the
diaphragm moved the diaphragm, which moved the needle, which was recorded on the foil.
When you later ran the needle back over the foil, the vibrations scratched on the foil would
then move the diaphragm and recreate the sound. The fact that this purely mechanical system
works shows how much energy the vibrations in the air can have! All modern microphones
are trying to accomplish the same thing as the original, but do it electronically rather than
mechanically. A microphone wants to take varying pressure waves in the air and convert
them into varying electrical signals. There are five different technologies commonly used to
accomplish this conversion. We use condenser mic in our project.


A condenser microphone is essentially a capacitor, with one plate of the capacitor moving in
response to soundwaves. A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that
onverts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as
tape recorders, karaoke systems, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded
audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones, in radio and television broadcasting and in
computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such
as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors. Most microphones today use electromagnetic
induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser microphone), piezoelectric
generation, or light modulation to produce an electrical voltage signal from mechanical

A photo resistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases
with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor.A
photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of
high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough
energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner)
conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance.A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic
or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient
semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence
band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire
bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state
energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower
energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the
device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms
(impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an
extrinsic semiconductor.


The LM386 is an integrated circuit consisting of a low voltage audio power amplifier. It is
suitable for battery-powered devices such as radios, guitar amplifiers, and hobbyist projects.
The IC consists of an 8 pin dual in- line package (DIP-8) and can output 0.5 watts power
using a 9-volt power supply.
LM 3869 IC

Pin Specification of LM 3869 IC

Pin No Signal Name

1 Gain

2 -Input

3 +Input


5 Vout

6 Vs

7 Bypass

8 Gain


CD4033 consists of a 5 stage Johnson decade counter and an output decoder which converts
the Johnson code to a 7 segment decoded output for driving one stage in a numerical display.
This device is particularly advantageous in display applications
where low power dissipation and/or low package count is important. A high RESET signal
clears the decade counter to its zero count. The counter is advanced one count at the positive
clock signal transition if the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is low. Counter advancement via the
clock line is inhibited when the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is high. The CLOCK INHIBIT
signal can be used as a negative-edge clock if the clock line is held high. Antilock gating is
provided on the JOHNSON counter, thus assuring proper counting sequence. The CARRY-
OUT (Cout) signal completes one cycle every ten CLOCK INPUT cycles and is used to clock
the succeeding decade directly in a multi-decade counting chain. The seven decoded outputs
(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) illuminate the proper segments in a seven segment display device used for
representing the decimal numbers 0 to 9. The 7 segment outputs go high on selection.

CD 4033 Diagram

Pin Specification of CD4033 IC

Pin No Signal Name

1 Clock

2 Clock Inhibit

3 Ripple Blanking In

4 Ripple Blanking Out

5 Carry Out
6 F

7 G

8 Vss

9 D

10 A

11 E

12 B

13 C

14 Lamp Test

15 Reset

16 Vdd


A seven-segment display, or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device
for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot- matrix
displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, and
other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. A seven-segment display is a
group of light emitting diodes (LEDs)

Eight of the LEDs may be arranged in the pattern shown below. This is referred to as a seven-
segment display. There are 7 segments in the pattern. The decimal point is ignored in the
naming of the display.


A phase- locked loop or phase lock loop (PLL) is a control system that tries to generate an
output signal whose phase is related to the phase of the input "reference" signal. It is an
electronic circuit consisting of a variable frequency oscillator and a phase detector. This
circuit compares the phase of the input signal with the phase of the signal derived from its
output oscillator and adjusts the frequency of its oscilla tor to keep the phases matched. The
signal from the phase detector is used to control the oscillator in a feedback loop.Frequency is
the derivative of phase. Keeping the input and output phase in lock step implies keeping the
input and output frequencies in lock step. Consequently, a phase-locked loop can track an
input frequency, or it can generate a frequency that is a multiple of the input frequency. The
former property is used for demodulation, and the latter property is used for indirect
frequency synthesis.Phase- locked loops are widely used in radio, telecommunications,
computers and other electronic applications. They may generate stable frequencies, recover a
signal from a noisy communication channel, or distribute clock timing pulses in digital logic
designs such as microprocessors. Since a single integrated circuit can provide a complete
phase- locked- loop building block, the technique is widely used in modern electronic devices,
with output frequencies from a fraction of a hertz up to many gigahertz.

A PLL internal diagram

Pin Specification of NE567 IC:

Pin No Signal Name

1 Output Filter

2 LoopFilter

3 Input
4 V+

5 Timing resistor

6 Timing capacitor


8 Output


UM66T is a melody integrated circuit. It is designed for use in bells, telephones, toys etc. It
has an inbuilt tone and a beat generator. The tone generator is a programmed divider which
produces certain frequencies. These frequencies are a factor of the oscillator frequency. The
beat generator is also a programmed divider which contains 15 available beats. Four beats of
these can be selected. There is an inbuilt oscillator circuit that serves as a time base for beat
and tone generator. It has a 62 notes ROM to play music. A set of 4 bits controls the scale
code while 2 bits control the rhythm code. When power is turned on, the melody generator is
reset and melody begins from the first note. The speaker can be driven by an external npn
transistor connected to the output of UM66.

linear regulator is a voltage regulator based on an active device (such as a bipolar junction
transistor, field effect transistor or vacuum tube) operating in its "linear region" (in contrast, a
switching regulator is based on a transistor forced to act as an on/off switch) or passive
devices like zener diodes operated in their breakdown region. The regulating device is made
to act like a variable resistor, continuously adjusting a voltage divider network to maintain a
constant output voltage. It is very inefficient compared to a switched- mode power supply,
since it sheds the difference voltage by dissipating heat.

The transistor (or other device) is used as one half of a potential divider to control the output
voltage, and a feedback circuit compares the output voltage to a reference voltage in order to
adjust the input to the transistor, thus keeping the output voltage reasonably constant. This is
inefficient: since the transistor is acting like a resistor, it will waste electrical energy by
converting it to heat. In fact, the power loss due to heating in the transistor is the current
times the voltage dropped across the transistor. The same function can be performed more
efficiently by a switched- mode power supply (SMPS), but it is more complex and the
switching currents in it tend to produce electromagnetic interference. A SMPS can easily
provide more than 30A of current at voltages as low as 3V, while for the same voltage and
current, a linear regulator would be very bulky and heavy.

Linear regulators exist in two basic forms:

 Series regulators
 Shunt regulators
o The series regulator works by providing a path from the supply voltage to the load
through a variable resistance (the main transistor is in the "top half" of the voltage
divider). The power dissipated by the regulating device is equal to the power supply
output current times the voltage drops in the regulating device.
o The shunt regulator works by providing a path from the supply voltage to ground
through a variable resistance (the main transistor is in the "bottom half" of the voltage
divider). The current through the shunt regulator is diverted away from the load and
flows uselessly to ground, making this form even less efficient than the series
regulator. It is, however, simpler, sometimes consisting of just a voltage-reference
diode, and is used in very low-powered circuits where the wasted current is too small
to be of concern. This form is very common for voltage reference circuits.


Common solid-state series voltage regulators are the LM78xx (for positive voltages) and
LM79xx (for negative voltages), and common fixed voltages are 6 V (for transistor-transistor
logic circuits) and 12 V (for communications circuits and peripheral devices such as disk
drives). In fixed voltage regulators the reference pin is tied to ground, whereas in variable
regulators the reference pin is connected to the centre point of a fixed or variable voltage
divider fed by the regulator's output. A variable voltage divider (such as a potentiometer)
allows the user to adjust the regulated voltage.

Figure: 1


" Fixed" three-terminal linear regulators are commonly available to generate fixed voltages of
plus 3 V, and plus or minus 5 V, 6V, 9 V, 12 V, or 15 V when the load is less than 1.5

The "78xx" series (7805, 7812, etc.) regulate positive voltages while the "79xx" series (7905,
7912, etc.) regulate negative voltages. Often, the last two digits of the device number are the
output voltage; e.g., a 7805 is a +5 V regulator, while a 7915 is a -15 V regulator. There are
variants on the 78xx series ICs, such as 78L and 78S, some of which can supply up to 1.5


 It looks like a transistor but it is actually an integrated circuit with 3 legs.
 It can take a higher, crappy DC voltage and turn it into a nice, smooth 5 volts DC.
 You need to feed it at least 8 volts and no more than 30 volts to do this.
 It can handle around .5 to .75 amps, but it gets hot. Use a heat sink.


 Fixed voltage Positive and Negative regulator ICs are used in circuits to give precise
regulated voltage. 78 XX series regulator IC can handle maximum 1 ampere current. The
Regulator ICs require minimum 1.5 higher input voltages than their voltage rating. For
example 7805 IC requires minimum 6.5 volts to give 5 volt output.

Here are some circuit designs of IC 7805 to monitor the output voltage.

1. This is the manipulation of the Regulator IC 7805 to give 9 volt regulated output.
Normally the pin2 of the regulator IC is connected to the ground. Here it is connected to a
3.9 volt Zener diode. So the output from the Regulator IC will be 9 volts.

Figure : 3
2. This circuit can tell whether the IC 7805 is giving output or not. IC 7805 requires
minimum 6.5 volt input to give 5 volt regulated output. When the input voltage is above
6.5 volts, Zener conducts and LED turns on indicating sufficient inp ut voltage. Diffuse
type Red LED requires 1.8 volts and Zener 4.7 volts .So to activate both these, input
voltage should be minimum 6.5 volts. If the input voltage drops below 6.5 volts, Zener
cutoff and LED turns off. This indicates the zero output from the regulator IC.
Figure: 4
3. This is a simple LED monitor to tell the output voltage from 7805. If the input voltage is
above 6.5 volts, LED shows full brightness. When the input voltage reduces below 6.5
volts, brightness of LED decreases.

Figure : 5


A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component which implements electrical

resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor,
a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. The reciprocal of
the constant of proportionality is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a
larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law:
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are
ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various
compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such
as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly
analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.

The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial

resistors are manufactured over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude. When specifying
that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require
attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific
application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some
precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power
rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular
circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher
power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit,
attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.

The series inductance of a practical resistor causes its behavior to depart from ohms law; this
specification can be important in some high- frequency applications for smaller values of
resistance. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp the noise characteristics of a resistor may be
an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly
dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally
specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular
technology.[1] A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor,
that is, the size of the device and positio n of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the
practical manufacturing of circuits using them.


The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm.
An ohm is equivalent to a volt per ampere. Since resistors are specified and manufactured
over a very large range of values, the derived units of milliohm (1 mΩ = 10−3 Ω), kilo Ohm
(1 kΩ = 103 Ω), and mega Ohm (1 MΩ = 106 Ω) are also in common usage.
The reciprocal of resistance R is called conductance G = 1/R and is measured in Siemens (SI
unit), sometimes referred to as a mho. Thus a Siemens is the reciprocal of an o hm: S = Ω − 1.
Although the concept of conductance is often used in circuit analysis, practical resistors are
always specified in terms of their resistance (ohms) rather than conductance.


Ohm's law

The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law:

Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I)
passing through it, where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R).

Equivalently, Ohm's law can be stated:

This formulation of Ohm's law states that, when a voltage (V) is present across a resistance
(R), a current (I) will flow through the resistance. This is directly used in practical
computations. For example, if a 300 ohm resistor is attached ac ross the terminals of a 12 volt
battery, then a current of 12 / 300 = 0.04 amperes (or 40 mill amperes) will flow through that

Series and parallel resistors

In a series configuration, the current through all of the resistors is the same, but the voltage
across each resistor will be in proportion to its resistance. The potential difference (voltage)
seen across the network is the sum of those voltages, thus the total resistance can be found as
the sum of those resistances:
As a special case, the resistance of N resistors connected in series, each of the same resistance
R is given by NR.

Resistors in a parallel configuration are each subject to the same potential difference
(voltage), however the currents through them add. The conductance of the resistors then adds
to determine the conductance of the network. Thus the equivalent resistance (Req) of the
network can be computed:

The parallel equivalent resistance can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as
in geometry) as a simplified notation. For the case of two resistors in parallel, this can be
calculated using:

As a special case, the resistance of N resistors connected in parallel, each of the same
resistance R, is given by R/N.

A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series connections can be broken up
into smaller parts that are either one or the other. For instance,
However, some complex networks of resistors cannot be resolved in this manner, requiring
more sophisticated circuit analysis. For instance, consider a cube, each edge of which has
been replaced by a resistor. What then is the resistance that would be measured between two
opposite vertices? In the case of 12 equivalent resistors, it can be shown that the corner-to-
corner resistance is 5⁄6 of the individual resistance.

One practical application of these relationships is that a non-standard value of resistance can
generally be synthesized by connecting a number of standard values in series and/or parallel.
This can also be used to obtain a resistance with a higher power rating than that of the
individual resistors used. In the special case of N identical resistors all connected in series or
all connected in parallel, the power rating of the individual resistors is thereby multiplied by

Power Dissipation

The power P dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is
calculated as:

The first form is a restatement of Joule's first law. Using Ohm's law, the two other forms can
be derived.

The total amount of heat energy released over a period of time can be determined from the
integral of the power over that period of time:

Practical resistors are rated according to their maximum power dissipation. The vast majority
of resistors used in electronic circuits absorbs much less than a watt of electrical power and
require no attention to their power rating. Such resistors in their discrete form, including most
of the packages detailed below, are typically rated as 1/10, 1/8, or 1/4 watt.

Resistors required to dissipate substantial amounts of power, particularly used in power

supplies, power conversion circuits, and power amplifiers, are generally referred to as power
resistors; this designation is loosely applied to resistors with power ratings of 1 watt or
greater. Power resistors are physically larger and tend not to use the preferred values, color
codes, and external packages described below.

If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating, damage to the
resistor may occur, permanently altering its resistance; this is distinct from the reversible
change in resistance due to its temperature coefficient when it warms. Excessive power
dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it can burn the circuit
board or adjacent components, or even cause a fire. There are flameproof resistors that fail
(open circuit) before they overheat dangerously. Note that the nominal power rating of a
resistor is not the same as the power that it can safely dissipate in practical use. A ir
circulation and proximity to a circuit board, ambient temperature, and other factors can
reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. Rated power dissipation may be given for an
ambient temperature of 25 °C in free air. Inside an equipment case at 60 °C, rated dissipation
will be significantly less; a resistor dissipating a bit less than the maximum figure given by
the manufacturer may still be outside the safe operating area and may prematurely fail.

Resistor Marking

Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. Surface- mount
resistors are marked numerically, if they are big enough to permit marking; more-recent small
sizes are impractical to mark. Cases are usually tan, brown, blue, or green, though other
colors are occasionally found such as dark red or dark gray.

Early 20th century resistors, essentially uninsulated, were dipped in paint to cover their entire
body for color coding. A second color of paint was applied to one end of the element, and a
color dot (or band) in the middle provided the third digit. The rule was "body, tip, dot",
providing two significant digits for value and the decimal multiplier, in that sequence.
Default tolerance was ±20%. Closer-tolerance resistors had silver (±10%) or gold-colored
(±5%) paint on the other end.

Four-band resistors

Four-band identification is the most commonly used color-coding scheme on resistors. It

consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor. The first two
bands encode the first two significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a power-of-ten
multiplier or number-of- zeroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy, or acceptable error,
of the value. The first three bands are equally spaced along the resistor; the spacing to the
fourth band is wider. Sometimes a fifth band identifies the thermal coefficient, but this must
be distinguished from the true 5-color system, with 3 significant digits.

For example, green-blue-yellow-red is 56×104 Ω = 560 kΩ ± 2%. An easier description can

be as followed: the first band, green, has a value of 5 and the second band, blue, has a value
of 6, and is counted as 56. The third band, yellow, has a value of 104, which adds four 0's to
the end, creating 560,000 Ω at ±2% tolerance accuracy. 560,000 Ω changes to 560 kΩ ±2%
(as a kilo- is 103).

Figures showing colour coding techniques for resistors

Electrical and thermal noise

In amplifying faint signals, it is often necessary to minimize electronic noise, particularly in

the first stage of amplification. As dissipative elements, even an ideal resistor will naturally
produce a randomly fluctuating voltage or "noise" across its terminals. This Johnson–Nyquist
noise is a fundamental noise source which depends only upon the temperature and resistance
of the resistor, and is predicted by the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. Using a larger resistor
produces a larger voltage noise, whereas with a smaller value of resistance there will be more
current noise, assuming a given temperature. The thermal noise of a practical resistor may
also be somewhat larger than the theoretical prediction and that increase is typically

However the "excess noise" of a practical resistor is an additional source of noise observed
only when a current flows through it. This is specified in unit of μV/V/decade - μV of noise
per volt applied across the resistor per decade of frequency. The μV/V/decade value is
frequently given in dB so that a resistor with a noise index of 0 dB will exhibit 1 μV (rms) of
excess noise for each volt across the resistor in each frequency decade. Excess noise is thus
an example of 1/f noise. Thick- film and carbon composition resistors generate more excess
noise than other types at low frequencies; wire-wound and thin- film resistors, though much
more expensive, are often utilized for their better noise characteristics. Carbon composition
resistors can exhibit a noise index of 0 dB while bulk metal foil resistors may have a noise
index of -40 dB, usually making the excess noise of metal foil resistors insignificant. Thin
film surface mount resistors typically have lower noise and better thermal stability than thick
film surface mount resistors. However, the design engineer must read the data sheets for the
family of devices to weigh the various device tradeoffs.

While not an example of "noise" per se, a resistor may act as a thermocouple, producing a
small DC voltage differential across it due to the thermoelectric effect if its ends are at
somewhat different temperatures. This induced DC voltage can degrade the precision of
instrumentation amplifiers in particular. Such voltages appear in the junctions of the resistor
leads with the circuit board and with the resistor body. Common metal film resistors show
such an effect at a magnitude of about 20µV/°C. Some carbon composition resistors can
exhibit thermoelectric offsets as high as 400 µV/°C, whereas specially constructed resistors
can reduce this number to 0.05µV/°C. In applications where the thermoelectric effect may
become important, care has to be taken (for example) to mount the resistors horizontally to
avoid temperature gradients and to mind the air flow over the board.


Variable Resistors consist of a resistance track with connections at both ends and a wiper
which moves along the track as you turn the spindle. The track may be made from carbon,
cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire (for low resistances). The track is
usually rotary but straight track versions, usually called sliders, are also available. Variable
resistors may be used as a rheostat with two connections (the wiper and just one end of the
track) or as a potentiometer with all three connections in use. Miniature versions called
presets are made for setting up circuits which will not require further adjustment. Variable
resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues. They are specified by their
maximum resistance, linear or logarithmic track, and their physical size. The standard spindle
diameter is 6mm.

The resistance and type of track are marked on the body:

4K7 LIN means 4.7 k linear track.
1M LOG means 1 M logarithmic track.

Some variable resistors are designed to be mounted directly on the circuit board, but most are
for mounting through a hole drilled in the case containing the circuit with stranded wire
connecting their terminals to the circuit board.
Variable resistors


A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a device for storing electric charge. The
forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors separated by
a non-conductor. Capacitors used as parts of electrical systems, for example, consist of metal
foils separated by a layer of insulating film.

A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by

a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a
static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one
plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An
ideal capacitor is characterized by a single consta nt value, capacitance, measured in farads.
This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing
alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in
the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes.

The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of
conductor; hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates", referring to an early means of
construction. In practice the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage
current and also has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while
the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.


A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The non-

conductive region is called the dielectric or sometimes the dielectric medium. In simpler
terms, the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric mediums are glass,
air, paper, vacuum, and even a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the
conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric
charge and no influence from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and
opposite charges on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric develops an electric field. In SI
units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes
a voltage of one volt across the device.

The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An
ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of
charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them:


Sometimes charge build- up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to
vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:

Energy storage

Work must be done by an external influence to "move" charge between the conductors in a
capacitor. When the external influence is removed the charge separation persists in the
electric field and energy is stored to be released when the charge is allowed to return to its
equilibrium position. The work done in establishing the electric field, and hence the amount
of energy stored, is given by:

Current-voltage relation

The current i (t) through any component in an electric circuit is defined as the rate of flow of
a charge q (t) passing through it, but actual charges, electrons, cannot pass through the
dielectric layer of a capacitor, rather an electron accumulates on the negative plate for each
one that leaves the positive plate, resulting in an electron depletion and consequent positive
charge on one electrode that is equal and opposite to the accumulated negative charge on the
other. Thus the charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of the current as well as
proportional to the voltage as discussed above. As with any anti derivative, a constant of
integration is added to represent the initial voltage v (t0 ). This is the integral form of the
capacitor equation,

Taking the derivative of this, and multiplying by C, yields the derivative form,

The dual of the capacitor is the inductor, which stores energy in the magnetic field rather than
the electric field. Its current-voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and voltage in
the capacitor equations and replacing C with the inductance L.

DC Circuits:
A simple resistor-capacitor circuit demonstrates charging of a capacitor.

Capacitor markings

Most capacitors have numbers printed on their bodies to indicate their electrical
characteristics. Larger capacitors like electrolytic usually display the actual capacitance
together with the unit (for example, 220 μF). Smaller capacitors like ceramics, however, use
a shorthand consisting of three numbers and a letter, where the numbers show the capacitance
in pF (calculated as XY x 10Z for the numbers XYZ) and the letter indicates the tolerance (J,
K or M for ±5%, ±10% and ±20% respectively).

Additionally, the capacitor may show its working voltage, temperature and other relevant


A capacitor with the text 473K 330V on its body has a capacitance of 47 x 10 3 pF = 47 nF
(±10%) with a working voltage of 330 V.


Capacitors have many uses in electronic and electrical systems. They are so common that it is
a rare electrical product that does not include at least one for some purpose.

Energy storage

A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its charging circuit, so it can be
used like a temporary battery. Capacitors are commonly used in electronic devices to
maintain power supply while batteries are being changed. (This prevents loss of information
in volatile memory.)
Conventional capacitors provide less than 360 joules per kilogram of energy density, while
capacitors using developing technologies could provide more than 2.52 kilojoules per

In car audio systems, large capacitors store energy for the amplifier to use on demand. Also
for a flash tube a capacitor is used to hold the high voltage.

Pulsed power and weapons

Groups of large, specially constructed, low- inductance high-voltage capacitors (capacitor

banks) are used to supply huge pulses of current for many pulsed power applications. These
include electromagnetic forming, Marx generators, pulsed lasers (especially TEA lasers),
pulse forming networks, radar, fusion research, and particle accelerators.

Large capacitor banks (reservoir) are used as energy sources for the exploding-bridge wire
detonators or slapper detonators in nuclear weapons and other specialty weapons.
Experimental work is under way using banks of capacitors as power sources for
electromagnetic armour and electromagnetic railguns and coilguns.

Power conditioning
A 10,000 microfarad capacitor in a TRM-800 amplifier

Reservoir capacitors are used in power supplies

where they smooth the output of a full or half wave
rectifier. They can also be used in charge pump
circuits as the energy storage element in the
generation of higher voltages than the input voltage.

Capacitors are connected in parallel with the power

circuits of most electronic devices and larger systems (such as factories) to shunt away and
conceal current fluctuations from the primary power source to provide a "clean" power
supply for signal or control circuits. Audio equipment, for example, uses several capacitors in
this way, to shunt away power line hum before it gets into the signal circuitry. The capacitors
act as a local reserve for the DC power source, and bypass AC currents from the power
supply. This is used in car audio applications, when a stiffening capacitor compensates for the
inductance and resistance of the leads to the lead-acid car battery.
Power factor correction

In electric power distribution, capacitors are used for power factor correction. Such capacitors
often come as three capacitors connected as a three phase load. Usually, the values of these
capacitors are given not in farads but rather as a reactive power in volt-amperes reactive
(VAr). The purpose is to counteract inductive loading from devices like electric motors and
transmission lines to make the load appear to be mostly resistive. Individual motor or lamp
loads may have capacitors for power factor correction, or larger sets of capacitors (usually
with automatic switching devices) may be installed at a load center within a building or in a
large utility substation.

Suppression and coupling

Signal coupling

Because capacitors pass AC but block DC signals (when charged up to the applied dc
voltage), they are often used to separate the AC and DC components of a signal. This method
is known as AC coupling or "capacitive coupling". Here, a large value of capacitance, whose
value need not be accurately controlled, but whose reactance is small at the signal frequency,
is employed.


A bipolar (junction) transistor (BJT) is a three-terminal electronic device constructed of

doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications.
Bipolar transistors are so named because their operation involves both electrons and holes.
Charge flow in a BJT is due to bidirectional diffusion of charge carriers across a junction
between two regions of different charge concentrations. This mode of operation is contrasted
with unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors, in which only one carrier type is
involved in charge flow due to drift. By design, most of the BJT collector current is due to the
flow of charges injected from a high-concentration emitter into the base where they are
minority carriers that diffuse toward the collector, and so BJTs are classified as minority-
carrier devices.

Figure: Schematic symbols for PNP- and NPN-type BJTs.

NPN BJT with forward-biased E–B junction and reverse-biased B–C junction. An NPN
transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode. In typical operation, the base-
emitter junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased. In an
NPN transistor, for example, when a positive voltage is applied to the base–emitter junction,
the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the
depletion region becomes unbalanced, allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the
base region. These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high
concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. The
electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped p-type which
would make holes the majority carrier in the base.

To minimize the percentage of carriers that recombine before reaching the collector–base
junction, the transistor's base region must
be thin enough that carriers can diffuse
across it in much less time than the
semiconductor's minority carrier lifetime.
In particular, the thickness of the base must
be much less than the diffusion length of the electrons. The collector–base junction is
reverse-biased, and so little electron injection occurs from the collector to the base, but
electrons that diffuse through the base towards the collector are swept into the collector by
the electric field in the depletion region of the collector–base junction. The thin shared base
and asymmetric collector–emitter doping is what differentiates a bipolar transistor from two
separate and oppositely biased diodes connected in series.

Voltage, current, and charge control

The collector–emitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base–emitter current
(current control), or by the base–emitter voltage (voltage control). These views are related by
the current–voltage relation of the base–emitter junction, which is just the usual exponential
current–voltage curve of a p-n junction (diode).

The physical explanation for collector current is the amount of minority-carrier charge in the
base region. Detailed models of transistor action, such as the Gummel–Poon model, account
for the distribution of this charge explicitly to explain transistor behavior more exactly. The
charge-control view easily handles phototransistors, where minority carriers in the base
region are created by the absorption of photons, and handles the dynamics of turn-off, or
recovery time, which depends on charge in the base region recombining. However, because
base charge is not a signal that is visible at the terminals, the current- and voltage-control
views are generally used in circuit design and analysis.

In analog circuit design, the current-control view is sometimes used because it is

approximately linear. That is, the collector current is approximately βF times the base current.
Some basic circuits can be designed by assuming that the emitter–base voltage is
approximately constant, and that collector current is beta times the base current. However, to
accurately and reliably design production BJT circuits, the voltage-control (for example,
Ebers–Moll) model is required. The voltage-control model requires an exponential function
to be taken into account, but when it is linearized such that the transistor can be modeled as a
transconductance, as in the Ebers–Moll model, design for circuits such as differential
amplifiers again becomes a mostly linear problem, so the voltage-control view is often
preferred. For translinear circuits, in which the exponential I–V curve is key to the operation,
the transistors are usually modeled as voltage controlled with transconductance proportional
to collector current. In general, transistor level circuit design is performed using SPICE or a
comparable analogue circuit simulator, so model complexity is usually not of much concern
to the designer.

Turn-on, turn-off, and storage delay:

The Bipolar transistor exhibits a few delay characteristics when turning on and off. Most
transistors, and especially power transistors, exhibit long base storage time that limits
maximum frequency of operation in switching applications. One method for reducing this
storage time is by using a Baker clamp.

Transistor 'alpha' and ‘beta’:

The proportion of electrons able to cross the base and reach the collector is a measure of the
BJT efficiency. The heavy doping of the emitter region and light doping of the base region
cause many more electrons to be injected from the emitter into the base than holes to be
injected from the base into the emitter. The common-emitter current gain is represented by βF
or hfe; it is approximately the ratio of the DC collector current to the DC base current in
forward-active region. It is typically greater than 100 for small-signal transistors but can be
smaller in transistors designed for high-power applications. Another important parameter is
the common-base current gain, αF. The common-base current gain is approximately the gain
of current from emitter to collector in the forward-active region. This ratio usually has a value
close to unity; between 0.98 and 0.998. Alpha and beta are more precisely related by the
following identities (NPN transistor):


Simplified cross section of a planar NPN bipolar junction transistor

Die of a KSY34 high-frequency NPN transistor, base and emitter connected via bonded wires

A BJT consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions, the emitter region, the base
region and the collector region. These regions are, respectively, p type, n type and p type in a
PNP, and n type, p type and n type in a NPN transistor. Each semiconductor region is
connected to a terminal, appropriately labeled: emitter (E), base (B) and collector (C).

The base is physically located between the emitter and the collector and is made from lightly
doped, high resistivity material. The collector surrounds the emitter region, making it almost
impossible for the electrons injected into the base region to escape being collected, thus
making the resulting value of α very close to unity, and so, giving the transistor a large β. A
cross section view of a BJT indicates that the collector–base junction has a much larger area
than the emitter–base junction.

The bipolar junction transistor, unlike other transistors, is usually not a symmetrical device.
This means that interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the transistor leave the
forward active mode and start to operate in reverse mode. Because the transistor's internal
structure is usually optimized for forward- mode operation, interchanging the collector and the
emitter makes the values of α and β in reverse operation much smaller than those in forward
operation; often the α of the reverse mode is lower than 0.5. The lack of symmetry is
primarily due to the doping ratios of the emitter and the collector. The emitter is heavily
doped, while the collector is lightly doped, allowing a large reverse bias voltage to be applied
before the collector–base junction breaks down. The collector–base junction is reverse biased
in normal operation. The reason the emitter is heavily doped is to increase the emitter
injection efficiency: the ratio of carriers injected by the emitter to those injected by the base.
For high current gain, most of the carriers injected into the emitter–base junction must come
from the emitter. The low-performance "lateral" bipolar transistors sometimes used in CMOS
processes are sometimes designed symmetrically, that is, with no difference between forward
and backward operation.

Small changes in the voltage applied across the base–emitter terminals causes the current that
flows between the emitter and the collector to change significantly. This effect can be used to
amplify the input voltage or current. BJTs can be thought of as voltage-controlled current
sources, but are more simply characterized as current-controlled current sources, or current
amplifiers, due to the low impedance at the base.

Early transistors were made from germanium but most modern BJTs are made from silicon.
A significant minority are also now made from gallium arsenide, especially for very high
speed applications

The symbol of an NPN bipolar junction transistor

NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors, consisting of a layer of P-doped
semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers. A small current entering the base is
amplified to produce a large collector and emitter current. That is, an NPN transistor is "on"
when its base is pulled high relative to the emitter.

Most of the NPN current is carried by electrons, moving from emitter to collector as minority
carriers in the P-type base region. Most bipolar transistors used today are NPN, because
electron mobility is higher than Hole mobility in semiconductors, allowing greater currents
and faster operation.

The symbol of a PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor

The other type of BJT is the PNP, consisting of a layer of N-doped semiconductor between
two layers of P-doped material. A small current leaving the base is amplified in the collector
output. That is, a PNP transistor is "on" when its base is pulled low relative to the emitter.
The arrows in the NPN and PNP transistor symbols are on the emitter legs and point in the
direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode. A
mnemonic device for the NPN / PNP distinction, based on the arrows in their symbols and
the letters in their names, is not pointing in for NPN and pointing in for PNP.

The BC548 is a general purpose silicon NPN BJT transistor found commonly in
European electronic equipment.

If the TO-92 package is held in front of one's face with the

flat side facing toward you and the leads downward, (see
picture) the order of the leads, from left to right is collector,
base, emitter.

Specifications : The exact specs of a given device depend on the manufacturer. It is important
to check the datasheet for the exact device and brand you are dealing with. Philips and
Telefunken are two manufacturers of the BC548.

Vcbo = 30 V

Ic = 100 mA

Ptotal = 50 mW
ft = 300 MHz

The BC548 is a member of a larger group of similarly numbered transistors. Other part
numbers have different characteristics and ratings. Its complement is the BC558.

A family of older "BC" transistors predates the TO-92 BC54x series, the BC107, BC108 and
BC109, (with complements BC177, BC178 and BC179). These are generally housed in the
TO-18 metal package, the same as what the North American 2N2222 uses. These older
transistors have similar characteristics as the TO-92 BC5xx devices and are electrically

There are many other devices based on the BC54x family, such as the surface- mount versions
of the BC547, 548 and 549; the BC847, BC848 and BC849.


A Ze ner diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a
normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown
voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was named after
Clarence Zener, who discovered this electrical property. A conventional solid-state diode will
not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage.
When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded, a conventional diode is subject to high
current due to avalanche breakdown. Unless this current is limited by circuitry, the diode will
be permanently damaged due to overheating. In case of large forward bias (current in the
direction of the arrow), the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built- in voltage
and internal resistance. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor
material and the doping concentrations.




It is an important process in the fabrication of electronic equipment. The design of PCBs

(Printed Circuit Boards) depends on circuit requirements like noise immunity, working
frequency and voltage levels etc. High power PCB s requires a special design strategy.

The fabrication process to the printed circuit board will determine to a large extent the price
and reliability of the equipment. A common target aimed is the fabrication of small series of
highly reliable professional quality PCBs with low investment. The target becomes especially
important for customer tailored equipment’s in the area of industrial electronics.

The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information of the board before one can go on
the artwork preparation. This means that a concept which clearly defines all the details of the
circuit and partly defines the final equipment, is prerequisite before the actual lay out can
start. The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer but he must also
be familiar with the design concept and with the philosophy behind the equipment.


The two most popular PCB types are:

1. Single Sided Boards

The single sided PCBs are mostly used in entertainment electronics where manufacturing
costs have to be kept at a minimum. However in industrial electronics cost factors cannot be
neglected and single sided boards should be used wherever a particular circuit can be
accommodated on such boards.

2. Double Sided Boards

Double-sided PCBs can be made with or without plated through holes. The production of
boards with plated through holes is fairly expensive. Therefore plated through hole boards are
only chosen where the circuit complexities and density of components does not leave any
other choice.

The main purpose of printed circuit is in the routing of electric currents and signal
through a thin copper layer that is bounded firmly to an insulating base material
sometimes called the substrate. This base is manufactured with integrally bounded layers
of thin copper foil which has to be partly etched or removed to arrive at a pre-designed
pattern to suit the circuit connections or other applications as required.
The term printed circuit board is derived from the original method where a printed pattern
is used as the mask over wanted areas of copper. The PCB provides an ideal baseboard
upon which to assemble and hold firmly most of the small components.
From the constructor’s point of view, the main attraction of using PCB is its role as the
mechanical support for small components. There is less need for complicated and time
consuming metal work of chassis contraception except perhaps in providing the final
enclosure. Most straight forward circuit designs can be easily converted in to printed
wiring layer the thought required to carry out the inversion cab footed high light an
possible error that would otherwise be missed in conventional point to point wiring .The
finished project is usually neater and truly a work of art.
Actual size PCB layout for the circuit shown is drawn on the copper board. The board is
then immersed in FeCl3 solution for 12 hours. In this process only the exposed copper
portion is etched out by the solution.
Now the petrol washes out the paint and the copper layout on PCB is rubbed with a
smooth sand paper slowly and lightly such that only the oxide layers over the Cu are
removed. Now the holes are drilled at the respective places according to component
layout as shown in figure. LAYOUT DESIGN:
When designing the layout one should observe the minimum size (component body
length and weight). Before starting to design the layout we need all the required
components in hand so that an accurate assessment of space can be made. Other space
considerations might also be included from case to case of mounted components over the
printed circuit board or to access path of present components.
It might be necessary to turn some components around to a different angular position so
that terminals are closer to the connections of the components. The scale can be checked
by positioning the components on the squared paper. If any connection crosses, then one
can reroute to avoid such condition.
All common or earth lines should ideally be connected to a common line routed around
the perimeter of the layout. This will act as the ground plane. If possible try to route the
outer supply line to the ground plane. If possible try to route the other supply lines around
the opposite edge of the layout through the center. The first set is tearing the circuit to
eliminate the crossover without altering the circuit detail in any way.
Plan the layout looking at the topside to this board. First this should be translated
inversely; later for the etching pattern large areas are recommended to maintain good
copper adhesion. It is important to bear in mind always that copper track width must be
according to the recommended minimum dimensions and allowance must be made for
increased width where termination holes are needed. From this aspect, it can become little
tricky to negotiate the route to connect small transistors.
There are basically two ways of copper interconnection patterns under side the board. The
first is the removal of only the amount of copper necessary to isolate the junctions of the
components to one another. The second is to make the interconnection pattern looking
more like conventional point wiring by routing uniform width of copper from component
to component. ETCHING PROCESS:
Etching process requires the use of chemicals. Acid resistant dishes and running water
supply. Ferric chloride is mostly used solution but other etching materials such as
ammonium per sulphate can be used. Nitric acid can be used but in general it is not used
due to poisonous fumes.
The pattern prepared is glued to the copper surface of the board using a latex type of
adhesive that can be cubed after use. The pattern is laid firmly on the copper using a very
sharp knife to cut round the pattern carefully to remove the paper corresponding to the
required copper pattern areas. Then apply the resistant solution, which can be a kind of
ink solution for the purpose of maintaining smooth clean outlines as far as possible.
While the board is drying, test all the components.
Before going to next stage, check the whole pattern and cross check with the circuit
diagram. Check for any free metal on the copper. The etching bath should be in a glass or
enamel disc. If using crystal of ferric- chloride these should be thoroughly dissolved in
water to the proportion suggested. There should be 0.5 lt. of water for 125gm of crystal.
To prevent particles of copper hindering further etching, agitate the solutions carefully by
gently twisting or rocking the tray.
The board should not be left in the bath a moment longer than is needed to remove just
the right amount of copper. Inspite of there being a resistive coating there is no protection
against etching away through exposed copper edges. This leads to over etching. Have
running water ready so that etched board can be remo ved properly and rinsed. This will
halt etching immediately.
Drilling is one of those operations that call for great care. For most purposes a 0.5mm
drill is used. Drill all holes with this size first those that need to be larger can be easily
drilled again with the appropriate larger size. COMPONENT ASSEMBLY
From the greatest variety of electronic components available, which runs into thousands
of different types it, is often a perplexing task to know which is right for a given job.
There could be damage such as hairline crack on PCB. If there are, then they can be
repaired by soldering a short link of bare copper wire over the affected part. The most
popular method of holding all the items is to bring the wires far apart after they have been
inserted in the appropriate holes. This will hold the component in position ready for
Some components will be considerably larger .So it is best to start mounting the smallest
first and progressing through to the largest. Before starting, be certain that no further
drilling is likely to be necessary because access may be impossible later.
Next will probably be the resistor, small signal diodes or other similar size components.
Some capacitors are also very small but it would be best to fit these afterwards. When
fitting each group of components mark off each one on the circuit as it is fitted so that if
we have to leave the job we know where to recommence.
Although transistors and integrated circuits are small items there are good reasons for
leaving the soldering of these until the last step. The main point is that these components
are very sensitive to heat and if subjected to prolonged application of the soldering iron,
they could be internally damaged.
All the components before mounting are rubbed with sand paper so that oxide layer is
removed from the tips. Now they are mounted according to the component layout. SOLDERING
This is the operation of joining the components with PCB after this operation the circuit
will be ready to use to avoid any damage or fault during this operation following care
must be taken.
1. A longer duration contact between soldering iron bit & components lead can exceed the
temperature rating of device & cause partial or total damage of the device. Hence before
soldering we must carefully read the maximum soldering temperature & soldering time
for device.
2. The wattage of soldering iron should be selected as minimum as permissible for that
soldering place.
3. To protect the devices by leakage current of iron its bit should be earthed properly.
4. We should select the soldering wire with proper ratio of Pb & Tn to provide the suitable
melting temperature. Proper amount of good quality flux must be applied on the soldering
point to avoid dry soldering.

The result we got is the successful working of the project and a communication is established
between the two transceivers.

After the successful working of the project, it can be concluded that this project is
suitable for communication. There can be further up gradations in the project
which could lead to a much better system for communication. Some of the possible
ways are as follows:
o Instead of the short range laser, high range lasers can be used which range a
few hundred kilometers.


 In future it can be commissioned in satellites for communication.

 Lasers can also transmit through glass, however the physical properties of the
glass have to be considered and hence can be used for a verylonge distance
 It can be used in inaccessible areas.

1. [Online] // wikipedia. -

2. [Online] // circuitstoday. -
3. [Online] // electronics schematics. -
4. [Online] // electronics for you. -
10. NAVAS K.A. ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL [Book]. - [s.l.] : Rajath publishers,
2008. - Vol. 1&2.
12.EFY Magzine-june 2004 edition


IC1 7805 5V regulator
IC2, IC3, IC7, IC8 555 Timer
IC4 LM386 low power audio amplifier
IC5,IC6 NE567 phase locked loop
IC9 decade counter
7-segment decoder
IC10 UM66 melody generator
BR1 Bridge rectifier
D1 1N4001 rectifier diode
ZD1 3.3zener diode
LED1-LED3 5mm red LED
D1S1 LTS543 common cathode display


R1, R19, R20, R27, R32 1 kilo ohm

R2, R5 5.6 kilo ohm
R6, R8, R18, R21, R28 8.2 kilo ohm
R7, R12 15 kilo ohm
R9 22ohm
R10 2kilo ohm
R11 68ohm
R13, R17, R26 2.2 kilo ohm
R14 2.7kilo ohm
R15 390 ohms
R16 390 kilo ohm
R22 33 kilo ohm
R23 4.7ohm
R15 390ohm
R16 390kilo ohm
R22 33 kilo ohm
R23 4.7 ohm
R15 390 ohm
R24 36 kilo ohm
R25 560 kilo ohm
R29 4.7 kilo ohm
R31 10 kilo ohm
R30 220 ohm
VR1 47 kilo ohm preset
VR2 100 kilo ohm preset
VR5, VR6 10 kilo ohm preset
VR3 10 kilo ohm pot meter
VR4 5 kilo ohm preset
VR7 10 kilo ohm pot meter


C1 2200µF, 5V electrolytic
C2, C12, C13, C40 100µF, 16V electrolytic
C3, C5, C6, C9, C19, C22,
C32, C35 0.01µF ceramic disk
C4 3.3nF ceramic
C7, C10, C11, C14, C15, C17,
C20, C26, C29 0.1µF ceramic disk
C8,C16,C38 470µF,16V electrolytic
C16 56µF ceramic disk
C18, C27, C33, C39 10µF, 16V electrolytic
C21, C24 2.2µF,16 V electrolytic
C25 1nF ceramic disk
C23, C28 0.22µF ceramic disk
C30 47µF, 16V electrolytic
C31 1µF, 16V electrolytic
C34 6.8µF,16V electrolytic
C37 3.3µF, 16 V electrolytic


S1,S2 Push to on tactile switch

LS1,LS2 8 ohm,1W loudspeaker
Mic Condenser microphone
PZ1 Piezobuzzer
X1 230V AC primary 0-9V,
500mA secondary transformer
LS laser module
9.4.1 CD4033BMS
9.4.2 LM 7806
9.4.3 LM386
9.4.4 NE 567
9.4.5 NE555 TIMER
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