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UNIT – I :CIRCUIT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

1 . W h a t i s c h a r g e ?
The charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which matter consists. Theunit of charge is the
coulomb.
2 . D e f i n e c u r r e n t ?
The flow of free electrons in a metal is called electric current. The unit of current is
thea mp ere. C ur r e nt( I ) = Q/t , W her e Q i s to ta l c h arg e tr a n s ferred & T i s t i me r eq uired for transfer
of charge.
3 . W h a t i s v o l t a g e ?
The potential difference between two points in an electric circuit called voltage. The unitof voltage is volt. It is
represented by V OR v.Voltage = W/Q = workdone/Charge
4 . D e f i n e p o w e r .
The rate of doing work of electrical energy or energy supplied per unit time is called the power. The power denoted
by either P of p. It is measured in Watts. (W).Power = work done in electric circuit/TimeP = dw/dt = dw/dq.dq/dtP =
VI
5 . W h a t i s n e t w o r k ?
Interconnection of two or more simple circuit elements is called an electric network.
6.Distinguish between a branch and a node of a circuit.
A part of the network which connects the various points of the network with one another is called a branch. A point
at which two or more elements are jointed together is callednode.
7.Distinguish between a mesh and a Loop of a circuit.
A mesh is a loop that does not contain other loops. All meshed are loops. But all loopsare not meshes. A loop is
any closed path of branches.
8.Define active and passive elements.
The sources of energy are called active element.Example: voltage source, current source.The element which stores
or dissipates energy is called passive element.Example: Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor.
9.Define unilateral and bilateral elements.
In unilateral element, voltage – current relation is not same for both the direction.
Example:
Diode, Transistors.In bilateral element, voltage – current relation is same for both the direction.
Example:
Resistor 3

10.Define linear and non-linear elements.

If the element obeys superposition principle, then it is said to be linear elements.


Example
: Resistor.If the given network is not obeying superposition principle then it is said to be non linear elements.
Example:
Transistor, Diode.
11.Define Lumped and distributed elements.
Physically separable elements are called Lumped element.Example : Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor.A distributed
element is one which is not separable for electrical purpose.Example : Transmission line has distributor resistance,
capacitance and inductance.
12.How are the electrical energy sources classified?
The electrical energy sources are classified into:1 . I d e a l v o l t a g e s o u r c e
2 . I d e a l c u r r e n t s o u r c e .
13.Define an ideal voltage source.
The voltage generated by the source does not vary with any circuit quantity. It is only afunction of time. Such a
source is called an ideal voltage source.
14.Define an ideal current source.
The current generated by the source does not vary with any circuit quantity.It is only a function of time. Such a
source is called as an ideal current source.
15.What are independent source?
Independent sources are those in which, voltage and current are independent and are notaffected by other part of the
circuit.
16.What are dependent sources?
Dependent sources are those in which source voltage or current is not fixed, but isdependent on the voltage or
current existing at some other location in the circuit.
1 7 .W ha t a re t h e dif f ere nt t y pe s o f de pe n de nt o r co ntro l le d so urc es?
1.Voltage Controlled Voltage Sources (VCVS)2 . C urr en t Co ntro ll ed Vo lt a ge So urce s
(C CV S)3 . Vo l ta g e Co ntr o lled C ur r e nt So ur ce s ( VC C S)4 . C urr e nt Co n tro l led C urre n t So urce s
(C C C S)
18.What is resistance?
It is the property of a substance which opposes the flow of current through it. Theresistance of element is denoted by
the symbol “R”. It is measured in Ohms.R = PL / A Ω

19.What is average value?


It is defined as area under one complete cycle to period.The average value of the sine wave is the total area under the
half-cycle curve divided bythe distance of the curve.Area under one complete
cycleAverage value= _____________________________ Period
20.Define R.M.S. value.
The r.m.s value may be determined by taking the mean of the squares of theinstantaneous value of current over one
complete cycle. (Area under hatched line)
22.Define form factor.
The ratio of RMS value to the average value is called the Form factor.RMS
valueForm factor (Kf) = ______________ Average Value
23.Define peak factor.
Peak factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum value to the rms value.Maximum valuePeak Factor (Kp) =
________________ RMS value
2 4 . D e f i ne O h m’ s l a w .

The current flowing through the electric circuit is directly proportional to the potentialdifference across the circuit
and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit, provided the temperature remains constant.
25.Define Kirchoff’s current law.
Kirchhoff’s current law states that in a node, sum of entering current is equal sum of leaving
current.∑ I a t j u n c t i o n p o i n t = 0
26.Define Kirchoff’s voltage law.
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the voltages around anyclosed path is
zero.A r o u n d a c l o s e d p a t h ∑ V = 0 .
32.Write few advantages of sinusoid waveform?
1.The response of the sinusoidal input for second order syste m is sinusoidal.2.The wave form can
be written in terms of sinusoidal function according to fourier theorem.3 .T he d e ri vat i ve s a nd i n te gra l
al so si n u so id al. 4 . E a s y f o r a n a l y s e s . 5 . E a s y t o g e n e r a t e . 6 .Mo r e u s efu l i n p o we r
ind u s tr y.

3 3 .Di st ing ui s h bet w ee n a cy cl e, t i me per io d s a nd fre q ue ncy .


One complete set of positive and negative instantaneous values of the voltageor current is called cycle.The time
taken by an alternating quantity to complete one cycle is called time period
(T).2πT i m e p e r i o d ( T ) = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ WThe number of cycle that a alternating
quantity completed per second is known asfrequency. It is measured
in HZ.1F r e q u e n c y ( f ) = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ T
34.What is instantaneous value?
The value of an alternating current, at any particular moment is called itsinstantaneous value.
35.What are peak value and peak to peak value?
The peak value of the sine wave during positive or negative half only.The sum of positive and negative value
is called a peak to peak value. The peak to peak value of a sinusoidal alternating voltage is equal to two times
the peak value.
36.What is average value?
The average value of the sine wave is the total area under the half-cycle curvedivided by the distance of the
curve.1TV
3 7 .Def in e ef f ect iv e v a l ue o r RM S v a lu e o f a si nu so ida l v o l ta g e.
The R.M.S value may be determined by taking the mean of the squares of theInstantaneous value of current over one
complete cycle. This is often knownas the effective value.
Graphical representation of phasors V = Vm <φ and I=I < - θ known phasor.
39.Define phase angle.
The angle between voltage and current is called phase angle. It is denoted by φ.
4 0 . W h a t i s i mp e d a n c e?
The ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current is called impedance.

It is denoted as Z and it is measured in


41.Define admittance.
The reciprocal of impedance is called admittance. It is denoted as Y and it is measuredin Siemens
(S).11A d m i t t a n c e ( Y ) = _ _ _ = _ _ _ ZV

44.Define phasor diagram.


The phasor diagram is a name given to a sketch in the complex plane showing therelationships of the phasor
voltages and phasor currents throughout a specific circuit.
45.What is instantaneous power?
The power at any instant of time is known as instantaneous
power.P ( t ) = v ( t ) . I ( t )
46.What is average power?
The average of the instantaneous power over one period is called average power. Average power is also defined as
the product of voltage and current.
48.Define power factor.
The ratio of the average power to the apparent power is called the power
factor.Average power Power Factor = _________________ Apparent Power

49.What is power triangle ?


A commonly employed graphical representation of complex power is known as the power triangle.
50.Define complex power
The product of the rms voltage phasor and the complex conjugate of the rms current phasor is known as complex
power. It is denoted as S and it is measured in volt-amperes
(VA)1T h e c o m p l e x p o w e r i s S = _ _ _ v i * 2
51.What is reactive power?
It is defined as product of the applied voltage and the reactive component of the current.It is also called as imaginary
component of the apparent power. It is represented by “Q” and it ismeasured in unit volt- ampere reactive (VAR).
.
52.On which law is the mesh analysis based?
Mesh analysis is based on Kirchoff’s voltage law.
53.On which law is the nodal analysis based?
Nodal analysis is based on Kirchoff’s current law and Ohm’s law.
54.What is mesh analysis?
Mesh analysis is one of the basic techniques used for finding current flowing through theloop in a network.Mesh
analysis is applicable if the given network contains voltage sources. If therer existcurrent sources in a circuit, then it
should be converted into equivalent voltage sources.
55.What is nodal analysis?
Nodal analysis is one of the basic techniques used to finding solution for voltage dropacross the nodes in a given
circuit. Nodal analysis is applicable if the given network contains current sources. If there existsvoltage sources in
the given circuit, then it can to be converted into equivalent current sources.
56.When do we go for supermesh analysis.
If the branches in the network has a current source, then it is slightly difficult to apply meshanalysis.
One way to over come this difficulty is by applying the supermesh technique.In this case we have to choose
supermesh.A supermesh is constituted by two adjacent loops that have common current source.
57.When do we, go for supernode analysis.
If the branches in the network has a voltage source, then it is slightly difficult to apply nodalanalysis.One way to
overcome this difficulty is by applying the supernode technique.In this case, we have to choose super node.A
supernode is constituted by two adjacent node that have common voltage source.
58.State superposition theorem.
Any electric circuit (linear, lumped, bilateral), is energeied by two or more sources,the response in any element in
the network is equal to the algebraic sum of the responses caused byindividual sources acting separately.
59.State Thevenin’s Theorem.
A complex network having linear, bilateral, lumped elements with open circuitedoutput terminals can be reduced by
a simple circuit consisting of a single voltage source in serieswith a impedance.
60.State Norton’s theorem.
Any electrical network (linear, lumped, bilateral) with short circuited terminals can bereduced by a simple circuit
consisting of a single current source in parallel with a Thevenin’sequivalent resistance.
61.State Maximum power transfer theorem.
Power transferred from source to load will be maximum, when source resistance isequal to load resistance looking
back from its load terminals.
6 2 . D e f i n e d u a l i t y .
Two electrical network which are governed by the same type of equations are called duality.
UNIT – II TRANSIENT RESONANCE IN RLC CIRCUITS
1.What is transient state?
If a network contains energy storage elements, with change in excitation, the currentand voltages change from one
state to other state. The behaviour of the voltage or current when it ischanged from one state to another state is
called transient state.
2 . W h a t i s t r a n s i e n t t i m e ?
The time taken for the circuit to change from one steady state to another steady stateis called transient time.3.
What is natural response?
If we consider a circuit containing storage elements which are independent of sources, the response depends upon
the nature of the circuit, it is called natural response.
4.What is transient response?
The storage elements deliver their energy to the resistances, hence the responsechanges with time, gets saturated
after sometime, and is referred to the transient response.
7.Define time constant or RL Circuit.
The time taken to reach 63.2% of final value in a RL Circuit is called the timeconstant of RL
circuit.T i m e c o n s t a n t ( t ) = L / R
8.Define time constant of RC Circuit.
The time taken to reach 36.8% of initial current in an RC circuit is called the timeconstant of RC
circuit.T i m e c o n s t a n t ( t ) = R C .

9. What is meant by natural frequency?


If the damping is made zero then the response oscillates with natural frequency without anyopposition, such a
frequency is called natural frequency of oscillations, denoted as ώn.
10.Define damping ratio.
It is the ratio of actual resistance (R) in the circuit to the critical resistance (R cr). It isdenoted by greek letter Zeta
(ξ).
11.Define initial value theorem.
The initial value theorem states that if f (t) and f’ (t) both are laplace transformable,
0s


12.Define final value theorem.
The final value theorem states that, if f (t) and f ‘ (t) both are laplace transformable,
13.What is driving point impedence ?
The ratio of the Laplace transform of the voltage at the point to the laplace transform of thecurrent at the same port
is called driving point impedance.The driving point impedance of the network What is transfer point impedance?
It is defined as the ratio of voltage transform at one port to the current transform at theother port. It is defined byV

15.Define network function.


A network function N (S) is defined as the ratio of the complex amplitude of anexcponential output P (S) to the
complex amplitude of an exponential input Q (S).
16.Define pole and zero.
The network function N (S) will become infinite. Hence the roots of denominator polynomial P1, P2, P3,……Pm
are called poles of network function.The network function N(S) will become zero. Hence the roots of
numerator polynomial Z1, Z2, Z3…………..Zn. are called zeros of network function.
17.Define resonant circuit.
The circuit that treat a narrow range of frequencies very differently than all other frequencies. These are referred
to as resonant circuit. The gain of a highly resonant circuit attains asharp maximum or minimum as its resonant
frequency.
18.When the circuit is said to be in resonance?
1.A network is in resonance when the voltage and current at the network input terminal s arein phase.2.If
inductive reactance of a network equals capacitive reactance then the network is said to be resonance19.
What is resonant frequency ?
The frequency at which resonance occurs is called resonance
frequency.1f = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r 2Л√LC
20.Define bandwidth.
The bandwidth (BW) is defined as the frequency difference between upper cut-off frequency (f2) and lower cut-off
frequency (f1)Bandwidth = f2-f1Where f2

upper cut-off frequencyF1

lower cut-off frequency


21.Define selectivity.
Selectivity is defined as the ratio of bandwidth to the resonant frequency of resonantcircuit.Bandwidth22.Define
quality factor.
The quality factor is defined as the ratio of maximum energy stored to the energydissipated per cycle.Maximum
energy stored per cycleQuality factor (Q) = 2Л * ______________________________ Energy dissipated per cycle
15.Define network function.
A network function N (S) is defined as the ratio of the complex amplitude of anexcponential output P (S) to the
complex amplitude of an exponential input Q (S).
16.Define pole and zero.
The network function N (S) will become infinite. Hence the roots of denominator polynomial P1, P2, P3,……Pm
are called poles of network function.The network function N(S) will become zero. Hence the roots of
numerator polynomial Z1, Z2, Z3…………..Zn. are called zeros of network function.
17.Define resonant circuit.
The circuit that treat a narrow range of frequencies very differently than all other frequencies. These are referred
to as resonant circuit. The gain of a highly resonant circuit attains asharp maximum or minimum as its resonant
frequency.
18.When the circuit is said to be in resonance?
1.A network is in resonance when the voltage and current at the network input terminals are in phase.2.If
inductive reactance of a network equals capacitive reactance then the network is said to be resonance19.
What is resonant frequency ?
The frequency at which resonance occurs is called resonance frequency.
20.Define bandwidth.
The bandwidth (BW) is defined as the frequency difference between upper cut-off frequency (f2) and lower cut-off
frequency (f1)Bandwidth = f2-f1Where f2

upper cut-off frequencyF1

lower cut-off frequency


21.Define selectivity.
Selectivity is defined as the ratio of bandwidth to the resonant frequency of resonantcircuit.
22.Define quality factor.
The quality factor is defined as the ratio of maximum energy stored to the energydissipated per cycle.Maximum
energy stored per cycleQuality factor (Q) = 2Л * ______________________________ Energy dissipated per cycle
23.Define half power frequencies ?
The frequencies at which the power is half the maximum power are called half power frequencies.R Lower half
power frequency, f1 = f r - ____ 4Л LR Upper half power frequency, f2 = f r + ____ 4Л L
24.Write down the formula for inductive reactance and capacitive reactance?
Inductive reactance is given by X= 2Л
f l L1Capacitive reactance is given by X = _________ C 2Л fcWhereF
25.Give the expression for quality factor of series RLC Circuit.
Quality factor is Q = 1 / R √ L /C
26.Give the expression for quality factor of parallel RLC Circuit.
Quality factor is Q = R √ C / L
UNIT III SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES
1. Give the value of Charge, Mass of an electron.
Charge of an electron – 1.6 x 10 -19 coloumbs & Mass of an electron - 9.11 x 10 -31 Kgs
2. Define Potential.A
potential of V volts at point B with respect to point A, is defined as the work done in taking unit positive charge
from A to B , against the electric field.
3. Define Current density.
It is defined as the current per unit area of the conducting medium. J = I / A
4. Define Electron volts.
If an electron falls through a potential of one volt then its energy is 1 electron volt.1 eV = 1.6 x 10 -19 joules
5. What is Electrostatic deflection sensitivity?
Electrostatic deflection sensitivity of a pair of deflecting plates of a cathode rayoscilloscope ( CRO) is defined as the
amount of deflection of electron spot produced when a voltage of 1 Volt DC is applied between the corresponding
plates.
6. What is the relation for the maximum number of electrons in each shell?
Ans: 2n2
7. What are valence electrons?
Electron in the outermost shell of an atom is called valence electron.
8. What is forbidden energy gap?
The space between the valence and conduction band is said to be forbidden energy gap.
9. What are conductors? Give examples?
Conductors are materials in which the valence and conduction band overlap each other so there is aswift movement
of electrons which leads to conduction. Ex. Copper, silver.
10. What are insulators? Give examples?
Insulators are materials in which the valence and conduction band are far awayfrom each other. So no movement of
free electrons and thus no conduction.Ex glass, plastic.
11. Give the energy band structure of Insulator.
In Insulators there is a wide forbidden energy gap. So movement of valenceelectron from valence to conduction
band is not possible.
12. Give the energy band structure of Semi conductor.
In Semiconductors there is a small forbidden energy gap. So movement of valence electron from valence to
conduction band is possible if the valenceelectrons are supplied with some energy.
13. Give the energy band structure of conductor.
In conductors there is no forbidden energy gap, valence band and conductionand over lap each other. so there is a
heavy movement of valence electrons.
14. what are Semiconductors? Give examples?
The materials whose electrical property lies between those of conductors andinsulators are known as
Semiconductors. Ex germanium, silicon.
15. What are the types of Semiconductor?
1. Intrinsic semiconductor 2. Extrinsic semiconductor.
16. What is Intrinsic Semiconductor?
Pure form of semiconductors are said to be intrinsic semiconductor.

Ex: germanium, silicon.


17. Define Mass – action law.
Under thermal equilibrium the product of free electron concentration (n) and holeconcentration (p) is constant
regardless of the individual magnitude.n.p = ni2
18. What is Extrinsic Semiconductor?
If certain amount of impurity atom is added to intrinsic semiconductor theresulting semiconductor is Extrinsic or
impure Semiconductor.
19. What are the types of Extrinsic Semiconductor?
1. P-type Semiconductor 2. N- Type Semiconductor.
20. What is P-type Semiconductor?
The Semiconductor which are obtained by introducing pentavalent impurity atom(phosphorous, antimony) are
known as P-type Semiconductor.
21. What is N-type Semiconductor?
The Semiconductor which is obtained by introducing trivalent impurity atom (gallium, indium) areknown as N-type
Semiconductor.
22. What is doping?
Process of adding impurity to a intrinsic semiconductor atom is doping. The impurity is calleddopant.
23. Which charge carriers is majority and minority carrier in N-typeSemiconductor?
majority carrier: electron and minority carrier: holes.
24.which charge carriers is majority and minority carrier in P-typeSemiconductor?
Majority carrier: holes and minority carrier: electron
25. Why n - type or penta valent impurities are called as Donor impurities?
n- type impurities will donate the excess negative charge carriers ( Electrons) and therefore they arereffered to as
donor impurities.
26. Why P – type or trivalent impurities are called as acceptor impurity?
p- type impurities make available positive carriers because they create holes which can acceptelectron, so these
impurities are said to be as acceptor impurity.
27. Give the relation for concentration of holes in the n- type material?
pn = ni2 /NDWhere pn - concentration of holes in the n – type semiconductor ND - concentration of donor atoms
in the n – type semiconductor
28. Give the relation for concentration of electrons in the p - type material?
np = ni2 /NAWherenp - concentration of electrons in p- type semiconductor ND - concentration of acceptor atoms
in the p – type semiconductor
29. Define drift current?
When an electric field is applied across the semiconductor, the holes move towards the negativeterminal of the
battery and electron move towards the positive terminal of the battery. This driftmovement of charge carriers will
result in a current termed as drift current.18

30. Give the expression for drift current density due to electron.
Jn = q n μnEWhere,Jn - drift current density due to electronq- Charge of electronμn - Mobility of electronE - applied
electric field
31. Give the expression for drift current density due to holes.
Jp = q p μp EWhere, Jn - drift current density due to holes q - Charge of holesμp - Mobility of holes E - applied
electric field
32. Define the term diffusion current?
A concentration gradient exists, if the number of either electrons or holes is greater in one region of asemiconductor
as compared to the rest of the region. The holes and electron tend to move fromregion of higher concentration to the
region of lower concentration. This process in called diffusionand the current produced due this movement is
diffusion current.
33. Define mean life time of a hole or and electron.
The electron hole pair created due to thermal agitation woll disappear as a result of recombination
.
Thus an average time for which a hole or an electron exist before recombination can be said as themean life time of
a hole or electron.
34. What is the other name of continuity equation? What does it indicate?
The other name of continuity equation is equation of conservation of charge.This equation indicates that the rate at
which holes are generated thermally just equals the rate atwhich holes are lost because of recombination under
equilibrium conditions.
35. Define Hall effect?
If a metal or semiconductor carrying current I is placed in a transverse magnetic field B , an electricfield E is
induced in the direction perpendicular to both I and B This phenomenon is known as Halleffect.
36. Give some application of Hall Effect.
i). Hall Effect can be used to measure the strength of a magnetic field in terms of electrical voltage.ii).It is used to
determine whether the semiconductor is p – type or n- type materialiii).It is used to determine the carrier
concentrationiv).It is used to determine the mobility.
37. Define the term transition capacitance?
When a PN junction is reverse biased, the depletion layer acts like a dielectric material while P and N –type regions
on either side which has low resistance act as the plates. In this way a reverse biasedPN junction may be regarded as
parallel plate capacitor and thus the capacitance across this set up iscalled as the transition
capacitance.CT = A / WWhereCT - transition capacitanceA - Cross section area of the junctionW – Width of the
depletion region
38. What is a varactor diode?
A diode which is based on the voltage variable capacitance of the reverse biased p-n junction is saidto be varactor
diode. It has other names such as varicaps, voltacaps.19

39. Define the term diffusion capacitance.

The diffusion capacitance of a forward biased diode is defined as the rate of change of injectedcharge with
voltage.CD = I / VTWhere, Cd – time constantI – current across the diodevT – threshold voltage
40. what is recovery time? Give its types.
When a diode has its state changed from one type of bias to other a transient accompanies the dioderesponse, i.e.,
the diode reaches steady state only after an interval of time “ tr” called as recovery time. The recovery time can be
divided in to two types such as(i) forward recovery time(ii) reverse recovery time

41. What is meant by forward recovery time?


The forward recovery time may be defined as the time interval from the instant of 10% diode voltageto the instant
this voltage reaches 90% of the final value. It is represented as t f r.
42. What is meant by reverse recovery time?
The reverse recovery time can be defined as the time required for injected or the excess minoritycarrier density
reduced to zero , when external voltage is suddenly reversed.
43. Define storage time.
The interval time for the stored minority charge to become zero is called storage time. It isrepresented as t s.
44. Define transition time.
The time when the diode has normally recovered and the diode reverse current reaches reversesaturaton current I0 is
called as transition time. It is represented as t t
45. What are break down diodes?
Diodes which are designed with adequate power dissipation capabilities to operate in the break downregion are
called as break down or zener diodes.
46. What is break down? What are its types?
When the reverse voltage across the pn junction is increased rapidly at a voltage the junction breaksdown leading to
a current flow across the device. This phenomenon is called as break down and thevoltage is break down voltage.
The types of break down arei) zener break downii)Avalanche breakdown
47. What is zener breakdown?
Zener break down takes place when both sides of the junction are very heavily doped andConsequently the depletion
layer is thin and consequently the depletion layer is tin. When a smallvalue of reverse bias voltage is applied , a very
strong electric field is set up across the thin depletionlayer. This electric field is enough to break the covalent bonds.
Now extremely large number of freecharge carriers are produced which constitute the zener current. This process is
known as zener break down.
48. What is avalanche break down?
When bias is applied , thermally generated carriers which are already present in the diode acquiresufficient energy
from the applied potential to produce new carriers by removing valence electronfrom their bonds. These newly
generated additional carriers acquire more energy from the potentialand they strike the lattice and create more
number of free electrons and holes. This process goeson as long as bias is increased and the number of free carriers
get multiplied. This process is termedas avalanche multiplication. Thus the break down which occur in the junction
resulting in heavyflow of current is termed as avalanche break down.
UNIT IV TRANSISTORS
.
1.What is a transistor (BJT)?
Transistor is a three terminal device whose output current, voltage and /or power is controlled by input current.
2.What are the terminals present in a transistor?
Three terminals: emitter, base, collector.
3.What is FET?
FET is abbreviated for field effect transistor. It is a three terminal device with its outputcharacteristics controlled by
input voltage.
4.Why FET is called voltage controlled device?
The output characteristics of FET is controlled by its input voltage thus it is voltage controlled.
5.What are the two main types of FET?
1. JFET 2. MOSFET.
6. What are the terminals available in FET?
1). Drain, 2).Source and 3). Gate
7.What is JFET?
JFET- Junction Field Effect Transistor.
8.What are the types of JFET?
N- Channel JFET and P- Channel JFET
9.What are the two important characteristics of JFET?
1. Drain characteristics 2. Transfer characteristics
10.What is transconductance in JFET?
It is the ratio of small change in drain current to the corresponding change in drain to source voltage.
11.What is amplification factor in JFET?
It is the ratio of small change in drain to source voltage to the corresponding change in Gate tosource voltage.
12.Why do we choose q point at the center of the loadline?
The operating point of a transistor is kept fixed usually at the center of the active region in order thatthe input signal
is well amplified. If the point is fixed in the saturation region or the cut off region the positive and negative half
cycle gets clipped off respectively.
13.List out the different types of biasing.
._ Voltage divider bias, Base bias, Emitter feed back bias, Collector feedback bias, Emitter bias.
14.What do you meant by thermal runway?
Due to the self heating at the collector junction, the collector current rises. This causes damage to thedevice. This
phenomenon is called thermal runway.
15.Why is the transistor called a current controlled device?
The output characteristics of the transistor depend on the input current. So thtransistor is called acurrent controlled
device.
16.Define current amplification factor?
It is defined as the ratio of change in output current to the change in input current at constant.
17. What are the requirements for biasing circuits?
• The q point must be taken at the Centre of the active region of the output characteristics.• Stabilize the collector
current against the temperature variations.• Make the q point independent of the transistor parameters.• When the
transistor is replaced, it must be of same type.
18.When does a transistor act as a switch?
The transistor acts as a switch when it is operated at either cutoff region or saturation regio
19.What is biasing?
To use the transistor in any application it is necessary to provide sufficient voltage and current tooperate the
transistor. This is called biasing.
20. What is stability factor?
Stability factor is defined as the rate of change of collector current with respect to the rate of changeof reverse
saturation current.
21.Explain about the various regions in a transistor?
The three regions are active region saturation region cutoff region.
22.Explain about the characteristics of a transistor?
Input characteristics: it is drawn between input voltage & input current while keeping output voltageas constant.
Output characteristics: It is drawn between the output voltage &output current whilekeeping input current as
constant.
UNIT V SPECIAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
1. What is a TRIAC?
TRIAC is a three terminal bidirectional semiconductor switching device. It can conduct in both thedirections for any
desired period. In operation it is equivalent to two SCR’s connected in antiparallel.
2. Give the application of TRIAC.
1. Heater control2. Motor speed control3. Phase control4. Static switches
3. What are the different operating modes of TRIAC?
1. Keeping MT2 and G positive2. Keeping MT2 and G negative.3. Keeping MT2 positive and G negative.4.
Keeping MT2 negative and G positive.
4. What are the regions in the VI characteristics of UJT?
1. Cut-off region2. Negative resistance region.3. Saturation region
5. What is meant by negative resistance region of UJT?
In a UJT when the emitter voltage reaches the peak point voltage, emitter current starts flowing.After the peak point
any effort to increase in emitter voltage further leads to sudden increase in theemitter current with corresponding
decrease in emitter voltage, exhibiting negative resistance. Thistakes place until the valley point is reached. This
region between the peak point and valley point iscalled negative resistance region.
6. Mention the applications of UJT.
1. It is used in timing circuits2. It is used in switching circuits3. It is used in phase control circuits

4. It can be used as trigger device for SCR and triac.5. It is used in saw tooth generator.6. It is used for pulse
generation.
7. What is a DIAC?
DIAC is a two terminal bidirectional semiconductor switching device. . It can conduct in either direction depending
upon the polarity of the voltage applied across its main terminals. In operationDIAC is equivalent to two 4 layer
diodes connected in antiparallel.
8. Give some applications of DIAC.
1. To trigger TRIAC2. Motor speed control3. Heat control4. Light dimmer circuits
9. What is a SCR?
A silicon controller rectifier (SCR) is a three terminal, three junction semiconductor device that actsas a true
electronic switch. It is a unidirectional device. It converts alternating current into directcurrent and controls the
amount of power fed to the load.
10. Define break over voltage of SCR.
Break over voltage is defined as the minimum forward voltage with gate open at which the SCR starts conducting
heavily.
11.Why SCR cannot be used as a bidirectional switch.
SCR can do conduction only when anode is positive with respect to cathode with proper gatecurrent. Therefore,
SCR operates only in one direction and cannot be used as bidirectional switch.
12. How turning on of SCR is done?
1. By increasing the voltage across SCR above forward break over voltage.2. By applying a small positive voltage at
gate.3. By rapidly increasing the anode to cathode voltage.4. By irradiating SCR with light.
13.How turning off of SCR is done?
1. By reversing the polarity of anode to cathode voltage.2. By reducing the current through the SCR below holding
current.3.By interrupting anode current by means of momentarily series or parallel switching
14. Define holding current in a SCR.
Holding current is defined as the minimum value of anode current to keep the SCR ON.
15.List the advantages of SCR.
1. SCR can handle and control large currents.2. Its switching speed is very high3. It has no moving parts, therefore it
gives noiseless operation.4. Its operating efficiency is high.
16.List the application of SCR.
1. It can be used as a speed controller in DC and AC motors.2. It can be used as an inverter.3. It can be used as a
converter 4. It is used in battery chargers.5. It is used for phase control and heater control.6. It is used in light
dimming control circuits.
17. What is meant by latching.
The ability of SCR to remain conducting even when the gate signal is removed is called as latching.
Forward current rating of a SCR is the maximum anode current that it can handle withoutdestruction.
18. List the important ratings of SCR.
1. Forward break over voltage2. Holding current3. Gate trigger current4. Average forward current5. Reverse break
down voltage.
19.Compare SCR with TRIAC.SCR TRIAC
1. unidirectional current 1. bidirectional current2. triggered by positive pulse at gate 2. triggered by pulse of
positive or negativeat gate3. fast turn off time 3,. Longer turn off time4. large current ratings 4. lower current ratings
20.Differentiate BJT and UJT.BJT UJT
1. It has two PN junctions 1. It has only one PN junctions2. three terminals present 2. three terminals present are emi
tter,are emitter, base,collector base1,base23. basically a amplifying device 3. basically a switching device
21.What is Shockley diode (PNPN diode)?
Shockley diode is a four layered PNPN silicon diode. It is a low- current SCR without a gate. Thisdevice is switched
ON when the anode to cathode voltage is increased to forward switchingvoltageVS which is equivalent to SCR
forward break over voltage.
22.What is a thyristor?
Thyristor is a semiconductor device having three or more junctions .Such a device acts as a switchwithout any bias
and can be fabricated to have voltage ratings of severalhundred volts and currentratings from a few amperes to
almost thousand amperes.
23.What are the types of thyristors?
1. Unidirectional thyristors2. Bidirectional thyristors3. Low-power thyristors
24.Give the various triggering devices for thyristors.
1. SCR 2. UJT3. DIAC4. TRIAC
25.what is backward diode?
The backward diode is a diode in which the doping level is moderate. The forward current in thiscase is very small,
very much similar to that of the reverse current in the conventional diode.
26.What is a photo diode?
The photo diode is a diode in which the current sensitivity to radiation can be made much larger bythe use of the
reverse biased PN junction. Thus this diode conducts heavily in the reverse bias whenthere is some radiaton allowed
to fall on the PN junction.
27.What is a LED?
A PN junction diode which emits light when forward biased is known as Light emitting diode(LED).
28.What is a tunnel diode?
The tunnel diode is a pn junction diode in which the impurity concentration is greatly increasedabout 1000 times
higher than a conventional PN junction diode thus yielding a very thin depletionlayer. This diode utilizes a
phenomenon called tunneling and hence the diode is referred as tunneldiode.
29.What is tunneling phenomenon?
The phenomenon of penetration of the charge carriers directly though the potential barrier instead of climbing over it
is called as tunneling