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1.

Phonology
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic
organization of sounds in languages. It has traditionally focused largely on
the study of the systems of phonemes in particular languages (and
therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may
also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word
(including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory
features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound is considered
to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning.
Phonology also includes the study of equivalent non-oral languages such
as ASL or other sign languages.

Definition:
Phonology is the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages.
Discussion:
The phonological system of a language includes

 an inventory of sounds and their features, and


 rules which specify how sounds interact with each other.

Phonology is just one of several aspects of language. It is related to other aspects such
as phonetics, morphology, syntax, and pragmatics.

Here is an illustration that shows the place of phonology in an


interacting
hierarchy of
levels in
linguistics:
.
19down voteaccepted

2. Phonemics, or Phonology, is the study of the distribution


of sound systems in human languages. A Phoneme is a
particular set of sounds produced in a particular language
and distinguishable by native speakers of that language
from other (sets of) sounds in that language. That's what
"distinctive" means -- the English phonemes /n/ and /ŋ/
can be told apart by native speakers of English, because
we use these sounds to distinguish different words -- sin ~
sing, ton ~ tongue, run ~ rung, etc. This would be
impossible if these phonemes weren't distinctive in
English.
Phonetics, on the other hand, is simply the physiological and
acoustic study of speech sounds, covering all sounds used in all
languages, and relying only on the physical and physiological
characteristics of the sounds, without regard to their systemic
patterns in various languages.
Phonemes, the unit of (this variety of) phonemics, encased in
/slashes/, are always specific to a language. Since phonetics is a
natural science, phones, the unit of phonetics, encased in [square
brackets], are universal, and are not specific to any language.
Thus, we say that there is such a thing as "the phone [p]",
because phones are defined universally, but that there is no such
thing as "the phoneme /p/", because phonemes are relative to
languages.

3.
Manner of Articulation
We stated that in consonant sounds the airflow is interrupted,
diverted or restricted as it passes the oral cavity. The respective
modifications that are made to a sound are referred to as
their manner of articulation. The manner of articulation,
therefore, describes how the different speech organs are involved
in producing a consonant sound, basically how the airflow is
obstructed. Thus, the manner of articulation is a distinctive feature
in the English language.
These are the different manners of articulation:
 Plosives/stops: In plosives, the speech organs are closed and
the oral and nasal cavity completely closed blocking off the
airstream. The upbuilding pressure in the oral cavity is then
suddenly released. The audible puff of air that is released is
called aspiration. Plosives of the English language are /p/, /t/,
/k/ (voiceless) and //b/, /d/, /g/ (voiced).
 Affricates: Like with plosives there is a complete blockage of
the airstream in the oral cavity. But in contrast to said plosives,
the blocked-off airstream is not released suddenly, but rather
slowly causing audible friction. Affricates can, therefore, be
divided into two parts: a plosive followed by a fricative (as there
is closure and friction in the same place). But note that
affricates are always analyzed as only one phoneme. English
affricates are /tʃ/ (voiceless) as in cheese and /dʒ/ (voiced) as
in jungle.
 Nasals: In nasal sounds the velum (soft palate) is lowered
blocking off the oral cavity. Air can only escape through the
nose. English nasals are /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/ as in sing, which are
all voiced.
 Fricatives: Fricatives are created when air forces its way
through a narrow gap between two articulators at a steady
pace. They can be divided into two categories: slit fricatives
and groove fricatives. In slit fricatives the tongue is rather flat
(as in /f/, /θ/ as in thing(voiceless), /v/, /ð/ as in this (voiced) )
while in groove fricatives the front of the tongue forms the
eponymous groove (/s/ as in seal, /ʃ/ as
in shock (voiceless), /z/ as in zero, /ʒ/as in measure (voiced)).
 Laterals: The tip of the tongue is pressed onto the alveolar
ridge. The rims of the tongue are lowered so that the air
escapes over the lowered tongue rims. The only English lateral
sound is /l/ (voiced).
 Approximants: The name approximants refers to the fact that
the articulators involved approach each another without
actually touching. There are three approximants in the English
language: /j/ as in you, /w/ as in we and /r/ as in rise (all
voiced). Approximants are often referred to as semi-
vowels (or glides) as they represent the “twilight zone” between
consonants and vowels.

 6. Phonemic awareness refers to an understanding


that words and syllables are comprised of a
sequence of elementary speech sounds. This
understanding is essential to learning to read an
alphabetic language. The majority of children with
reading disabilities fail to grasp this idea.
 In teaching phonemic awareness, the focus of all
activities should be on the sounds of words, not on
letters or spellings.
 Use strategies that make phonemes prominent in
children’s attention and perception. For example,
model specific sounds, such as /s/ in the word sat,
and ask children to produce each sound in isolation
and in many different words until they are
comfortable with the sound and understand its
nature.
 Begin with simple words and simple challenges,
e.g., listen for initial /s/ in sat, sit, sip, and sad . . . or
for long /e/ in me, see, bee . . . .
 Teach students to blend phonemes into words.
Begin by identifying just one phoneme, e.g., /m/-ilk,
/s/-at, working gradually toward blending all the
phonemes in words, e.g., /s/-/a/-/t/.
 Teach students to identify the separate phonemes
within words, e.g., what is the first sound of soup?
What is the last sound of kiss? Beginning phonemes
are easier to identify than final phonemes.
 Once students are comfortable listening for
individual phonemes, teach them to break up words,
into component sounds, e.g., /m/-/oo/-/s/= “moose”.
 Create a sequence of segmenting and blending
activities to help students develop an understanding
of the relationship between sounds in words.
 Provide children with more support when first
teaching a task. For example, model a sound or
strategy for making the sound, and have the children
use the strategy to produce the sound. Model and
practice several examples. Prompt the children to
use the strategy during guided practice, and
gradually add more examples. As the students
master these skills, provide less teacher-directed
instruction and more practice and challenge.
 Make teaching phonological awareness a top
priority. Opportunities to engage in phonological
awareness activities should be plentiful, frequent,
brief, and fun.
 Phonemic awareness is essential for learning to
read, but it is not enough by itself. It must be
coupled with instruction and practice in learning the
relationship between letters and sounds.
7.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of
phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and
uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds
(phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. It
is intended as a notational standard for the phonemic and
phonetic representation of all spoken languages.
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA),
an alphabet developed in the 19th century to accurately
represent the pronunciation of languages. One aim of the
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was to provide a
unique symbol for each distinctive sound in a language—
that is, every sound, or phoneme, that serves to
distinguish one word from another.
The concept of the IPA was first broached by Otto
Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy of the International
Phonetic Association and was developed by A.J. Ellis,
Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, and Passy in the late 19th
century. Its creators’ intent was to standardize the
representation of spoken language, thereby sidestepping
the confusion caused by the inconsistent conventional
spellings used in every language. The IPA was also
intended to supersede the existing multitude of individual
transcription systems. It was first published in 1888 and
was revised several times in the 20th and 21st centuries.
The International Phonetic Association is responsible for
the alphabet and publishes a chart summarizing it.
The IPA primarily uses Roman characters. Other letters
are borrowed from different scripts (e.g., Greek) and are
modified to conform to Roman style. Diacritics are used for
fine distinctions in sounds and to show nasalization of
vowels, length, stress, and tones.
The IPA can be used for broad and narrow transcription.
For example, in English there is only one tsound
distinguished by native speakers. Therefore, only one
symbol is needed in a broad transcription to indicate
every t sound. If there is a need to transcribe narrowly in
English, diacritical marks can be added to indicate that
the t’s in the words tap, pat, and stem differ slightly in
pronunciation.
The IPA did not become the universal system for phonetic
transcription that its designers had intended, and it is used
less commonly in America than in Europe. Despite its
acknowledged shortcomings, it is widely employed by
linguists and in dictionaries, though often with some
modifications. The IPA is also used by singers.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is
an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily
on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International
Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a
standardized representation of the sounds of spoken
language.[1] The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign
language students and teachers, linguists, speech-
language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed
language creators and translators.[2][3]
The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of
speech that are part of oral
language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the
separation of words and syllables.[1] To represent
additional qualities of speech, such as tooth
gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft lip and
cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to
the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used.[2]
IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of
two basic types, letters and diacritics. For example, the
sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA
with a single letter, [t], or with a letter plus diacritics, [t̺ʰ],
depending on how precise one wishes to be.[note 1] Often,
slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic
transcription; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer
to, either [t̺ʰ] or [t], depending on the context and
language.