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EXPERIMENT NO: 1

SURVEY OF AN AREA BY CHAIN SURVEY


(CLOSED TRAVERSE)

Aim: To survey an open field by chain survey in order to calculate the area of the pen field.

Instruments: Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, cross Staff.

Chain Chains of 20 m and 30 m are used to lay and measure main survey lines and long
distant offsets. These chains are divided into 100 links. The length of each link is 20 cm and 30
cm for 20 m and 30mchains respectively.
Tape: Tape of 30 m length is used. The tape is used to take perpendicular offsets for smaller
lengths.
Ranging rods:Steel tubular ranging rods 2 m or 3 m long are used. These are used for marking
a point in such a way that the position of the point can be clearly and exactly seen from some
distance away.
Arrows: 40 cm long steel arrows are used to mark the end of each chain during the chaining
process.
Cross-staff: This instrument is used for setting right angles or perpendicular offsets of objects
from main chain line.
Code of Signals: The code of signals shown in Table 1 should be followed by the surveyors
while ranging a survey line using chain, to direct or convey message to the other surveyors or
assistants in order to bring all the intermediate points in alignment with the end points in a chain
line.

Signal given by the Surveyor Meaning of the signal to the Assistant


1. Rapid sweep with right hand (Fig.a) Move considerably in that direction (to your
left). Move slowly to your left.
2. Slow sweep with right hand. Continue to move to your
left. Plumb the rod to your
3. Right arm extended (Fig.). left.
4. Right arm up and moved to the right.

5. Rapid sweep with left hand (Fig.) Move co ns ider ably in t hat d ir ect io n
(to yo ur right).
6. Slow sweep with left hand. Move slowly to your right.
7. Left arm extended (Fig.). Continue to move your
8. Left arm up and moved to the left. right.
Plumb the rod to your right.

9. Both hands above head and Ranging is correct.


brought
Down (Fig.). Fix the ranging rod.
10. Both arms extended forward
horizontally and the hands brought down
quickly.

Table 1: Code of Signal


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Ranging a line:

It is the process of establishing a number of intermediate points on a survey line


joining two stations in the field, so that all the points on the line are in alignment and
the length between stations may be measured accurately.

Procedure:
 Two ranging rods are erected vertically at the end stations by two surveyors who are
standing behind ranging rods.
 One of the surveyors from one of the end stations directs the assistant to hold the ranging
rod vertically to establish an intermediate point and move the rod either to the left or
right until the ranging rod is in alignment with the end stations.
 Finally, when the ranging is correct, the assistant is directed to fix the ranging rod at that
point. All the directions from surveyor should be as per the Code of Signals given in
Table 1.

Taking offsets:
The perpendicular distance measured right or left of the chain line to locate the details like
corners, boundaries, culverts, etc is known as offset.Offsets can be taken by two ways:
1. By Tape and
2. By Cross-Staff.

By Tape:
The leader holds the zero end of the tape at the point where the offset is to be taken
and the follower swings off the tape in an arc across the chain line to left and right. The
minimum reading of tape on the chain line gives the position of the foot of the
perpendicular from the required point.

By Cross-Staff:
The Cross-Staff is held vertically on the chain line approximately near the point where
the offset is likely to fall. The Cross-Staff is turned until the signal at one end of the chain
line is viewed through one pair of slits. The surveyor then takes a round and views
through the other pair of silts. If the point to which the offset is to be taken is seen, the
point below the instrument is the required foot of the offset. On the other hand, if the
point is not seen, the surveyor moves along the chain line, without twisting the Cross-Staff,
till the point appears.

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Procedure for surveying the given open field (Closed Traverse):

Note: This procedure is general procedure only. This procedure varies with the
experiment given to students. Therefore students are required to write the procedure
according to the experiment given to them.

 ABCDEF is the required closed traverse open field to be surveyed for


calculating the area as shown in Fig 1. From the station A the length of all the
opposite corners such as AC, AD and AE are measured with a chain and the
longest distance is considered for lying off the main chain line. In this case AD is
the longest and a chain line running from A to D is laid.

 Offsets to corner points B, C, E and F are now laid from the chain line AD either
by tape or cross- staff and their foot of offsets are G, I, J, H respectively.

 All the offset lengths GB, HF, IC and JE are measured either by chain or tape
depending on the length of offsets. The distances between all the points AG, GH,
HI, IJ and JD are also measured along the chain line.

Fig 1: Survey of an Open Field (Closed Traverse)

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Area Calculations:

Note: Areas of all triangles and trapeziums are calculated and added together to
calculate the total area of open field (Closed Traverse) as described in class.

CALCULATIONS;-

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S.NO Discription of sketch Formula Substitution Area (m2)

Result:

The total Area of the given Open Field by Chain Survey = sqm

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EXPERIMENT NO: 2
CHAINING ACROSS OBSTACLES
Aim:To survey an area by chain survey across obstacles and to calculate the obstructed lengths
by using different methods.

Instruments: Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, Cross Staff.

Obstacles to Chaining: During measurements, it is impossible to set out all the chain lines in a
Straight forward method because of a variety of obstacles to chaining and ranging in the field.

Obstacles to measurement: The obstacles which do not obstruct the ranging (view) like
Ponds, rivers are known as Obstacles to Measurement.

Obstacles to alignment: The obstacles which we cannot see across, i.e. both the chaining and
ranging are obstructed, e.g. houses, stacks, etc. are known as Obstacles to Alignment.

Procedures tofind outObstructedLength:

Obstacles to measurement:
First Method:
Let ABCD be a chain line obstructed by a pond (Fig 1). Let BC be the obstructed length.
Two offsets BE and CF of equal lengths are made at B and C and chaining is done
along EF to measure the distance EF.

Now the required obstructed length BC is equal to the measured distance EF.
Therefore, BC = EF
Second Method:
Let AB be the obstructed length across the river (Fig 2). AC is laid off, of any
convenient length, perpendicular to the required distance AB.
Now a perpendicular is laid off from C such that it meets the extended line of AB
at D. Triangles ABC and ADC are similar triangles.
From the principle of similar triangles,

AB / AC = AC / AD Therefore, obstructed length


AB = AC2 / AD

Third Method:
Let AB be a chain line obstructed by a river (Fig 3). A point I is assumed anywhere in line
with the required distance AB. A point H is taken in such a way that HJ = HI and HK = HB.

Now a point L is established in line AH and at the same time in the line JK produced.

Triangles KHL and ABH are similar triangles and their corresponding sides are equal to
each other as the points K, B and I, J are equidistant either side from H.

Therefore, the obstructed length AB = KL

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Obstacles to alignment:
First Method:

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Let DE be the obstructed length across the building (Fig 4). A point C is assumed
arbitrarily. E and C are joined such that EC = CB. Now D and C are also joined such that
DC = CA.

Triangles CDE and CBA are similar triangles and their corresponding sides are equal to
each other as points BE and AD are equidistant either side from C.

Therefore, obstructed length DE = BA

Second Method:

Let DE be the obstructed length across the building (Fig 5). A point F is established at
equal distances from D and E at any convenient distance. Points H and G are established
such that FH = FG.

Triangles FDE and FHG are similar triangles. From the principle of similar triangles,
DE / DF = HG / HF
Therefore, obstructed length DE = (HG X DF) / HF

Calculations:

Note: All calculations of all methods to find obstructed lengths should be shown here.
Result:
Obstacles to measurement:
Obstructed length from First Method = m
Obstructed length from Second Method = m
Obstructed length from Third Method = m

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Obstacles to alignment:
Obstructed length from First Method = m
Obstructed length from Second Method = m

Instructions to students:
Students are required to draw all the diagrams of all methods to scale with all dimensions on
the left pages of lab record.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 3
DETERMINATION OF DISTANCE BETWEEN
TWO INACCESSIBLE POINTS WITH COMPASS.

Aim: To determine distance between two inaccessible points using Prismatic Compass.

Instruments: Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, Prismatic Compass, Tripod.

Prismatic Compass: It is a compass where the graduated ring is attached with the needle
and does not rotate with line of sight. As the name implies a prism is provided at the
Eye Vane end so that the readings on graduated ring are read through the prism.
Graduations are engraved inverted since the graduated ring is read through the prism.

The minimum angle between two adjacent graduations is 300.

The advantage of this compass is that both sighting and reading can be done
simultaneously.

Temporary Adjustments of Compass:


Centering: A tripod is placed over the station with its legs spread well apart so that it is
at a workable height. The compass is fixed on the tripod. It is then centered over the
station where the reading is to be taken. A plumb bob is hung from the centre of
compass. In case the arrangement for a plumb bob is not provided, a stone is dropped
from below the compass and it should fall on the peg marking the ground station.

Leveling: The compass is levelled by eye judgment. This is essential so that the
graduated ring swings freely.

Focusing the Prism: The prism is moved up or down till the figures and graduations are
seen clearly.

Inaccessible Distance: When two points are too far away, unreachable and the chaining
between them is difficult, the distance between these two points is called Inaccessible
Distance. But the two points are visible to each other.

Taking a Reading with Prismatic Compass: The compass is rotated until the point or
object and the cross hair at object vane coincide. Now the reading on the graduated ring is
taken by observing through the prism which is provided just below the eye vane. The
reading that coincides with the cross hair should be taken. The break pin which is
provided below the object vane should be pressed down while taking reading to
avoid oscillations of graduated ring.

Measuring Angle between Two lines: Let ABC be a traverse of which the angle at B to
be measured (Fig 1). The compass is set up at point B and then the point A is sighted and
the reading on graduated ring is noted down. Now the instrument is rotated towards point
C and the reading on graduated ring is noted down. The difference of those two
reading gives the angle at B which is an angle between line BA and line BC.

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Procedure for measuring inaccessible distance between two points:

Let A and B be the two inaccessible points whose distance to be measured (Fig 2).
A point C is established at a reasonable distance from A. Let a, b, c be the distances
of sides CB, AC, AB respectively out of which c is the inaccessible length.

Now distance b is measured as it is accessible to point A. The angles QA and Qc


are measured with a compass as described before.
The angle QB can be calculated from,

QB = 180 – (QA + Qc)

The inaccessible length c can be calculated from Sine Rule.

a / Sin QA = b / Sin QB = c / Sin Qc


b / Sin QB = c / Sin Qc

Therefore, c = (b X Sin Qc) / (Sin QB)

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Calculations:

Note: All calculations should be shown here.


Result:
The distance between the two inaccessible points A and B,

c= m

Instructions to students:

Your are required draw a rough sketch of Fig 1, but the sketch of Fig 2 with all
measurements and angles should be drawn to a suitable scale.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 4
SURVEY OF AN AREA BY COMPASS SURVEY
(CLOSED TRAVERSE)

Aim: To survey an area (Closed Traverse) by Compass Survey and to plot the area.

Instruments: Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, Prismatic Compass, Tripod.

Whole Circle Bearing (WCB): The bearing of line that is always measured clockwise
from the north point of the reference meridian towards the line right round the circle is
0 0
known as Whole Circle Bearing (WCB). WCB will have values between 0 and 360 .
Q1, Q2, Q3, etc in Fig 1 represent WCBs.

Fore or Forward Bearing (FB) (WCB System):


The bearing of line in the direction of progress of the survey is called Fore or
Forward Bearing.

Back or Reverse Bearing (BB) (WCB System):


The bearing of a line in the opposite direction of progress of the survey is known
as Back or Reverse Bearing.

The bearing of a line is indicated in the order in which the line is lettered. Thus, the
bearing from A to B (Fig 2) is the fore bearing Q of the line AB, whereas the bearing
of line AB in the direction B to A is its back bearing P.

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Calculation of Included Angles from Fore Bearing and Back Bearing:

Included angle is an angle between two lines. Included angles may be exterior or interior.
Included angle between two lines is obtained by the following formula,
Included Angle = Fore Bearing of Next Line – Back Bearing of
Previous Line

In Fig 3 the included angle between line AB and line BC is,

= FB of line BC – BB of line AB

If the calculated included angle comes out as a negative value, 3600 is added to it.

Since traversing in this case is done in clockwise direction, the included angles will be
exterior only.

Taking Fore Bearing and Back Bearing of a line with Prismatic Compass:

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While taking Fore Bearing of a line, the compass is kept over the starting point of line
while running from clockwise direction in the traverse. The line of sight is kept along
N – S direction such that the bearing under the prism should read 00. Now the compass
is turned in clockwise direction only until the line of sight coincides with the ranging
rod placed at the end point of line.

While taking Back Bearing of a line, the compass is shifted to the end point of line
and same procedure is followed as it is followed while taking Fore Bearing.

Procedure:
Note: This procedure is general procedure only. This procedure, figures and table vary
with the experiment given to students. Therefore students are required to write the
procedure and draw figures and table according to the experiment given to them.

The Fore Bearing and Back Bearing of all lines of closed traverse (Fig 4) are
measured by a Prismatic Compass.

The distances of all lines of closed traverse are measured with a chain. All the values
are tabulated as below.

Line Observed Differenc Inclu Theoreti Erro Correct Distan Remarks


e ded cal r ed ce
(FB of An Sum Includ
Next gle of ed
Line Includ Angl
– BB of ed e
Previou Angles
FB BB

A FB of AB

B BB of EA

FB of
BC BC– BB
CD of AB
DE
EA FB of
CD- BB
of BC

FB of
DE- BB
of CD
Total -- ---
-- -

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Theoretical sum of included angles can be calculated by,

(2n + 4) X 900

Where n = Number of sides of closed


traverse. The Error in the actual included angles can be calculated by,
Error = (Theoretical Sum of Included Angles – Total Actual Included Angles) / n

Where n = Number of sides of closed traverse.

If the Error is positive, add this error to each actual included angle and if the Error
is negative, deduct this error from each actual included angle.

Therefore, Corrected Included Angle = Actual Included Angle + Error, if positive.

Corrected Included Angle = Actual Included Angle – Error, if negative.

Check:

Sum of Corrected Included Angles = Theoretical Sum of Included Angles.

Calculation of internal included angles:

Internal Included Angle between two lines can be calculated by,

Internal Included Angle = 3600 – External Included Angle

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Calculations:
Note: Show all Internal Included Angles calculations here.
Result:
Note: This result also varies with the experiment given to students. Therefore
students are required to write results according to the experiment given to them.

Distances:

AB = m

BC = m

CD = m

DE = m

EA = m

Included Angles:
Angle A =
Angle B =
Angle C =
Angle D =
Angle E =
Instructions to students:

You are required to draw all the diagrams as I have drawn. You are required to plot
the closed traverse to a suitable scale with all distances and internal included angles
on the left page of lab record.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 5
RADIATION AND INTERSECTION METHODS BY PLANE
TABLE SURVEY

Aim:
To plot a given area by Radiation and Intersection methods of Plane Table Survey.

Instruments:
Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, Plane Table with Tripod and its accessories,
Two Drawing Sheets, Drawing Clips, Pencil, Eraser and Pins.

Plane Table Surveying:


It is the branch of surveying in which both field work and plotting are done
simultaneously. The advantage of Plane Table Surveying is that as the field is in our
view, omitting of any measurement is not possible and exact shapes of the areas can be
drawn.

Drawing Board:
The Drawing Board is made of well-seasoned wood. The Drawing Board is mounted
on a tripod by means of a screw and wing nut.

Alidade:
It is a brass ruler of about 50 – 60 cm in length. Two vanes, ‘object vane’ and ‘sight
vane’ are hinged at its two ends. A scale is attached to the fudicial edge of alidade.
This is used for sighting the object through object and sight vanes and to draw lines to
a suitable scale along the fudicial or ruling edge.

Trough Compass:
Usually it is 15 cm long and is provided to plot the magnetic meridian (N – S
direction) to facilitate orientation of the plane table in the magnetic meridian.

Spirit Level:
The essential condition in plane table surveying is that the board should be level.
This is usually accomplished with a circular spirit level.

Plumbing Fork:
It is a hairpin-shaped brass frame having two arms of equal length. One end of the
frame is pointed and is kept over the drawing sheet touching the plotted position of the
instrument station. The other end of the frame carries a plumb bob. The position of
the plane table is adjusted until the plumb bob hangs over the station occupied by the
instrument.

Indian Clinometer:
Since a large number of points of observation are required to plot contours in plane
table survey, the direct or spirit levelling proves to be very slow and thus an
Indian pattern Clinometer is employed to measure the levels of the ground.

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Drawing Sheet:
The drawing sheet used should be of the best quality to withstand rubbing and
scrubbing. Because of humidity, unequal expansion and contraction of the sheet may
alter the scale and distort the map. It should never be rolled or folded and should
be carried flat. The sheet should be well stretched and held firmly on the board to
prevent any displacement of the sheet by the friction of the alidade.

A plane table and its accessories are shown in the figure below.

Note: Students are required to draw this figure.

Temporary Adjustments:

SurfaceoftheboardshouldbeperpendiculartotheverticalaxisoftheInstrument:

This can be achieved by placing a spirit level over the plane table and moving the legs
to make the bubble central. The table is then turned through 1800. The spirit level is
now placed at 900 to its previous position and the bubble is again made central.
The procedure is repeated and if the bubble remains central, the adjustment is correct.

To check this, draw a line along the ruling or fudicial edge, reverse the alidade and
place it against the ends of the line. Again draw a line which should coincide with the
previous line. If the two lines do not coincide, the edge is rubbed with sand paper and
is corrected.

ThetwoVanesshouldbeperpendiculartotheBaseofAlidade:

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Set the alidade on the corner edge of a building or on a suspended plumb bob. Set the
alidade vanes along any of the above two. The plumb line and vane should coincide. If
they do not coincide adjust from the hinges till the vane coincides with the plumb line.

Setting up the Plane Table:

Centering: It is the operation of bringing the plotted station point exactly over the
ground station. To achieve this pointed leg of the plumbing fork is placed against the
plotted point and the plumb bob is suspended from its other leg.

Levelling: It is the operation of bringing the plane table in a horizontal plane. The
plane table is set at a convenient height, which is elbow level, by spreading the legs.
The board is levelled with the help of spirit level.

Orientation: It is the operation of keeping the plane table parallel to the position it
occupied at the first station. The plane table is set on a new station and the alidade is
placed against the line joining the new station with the preceding station. The table is
rotated until the line of sight bisects the previous station. This entire procedure is
known as Orientation by Back Sighting.

Sighting Through Alidade and Taking Measurement:


Let A and B be the two points on the ground whose length is to be plotted on the
plane table (Fig
1). The plane table is kept at station A and is set up as described before. Now the
alidade is kept along the point ‘a’ which is the transferred point of A from ground to
drawing sheet by plumbing fork.

Now the alidade is rotated along point ‘a’ until the ranging rod at ground station B
is sighted through object vane and eye vane. The distance AB on the ground is

measured and converted to a suitable scale. A point ‘b’ is marked along the alidade
with the distance that is equal to the converted distance of AB. Now ‘ab’ is the
required distance of line AB on the drawing sheet.

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Radiation Method:

In this method the instrument is setup at a station and rays are drawn to various
stations which are to be plotted. The distances are cut to a suitable scale after actual
measurements.

Procedure:
Note: This procedure is general procedure only and varies with the given
experiment. Students are required to write the procedure and draw figures
according to the experiment given to them.

A station O is selected such that all other stations A, B, C and D are accessible and
visible from O (Fig 2). N – S direction is plotted. The plane table is setup at O. The
alidade is placed at ‘o’ and rays are drawn from ‘o’ to the stations A, B, C, D and the
distances oa, ob, oc and od are cut to the chosen scale. Joint a, b, c and d.

Intersection Method:
In this method two stations are so selected that all the other stations to be plotted are
visible from these. The line joining these two stations is called Base Line. The length
of this line is measured very accurately. Rays are drawn from these stations to the
stations to be plotted. The intersection of the rays from the two stations gives the
position of the station to be plotted on the drawing sheet.

Procedure:
Note: This procedure is general procedure only and varies with the given
experiment. Students are required to write the procedure and draw figures according
to the experiment given to them.

Let A and B be the two accessible stations (Fig 3), such that A and B can be suitably
plotted. C is the station to be plotted by intersection. The plane table is placed at A. N
– S direction is plotted. The ground station A is transferred as ‘a’ onto the drawing
sheet. With the alidade centered at ‘a’, station B is sighted. A ray aB is drawn and is
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cut as ‘ab’ to a suitable scale. With the alidade at ‘a’, C is also sighted and a ray aC is
drawn. The table is now shifted to B and is setup. The alidade is placed at ‘b’ and C is
sighted. A ray bC is drawn. The intersection of the two rays gives the position of C as
‘c’ on the plane table.

Instructions to Students:
There are no calculations and result in this experiment, but you are required to
attach the two drawing sheets (the ones you have drawn on the field) to the lab
record after the last page of this experiment.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 6
TWO POINT AND THREE POINT PROBLEMS IN PLANE TABLE SURVEY

AIM: To locate the station point occupied by the plane table.


INSTRUMENTS:
Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, Plane Table with Tripod and its accessories,

Two Drawing Sheets, Drawing Clips, Pencil, Eraser and Pins.

Fig: TWO POINT PROBLEM

The two point problem may be stated that locate the position on the plan of a
station occupied by the plane table, by means of observations to two well
defined points, which are visible from the instrument station and whose
positions have been already plotted on the plan.

In this A & B are well defined points on the ground a & b are their plotted
positions on the plan. C is the station over which the table is to be set up. It is
required to locate the true position of the ‘c’ on the plan.

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PROCEDURE:
 A suitable auxiliary point D is selected such that the angles CAD and CBD
are not very small.
 The table is set up at D and levelled then the table is oriented by judging
AB to be parallel to AB and then the table is clamped.
 With the alidade pivoting a, the point A is sighted and a ray is drawn
through ‘a’ similarly, with the alidade pivoting ‘b’, the point B is sighted and a ray
is drawn through ‘b’ intersecting the ray drawn through ‘a’ at d 1, which
approximately represents the station |D.
 With the alidade pivoting d1, the point C is sighted and a ray is drawn
through d1, a point ‘c1’ is marked on this ray by eye estimate to represent the
distance D C.
 The table is shifted and set up at C such that c 1, is over C and levelled. The
table is oriented by back sighting to D and the clamped.
 With the alidade pivoting ‘a’ the point A sighted and a ray is drawn through
a intersecting the line d1, c1, at c1.
 With the alidade pivoting c1, the point B is sighted and a ray is drawn
through c1. The point of intersection of c1 B and d1 b is marked as b1.
 The alidade is placed along ab1, and ranging rod P is fixed at a great
distance from the table in the line ab1 produced.
 Then the alidade is placed along a b and the table is turned until the ranging
rod P is bisected. Then the table is clamped.
 With the alidade pivoted and the point A is sighted. A ray is drawn through
a. Similarly, with the alidade pivoted b, the point B is sighted and a ray is drawn
through b. the intersection of these two rays represent the true position (c) on the
plan.

FIELD APLLICATION: It is used for filling the details between control


points which are established by other methods such as theodolite survey.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 7
FLY LEVELLING

(A)DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING

AIM: To find the difference in elevation between two points .


INSTRUMENTS: Dumpy level, Leveling staff.

DUMPY LEVEL

The Major Components of a Dumpy Level

TELESCOPE: It contains of two metal tubes, one of which slides within the other
one tube carries the object glass and the second one carries eyepiece and diaphragm.

FOCUSSING SCREW: The telescope is focused by turning the focusing screw


either forward or backward.

BUBBLE TUBES: The telescope is attached with two bubble tubes. One is
longitudinal and the other is cross bubble tube. These two are placed at right angles
to each other.

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DIAPHRAGM: It carries cross hairs.

TRIBRACH & TRIVET: The telescope with vertical spindle is supported by


two parallel triangular plates. The upper plate is called tribrach and the lower plate is
called trivet

FOOT SCREWS: By turning the foot screws, the tribrach can be raised or
lowered to bring the bubble to the center of its run. Temporary adjustments are to
be made at each setup of the instrument. The following are the temporary
adjustments to be made.
1. Setting up of the level
2. Leveling up
3. Elimination of parallax.

TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENTS OF DUMPY LEVEL:


Temporary adjustments are to be made at each setup of the instrument. The
following are the temporary adjustments to be made.
1. Setting up of the level
2. Leveling up
3. Elimination of parallax.

SETTING UP OF THE LEVEL

a) Release the clamp screw of the instrument


b) Hold the instrument in the right hand and fix it on the tripod by turning round
only the lower part with the left hand.
c) Screw the instrument firmly.
d) Bring all the foot screws to the center of its run.
e) Spread the tripod legs well apart.
f) Fix any two legs firmly into the ground by pressing them with the hand.
g) Move the third leg to the right or left until the main bubble is approximately in
the center.
h) Then move the third leg in or out until the bubbles of the cross-level is
approximately in the center.
i) Fix the third leg firmly when the bubbles are approximately in the centers of their run.

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LEVELLING UP:

a) Place the telescope parallel to a pair of foot screws .


b) Bring the bubble to the center of its run by turning the foot screws equally either
both inwards and both outwards.
c) Turn the telescope through 90º so that it lies over the third foot screw.
d) Turn this third foot screw so that the bubble corners to the center of its run.
e) Bring the telescope back to the original position without reversing the eye-
piece and object glass.
f) Repeat the above operations until the bubble remains in the center of its run in
both the positions.
g) Turn the telescope through 180º and check whether the bubble remains central.

ELIMINATION OF PARALLOX:
a) Remove the lid from the object glass.
b) Hold a sheet of white paper in front of the object glass.
c) Move the eyepiece in or out until the cross hairs are distinctly visible.
d) Direct the telescope towards the staff.
e) Turn the focusing screw until a clear and sharp image in formed in the plane of
the cross hairs.

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PROCEDURE:
1. Let A and B be the two given points whose difference is elevation is to be found.
2. Set the level at convenient point O1 carryout temporary adjustments and take B.S
on A
3. Take FS on the Point C
4. Shift the instrument to point O2 and perform temporary adjustments.
5. Take B.S on C.
6. Take F.S. on D.
7. Shift the instrument to point O3 and perform temporary adjustments.
8. Take B.S on D

9. Take F.S on B.
10. Find the difference in elevation between A and B by both the methods.

RESULT:
Difference in elevation between A and B = .

28
Department of Civil Engineering
EXPERIMENT NO- 8

Determination of elevation of point by trigonometric levelling.

Theory:- Trigonometrical leveling is the process of determining the difference of

elevation of station from observed vertical angles and known distances, which are

assumed to be either horizontal or geodetic length at mean sea level. The vertical

angles may be measured by means of an accurate theodolite and the horizontal

distances may either be measured ( in case of plane surveying) or computed (in case

of geodetic observation)

Base of the object accessible:-

Height and Distances

1) Base of the object accessible.:- The horizontal distance between the instrument and

the object can be measured accurately.

Let P= instrument station.

Q=Point to be observed

A=centre of the instrument


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Q’ =projection of Q on horizontal plane through A

D= AQ’=horizontal distance between P&Q

h’=height of the instrument at P

h=QQ’

S=Reading on staff kept at B.M, With line of sight horizontal.α=angle of elevation from A

to Q

From triangle AQQ’, h=Dtanα

R.L of Q=R.L of instrument axis +Dtanα

If the R.L. of P is known,

R.L. of Q=R.L of P+h’+Dtanα

If the reading on the staff kept at the B.M. is S with the line of sight horizontal.

R.L of Q=R.L. of B.M+S+Dtanα

2) Base of the object inaccessible: - if the horizontal distance between the instrument

and the object can be measured due to obstracles etc., two stations are used so that they

are in the same vertical plane as the elevated object.

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a) Instrument axes at the same level:-

Let h=QQ’,α1 = angle of elevation from A to Q,α2=angle of elevation from B to Q

S= staff reading on B.M taken from both A and B, the reading being the same in the

both the cases.b=horizontal distance between the instrument stations,

D= horizontal distance between P&Q

From triangle AQQ’,h=Dtanα1-----------------------------------(1)

From triangle BQQ’, h=(b+D) tanα2 ----------------------------(2)

Equating (1) and (2), we get,

Dtanα1=(b+D) tanα2

D(tanα1-tanα2)=btanα2

b tan α 2
D=
tan α 1 − tan α 2

h=Dtanα2

b tan α 1 tan α 2
=
tan α1 − tan α 2

b sin α 1 sin α 2
=
sin(α 1 − α 2 )

R.L. of Q= R.L of B.M.+S+h

Procedure:-

1) Set up the theodolite at P and level it accurately with respect to the altitude

bubble.

2) Direct the telescope toward Q and bisect it accurately. Clamp both the planes.

Read the vertical angle α1.

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3) Transit the telescope so that the line of sight is reversed. Mark the second instrument

station R on the ground. Measured the distance RP accurately. Repeat steps (2)

and (3) for both face observation. The mean values should be adopted.

4) With the vertical vernier set to zero reading, and the altitude bubble in the centre of

the run, take the reading on the staff kept at nearby B.M.

5) Shift the instrument to R and set up the theodolite there. Measured the vertical

angle α2 to Q with both face observations.

6) With the vertical vernier set to zero reading, and the altitude bubble in the centre of

the run, take the reading on the staff kept at the near by B.M.

Observation table:-

Instrument R.L @ Reading on Vertical Horizontal R.L o f


Station B.M staff kept at angle distance the
B.M. (α) between object
instrument
station and
object

Result:- the elevation of the object from the B.M is found to be-------------m

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EXPERIMENT -9
MEASUREMENT OF HEIGHTS & DISTANCES
USING TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING

OBJECTIVE: Determination of elevation of points by Tacheometric surveying


EQUIPMENT:
• Tachometer with tripod,

• Tape,

• Leveling staff,

• Ranging rods

THEORY:

The Tachometer is an instrument which is generally used to determine the horizontal as well as
vertical distance . it can also be used to determine the elevation of various points which cannot
be determine by ordinary leveling. When one of the sight is horizontal and staff held vertical
then the RLs of staff station can be determined as we determine in ordinary leveling .But if the
staff station is below or above the line of collimation then the elevation or depression of such
point can be determined by calculating vertical distances from instrument axis to the central hair
reading and taking the angle of elevation or depression made by line of sight to the instrument
made by line of sight to the instrument axis.

Procedure:

 Set up the instrument in such a way that all the point should be visible from the
instrument station.

 Carryout the temporary adjustment and set vernier zero reading making line of sight
horizontal.

 Take the first staff reading on Benchmark and determine height of instrument.

 Then sight the telescope towards the staff station whose R.Ls are to be calculated.
Measure the angle on vernier if line of sight is inclined upward or downward and also
note the three crosshair readings.

 Determine the R.Ls of various points by calculating the vertical distance

31
32
Department of Civil Engineering
EXPERIMENT NO -10 (a)

AIM : Measurement of horizontal angles theodolite by method of repetition


APPARATUS:- Theodolite , Ranging rod, pegs etc.
Figure:

TRANSIT THEODOLITE

THEORY :

Theodolite : The theodolite is the most intricate and accurate instrument used for

measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. It consists of telescope by means of

which distant objects can be sighted. The telescope has two distinct motions on in the

horizontal plane and the Other in the vertical plane. The former being measured on a

graduated Horizontal vertical circle of two verniear.

Theodolite are primarily classified as

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1) Transit theodolite

2) Non-transit theodolite

A theodolite is called transit theodolite when its telescope can be resolved through a

complete revolution about its horizontal axis. In a vertical plane. The transit type is

largely used.

Various parts of transit theodolite

1) Telescope: it is an integral part and is mounted on the spindle known as horizontal

axis or turn on axis. Telescope is either internal or external focusing type.

2) The leveling head: It may consists of circular plates called as upper and lower

Parallel plates. The lower parallel plate has a central aperture through which a

plumb bob may be suspended. The upper parallel plate or tribranch is supported by

means of four or three leveling screws by which the instrument may be leveled.

3) To lower plate or screw plate: It carries horizontal circle at its leveled screw.

It carries a lower clamp screw and tangent screw with the help of which it can be

fixed accurately in any desired position.

4) The upper plate or vernier plate:- it is attached to inner axis and carries two vernier

and at two extremities diametrically opposite.

5) Compass: the compass box may be either of circular form or of a rough type. The

former is mounted on the vernier plate between the standards while the latter is

attached to the underside of the scale or lower plate or screwed to one of the

standards. Modern theodolite is fitted with a compass of the tubular type and it is

screwed to one of the standards.

6) Vertical circle: the vertical circle is rigidly attached to the telescope and

moves with it. It is silvered and it is usually divided into four quadrants.
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7) Index bar or T-frame: the index bar is T shaped and centered on horizontal axis of

the telescope in front of the vertical axis. It carries two vernier of the extremities of its

horizontal arms or limbs called the index arm. The vertical leg called the clip or

clipping screws at its lower extremity. The index arm and the clipping arm are

together known as T-frame.

8) Plumb bob: To centre the instrument exactly over a station mark, a plumb bob

is suspended from the hook fitted to the bottom of the central vertical axis.

Repetition method of measuring Horizontal angles

When it is required to measure horizontal angles with great accuracy as in the case of

traverse, the method of repetition may be adopted. In this method the same angle is

added several times by keeping the vernier to remain clamped each time at the end

of each measurement instead of setting it back to zero when sighting at the previous

station. The corrected horizontal angle is then obtained by dividing the final reading

by the number of repetitions. Usually six reading, three with face left and three with

face right, are taken The average horizontal angle is then calculated.

Procedure:-

1) Let LOM is the horizontal angle to be measured as shown in fig. O is the station point

fixed on the ground by a peg. Set up the theodolite over the peg ‘o’ and level it

accurately.

2) Set the horizontal graduated circle vernier A to read zero or 360° by upper clamp

screw and slow motion screw. Clamp the telescope to bisect the bottom shoe of the

flag fixed at point ‘L’ and tighten the lower clamp. Exactly intersect the centre of the

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Department of Civil Engineering
bottom shoe by means of lower slow motion screw. Check that the face of the

theodolite should be left and the telescope in normal position.

3) Check the reading of the vernier A to see that no slip has occurred .Also see that the

plate levels are in the centre of their run. Read the vernier B also.

4) Release the upper clamp screw and turn the theodolite clockwise. Biset the flag

bottom shoe fixed at point M by a telescope. Tighten the upper clamp screw and

bisect the shoe exactly by means of upper slow motion screw.

5) Note the reading on both the vernier to get the approximate value of the angle LOM.

6) Release the lower clamp screw and rotate the theodolite anticlockwise ai azimuth.

Bisect again the bottom shoe of the flag at ‘L’ and tighten the lower clamp screw. By

means of slow motion screw bisect exactly the centre of the shoe.

7) Release now the upper clamp screw and rotate the theodolite clockwise. Bisect the

bottom shoe of the flag fixed at M and tighten the upper clamp screw. By means of

slow motion screw bisect exactly the centre of the shoe. The vernier readings will bw

now twice the of the angles.

8) Repeat the process until the angle is repeated the required number of times (usually

3). Add 360° for every complete revaluation to the final reading and divided the total

angle by number of repetitions to get the value of angle LOM.

9) Change the face of the theodolite the telescope will now be inverted. Rrpeat the

whole process exactly in the above manner and obtain value of angle LOM.

10)The average horizontal angle is then obtained by taking the average of the two

angles obtained with face left and face right.

11)Usually three repetitions face left and three with face right should be taken and the

mean angle should be calculated.


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Observation Table:- Repetition method of measuring horizontal angle

S.N. Instrument Shifted Face left readings


Station to
Venier Venier B Total angle No of Mean
A 0,I,II Repetition horizontal
0,I,II angle
0,I,II
o L
M
L
M
L
M

S.N. Instrument Shifted Face Right readings


Station to
Venier Venier Total No of Mean Average
A B angle Repatition horizontal horizontal
0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II angle angle
0,I,II 0,I,II

o L
M
L
M
L
M 3

RESULT: Average horizontal angle is found to be ------------

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Department of Civil Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO- 10(a)

AIM: Measurement of vertical Angles with Theodolite


APPARATUS:- Theodolite, three ranging rods,

THEORY: Theodolite is an instrument designed for the measurement of horizontal and

vertical angle. It is most precise method it is also used for laying of horizontal angles

Locating points on line prolonging the survey line establishing the gradient, determination

of difference in the elevation setting out curve .Theodolite are of two types transit and

non transit. Transit theodolite is commonly used now a days .in transit theodolite telescope

can be revolved a complete revolution about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. a

transit theodolite consists of essential part.

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1) Leveling head: It supports the main working parts of the instrument and screws on a

tripod. The head comprises of two parts

a) A leveling foot screws for leveling the instrument i.e. for marking vertical axis truly

vertical.

b) A movable head or centering arrangement for centering the vertical axis

accurately over a station point.

2) A lower level circular horizontal metal plate: It carries a circular graduated arc . The

lower plate is attached to a vertical metal spindle (outer axis) which works in vertical

bearing and a form a part of leveling head. It may be graduated in degree and half

degree or a degree 1/3 of degrees .the upper plate carries an index and vernier or

micrometer towards fine reading on gradated horizontal circle .the upper plate carries

standard use of for supporting the telescope and the spirit level used for leveling the

instrument.

3) A telescope: The telescope is pivoted between the standard at right angles to the

horizontal axis . It can be rotated about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. The

telescope is provided with the focusing screw, Clamping screw and tangent screw.

4) A circular graduated are carried on vertical circle: It is attached to the horizontal axis

of the telescope, it is usually divided into 4 quadrants, but in some instruments it is

graduated continuously from 0-3600.the graduation in each quadrant are numbered from

0-900 in opposite direction. The subdivisions of vertical circle are similar to those of vertical

circle.

MESURMENT OF VERTICAL ANGLE

A vertical angle is the angle between the inclined line of sight to an object and the

horizontal. It may be an angle of elevation or on angle of depression according as the


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point is above or below the horizontal plane passing through the trunnion axis of the

instrument. To measure angle of elevation or depression LOM shown in fig. proceed as

follows:

1) Set up the theodolite at station point O and level it accurately with reference to the

altitude level.

2) Set vertical verniers C and D exactly to zero by using the vertical circle clamp and

tangent screw, while the altitude level should remain in the centre of its run. Also the

face of the theodolite should be left.

3) Release the vertical circle clamp screw and rotate the telescope in vertical plane so

as to bisect the object M. tighten the vertical circle clamp and exactly bisect the

object by slow motion screw.

4) Read both verniers C and D. the mean of the tow readings gives the value of the

required angle.

5) Similar observation may be made with other face. The average of the tow values

thus obtained gives the value of the required angle which is free from instrumental

errors.

6) Similarly the angle of depression can be measured following the above steps.

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To measure the vertical angle between two points L and M

Some times it is required to measure vertical angle between two points L and M . There

can be three possibilities.

(a) One point is above the line of sight and the other is below the line of sight then

angle LOM as shown in fig will be equal to (<α +<β )

(b) Both the points are above the line of sight. Then the angle LOM= <α -<β

(Refer Fig 2)

(c) Both the points are below the line of sight, then the angle LOM= <α -<β (Refer Fig 3)

To measure the angle between two points L and M proceed as follows

1) Set the theodolite at station point O and accurately level it.

2) Bisect the flag at L as explained already and take the reading on the verniers C

and D. Calculate the mean angle.

3) Bisect the flag at M as before and take the reading on the verniers C and D.

Calculate the mean angle.

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4) The sum or difference of these angles will give the value of the vertical angle

between points L and M as shown in the figure (4)

Observation table:-

S.N. Instrument Sighted Face left readings


Station to
Venier Venier Mean Angle Vertical
C D Angle
0,I,II 0,I,II
o P
(+ve) L
(-ve) M

S.N. Instrument Sighted Face Right readings Average Remarks


Station to Vertical
Venier Venier Mean Vertical Angle
C D Angle Angle
0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II

o P
(+ve) L
(-ve) M

Result: The average value of vertical is found to be---------------------.

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Department of Civil Engineering
EXPERIMENT NO- 10(b)

AIM: Determination of horizontal distance between two inaccessible points with theodolite

APPARATUS:- Theodolite, three ranging rods

Theory: - Traverse computation

The latitude of the line may defined as the distance measured parallel to an assumed

meridian direction (i.e true meridian, magnetic meridian or any other reference direction).

The departure of a line may defined as the distance measured parallel to line

perpendicular to the meridian.

The latitude (L) of a line is positive (+ve) when measured northward or upward and is

termed as Northing, the latitude of a line (-ve) when measured southward or downward and

termed as southing

Similarly the departure (D) of a line is positive (+ve) when measured Eastward or to the

right and is known as Easting. The departure of a line is negative (-ve) when measured

Westward or to left and is known as

Westing

Refer to fig suppose the length of the line OP=L and bearing of the line θ, then

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Latitude of the line =lcosθ

Departure of the line =lsinθ

Thus to find the latitude and departure of the line , it is essential to convert the bearing

(W.C.B) to reduce bearing (R.B); because the sign of latitude and departure depends upon

the reduced bearing i.e the first letter N or S determine the sign of the latitude and E or W

determine the sign of the departure.

.The following table gives the sign of latitude and departure.

S.N. Whole Circle Reduced Sign of Quadrant


Barings (W.C.B) Bearing Latitude Departure
1 0° to 90° NθE + - I
2 90° to 180° SθE - + II
3 180° to 270° SθW - - III
4 270° to 360° NθW + - IV

Problem: - the distance between two inaccessible points P and Q, the theodolite is set up

at two stations A& B 1000m apart and the following angles were observed.;

<PAQ =45°; <PAQ =57°; <PBA=50°;<PBQ =50°, The distance of two inaccessible point PQ is

calculated by

It is clear that lines PA, AB, BQ, and QP from closed traverse. The latitude and depature of

lines PA,AB and BQ can be determine by calculating their length and bearing first.

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In ∆PAB, <PAQ =45°+57°=102°

<ABP =56°

<BPA=180°-(102°+56°) =22°

Hence, from sine rule

PA AB
=
sin PBA sin BPA

1000 × sin 56 o
PA = = 2213m
sin 22 o

Similarly, ∆QAB

<QAB =57°

<QBA =106°

<AQB=180°-(57°+106°) =17°

Now ,

BQ AB
o
=
sin 57 sin 17 o

1000 × sin 57 o
BQ = = 2869m
sin 17 o

Hence .the bearing of various sides are not given by assuming any line (say,line PA) as the

reference meridian, the bearing of other lines can be calculated by the given angles as

follows:

Bearing of the line =0°


Add = 180°
Bearing of line AP = 180°
Add <PAB =102°
Bearing of the line AB =282°
Deduct =180°
Bearing of line BA =102°
Add <QBA =106°
Bearing of line BQ =208°
R.B. of line PA= N 0° E
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R.B. of line AB= N 78° W
R.B. of line BQ= S28° W
The latitudes and departure (or consecutive coordinates) can be calculated as given

below;

S.No. Line Length (m) R.B. Latitude L Departure D

1 PA 2213 N 0° E +2213.0 +0.0

2 AB 1000 N 78° W +207.9 -978.1

3 BQ 2869 S28° W -2531.0 -2325.1

Total -110.1 -2325.1

Result: - Length of line PQ= (∑ L) 2 + (∑ D) 2 = (−110.1) 2 + (2325.1) 2

=2328m

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