surveying lab manual

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surveying lab manual

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Anda di halaman 1dari 48

(CLOSED TRAVERSE)

Aim: To survey an open field by chain survey in order to calculate the area of the pen field.

Chain Chains of 20 m and 30 m are used to lay and measure main survey lines and long

distant offsets. These chains are divided into 100 links. The length of each link is 20 cm and 30

cm for 20 m and 30mchains respectively.

Tape: Tape of 30 m length is used. The tape is used to take perpendicular offsets for smaller

lengths.

Ranging rods:Steel tubular ranging rods 2 m or 3 m long are used. These are used for marking

a point in such a way that the position of the point can be clearly and exactly seen from some

distance away.

Arrows: 40 cm long steel arrows are used to mark the end of each chain during the chaining

process.

Cross-staff: This instrument is used for setting right angles or perpendicular offsets of objects

from main chain line.

Code of Signals: The code of signals shown in Table 1 should be followed by the surveyors

while ranging a survey line using chain, to direct or convey message to the other surveyors or

assistants in order to bring all the intermediate points in alignment with the end points in a chain

line.

1. Rapid sweep with right hand (Fig.a) Move considerably in that direction (to your

left). Move slowly to your left.

2. Slow sweep with right hand. Continue to move to your

left. Plumb the rod to your

3. Right arm extended (Fig.). left.

4. Right arm up and moved to the right.

5. Rapid sweep with left hand (Fig.) Move co ns ider ably in t hat d ir ect io n

(to yo ur right).

6. Slow sweep with left hand. Move slowly to your right.

7. Left arm extended (Fig.). Continue to move your

8. Left arm up and moved to the left. right.

Plumb the rod to your right.

brought

Down (Fig.). Fix the ranging rod.

10. Both arms extended forward

horizontally and the hands brought down

quickly.

1

Ranging a line:

joining two stations in the field, so that all the points on the line are in alignment and

the length between stations may be measured accurately.

Procedure:

Two ranging rods are erected vertically at the end stations by two surveyors who are

standing behind ranging rods.

One of the surveyors from one of the end stations directs the assistant to hold the ranging

rod vertically to establish an intermediate point and move the rod either to the left or

right until the ranging rod is in alignment with the end stations.

Finally, when the ranging is correct, the assistant is directed to fix the ranging rod at that

point. All the directions from surveyor should be as per the Code of Signals given in

Table 1.

Taking offsets:

The perpendicular distance measured right or left of the chain line to locate the details like

corners, boundaries, culverts, etc is known as offset.Offsets can be taken by two ways:

1. By Tape and

2. By Cross-Staff.

By Tape:

The leader holds the zero end of the tape at the point where the offset is to be taken

and the follower swings off the tape in an arc across the chain line to left and right. The

minimum reading of tape on the chain line gives the position of the foot of the

perpendicular from the required point.

By Cross-Staff:

The Cross-Staff is held vertically on the chain line approximately near the point where

the offset is likely to fall. The Cross-Staff is turned until the signal at one end of the chain

line is viewed through one pair of slits. The surveyor then takes a round and views

through the other pair of silts. If the point to which the offset is to be taken is seen, the

point below the instrument is the required foot of the offset. On the other hand, if the

point is not seen, the surveyor moves along the chain line, without twisting the Cross-Staff,

till the point appears.

2

Procedure for surveying the given open field (Closed Traverse):

Note: This procedure is general procedure only. This procedure varies with the

experiment given to students. Therefore students are required to write the procedure

according to the experiment given to them.

calculating the area as shown in Fig 1. From the station A the length of all the

opposite corners such as AC, AD and AE are measured with a chain and the

longest distance is considered for lying off the main chain line. In this case AD is

the longest and a chain line running from A to D is laid.

Offsets to corner points B, C, E and F are now laid from the chain line AD either

by tape or cross- staff and their foot of offsets are G, I, J, H respectively.

All the offset lengths GB, HF, IC and JE are measured either by chain or tape

depending on the length of offsets. The distances between all the points AG, GH,

HI, IJ and JD are also measured along the chain line.

3

Area Calculations:

Note: Areas of all triangles and trapeziums are calculated and added together to

calculate the total area of open field (Closed Traverse) as described in class.

CALCULATIONS;-

4

S.NO Discription of sketch Formula Substitution Area (m2)

Result:

The total Area of the given Open Field by Chain Survey = sqm

5

EXPERIMENT NO: 2

CHAINING ACROSS OBSTACLES

Aim:To survey an area by chain survey across obstacles and to calculate the obstructed lengths

by using different methods.

Obstacles to Chaining: During measurements, it is impossible to set out all the chain lines in a

Straight forward method because of a variety of obstacles to chaining and ranging in the field.

Obstacles to measurement: The obstacles which do not obstruct the ranging (view) like

Ponds, rivers are known as Obstacles to Measurement.

Obstacles to alignment: The obstacles which we cannot see across, i.e. both the chaining and

ranging are obstructed, e.g. houses, stacks, etc. are known as Obstacles to Alignment.

Obstacles to measurement:

First Method:

Let ABCD be a chain line obstructed by a pond (Fig 1). Let BC be the obstructed length.

Two offsets BE and CF of equal lengths are made at B and C and chaining is done

along EF to measure the distance EF.

Now the required obstructed length BC is equal to the measured distance EF.

Therefore, BC = EF

Second Method:

Let AB be the obstructed length across the river (Fig 2). AC is laid off, of any

convenient length, perpendicular to the required distance AB.

Now a perpendicular is laid off from C such that it meets the extended line of AB

at D. Triangles ABC and ADC are similar triangles.

From the principle of similar triangles,

AB = AC2 / AD

Third Method:

Let AB be a chain line obstructed by a river (Fig 3). A point I is assumed anywhere in line

with the required distance AB. A point H is taken in such a way that HJ = HI and HK = HB.

Now a point L is established in line AH and at the same time in the line JK produced.

Triangles KHL and ABH are similar triangles and their corresponding sides are equal to

each other as the points K, B and I, J are equidistant either side from H.

6

Obstacles to alignment:

First Method:

7

Let DE be the obstructed length across the building (Fig 4). A point C is assumed

arbitrarily. E and C are joined such that EC = CB. Now D and C are also joined such that

DC = CA.

Triangles CDE and CBA are similar triangles and their corresponding sides are equal to

each other as points BE and AD are equidistant either side from C.

Second Method:

Let DE be the obstructed length across the building (Fig 5). A point F is established at

equal distances from D and E at any convenient distance. Points H and G are established

such that FH = FG.

Triangles FDE and FHG are similar triangles. From the principle of similar triangles,

DE / DF = HG / HF

Therefore, obstructed length DE = (HG X DF) / HF

Calculations:

Note: All calculations of all methods to find obstructed lengths should be shown here.

Result:

Obstacles to measurement:

Obstructed length from First Method = m

Obstructed length from Second Method = m

Obstructed length from Third Method = m

8

Obstacles to alignment:

Obstructed length from First Method = m

Obstructed length from Second Method = m

Instructions to students:

Students are required to draw all the diagrams of all methods to scale with all dimensions on

the left pages of lab record.

9

EXPERIMENT NO: 3

DETERMINATION OF DISTANCE BETWEEN

TWO INACCESSIBLE POINTS WITH COMPASS.

Aim: To determine distance between two inaccessible points using Prismatic Compass.

Prismatic Compass: It is a compass where the graduated ring is attached with the needle

and does not rotate with line of sight. As the name implies a prism is provided at the

Eye Vane end so that the readings on graduated ring are read through the prism.

Graduations are engraved inverted since the graduated ring is read through the prism.

The advantage of this compass is that both sighting and reading can be done

simultaneously.

Centering: A tripod is placed over the station with its legs spread well apart so that it is

at a workable height. The compass is fixed on the tripod. It is then centered over the

station where the reading is to be taken. A plumb bob is hung from the centre of

compass. In case the arrangement for a plumb bob is not provided, a stone is dropped

from below the compass and it should fall on the peg marking the ground station.

Leveling: The compass is levelled by eye judgment. This is essential so that the

graduated ring swings freely.

Focusing the Prism: The prism is moved up or down till the figures and graduations are

seen clearly.

Inaccessible Distance: When two points are too far away, unreachable and the chaining

between them is difficult, the distance between these two points is called Inaccessible

Distance. But the two points are visible to each other.

Taking a Reading with Prismatic Compass: The compass is rotated until the point or

object and the cross hair at object vane coincide. Now the reading on the graduated ring is

taken by observing through the prism which is provided just below the eye vane. The

reading that coincides with the cross hair should be taken. The break pin which is

provided below the object vane should be pressed down while taking reading to

avoid oscillations of graduated ring.

Measuring Angle between Two lines: Let ABC be a traverse of which the angle at B to

be measured (Fig 1). The compass is set up at point B and then the point A is sighted and

the reading on graduated ring is noted down. Now the instrument is rotated towards point

C and the reading on graduated ring is noted down. The difference of those two

reading gives the angle at B which is an angle between line BA and line BC.

10

Procedure for measuring inaccessible distance between two points:

Let A and B be the two inaccessible points whose distance to be measured (Fig 2).

A point C is established at a reasonable distance from A. Let a, b, c be the distances

of sides CB, AC, AB respectively out of which c is the inaccessible length.

are measured with a compass as described before.

The angle QB can be calculated from,

b / Sin QB = c / Sin Qc

11

Calculations:

Result:

The distance between the two inaccessible points A and B,

c= m

Instructions to students:

Your are required draw a rough sketch of Fig 1, but the sketch of Fig 2 with all

measurements and angles should be drawn to a suitable scale.

12

EXPERIMENT NO: 4

SURVEY OF AN AREA BY COMPASS SURVEY

(CLOSED TRAVERSE)

Aim: To survey an area (Closed Traverse) by Compass Survey and to plot the area.

Whole Circle Bearing (WCB): The bearing of line that is always measured clockwise

from the north point of the reference meridian towards the line right round the circle is

0 0

known as Whole Circle Bearing (WCB). WCB will have values between 0 and 360 .

Q1, Q2, Q3, etc in Fig 1 represent WCBs.

The bearing of line in the direction of progress of the survey is called Fore or

Forward Bearing.

The bearing of a line in the opposite direction of progress of the survey is known

as Back or Reverse Bearing.

The bearing of a line is indicated in the order in which the line is lettered. Thus, the

bearing from A to B (Fig 2) is the fore bearing Q of the line AB, whereas the bearing

of line AB in the direction B to A is its back bearing P.

13

Calculation of Included Angles from Fore Bearing and Back Bearing:

Included angle is an angle between two lines. Included angles may be exterior or interior.

Included angle between two lines is obtained by the following formula,

Included Angle = Fore Bearing of Next Line – Back Bearing of

Previous Line

= FB of line BC – BB of line AB

If the calculated included angle comes out as a negative value, 3600 is added to it.

Since traversing in this case is done in clockwise direction, the included angles will be

exterior only.

Taking Fore Bearing and Back Bearing of a line with Prismatic Compass:

14

While taking Fore Bearing of a line, the compass is kept over the starting point of line

while running from clockwise direction in the traverse. The line of sight is kept along

N – S direction such that the bearing under the prism should read 00. Now the compass

is turned in clockwise direction only until the line of sight coincides with the ranging

rod placed at the end point of line.

While taking Back Bearing of a line, the compass is shifted to the end point of line

and same procedure is followed as it is followed while taking Fore Bearing.

Procedure:

Note: This procedure is general procedure only. This procedure, figures and table vary

with the experiment given to students. Therefore students are required to write the

procedure and draw figures and table according to the experiment given to them.

The Fore Bearing and Back Bearing of all lines of closed traverse (Fig 4) are

measured by a Prismatic Compass.

The distances of all lines of closed traverse are measured with a chain. All the values

are tabulated as below.

e ded cal r ed ce

(FB of An Sum Includ

Next gle of ed

Line Includ Angl

– BB of ed e

Previou Angles

FB BB

A FB of AB

–

B BB of EA

FB of

BC BC– BB

CD of AB

DE

EA FB of

CD- BB

of BC

FB of

DE- BB

of CD

Total -- ---

-- -

15

Theoretical sum of included angles can be calculated by,

(2n + 4) X 900

traverse. The Error in the actual included angles can be calculated by,

Error = (Theoretical Sum of Included Angles – Total Actual Included Angles) / n

If the Error is positive, add this error to each actual included angle and if the Error

is negative, deduct this error from each actual included angle.

Check:

16

Calculations:

Note: Show all Internal Included Angles calculations here.

Result:

Note: This result also varies with the experiment given to students. Therefore

students are required to write results according to the experiment given to them.

Distances:

AB = m

BC = m

CD = m

DE = m

EA = m

Included Angles:

Angle A =

Angle B =

Angle C =

Angle D =

Angle E =

Instructions to students:

You are required to draw all the diagrams as I have drawn. You are required to plot

the closed traverse to a suitable scale with all distances and internal included angles

on the left page of lab record.

17

EXPERIMENT NO: 5

RADIATION AND INTERSECTION METHODS BY PLANE

TABLE SURVEY

Aim:

To plot a given area by Radiation and Intersection methods of Plane Table Survey.

Instruments:

Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, Plane Table with Tripod and its accessories,

Two Drawing Sheets, Drawing Clips, Pencil, Eraser and Pins.

It is the branch of surveying in which both field work and plotting are done

simultaneously. The advantage of Plane Table Surveying is that as the field is in our

view, omitting of any measurement is not possible and exact shapes of the areas can be

drawn.

Drawing Board:

The Drawing Board is made of well-seasoned wood. The Drawing Board is mounted

on a tripod by means of a screw and wing nut.

Alidade:

It is a brass ruler of about 50 – 60 cm in length. Two vanes, ‘object vane’ and ‘sight

vane’ are hinged at its two ends. A scale is attached to the fudicial edge of alidade.

This is used for sighting the object through object and sight vanes and to draw lines to

a suitable scale along the fudicial or ruling edge.

Trough Compass:

Usually it is 15 cm long and is provided to plot the magnetic meridian (N – S

direction) to facilitate orientation of the plane table in the magnetic meridian.

Spirit Level:

The essential condition in plane table surveying is that the board should be level.

This is usually accomplished with a circular spirit level.

Plumbing Fork:

It is a hairpin-shaped brass frame having two arms of equal length. One end of the

frame is pointed and is kept over the drawing sheet touching the plotted position of the

instrument station. The other end of the frame carries a plumb bob. The position of

the plane table is adjusted until the plumb bob hangs over the station occupied by the

instrument.

Indian Clinometer:

Since a large number of points of observation are required to plot contours in plane

table survey, the direct or spirit levelling proves to be very slow and thus an

Indian pattern Clinometer is employed to measure the levels of the ground.

18

Drawing Sheet:

The drawing sheet used should be of the best quality to withstand rubbing and

scrubbing. Because of humidity, unequal expansion and contraction of the sheet may

alter the scale and distort the map. It should never be rolled or folded and should

be carried flat. The sheet should be well stretched and held firmly on the board to

prevent any displacement of the sheet by the friction of the alidade.

A plane table and its accessories are shown in the figure below.

Temporary Adjustments:

SurfaceoftheboardshouldbeperpendiculartotheverticalaxisoftheInstrument:

This can be achieved by placing a spirit level over the plane table and moving the legs

to make the bubble central. The table is then turned through 1800. The spirit level is

now placed at 900 to its previous position and the bubble is again made central.

The procedure is repeated and if the bubble remains central, the adjustment is correct.

To check this, draw a line along the ruling or fudicial edge, reverse the alidade and

place it against the ends of the line. Again draw a line which should coincide with the

previous line. If the two lines do not coincide, the edge is rubbed with sand paper and

is corrected.

ThetwoVanesshouldbeperpendiculartotheBaseofAlidade:

19

Set the alidade on the corner edge of a building or on a suspended plumb bob. Set the

alidade vanes along any of the above two. The plumb line and vane should coincide. If

they do not coincide adjust from the hinges till the vane coincides with the plumb line.

Centering: It is the operation of bringing the plotted station point exactly over the

ground station. To achieve this pointed leg of the plumbing fork is placed against the

plotted point and the plumb bob is suspended from its other leg.

Levelling: It is the operation of bringing the plane table in a horizontal plane. The

plane table is set at a convenient height, which is elbow level, by spreading the legs.

The board is levelled with the help of spirit level.

Orientation: It is the operation of keeping the plane table parallel to the position it

occupied at the first station. The plane table is set on a new station and the alidade is

placed against the line joining the new station with the preceding station. The table is

rotated until the line of sight bisects the previous station. This entire procedure is

known as Orientation by Back Sighting.

Let A and B be the two points on the ground whose length is to be plotted on the

plane table (Fig

1). The plane table is kept at station A and is set up as described before. Now the

alidade is kept along the point ‘a’ which is the transferred point of A from ground to

drawing sheet by plumbing fork.

Now the alidade is rotated along point ‘a’ until the ranging rod at ground station B

is sighted through object vane and eye vane. The distance AB on the ground is

measured and converted to a suitable scale. A point ‘b’ is marked along the alidade

with the distance that is equal to the converted distance of AB. Now ‘ab’ is the

required distance of line AB on the drawing sheet.

20

Radiation Method:

In this method the instrument is setup at a station and rays are drawn to various

stations which are to be plotted. The distances are cut to a suitable scale after actual

measurements.

Procedure:

Note: This procedure is general procedure only and varies with the given

experiment. Students are required to write the procedure and draw figures

according to the experiment given to them.

A station O is selected such that all other stations A, B, C and D are accessible and

visible from O (Fig 2). N – S direction is plotted. The plane table is setup at O. The

alidade is placed at ‘o’ and rays are drawn from ‘o’ to the stations A, B, C, D and the

distances oa, ob, oc and od are cut to the chosen scale. Joint a, b, c and d.

Intersection Method:

In this method two stations are so selected that all the other stations to be plotted are

visible from these. The line joining these two stations is called Base Line. The length

of this line is measured very accurately. Rays are drawn from these stations to the

stations to be plotted. The intersection of the rays from the two stations gives the

position of the station to be plotted on the drawing sheet.

Procedure:

Note: This procedure is general procedure only and varies with the given

experiment. Students are required to write the procedure and draw figures according

to the experiment given to them.

Let A and B be the two accessible stations (Fig 3), such that A and B can be suitably

plotted. C is the station to be plotted by intersection. The plane table is placed at A. N

– S direction is plotted. The ground station A is transferred as ‘a’ onto the drawing

sheet. With the alidade centered at ‘a’, station B is sighted. A ray aB is drawn and is

21

cut as ‘ab’ to a suitable scale. With the alidade at ‘a’, C is also sighted and a ray aC is

drawn. The table is now shifted to B and is setup. The alidade is placed at ‘b’ and C is

sighted. A ray bC is drawn. The intersection of the two rays gives the position of C as

‘c’ on the plane table.

Instructions to Students:

There are no calculations and result in this experiment, but you are required to

attach the two drawing sheets (the ones you have drawn on the field) to the lab

record after the last page of this experiment.

22

EXPERIMENT NO: 6

TWO POINT AND THREE POINT PROBLEMS IN PLANE TABLE SURVEY

INSTRUMENTS:

Chain, Tape, Ranging Rods, Arrows, Plane Table with Tripod and its accessories,

The two point problem may be stated that locate the position on the plan of a

station occupied by the plane table, by means of observations to two well

defined points, which are visible from the instrument station and whose

positions have been already plotted on the plan.

In this A & B are well defined points on the ground a & b are their plotted

positions on the plan. C is the station over which the table is to be set up. It is

required to locate the true position of the ‘c’ on the plan.

23

PROCEDURE:

A suitable auxiliary point D is selected such that the angles CAD and CBD

are not very small.

The table is set up at D and levelled then the table is oriented by judging

AB to be parallel to AB and then the table is clamped.

With the alidade pivoting a, the point A is sighted and a ray is drawn

through ‘a’ similarly, with the alidade pivoting ‘b’, the point B is sighted and a ray

is drawn through ‘b’ intersecting the ray drawn through ‘a’ at d 1, which

approximately represents the station |D.

With the alidade pivoting d1, the point C is sighted and a ray is drawn

through d1, a point ‘c1’ is marked on this ray by eye estimate to represent the

distance D C.

The table is shifted and set up at C such that c 1, is over C and levelled. The

table is oriented by back sighting to D and the clamped.

With the alidade pivoting ‘a’ the point A sighted and a ray is drawn through

a intersecting the line d1, c1, at c1.

With the alidade pivoting c1, the point B is sighted and a ray is drawn

through c1. The point of intersection of c1 B and d1 b is marked as b1.

The alidade is placed along ab1, and ranging rod P is fixed at a great

distance from the table in the line ab1 produced.

Then the alidade is placed along a b and the table is turned until the ranging

rod P is bisected. Then the table is clamped.

With the alidade pivoted and the point A is sighted. A ray is drawn through

a. Similarly, with the alidade pivoted b, the point B is sighted and a ray is drawn

through b. the intersection of these two rays represent the true position (c) on the

plan.

points which are established by other methods such as theodolite survey.

24

EXPERIMENT NO: 7

FLY LEVELLING

(A)DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING

INSTRUMENTS: Dumpy level, Leveling staff.

DUMPY LEVEL

TELESCOPE: It contains of two metal tubes, one of which slides within the other

one tube carries the object glass and the second one carries eyepiece and diaphragm.

either forward or backward.

BUBBLE TUBES: The telescope is attached with two bubble tubes. One is

longitudinal and the other is cross bubble tube. These two are placed at right angles

to each other.

25

DIAPHRAGM: It carries cross hairs.

two parallel triangular plates. The upper plate is called tribrach and the lower plate is

called trivet

FOOT SCREWS: By turning the foot screws, the tribrach can be raised or

lowered to bring the bubble to the center of its run. Temporary adjustments are to

be made at each setup of the instrument. The following are the temporary

adjustments to be made.

1. Setting up of the level

2. Leveling up

3. Elimination of parallax.

Temporary adjustments are to be made at each setup of the instrument. The

following are the temporary adjustments to be made.

1. Setting up of the level

2. Leveling up

3. Elimination of parallax.

b) Hold the instrument in the right hand and fix it on the tripod by turning round

only the lower part with the left hand.

c) Screw the instrument firmly.

d) Bring all the foot screws to the center of its run.

e) Spread the tripod legs well apart.

f) Fix any two legs firmly into the ground by pressing them with the hand.

g) Move the third leg to the right or left until the main bubble is approximately in

the center.

h) Then move the third leg in or out until the bubbles of the cross-level is

approximately in the center.

i) Fix the third leg firmly when the bubbles are approximately in the centers of their run.

26

LEVELLING UP:

b) Bring the bubble to the center of its run by turning the foot screws equally either

both inwards and both outwards.

c) Turn the telescope through 90º so that it lies over the third foot screw.

d) Turn this third foot screw so that the bubble corners to the center of its run.

e) Bring the telescope back to the original position without reversing the eye-

piece and object glass.

f) Repeat the above operations until the bubble remains in the center of its run in

both the positions.

g) Turn the telescope through 180º and check whether the bubble remains central.

ELIMINATION OF PARALLOX:

a) Remove the lid from the object glass.

b) Hold a sheet of white paper in front of the object glass.

c) Move the eyepiece in or out until the cross hairs are distinctly visible.

d) Direct the telescope towards the staff.

e) Turn the focusing screw until a clear and sharp image in formed in the plane of

the cross hairs.

27

PROCEDURE:

1. Let A and B be the two given points whose difference is elevation is to be found.

2. Set the level at convenient point O1 carryout temporary adjustments and take B.S

on A

3. Take FS on the Point C

4. Shift the instrument to point O2 and perform temporary adjustments.

5. Take B.S on C.

6. Take F.S. on D.

7. Shift the instrument to point O3 and perform temporary adjustments.

8. Take B.S on D

9. Take F.S on B.

10. Find the difference in elevation between A and B by both the methods.

RESULT:

Difference in elevation between A and B = .

28

Department of Civil Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO- 8

elevation of station from observed vertical angles and known distances, which are

assumed to be either horizontal or geodetic length at mean sea level. The vertical

distances may either be measured ( in case of plane surveying) or computed (in case

of geodetic observation)

1) Base of the object accessible.:- The horizontal distance between the instrument and

Q=Point to be observed

Survey-I

Department of Civil Engineering

Q’ =projection of Q on horizontal plane through A

h=QQ’

S=Reading on staff kept at B.M, With line of sight horizontal.α=angle of elevation from A

to Q

If the reading on the staff kept at the B.M. is S with the line of sight horizontal.

2) Base of the object inaccessible: - if the horizontal distance between the instrument

and the object can be measured due to obstracles etc., two stations are used so that they

Survey-I

Department of Civil Engineering

S= staff reading on B.M taken from both A and B, the reading being the same in the

Dtanα1=(b+D) tanα2

D(tanα1-tanα2)=btanα2

b tan α 2

D=

tan α 1 − tan α 2

h=Dtanα2

b tan α 1 tan α 2

=

tan α1 − tan α 2

b sin α 1 sin α 2

=

sin(α 1 − α 2 )

Procedure:-

1) Set up the theodolite at P and level it accurately with respect to the altitude

bubble.

2) Direct the telescope toward Q and bisect it accurately. Clamp both the planes.

Survey-I

Department of Civil Engineering

3) Transit the telescope so that the line of sight is reversed. Mark the second instrument

station R on the ground. Measured the distance RP accurately. Repeat steps (2)

and (3) for both face observation. The mean values should be adopted.

4) With the vertical vernier set to zero reading, and the altitude bubble in the centre of

the run, take the reading on the staff kept at nearby B.M.

5) Shift the instrument to R and set up the theodolite there. Measured the vertical

6) With the vertical vernier set to zero reading, and the altitude bubble in the centre of

the run, take the reading on the staff kept at the near by B.M.

Observation table:-

Station B.M staff kept at angle distance the

B.M. (α) between object

instrument

station and

object

Result:- the elevation of the object from the B.M is found to be-------------m

Survey-I

EXPERIMENT -9

MEASUREMENT OF HEIGHTS & DISTANCES

USING TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING

EQUIPMENT:

• Tachometer with tripod,

• Tape,

• Leveling staff,

• Ranging rods

THEORY:

The Tachometer is an instrument which is generally used to determine the horizontal as well as

vertical distance . it can also be used to determine the elevation of various points which cannot

be determine by ordinary leveling. When one of the sight is horizontal and staff held vertical

then the RLs of staff station can be determined as we determine in ordinary leveling .But if the

staff station is below or above the line of collimation then the elevation or depression of such

point can be determined by calculating vertical distances from instrument axis to the central hair

reading and taking the angle of elevation or depression made by line of sight to the instrument

made by line of sight to the instrument axis.

Procedure:

Set up the instrument in such a way that all the point should be visible from the

instrument station.

Carryout the temporary adjustment and set vernier zero reading making line of sight

horizontal.

Take the first staff reading on Benchmark and determine height of instrument.

Then sight the telescope towards the staff station whose R.Ls are to be calculated.

Measure the angle on vernier if line of sight is inclined upward or downward and also

note the three crosshair readings.

31

32

Department of Civil Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO -10 (a)

APPARATUS:- Theodolite , Ranging rod, pegs etc.

Figure:

TRANSIT THEODOLITE

THEORY :

Theodolite : The theodolite is the most intricate and accurate instrument used for

which distant objects can be sighted. The telescope has two distinct motions on in the

horizontal plane and the Other in the vertical plane. The former being measured on a

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Department of Civil Engineering

1) Transit theodolite

2) Non-transit theodolite

A theodolite is called transit theodolite when its telescope can be resolved through a

complete revolution about its horizontal axis. In a vertical plane. The transit type is

largely used.

2) The leveling head: It may consists of circular plates called as upper and lower

Parallel plates. The lower parallel plate has a central aperture through which a

plumb bob may be suspended. The upper parallel plate or tribranch is supported by

means of four or three leveling screws by which the instrument may be leveled.

3) To lower plate or screw plate: It carries horizontal circle at its leveled screw.

It carries a lower clamp screw and tangent screw with the help of which it can be

4) The upper plate or vernier plate:- it is attached to inner axis and carries two vernier

5) Compass: the compass box may be either of circular form or of a rough type. The

former is mounted on the vernier plate between the standards while the latter is

attached to the underside of the scale or lower plate or screwed to one of the

standards. Modern theodolite is fitted with a compass of the tubular type and it is

6) Vertical circle: the vertical circle is rigidly attached to the telescope and

moves with it. It is silvered and it is usually divided into four quadrants.

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Department of Civil Engineering

7) Index bar or T-frame: the index bar is T shaped and centered on horizontal axis of

the telescope in front of the vertical axis. It carries two vernier of the extremities of its

horizontal arms or limbs called the index arm. The vertical leg called the clip or

clipping screws at its lower extremity. The index arm and the clipping arm are

8) Plumb bob: To centre the instrument exactly over a station mark, a plumb bob

is suspended from the hook fitted to the bottom of the central vertical axis.

When it is required to measure horizontal angles with great accuracy as in the case of

traverse, the method of repetition may be adopted. In this method the same angle is

added several times by keeping the vernier to remain clamped each time at the end

of each measurement instead of setting it back to zero when sighting at the previous

station. The corrected horizontal angle is then obtained by dividing the final reading

by the number of repetitions. Usually six reading, three with face left and three with

face right, are taken The average horizontal angle is then calculated.

Procedure:-

1) Let LOM is the horizontal angle to be measured as shown in fig. O is the station point

fixed on the ground by a peg. Set up the theodolite over the peg ‘o’ and level it

accurately.

2) Set the horizontal graduated circle vernier A to read zero or 360° by upper clamp

screw and slow motion screw. Clamp the telescope to bisect the bottom shoe of the

flag fixed at point ‘L’ and tighten the lower clamp. Exactly intersect the centre of the

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Department of Civil Engineering

bottom shoe by means of lower slow motion screw. Check that the face of the

3) Check the reading of the vernier A to see that no slip has occurred .Also see that the

plate levels are in the centre of their run. Read the vernier B also.

4) Release the upper clamp screw and turn the theodolite clockwise. Biset the flag

bottom shoe fixed at point M by a telescope. Tighten the upper clamp screw and

5) Note the reading on both the vernier to get the approximate value of the angle LOM.

6) Release the lower clamp screw and rotate the theodolite anticlockwise ai azimuth.

Bisect again the bottom shoe of the flag at ‘L’ and tighten the lower clamp screw. By

means of slow motion screw bisect exactly the centre of the shoe.

7) Release now the upper clamp screw and rotate the theodolite clockwise. Bisect the

bottom shoe of the flag fixed at M and tighten the upper clamp screw. By means of

slow motion screw bisect exactly the centre of the shoe. The vernier readings will bw

8) Repeat the process until the angle is repeated the required number of times (usually

3). Add 360° for every complete revaluation to the final reading and divided the total

9) Change the face of the theodolite the telescope will now be inverted. Rrpeat the

whole process exactly in the above manner and obtain value of angle LOM.

10)The average horizontal angle is then obtained by taking the average of the two

11)Usually three repetitions face left and three with face right should be taken and the

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Department of Civil Engineering

Observation Table:- Repetition method of measuring horizontal angle

Station to

Venier Venier B Total angle No of Mean

A 0,I,II Repetition horizontal

0,I,II angle

0,I,II

o L

M

L

M

L

M

Station to

Venier Venier Total No of Mean Average

A B angle Repatition horizontal horizontal

0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II angle angle

0,I,II 0,I,II

o L

M

L

M

L

M 3

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Department of Civil Engineering

APPARATUS:- Theodolite, three ranging rods,

vertical angle. It is most precise method it is also used for laying of horizontal angles

Locating points on line prolonging the survey line establishing the gradient, determination

of difference in the elevation setting out curve .Theodolite are of two types transit and

non transit. Transit theodolite is commonly used now a days .in transit theodolite telescope

can be revolved a complete revolution about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. a

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Department of Civil Engineering

1) Leveling head: It supports the main working parts of the instrument and screws on a

a) A leveling foot screws for leveling the instrument i.e. for marking vertical axis truly

vertical.

2) A lower level circular horizontal metal plate: It carries a circular graduated arc . The

lower plate is attached to a vertical metal spindle (outer axis) which works in vertical

bearing and a form a part of leveling head. It may be graduated in degree and half

degree or a degree 1/3 of degrees .the upper plate carries an index and vernier or

micrometer towards fine reading on gradated horizontal circle .the upper plate carries

standard use of for supporting the telescope and the spirit level used for leveling the

instrument.

3) A telescope: The telescope is pivoted between the standard at right angles to the

horizontal axis . It can be rotated about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. The

telescope is provided with the focusing screw, Clamping screw and tangent screw.

4) A circular graduated are carried on vertical circle: It is attached to the horizontal axis

graduated continuously from 0-3600.the graduation in each quadrant are numbered from

0-900 in opposite direction. The subdivisions of vertical circle are similar to those of vertical

circle.

A vertical angle is the angle between the inclined line of sight to an object and the

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Department of Civil Engineering

point is above or below the horizontal plane passing through the trunnion axis of the

follows:

1) Set up the theodolite at station point O and level it accurately with reference to the

altitude level.

2) Set vertical verniers C and D exactly to zero by using the vertical circle clamp and

tangent screw, while the altitude level should remain in the centre of its run. Also the

3) Release the vertical circle clamp screw and rotate the telescope in vertical plane so

as to bisect the object M. tighten the vertical circle clamp and exactly bisect the

4) Read both verniers C and D. the mean of the tow readings gives the value of the

required angle.

5) Similar observation may be made with other face. The average of the tow values

thus obtained gives the value of the required angle which is free from instrumental

errors.

6) Similarly the angle of depression can be measured following the above steps.

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Department of Civil Engineering

Some times it is required to measure vertical angle between two points L and M . There

(a) One point is above the line of sight and the other is below the line of sight then

(b) Both the points are above the line of sight. Then the angle LOM= <α -<β

(Refer Fig 2)

(c) Both the points are below the line of sight, then the angle LOM= <α -<β (Refer Fig 3)

2) Bisect the flag at L as explained already and take the reading on the verniers C

3) Bisect the flag at M as before and take the reading on the verniers C and D.

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Department of Civil Engineering

4) The sum or difference of these angles will give the value of the vertical angle

Observation table:-

Station to

Venier Venier Mean Angle Vertical

C D Angle

0,I,II 0,I,II

o P

(+ve) L

(-ve) M

Station to Vertical

Venier Venier Mean Vertical Angle

C D Angle Angle

0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II 0,I,II

o P

(+ve) L

(-ve) M

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Department of Civil Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO- 10(b)

AIM: Determination of horizontal distance between two inaccessible points with theodolite

The latitude of the line may defined as the distance measured parallel to an assumed

meridian direction (i.e true meridian, magnetic meridian or any other reference direction).

The departure of a line may defined as the distance measured parallel to line

The latitude (L) of a line is positive (+ve) when measured northward or upward and is

termed as Northing, the latitude of a line (-ve) when measured southward or downward and

termed as southing

Similarly the departure (D) of a line is positive (+ve) when measured Eastward or to the

right and is known as Easting. The departure of a line is negative (-ve) when measured

Westing

Refer to fig suppose the length of the line OP=L and bearing of the line θ, then

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Department of Civil Engineering

Latitude of the line =lcosθ

Thus to find the latitude and departure of the line , it is essential to convert the bearing

(W.C.B) to reduce bearing (R.B); because the sign of latitude and departure depends upon

the reduced bearing i.e the first letter N or S determine the sign of the latitude and E or W

Barings (W.C.B) Bearing Latitude Departure

1 0° to 90° NθE + - I

2 90° to 180° SθE - + II

3 180° to 270° SθW - - III

4 270° to 360° NθW + - IV

Problem: - the distance between two inaccessible points P and Q, the theodolite is set up

at two stations A& B 1000m apart and the following angles were observed.;

<PAQ =45°; <PAQ =57°; <PBA=50°;<PBQ =50°, The distance of two inaccessible point PQ is

calculated by

It is clear that lines PA, AB, BQ, and QP from closed traverse. The latitude and depature of

lines PA,AB and BQ can be determine by calculating their length and bearing first.

Survey-I

Department of Civil Engineering

In ∆PAB, <PAQ =45°+57°=102°

<ABP =56°

<BPA=180°-(102°+56°) =22°

PA AB

=

sin PBA sin BPA

1000 × sin 56 o

PA = = 2213m

sin 22 o

Similarly, ∆QAB

<QAB =57°

<QBA =106°

<AQB=180°-(57°+106°) =17°

Now ,

BQ AB

o

=

sin 57 sin 17 o

1000 × sin 57 o

BQ = = 2869m

sin 17 o

Hence .the bearing of various sides are not given by assuming any line (say,line PA) as the

reference meridian, the bearing of other lines can be calculated by the given angles as

follows:

Add = 180°

Bearing of line AP = 180°

Add <PAB =102°

Bearing of the line AB =282°

Deduct =180°

Bearing of line BA =102°

Add <QBA =106°

Bearing of line BQ =208°

R.B. of line PA= N 0° E

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Department of Civil Engineering

R.B. of line AB= N 78° W

R.B. of line BQ= S28° W

The latitudes and departure (or consecutive coordinates) can be calculated as given

below;

=2328m

Survey-I

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