Anda di halaman 1dari 44



JULY 30, 2018 $4.00

How activism has changed since one of

the most tumultuous summers in US history



Story map
Covered in this issue:
Chiang Rai province, Thailand;
Halton Hills, Ontario;
Hazaka Observation Point, Golan Heights;
Kigali, Rwanda; Lisbon, Portugal;
London; Moscow; New Delhi;
Pietermaritzburg, South Africa;
Stockholm; and the US

Tear gas to tweets
A Monitor reporter takes a trip across the
United States to see how protesting has
changed in the 50 years since the tumultuous
summer of 1968. BY JESSICA MENDOZA

On July 12 the British government finally said, in a white paper,
exactly what it wants from “Brexit” – more than two years after
a referendum called for Britain’s withdrawal from the
European Union. BY PETER FORD

Shahieda Thungo has overcome her own tough times to become
a pacer for some of the slowest runners. BY RYAN LENORA BROWN



“The object of the Monitor is to injure no man, but to bless all mankind.”

Amelia Newcomb Managing Editor Subscribe to free newsletters
FILM “Custody” doesn’t skimp on the ordeal Owen Thomas Weekly Edition Editor
of a child in a custody battle. Available newsletters:
Marjorie Kehe Deputy Editor
John Kehe Design Consultant
BOOKS “Three 37 Alfredo Sosa
Not-So-Ordinary Director of Photography ARTICLES
Joes” is a nar-
Scott Armstrong, Judy Douglass, COMMENTARY
rative about
the unpre- Noelle Swan Senior Editors
dictable, of- Frequently asked questions
Molly Driscoll, Josh Kenworthy
ten byzantine What number do I call if I have a question
Staff Editors
connections about a subscription?
between one Heather Ehmke, Casey Fedde 800-456-2220, 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Central Time
literary generation Copy Editors (outside US, 1-515-362-7462)
and another.
Lily Mui Operations Manager What do I do if I have a question about
Julie Fallon Layout Designer something I read in the Monitor?
Call 617-450-2300
A DIFFERENCE Robin Steinberg
Karen Norris, Jacob Turcotte
or email

is disrupting the bail system that keeps poor What is the Monitor’s website?
defendants in jail before trial.
Subscription service
How can I search for a Monitor article that
Subscribe to the Monitor Weekly: appeared in the Weekly or Daily?
Type “” in your web
Subscribe to the Monitor Daily: browser’s search box, then a space, then a few
keywords (author, month, year, subject, etc.).
5 UPFRONT by JESSICA MENDOZA For subscriptions or change of address: Hit “enter.” This will return a list of matches.
6 VIEWFINDER Within US: 800-456-2220
Outside US: 1-515-362-7462 How do I electronically share an article from
email: the Monitor Weekly?
11 D.C. DECODER Search for the article online. Then copy and
or post: paste the URL of the story into an email.
The Christian Science Monitor Weekly
20 SCIENCE & NATURE P.O. Box 6074, Harlan, IA 51593-1574 © 2018 The Christian Science Publishing Society
24 COVER STORY (ISSN 2166-3262 PRINT) Published weekly, except when
31 GLOBAL NEWSSTAND Monitor Weekly digital edition:
combined issues counting as two issues are published, by
32 THE MONITOR’S VIEW The Christian Science Publishing Society,
34 THE MIX: ARTS & CULTURE Reader comments/questions: 210 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, MA, USA, 02115-3195.
617-450-2300 An activity of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in
37 BOOKS FOR GLOBAL READERS Boston, MA. The Christian Science Monitor is a trademark
39 DIFFERENCE-MAKERS registered in the U.S.P.T.O. and in other countries. Regis-
41 THE HOME FORUM Permission to reprint: tered as a periodical with the US Post Office. Periodicals
42 CROSSWORD PUZZLE PARS International postage paid at Boston, MA, and at additional mailing
43 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE 253 West 35th Street, 7th Floor, offices. Canada Revenue Agency G.S.T. Registration
New York, NY 10001 Number 126916436.
phone: 212-221-9595, fax: 212-221-9195
CANADA POST: send address corrections to
Facebook Publications mail agreement nr. 1435922. The Christian Science Monitor, Online at P.O. Box 6074, Harlan, IA 51593-1574
Twitter @csmonitor



‘This position is untenable and at odds with the

forceful response this moment demands.’
– Sen. Susan Collins (R) of Maine, echoing broad criticism of President Trump’s performance
at a press conference following his one-on-one meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin
in Helsinki, Finland, July 16. At issue was Mr. Trump’s siding with Mr. Putin over the findings of US
intelligence agencies that Russia interfered in the 2016 election, which Putin denies. Trump later
said he misspoke in his original comment, ‘I don’t see any reason why it would be’ Russia that
interfered, and that he meant to use the word ‘wouldn’t.’ (See stories, pages 8 and 9.)

‘It’s a light in the increasing darkness

of international politics. I’m absolutely sure you
know what I mean.’
– European Council President Donald Tusk, speaking after the European Union signed its biggest trade deal.
The pact with Japan will wipe out $1.17 billion in tariffs for European companies annually, and double that for
Japanese exporters to the 28-nation bloc. The new deal stands in contrast to America’s recent protectionist push
and Britain’s ‘Brexit’ from the EU. ‘[P]olitically and economically we could hardly be any closer. With shared values
of liberal democracy, human rights and the rule of law,’ Mr. Tusk tweeted about Europe and Japan.

‘Find a way where you’re not selling your soul.’

– Former President Barack Obama, addressing 200 young leaders from 44 countries in his Leaders
Africa program in South Africa July 18. He encouraged them, especially women, to get involved in po-
litical work and their communities. A day earlier, Mr. Obama gave the annual Nelson Mandela Lecture
(on the eve of what would have been Mr. Mandela’s 100th birthday) to an audience of 14,000 people.
Obama said he believes in ‘a vision of equality and justice and freedom and multiracial democracy built
on the premise that all people are created equal.’

‘The greatest hope of European regulators cracking down on

Google’s business practices is that the rest of the world be-
comes a little more like China and its flourishing
technology industry.’
– Shira Ovide, in a Bloomberg opinion piece describing the kind of competition European Union
regulators would be hoping to generate by their decision July 18 to hit Google with a $5 billion
antitrust fine and demand it change the way it uses its Android platform, which runs on 80 percent of
the world’s smartphones. The EU argued that Google had unfairly leveraged Android to promote its
search engine and other apps. In China, heavy government restrictions on Google have allowed local
tech companies to predominate. Many analysts said the EU is too late in trying to rein in Google.

‘I can’t imagine that there isn’t a bigger

purpose for me in this life.... [L]ife is incredible.’
– Angela Hernandez, in a Facebook post July 15, two days after she was found alive by two campers at the bottom of a re-
mote oceanside cliff in Big Sur, Calif. Seven days earlier, Ms. Hernandez had been driving her SUV on the road above when she
swerved to avoid hitting an animal, plunging more than 200 feet in her vehicle. Hernandez survived by using a radiator hose
to drink fresh water dripping from a natural spring. When she saw the campers, who had decided to climb down the cliff in the
deserted area that day, Hernandez said that despite her serious injuries she got up and ran toward them.


The marches that have shaped America

PROTEST IS AMONG THE MOST CELEBRATED means of expres- erans and educators, musicians and photographers, former
sion in America. From its founding, the United States has militants and recent politicians. We found striking similar-
maintained the people’s right to speak – and march and ities between past and present.
act, especially against injustice – as a basic principle of Now, as then, the crucial issues center on race, gen-
democracy. der, and America’s approach to governance both at home
Fifty years ago, that principle was put to the test in a and abroad. As before, good old-fashioned marches are
profound way. A wave of progressive movements, driven considered vital to activism but not the only, or even most
by decades of swelling unrest among women and minority important, element. And while Trump’s actions may be
groups, crested in 1968. That year, politi- a motivating factor, there’s a sense – as
cal assassinations and race riots took place there was in the 1960s – that the problem
alongside protests against racial and gen- BY JESSICA MENDOZA isn’t one person but the system writ large.
der discrimination and the Vietnam War. It STAFF WRITER We also saw how much technology,
was a show of activism, both peaceful and and the times, have changed. The inter-
violent, that the nation hasn’t seen since. net and social media have transformed
At least, not until now. The years preceding the election activism about as much as they’ve transformed everything
of Donald Trump saw the rise of a new breed of activist else. The minority groups that once wanted to be heard
groups, from Occupy Wall Street to Black Lives Matter. are now mobilizing the vote and aiming for positions of
These organizations hit both the streets and social media leadership, many for the first time. Ultimately, we learned
to call for change to a system they said was oppressive and that the power of America’s protest tradition is undimin-
broken. Then Mr. Trump became president. Now, in 2018, ished. Americans remain radically hopeful that they can
it’s not unusual to see hundreds of thousands of people bring about the progress they want to see in their society
flood city squares to rally for things such as women’s rights, and democracy, if only enough of them come together and
racial equality, or gun control. work to make it happen.
This summer a companion and I took off on a cross- In 1968 that conviction led to seismic shifts in race and
country road trip from Los Angeles to Washington to take gender relations, party politics, and American identity –
a closer look at this new surge of activism. (My report be- shifts that still shape the nation’s perspectives and policies.
gins on page 24.) Is opposition to the president’s policies It’s too soon to be sure, but I can easily imagine future gen-
really the main driving force? What other forms is activism erations saying the same of today’s burgeoning movements.
taking? And how closely are these new activists linked to Give me a call in 50 years.
their predecessors of half a century ago?
We went to small towns and big cities and spoke to vet- r Editor Mark Sappenfield is on vacation.




A plane battling the Ferguson fire near Yosemite National Park in central California passes in front of the setting sun July 15. More than
1,800 personnel have been fighting the blaze, which has been fueled by drought- and beetle-killed trees. NOAH BERGER/AP

‘Brexit’ hurtles toward deadline

Polls show that opinion in Britain has shifted, but only slightly
On July 12 the British government finally said, in a white paper, exactly what it wants from “Brexit” – more than two
years after a referendum called for Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union.

Q: Why does the white paper matter?

This is the first time the government has presented a
coherent account of its vision of London’s post-Brexit rela-
tionship with the EU. Only on July 6 did the cabinet agree
to it, and none too soon: Britain is due to leave the Union by
March 29, 2019.
Since the 2016 referendum, the battle has been between
those wanting a clean break and full national sovereignty
and those favoring a “soft” Brexit that ensures close trade
and other ties with the EU’s remaining 27 members.
The white paper does not look much like the promises
that the “Leave” campaign made in 2016. Prime Minister The-
resa May has come down on the side of a much softer Brexit
than she had envisaged earlier. Two top Brexiteers, David
Davis and Boris Johnson, resigned from the cabinet before
the white paper’s publication, saying the new government
direction was a betrayal of the referendum result. YVES HERMAN/REUTERS

IN LONDON: A man weighs in on ‘Brexit’ after the publication of a white paper giving the
Q: What is all the fuss about? British government’s vision of its relationship with the European Union.
Brexit has been, and remains, an almighty mess. Those
who want to leave the EU focus on the issue of sovereignty. If Britain Q: What’s the problem with Ireland?
were out of the EU, they say, Parliament could take back control of On Good Friday in 1998, the British and Irish governments signed
immigration (ending EU citizens’ automatic right to live and work in an agreement putting an end to 30 years of violence over Northern
Britain) and make its own laws regardless of the European Commission Ireland’s constitutional status within the United Kingdom.
in Brussels. London would pay little or nothing into the EU budget, and Today, because the UK and Ireland are both members of the EU, the
Britain could strike its own independent trade deals. border between Northern Ireland and Ireland is purely notional. There
They have made it sound easy. But if Britain were no longer part are no ID checkpoints or customs posts. This fluidity has done much to
of the EU’s Single Market and its goods and services were treated like cement peace.
imports from any other third country, they would face tariffs, customs Dublin, backed by the EU, is insisting that Brexit should do nothing
inspections, and all sorts of other disadvantages. that might endanger the Good Friday accord. That raises the question
Ms. May’s plan would replicate many aspects of Britain’s current of how to manage the UK’s only land border with the EU. A hard, visible
economic relationship with the EU regarding goods and services. The border is unacceptable to the EU. But if Northern Ireland stays in the
new cabinet deal, in fact, foresees Britain sharing “a common rulebook” Single Market and the rest of Britain withdraws, that would create
with the Single Market in goods. a border within the UK, unacceptable to London. This conundrum
The public seems generally fed up with the endless debate. Polls remains unresolved.
show that opinion has shifted, but only slightly: In the referendum, 52
percent favored leaving the EU and 48 percent wanted to stay. Those Q: How will all this end up?
figures are now reversed. Quite frankly, nobody has a clue. May might survive as leader of the
Conservatives and thus prime minister, but there is also a chance she
Q: How does the European Commission see things? will be unseated.
The EU has said that it wishes “to have the United Kingdom as a The EU and Britain might reach an agreement on time, but as the
close partner in the future,” but Brussels will not allow Britain to enjoy clock ticks the likelihood grows that London could crash out of the EU
the same benefits outside the Union that it has as a member. with no deal at all. Such an outcome would most likely be disastrous
At the core of its negotiating position are the four pillars of the for the British economy and would hurt the EU economy, too.
Single Market: freedom of movement for goods, services, capital, and Even if a deal with the EU is done along the lines of the white
people. It insists they are indivisible – no “cherry-picking” of rights. paper, it is by no means certain that May can count on enough votes in
That bodes ill for the agreement that May strong-armed through Parliament to turn it into law. But neither do the “hard” Brexiteers have
her cabinet, which envisions a single market for goods but no free sufficient parliamentary support to carry their vision.
movement for people or services. All the prime minister can hope for is Some supporters of the “Remain” campaign are pushing for a sec-
to persuade Brussels to compromise on the principle of indivisibility. ond referendum, in the hope that voters change their minds now that
So far, the EU27 has remained united behind the European Com- they’ve seen the practical implications of leaving the EU.
mission’s chief negotiator, Michel Barnier. – Peter Ford / Staff writer

No new cold war, but no warmer ties

Risk is that Russia may feel emboldened to intervene, experts say
if you have a US president who evidently
is not interested in the things producing
conflict with Russia – if the president is
less interested in maintaining the Western
alliances the US has built, in sustaining US
leadership of a certain world order, or in
the US position in the Middle East – that
suggests something to the Russians about
the confrontation and the determination of
the other side to pursue it.”
The danger Professor Gvosdev sees is
that Trump’s recent actions in Europe “will
suggest to Russians in the Kremlin that be-
ing more aggressive pays off, and that they
are in a position to realize some gains,” he
says. “The risk is they will say, ‘What else
can we get out of this situation?’ and will
be tempted to try for additional geopolitical
payoffs, in Europe or the Middle East.”
Of course the big change since the wide-
spread predictions of a second cold war is
not in Putin but in the arrival of Trump.
On Syria, for example, Trump shows every
sign of deferring to Russia as it reestablishes
Bashar al-Assad, even as he displays little
appetite for pressuring Russia to “rein in
Iranian activity in Syria,” Gvosdev says.
Although Trump has ultimately gone
along with his own administration’s propos-
als on Ukraine and has ramped up measures
to counter Russian incursions (providing
PRESS CONFERENCE: President Trump (l.) stands with Russian President Putin after their summit in Hel- some lethal weaponry to Ukraine, for exam-
sinki July 16. Trump’s performance caused a furor in the US. Russians saw it differently. (Story, facing page.) ple), he has also suggested an understanding
of Russia’s actions in Crimea and Ukraine.
Remember when a burst of Russian in- to Mr. Trump’s performance at the press And Trump has shown scant interest in
tervention from Ukraine to Syria, efforts conference suggests that any Trump initia- countering Russian attacks on Western de-
to undermine Western democracies, and tive to improve rock-bottom relations with mocracies, such as its disinformation cam-
Moscow’s chosen role as chief global op- Russia is a nonstarter, US-Russia experts say. paigns and efforts to meddle in the 2016 US
ponent of the liberal international order led That is true in part because the US Con- presidential election.
by the United States spurred predictions of gress plays a role in how the ties evolve, – Howard LaFranchi / Staff writer
a new cold war? particularly the fate of US sanctions on Rus-
You can forget about it. sia over its hybrid war in Ukraine. At the
After President Trump’s summit in same time, Trump’s own top aides continue


to speak of Russia in very different terms
from those of the president – calling Mr.
Syrian war comes
Putin’s Russia an “adversary” responsible
for considerable “malign activity.” to Israel’s doorstep
But the signals Trump sent – not just in
– Nikolas Gvosdev, US Naval War College
Helsinki with Putin but at the preceding
How eight years of fighting
Helsinki, Finland, with Russian President summit with NATO leaders in Brussels – has reshaped ties, outlooks
Vladimir Putin on July 16 – especially the suggest to a number of US-Russia experts
displays of entente at the leaders’ extraor- that the “Cold War II” envisioned so widely HAZAKA OBSERVATION POINT, GOLAN HEIGHTS –
dinary press conference – the heralds of an beginning in 2014 won’t occur after all. About half a mile from Israeli-held terri-
extended period of cold-war-like tension “A cold war requires by definition two tory, in a Syrian village on the edge of a
have quieted. sides to confront each other,” says Niko- yellowed valley, a smattering of tents can
But no one is predicting a golden era in las Gvosdev, a US-Russia expert at the US be seen, some pitched in a grove of trees,
US-Russia ties, either. The domestic reaction Naval War College in Newport, R.I. “But V NEXT PAGE


others spilling out from the yards of box-
shaped houses. They are home to Syrians
who fled a punishing military assault by
no sign of ending and amid Israeli fears that
Islamist militants among the Syrian rebels
might use the area to launch attacks against
Russian intelligence officers indicted July 13
their own government as it tries to quash Israel. by the US Department of Justice for hacking
an anti-regime rebellion once and for all. Israel decided the best way to minimize the Democratic National Committee during
Farther along the border, which has sep- that threat was to encourage border villages the 2016 US election. At a summit with Russian
arated Israeli and Syrian forces for decades and towns to keep such elements away, first President Vladimir Putin, President Trump dis-
in this fortified former war zone, larger en- by offering humanitarian aid in the form of missed the findings by US intelligence agencies.
campments can be seen, with hundreds of food, fuel, and medical supplies. Later, the
tents and trailer homes.
The presence of these internally dis- ‘WE DECIDED THE SAFEST PLACE
placed Syrians, under the gaze of the Is- BILLION
raeli army, is both visually striking and an – Mohammed, a refugee who fled Daraa, Syria Fine (in dollars) the European Union hit Google
indication of at least a temporary change with for unfairly using its Android operating
in attitude among Syrians. Some 10,000 to aid was expanded to include treatment for system to promote its own apps.
12,000 have fled here, to Israel’s doorstep. wounded Syrians. To date some 5,000 Syr-
“We decided the safest place to be was
the Israeli border,” says a 29-year-old
teacher named Mohammed. He journeyed
ians have been treated in Israeli hospitals.
Five years ago the first wounded Syrians
to wake up in Israeli hospitals were shocked
Members (at press time) of British Prime
here after his hometown of Daraa – a reb- and horrified, doctors recall, having grown Minister Theresa May’s government who had
el stronghold – came under heavy attack up on stories of Israel as a cruel enemy. resigned in protest of her “Brexit” plan, which
from Syrian ground forces and Russian war- But later they returned home, in some cases maintains ties to the European Single Market.
planes in late June. He was among some after complicated reconstructive surgeries,

300,000 civilians who fled. and told friends and neighbors of the ex-
“We saw how Israel treated Syrians in cellent treatment they’d received in Israel,
the last seven years, and the goodwill of Syrian patients at the hospital say. Moons scientists recently discovered orbiting
the Israelis encouraged us to come to the Israel has drawn the line at taking in Jupiter, bringing the planet’s total count to 79.
border,” Mohammed told a group of report- refugees, citing security risks and fearing Nine of the new moons orbit in the opposite
ers via Skype. “We know Israel is a strong that it could set a precedent for letting in direction that Jupiter rotates.
country and no one can attack Israel.” refugees from future conflicts on its border.

That Syrian civilians would look to Israel – Dina Kraft / Correspondent
for sanctuary is just one example of how the
eight-year civil war has reshuffled attitudes Height (in feet above sea level) of a 650-foot-
here even as it has changed the balance of HELSINKI AFTERMATH wide iceberg that was dangerously close to the
power. With both Russia and Iran on the village of Innaarsuit, Greenland. At press time, it
Russians see was unclear whether it would float out to sea or
disintegrate and create giant waves.

a summit success
But not for the same reasons 100th
Anniversary of anti-apartheid leader Nelson
that others saw failure for US Mandela’s birth. President Barack Obama gave
the annual Nelson Mandela Lecture July 17,
MOSCOW – The summit in Helsinki, Finland, speaking of his vision of “equality and justice
between Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin and freedom.” He also spoke out against “strong-
might as well have been two different events man politics.”
held on separate planets, to judge by the

overwhelming media and establishment
reactions in the United States and Russia.
SEEKING AID: A Syrian family checks in to an The Russians were hoping to arrest the Times that Telemundo’s soccer announcers
Israeli facility to get medical help in the Israeli-oc- death spiral in bilateral relations over the shouted “gooooool,” when a goal was scored
cupied Golan Heights on the Syrian border July 11. past couple of years. They came away very during the World Cup in Russia. France beat
pleased with the upbeat tone struck between Croatia 4-2 in the final on July 15.
winning side, there’s also a new impetus the two presidents and the real, if modest,

for Israel to court Russia and come to terms pledges to restore dialogue on a variety of
with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s po- critical issues, ranging from nuclear arms
litical survival. control to a political settlement for Syria. Home runs Washington Nationals player Bryce
Word of Israel’s Operation Good Neigh- The morning-after headline in the govern- Harper hit in 4 minutes, 30 seconds to win the
bor seems to have spread, especially in ment newspaper Rossiyskaya Gazeta re- Major League Baseball Home Run Derby July 16.
southwest Syria, which unfolds beyond the flected a high level of official satisfaction:
Golan Heights – territory Israel captured “Trump: Putin looked strong in Helsinki.” Sources: BBC, The Wall Street Journal, Bloomberg, NPR, Time,
from Syria in 1967. The policy was launched In the US, the mood expressed in ma- NPR, The New York Times, The Daily Beast

five years ago as Syria’s civil war showed V NEXT PAGE




jor newspapers seemed one of near despair

over Mr. Trump’s perceived kowtowing to
Mr. Putin, and his initial refusal to support
the US intelligence community’s findings
that Russia interfered in the 2016 election
on Trump’s behalf. (Back in Washington,
Trump claimed he misspoke, and that Rus-
sian interference had taken place.)
There is little indication that most lead-
ing Russian commentators take seriously
the storm of anti-Trump outrage in the US.
Nor are they concerned that it might drown
out any actual progress made during the
two-hour Trump-Putin tête-à-tête. Most Rus-
sians greet with derision the idea that Putin
controls Trump. And while they wouldn’t be
surprised if the Kremlin had tried to meddle
in the 2016 election, they don’t believe that
Russian efforts got Trump elected. Rescued Thai soccer team meets the press
A few Russian experts, people with
WELL-WISHERS GREET the July 18 arrival in Chiang Rai province, Thailand, of the 12 boys and
extensive contacts in the US, say they are
their coach who were rescued from a flooded underground cave. Released from the hospital
worried. Their American friends have nev-
the day before, they spoke to journalists about how they coped during their ordeal.
er before expressed such unalloyed fury at
Russia and blanket rejection of anything
Putin says. They fear that anything Putin
and Trump cook up will be tainted and un- two nuclear superpowers with no negotiated
acceptable to many Americans. framework of strategic arms control for the
“If we were living through normal times,
we would be justified in seeing Helsinki as
first time in more than four decades.
Trump seemed to endorse a deal for a
Canadians push
a moderately successful summit,” says Fyo-
dor Lukyanov, editor of the foreign-policy
Syria endgame, initiated recently between
Putin and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin back on trade
journal Russia in Global Affairs. “But these Netanyahu, which would see Syrian Presi-
are anything but normal times. These days, dent Bashar al-Assad remain in power and
Boycott of American products
issues of strategic policy are subordinated Russia exercise its influence to limit Iranian on the rise; counter-tariffs, too
to domestic affairs, and any achievements military deployments near Israel’s border
with Syria. HALTON HILLS, ONTARIO – Mayor Rick Bonnette
MOST LEADING RUSSIAN COMMENTATORS “One thing we think was very signifi- boasts that his municipality outside Toron-
DO NOT TAKE SERIOUSLY THE STORM OF cant is that Putin, for the first time, pub- to is the most patriotic in all of Canada:
ANTI-TRUMP OUTRAGE IN THE U.S. licly spoke about Israeli security as a goal On the country’s 150th birthday last year,
of Russian policy,” says Lukyanov. “Ameri- a population of 61,000 raised some 57,000
can be derailed by the kind of angry, hostile cans should join this deal, and it would be a Canadian flags.
reactions we are seeing” in the US. shame if it got ruined by the toxic political So when President Trump slapped alu-
“Trump certainly made a mistake by atmosphere surrounding Trump.” minum and steel tariffs on his country – on
failing to seriously address the meddling Masha Lipman, editor of Counterpoint, a the grounds of national security, no less –
issue that Americans are so preoccupied political journal published by George Wash- Mr. Bonnette drew up a resolution that was
with,” Mr. Lukyanov says. “He even seemed ington University, says Trump is not the only passed unanimously by the town council.
to be taking sides with Putin.” And while one in the US making bad decisions. It encourages Halton Hills residents to “be-
many Russians seem pleased by how Putin “I know many Americans are seized with come knowledgeable” about what they buy
looked in Helsinki, they “may not be aware a desire to punish Putin and get Trump,” and consider “avoiding the purchase of US
of the risk that it may have been completely says Ms. Lipman, who wrote extensively products” when possible.
counterproductive” to Russian long-term about Russia for The Washington Post. “This “We don’t want to escalate this,” Bon-
hopes of rebooting the relationship. may be in tune with their emotions, but it nette says. “But we are not going to be
While no formal agreements were made is not good politics.... Americans are angry pushed. This has gotten insulting.”
or documents signed in Helsinki, the two at Trump for something he cannot possibly It is a rare flare-up of passions north
leaders committed to reestablishing chan- deliver. He isn’t able to make Putin confess of the US border that is born not just of
nels of communication that have been about election meddling. Putin will just deny antipathy toward American foreign policy,
largely shut down amid the acrimony of it, as he has many times before. Are we say- which would be nothing new, but something
recent months. They also agreed to look ing that it’s impossible to move beyond that, altogether more personal. Amid a trade spat
into extending the New START nuclear to discuss things that urgently need to be and threats of tariffs on cars, peppered by
arms reduction treaty. If the treaty expires talked about between the US and Russia?” a slew of perceived affronts by Mr. Trump,
on schedule in three years, it will leave the – Fred Weir / Correspondent VNEXT PAGE


suddenly Canadians who might have seen Much of that has been achieved by dele- Canadian leaders have had to strike a
the United States as a bully elsewhere in gating responsibilities to commissions and balance between not caving in to American
the world now feel they are the kid getting creating pacts, whether on Great Lakes wa- interests and maintaining privileged access
picked on. A #BuyCanadian movement is ter quality or airspace control under the to Washington. But even in a polarized coun-
their pushback. North American Aerospace Defense Com- try with 2019 elections looming, Canadians
Canadians are certainly not alone. In mand, says Christopher Sands, director of across the political spectrum rallied around
recent weeks Trump has lambasted allies the Center for Canadian Studies at Johns the announcement of $12.6 billion in retal-
from Germany to Britain, while seeming Hopkins University in Baltimore. iatory tariffs.
to cozy up to America’s traditional foes as “When Trump leaves the scene, the re- One Canadian publication put out “A
he did in Helsinki, Finland, with Russia’s lationship will need some healing,” he says. Patriot’s Guide to Shopping During a Can-
Vladimir Putin. “We’ll have to have a decision about whether ada-US Trade War,” with such tips as forgo-
But for arguably the two closest coun- we want to continue to use institutions to ing Hershey chocolates for Canadian brand
tries in the world, a growing rift threatens a take politics out of the relationship on a day- Laura Secord, named after a heroine of the
relationship that works because it has long to-day basis, or whether the answer is going War of 1812 who warned British troops of a
been based on local relationships and the to be reinforcing our national sovereignties.” US attack. Canadians have shared stories
work at hand – precisely so that politics and of canceling trips to New York or the US
personalities don’t get in the way. ‘WHEN TRUMP LEAVES THE SCENE, THE West for vacations in Prince Edward Island
“A lot of the cooperation that goes on RELATIONSHIP WILL NEED SOME HEALING.’ or the Canadian Rockies.
between Canada and the United States is – Christopher Sands, Johns Hopkins University At a supermarket in Halton Hills, Mau-
functional,” says Robert Wolfe, professor reen Sowden says she no longer will buy
emeritus at Queen’s University in Kings- A divergence under Trump was to be ex- toilet paper made in the US and has done
ton, Ontario. “It is not because we love each pected. One survey ahead of the US election her research about where her products
other. It is because we share a continent.” in 2016 showed 80 percent of Canadians come from – or at least as much as possi-
But “can that survive a sustained period of backing Hillary Clinton. ble in such an integrated market. She says
political turbulence at the top? I don’t know.” But the attacks coming from Washington this “locally sourced” movement is a good
Canada and the US have always taken on trade have driven a significant wedge. consciousness-raising exercise, even if it’s
divergent paths, starting with the Ameri- Then Trump abandoned the niceties that hardly an economic threat to the US.
can Revolution. In the modern era, disputes have long marked the public relationship “We are so close. It is as if everything
over softwood lumber or lobsters, over the between both nations’ leaders after he called just becomes part of the Americas, but we
Vietnam and Iraq Wars, have strained the Prime Minister Justin Trudeau “weak” and are distinct,” she says, echoing a sentiment
relationship. But differences have always “dishonest.” The spat comes as the US, Can- coming more and more to the fore,“and we
been managed quietly, and kept narrow, in ada, and Mexico are in talks to renegotiate are becoming more and more distinct.”
favor of constructive cooperation. the North American Free Trade Agreement. – Sara Miller Llana / Staff writer

DC DECODER u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u

Trump’s Helsinki remarks draw bipartisan fire

On Day 2 after the Helsinki, Finland, such statements before – questioning the But it’s far from certain that Trump’s
summit meeting between President Trump conclusion of Russian meddling – but to do performance with Putin is a turning point,
and Russian President Vladimir Putin, Mr. so standing next to Mr. Putin was almost at least domestically. Republican voters’
Trump sought to ease the shock and awe incomprehensible. views of Russia have improved dramatically
over his jaw-dropping disavowal of his own “They did interfere in our elections. It’s under Trump, and his supporters may well
intelligence services, saying he misspoke really clear,” House Speaker Paul Ryan told go along with the latest twists and turns.
and does believe their assessment that reporters. Speaker Ryan’s comments were Forty percent of Republicans say they view
Russia meddled in the 2016 election. mild compared with those of Democrats Russia as an ally, up from 22 percent four
But the aftershocks of Trump’s perfor- and “never-Trumper” Republicans, who used years ago, according to Gallup.
mance will surely be felt for some time words like “shameful” and “disgraceful” to “Let’s see how the country responds
to come. Never before had an American describe Trump’s statements – or, in the case over the next several weeks,” says Cal Jillson,
president stood on foreign soil and sided of former CIA chief John Brennan, “treason- a political scientist at Southern Methodist
with a rival foreign leader against pillars of ous.” Few Republican members of Congress University in Dallas. At the same time, how-
American government – in this case, the US came to Trump’s defense, an exception ever, Mr. Jillson points out, this improved
intelligence community, Justice Depart- being Sen. Rand Paul of Kentucky. Fox News view of Russia may not prove “bone deep.”
ment, and FBI. hosts Sean Hannity and Tucker Carlson also “Many of [those polled] are lifelong
Top members of Congress, Republi- defended Trump, but former House Speaker Republicans,” says Jillson, “who grew up and
cans and Democrats, pushed back hard Newt Gingrich – usually a Trump stalwart – spent the bulk of their life disdaining Russia
on Trump’s disavowal of his intelligence said that Trump had committed “the worst and now see Putin as the great enemy.”
services’ assessment. Trump had made mistake of his presidency.”
– Linda Feldmann / Staff writer



for international students and scholars. The

University of New Hampshire sent repre-
sentatives to China and India to encourage
accepted students to actually enroll. Eastern
Michigan University features banners with
photos of international students on its light
The US State Department continues to
promote study here through its Education-
USA offices around the world.
But at the same time the State Depart-
ment and other US agencies are taking ac-
tion to address growing concerns about the
theft of intellectual property and threats to
national security by individuals from certain
countries, including China.
The State Department is issuing new
screening guidelines for Chinese students
studying in highly sensitive fields such as
aviation and robotics, acknowledged Ed-
ward Ramotowski, the deputy assistant
secretary for visa services in the depart-
SECOND THOUGHTS ABOUT THE U.S.: Students hang out on campus under international flags hang- ment’s Bureau of Consular Affairs, during
ing over the food court at Kingsborough Community College in the New York borough of Brooklyn. a congressional hearing June 6.
The exchange at the hearing suggested
of 2,104 prospective international students the new guidelines would require annual
HIGHER EDUCATION surveyed in February 2017. renewal of visas, primarily for Chinese
But that’s not the only factor fueling graduate students in these fields. A State
US colleges court a recent decline in new international en-
rollments. After at least 12 years of steady
Department official would not confirm this
to the Monitor, however, stating in an email

foreign students growth, those numbers actually dipped

before the election of President Trump, by
that the maximum length for a student visa
for Chinese nationals is five years and is
about 10,000 students in the fall of 2016 – a unchanged, and that consular officers have
Security woes, political climate 3 percent decline from the previous year. always had the right to limit the length of
limit overseas enrollment Higher education groups here want to visas on a case-by-case basis.
stave off a worsening decline of US market While security concerns are important,
Landry Bado has a new bachelor’s de- share. A survey of 500 US institutions indi- the new guidelines, in conjunction with oth-
gree in architecture from Temple University cated a 7 percent dip of new international er immigration policies, could end up “con-
in Philadelphia. A citizen of Burkina Faso in students in the fall of 2017. tributing to a signal to foreign students that
West Africa, he’s vocal about the benefits of One contributing factor: a winding down they’re not welcome in the US,” says Terry
coming together across borders for higher of government scholarship programs in Hartle, senior vice president of the Amer-
education. He’s one of many students and Brazil and Saudi Arabia for students to go ican Council on Education in Washington.
staff who offer warm smiles as they convey abroad, says Rajika Bhandari, a top official But Chinese students who can get into
the message “You are welcome here” in a at the Institute of International Education top-ranked US universities and afford the
Temple video designed to reassure prospec- tuition will probably attend despite con-
tive international students about coming to ‘THINGS STARTED TO FEEL MORE SCARY cerns, says Kang, a Chinese citizen who
study in the United States. AFTER THE ELECTIONS [IN 2016].’ recently launched Lighthouse Academy in
Competition for international college – Landry Bado, student from Burkina Faso Beijing, a business that consults with stu-
students is growing globally, and many US dents there about study abroad, primarily
colleges want to bolster their numbers – to in New York, which publishes the “Open in the US. (Kang preferred not to have his
boost both diversity and their bottom line. Doors” data report. Other factors include the full name appear in the press, citing security
Just over 1 million international students growth of opportunities in large countries, concerns.)
contribute more than $30 billion a year to such as India, and in Canada, which markets Wu Ying, a sophomore at Shantou
the US economy, even as they help Ameri- itself as safe and welcoming. University in China, says she is wonder-
can students prepare for a global workforce. “Things started to feel more scary after ing whether a master’s degree in the US
But admissions staff have been hearing the elections [in 2016],” says Mr. Bado. “A would be worth the price. Chinese students
rumblings from students and parents abroad lot of people are becoming more and more in the US have given her the impression that
– some alarmed by news headlines about anxious with the idea of traveling here.” “though it might be tough and challenging
violence and bias incidents at US schools, Many American colleges have been sometimes it still has considerable merits,”
others worried about real or potential visa working double time to allay worries and she writes in an email. “After hearing their
restrictions. to provide opportunities for international ideas I feel inspired and want to ‘have a
Because of the political climate, interest and domestic students to interact. try.’ ”
in coming to the US decreased for one-third Tufts University set up a travel hotline – Stacy Teicher Khadaroo / Staff writer
tal health system and knew almost nothing
about private sector options. As her concern
meanwhile in ...
intensified, time ran out. Her son’s second
Speeding the path suicide attempt was his last. “I wasn’t aware
of what resources were available or how to

to help for vets navigate the problem,” says Zimmer Carter,

who now serves as an advocate with the
Tragedy Assistance Program for Survivors,
Vets leaving the military need a national nonprofit that aids families of
support from ‘the first minute,’ deceased service members.
“Even with my military experience, and
say advocates even with my medical knowledge inside and
SACRAMENTO, CALIF. – The occasion of Chris outside the military, it was hard to locate
Carter’s 23rd birthday in 2015 brought to- the right resources and support,” she says. GOATS IN ALGARVE, PORTUGAL ARMANDO FRANCA/AP

gether his parents, friends, and fellow sol- Two federal agencies have launched a
diers in sorrow rather than celebration. An public health campaign with the intent of PORTUGAL, the government is relying on
Army Ranger who served four combat tours reducing that confusion and the rate of 20 an ancient firefighting technology: goats.
in Afghanistan, he had died by suicide two suicides a day among service members and Last year deaths from wildfires in Por-
weeks earlier. veterans. The joint initiative by the Depart- tugal reached a record high of 106. This
During Mr. Carter’s first tour in 2011, he ment of Veterans Affairs and the Substance summer, however, hundreds of goats are
lost a close friend in a bomb explosion and being deployed to eat underbrush and
saw the bodies of other colleagues killed in ‘THERE NEEDS TO BE A CHANGE.... WE dry vegetation that can serve as kin-
the blast. He had little time to grieve. The CAN’T KEEP WAITING ... TO SAVE PEOPLE.’ dling. Working with goats “allows you
Army deployed the Rangers – elite special – Steve Seroka, Las Vegas City councilman to treat areas that are difficult to reach
operations units – for four-month tours and otherwise,” Dan Macon, a University of
the furious mission tempo seldom ebbed. Abuse and Mental Health Services Admin- California Cooperative Extension live-
His first suicide attempt followed his istration (SAMHSA) encourages cities to stock and natural resources adviser, told
final deployment in 2014. After learning forge alliances between public agencies
the news, his mother, Beth Zimmer Carter, and private organizations to expand sui-
traveled to Joint Base Lewis-McChord near cide prevention strategies. INDIA, one of the world’s most linguisti-
Tacoma, Wash., where he was stationed. Las Vegas City Councilman Steve Se- cally diverse countries, 122 languages are
Carter had sought counseling from roka served as a commander during the officially recognized by the government.
Afghanistan War in the twilight of a 30-year But Ganesh Devy, a former professor
Air Force career. The retired colonel, who of English from the western state of
belongs to the city’s team working on the Gujarat, insisted the number was too
VA-SAMHSA project, describes the sense of low. So with the help of more than
dislocation that can afflict service members 3,000 volunteers in 2010 he launched
when they leave the military. “There’s no the People’s Linguistic Survey of India.
tribe,” he says. “There’s not the same feel- So far the PLSI has recorded 780 differ-
ing of common purpose when they return ent Indian languages and published 37
to civilian life, and there’s not the same sup- volumes detailing them. They predict
port group that they had in the service. It’s 50 volumes will be needed to record all
easy to feel like an outsider, even in their the languages.
own families, and that’s when they can start
to lose themselves.” SWEDEN, cricket is on the rise. Just a
Mr. Seroka endorses an approach to few years ago there were only several
suicide prevention that begins long before hundred cricket players in the country.
a veteran exhibits symptoms of a mental Today the Swedish Cricket Federation
health condition. He advocates tracking has more than 2,000 players, only about
veterans as soon as they shed their uni- half of whom were born in Sweden.
NOT FORGOTTEN: Army veterans honor vets and forms, and he plans to nurture collaboration Most Swedish cricket players, accord-
service members who have died by suicide. among employers, educators, and veteran ing to Agence France-Presse, are immi-
services groups to expand post-military grants from countries like Afghanistan
military mental health providers before career opportunities. and Pakistan that were once part of the
his fourth tour, his mother recalls, yet “There needs to be a change in think- British Empire. For some new arrivals,
worried that revealing too much to them ing,” Seroka says. “We can’t keep waiting the game is said to ease integration
could jeopardize his Army career. Dr. Zim- until the last minute to save people. We need into a different culture. When they play
mer Carter – a physician who had retired at to start helping them from the first minute cricket, Tariq Zuwak, chairman of the
the rank of lieutenant colonel after 23 years when they get out of the service.” Swedish Cricket Federation, told AFP,
in the Army Reserve Medical Corps – tried Seroka admits that some vets might “there is nothing else on their mind than
to find treatment alternatives after arriving push that help away, “but at least we’ll be having fun.”
in Washington. making them aware of what’s available.” – Staff
But she felt stymied by the military men- – Martin Kuz / Staff writer
Rwanda makes WORLDWIDE
Starbucks has pledged to eliminate
agricultural leaps plastic straws from all of its stores by
2020. As the global public ramps up
Post-genocide reforms boosted pressure on big business to be more
environmentally friendly, plastic
food security and slashed poverty straws have become one of the biggest
Cedric Habiyaremye’s mission to end hunger
targets because of the harm they do
in Rwanda started with a pinkie promise. to marine life if they end up in the
When he was 7 years old, Mr. Habiyare- ocean. Starbucks will replace the
mye fled his home in Rwanda, often traveling straws with biodegradable alternatives
through the forest at night and hiding during and specially designed lids. Starbucks
the day to avoid becoming a victim of a geno- is the largest food and beverage
cide that would later claim 800,000 lives. It was company to announce the elimination
in a Tanzanian refugee camp where he made of such single-use items to date.
a pinkie promise to his brother to become a NBC NEWS REUTERS/FILE
farmer and figure out a way
to end mass hunger. FROM 2010 TO
“I was inspired by my 2014 THE VALUE
upbringing, because I have OF RWANDA’S
felt hunger in real life, and FOOD OUTPUT
malnutrition,” Habiyaremye JUMPED 60
says in a phone interview. “So PERCENT.
I wanted to study agriculture
and find ways to contribute to the agricultural
development in my country because I didn’t
want to see people going through what I went COSTA RICA
through.” The Central American nation
Now, almost 25 years later, he’s working to has developed a type of
keep that promise. Habiyaremye, a PhD student “green asphalt.” The asphalt,
at Washington State University, wants to intro- which contains a plastic
duce quinoa into Rwanda’s agricultural indus- that makes it far more
try. And he isn’t alone in his focus on farming. durable, was developed
Rwanda’s agricultural sector is showing notable by the University of Costa
growth thanks in part to strong government Rica’s National Laboratory
leadership, reforms, and outside investment. of Materials and Structural
As a result, Rwanda has transformed its ag- Models and its project
ricultural sector from a scattered network of
partners. A similar asphalt
family farms into a thriving economic system.
is already used in countries
It is one African country out of many that has
including England, India,
seen increased crop yields and productivity
and Canada, but Costa
amid what some are calling a “Green Revo-
Rica is pioneering its use in
lution” – a movement that aims to empower
farming industries to end poverty and hunger
Latin America. The Costa
across Africa. Rican blend uses PET plastic
“By focusing on agriculture investment and derived from recycled plastic
agricultural prosperity, [the Rwandan govern- bottles. Every ton of asphalt
ment has] shored an inclusive approach to uses 1,000 plastic bottles.
broad growth in the country,” says Tim Rob- THE COSTA RICA NEWS
ertson, a senior agricultural specialist with the

The Central Asian nation has
taken steps toward ending
“virginity exams” for women
and girls. A policy introduced
by Afghanistan’s Ministry
of Public Health in July bars
government health workers
from conducting the invasive
exams. Virginity examinations
are used in criminal
CHILE proceedings when women
Santiago has introduced or girls are accused of “moral
tactile versions of crimes” such as sex outside
street art to make them marriage.
accessible to people HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
who are blind. While
such installments are
common in museums
and galleries, it is the
first time the Chilean
capital has made street
art available in this way.
Using touch panels ROMANIA
and audio descriptions, The Eastern European
people who are visually nation has taken a
impaired can experience step toward protecting
six murals installed in women by banning
Barrio Lastarria, one of harassment. Romania’s
Santiago’s most popular Chamber of Deputies
tourist spots. overwhelmingly passed
a legislative proposal
July 10 that outlaws
sexual and psychological
harassment in public
and private places and
sets fines of as much
as €2,150 ($2,510). The
legislation is timely: REUTERS

Eight in 10 Romanian
women say they don’t feel safe walking on the street at
night, and 7 in 10 say they do not expect another person
to intervene if they are publicly harassed.
points of progress
V FROM PAGE 14 en to inherit land from husbands or other and fair elections and human rights.
World Bank. “And I think that’s been import- family members, a practice that was previ- Still, Rwanda appears to be leading the
ant not only from an economic and social ously prohibited. And because women have Green Revolution in Africa and continuing
perspective but also from a perspective of always dominated the agricultural indus- to make progress, says Ousmane Badiane,
where Rwanda has come from and where try, productivity soared once they became Africa director for the International Food
it wants to go to.” landowners, says Swanee Hunt, author Policy Research Institute.
More than 70 percent of Rwanda’s citi- of “Rwandan Women “It’s very, very hard
zens are employed in the agricultural sector, Rising.” – nearly impossible –
so when food productivity started to surge, Challenges remain to implement a reform
poverty levels began to fall. From 2010 to in implementing the where there are no los-
2014, the value of food production went government’s one-size- ers,” Mr. Badiane says.
from $1.2 million to $2 million – a 60 per- fits-all agricultural cam- “In general, there has
cent increase. And the poverty rate dropped paign across Rwanda’s been positive change.”
from 59 percent in 2000 to 39 percent in varied terrain, says Habiyaremye be-
2014, according to the Rwandan Ministry of Christopher Huggins, lieves growing quinoa
Agriculture and Animal Resources. By 2015, assistant professor in provides a path to fur-
the total number of households considered the School of Interna- thering agriculture in
food secure reached 80 percent, compared tional Development Rwanda. Quinoa is a
with only 65 percent in 2009. and Global Studies at versatile, hearty crop
A combination of practices allowed for the University of Otta- and filled with protein,
this much growth to happen so quickly, ex- wa. He’s also concerned HARVEST TIME: A Rwandan tea picker he says, so it could help
perts say, and myriad government reforms – that farmers face risk of works in a field in Mulindi, Rwanda, in 2010. the farmers themselves,
such as the Land Use Consolidation Act and going hungry by produc- who are suffering from
Crop Intensification Program, which were ing food under experimental reforms. malnutrition. “[I]f we don’t ... eradicate mal-
implemented in 2008 and 2007, respectively Furthermore, critics say that Rwanda’s nutrition ... Rwanda, or any other country,
– provided farmers with the resources and remarkable agricultural success is not an will be an inadequate society.... So that’s
training they needed to boost production. ideal model; under President Paul Kagame’s why I’m trying quinoa in Rwanda.... And my
The 1999 Law on Inheritance and Marital ever-tightening grip on power, developmen- hope is to expand to all of Africa.”
Property was also pivotal: It allows wom- tal gains have come at the expense of free – Grace Elletson / Staff

Wanted to Buy
Be inspired and uplifted by
Monitor journalism when you
Multi-family, apartment buildings subscribe to the Monitor Daily.
24- 75 units
• Receive the Monitor Daily
Selected suburban regions email delivered Monday
to Friday
Up-to-date buildings, stable NOI
• Get unrestricted access to
Direct or will work with listing broker
• Experience zero
third-party advertising


As a Weekly subscriber, you are eligible for a special
discounted rate in addition to a 30-day trial. This
will give you unrestricted access to the Daily digital
edition and



Shahieda Thungo has overcome her own tough times to become a pacer
for some of the slowest runners. BY RYAN LENORA BROWN / STAFF WRITER

An ultramarathoner helping stragglers


JOIN THE CROWD: The Comrades attracts approximately 20,000 participants per year, making it the largest ultramarathon in the world.

PIETERMARITZBURG, SOUTH AFRICA stereotypical ultramarathoners. There were WHY IT MATTERS
t was half past 5 on a winter morning, middle-aged men with jiggling potbellies
the sky above still an inky black, when and barrel-chested rugby-player types with
Coverage of marathons usually focuses
the starting gun popped. All at once, labored, heavy strides. There were women on the winners. But at the back of the
19,058 people surged toward the start- with false eyelashes and fluffy tutus, and pack of the world’s largest ultamara-
ing line of the world’s largest ultramarathon. 70-year-olds in faded running club singlets. thon is a story of humanity, strength,
At the front of the pack on June 10, the And there was Shahieda Thungo. and great courage.
elite runners, lean and lanky, eased comfort- By the time she went over the starting
ably into the 6-1/2-minute-mile pace they mat just after 5:42 a.m., more than 18,000 told the runners with me, ‘It’s going to be
would hold for the next 56 or so miles, as runners were already on the course. Mean- a long day in the office.’ ”
they charged up and down the punishing while, about a hundred yards behind her, But that is exactly how Thungo likes
inclines that had given this region a nick- a small fleet of buses was rumbling along it. On the road, she’s known as Makhi, or
name that on other days sounded bucolic: in low gear. Written on their sides in block “neighbor,” and for the past three years, she
the valley of a thousand hills. letters were two ominous words: BAILERS has had a singular job here: to pace some of
Behind the elites came the serious hob- BUS. the race’s slowest runners so they make it
by marathoners, wiry and focused, stealing “We were literally being chased from across the finish line just in time to beat the
glances at their GPS watches as they settled the word ‘go’ by the buses that pick up the marathon’s infamous 12-hour cutoff. It’s a
into long, easy strides. people who can’t go on anymore,” says Mrs. job that’s part cheerleader, part nurse, part
But as the minutes ticked by, the people Thungo, who ran that morning with a pacers cleric – a day of singing, praying, cajoling,
pouring across the starting line of the Com- flag sticking out of her backpack, announc- and doctoring (not to mention running 56
rades Marathon looked less and less like ing her projected finishing time:12:00. “I V NEXT PAGE



sharing, for a brief moment, the

same goal, the same struggle, the
same pain. As a result today, in a
country where many sports are
still deeply segregated, Com-
rades looks like Nelson Man-
dela’s rainbow nation in Nikes.

Finding purpose
Like many Comrades run-
ners, Thungo didn’t have a long
history of distance running be-
fore she started completing the
race. Even though she watched
the race on TV as a child, she
never thought of running it
Then in May 2011, her hus-
band, J., came home from mi-
nor surgery and fell suddenly ill.
Less than two months later, he
died. He was in his late 30s.
A week after his funeral,
Thungo was diagnosed with
skin cancer.
“That was my downest of
downs,” she says. Six months lat-
CHEER TEAM: Children show support for runners competing in the Comrades Marathon as they pass er, when she finished chemother-
through Camperdown, South Africa, on June 10. ROGAN WARD/REUTERS apy, she couldn’t drag herself up
from the misery. A doctor gently
suggested antidepressants.
V FROM PREVIOUS PAGE where the spirit of humanity and ubuntu is.” “Give me a year,” she told him. “I want to
But where that spirit comes from is a see if I can sort this out another way.” And so
miles herself). story wedged into the dark corners of South she began to walk, long rambling strolls that
It’s also a job that hints at an answer to Africa’s recent history. It’s a tale of how a took her through the fields near her house
the question that hangs low over this race. sports-mad country cut off from the rest in the Protea Glen section of Soweto. “I’d
Why would anyone want to do this, let of the sporting world by apartheid sanc- stand out there by myself, and I’d scream
alone 20,000 someones? tions began in the 1980s to turn an obscure and I’d cry,” she says. “And afterward, I felt
For most people who run the Comrades, footrace between the cities of Pietermaritz- a bit better.”
the answer is that it’s a challenge that exists burg and Durban into a televised spectacle Over time, “the distances became longer
on the very cusp of what is possible. Of the
19,058 people who started this year, nearly
6,000 finished in the race’s final, creaking ‘The back [of the race] is where my people are. And
hour, as the winter sunlight drained from the
sky above the coastal city of Durban, South
this has become a passion for me, a kind of calling, to
Africa. They completed the Comrades, but carry them to the finish.’
they could just as easily have not.
– Shahieda Thungo, pacer in the Comrades Marathon
At the back of the pack, pacing groups
like Thungo’s – which in South African races
are called “buses” – don’t just carry a few akin to the Super Bowl, attended by tens of and the screaming less.”
runners to the finish. They surge across thousands and watched rapturously on TVs Soon, she was running. First 10K’s, then
the field like tidal waves, dragging along across the country. 21, then her first ultramarathon, the 35-mile
anyone who needs them in a flurry of song “Every June, we turned on our one TV Two Oceans in Cape Town, South Africa.
and dance. Back there, the woman running channel – there was only one – and we As she ran, she often chanted quietly
alongside the runners chanting, “Durban! watched the Comrades all day,” remembers to distract herself from her heavy legs and
Hey! We’re coming! Hey!” and shoving cold Thungo, who grew up in the black township burning lungs. One-two-one-two-one-two-
baked potatoes into their hands can be the of Soweto, just south of Johannesburg. one-two. At one race, another runner joined
only thing that keeps them on the road. The Comrades, which began allowing in. Then another and another. Soon, Thungo
“It’s the one place in this country where women and black runners in the mid-1970s, had informal buses running behind her at
color, creed, religion, gender just don’t mat- was also the first desegregated sporting almost every race.
ter,” Thungo says. “I say, if our country were event that many South Africans ever wit- Running wasn’t just therapeutic; it gave
run by a Comrades runner, it would proba- nessed. Here were black South Africans her purpose. In your life, you might not be
bly be a better place. In South Africa, this is competing against white South Africans, V NEXT PAGE


the smartest in your class, she had often told
her young daughter, Nkazi. You might not
be the prettiest. But you’ll get there. It’s not
Shahieda Thungo is ‘speaking in all different
about comparing yourself to other people. languages – in Zulu and Afrikaans and English –
It’s about running your own race.
And now here she was, literally running
asking how you’re doing, seeing if you’re OK.’
her own races. – Ena Du Plessis, a Johannesburg runner
“People sometimes ask me, ‘Don’t you
want to run faster? Don’t you want to see
if you can finish sooner?’ But I don’t,” she she reached down and tapped the laminated She thinks of the years that followed,
says. “The back is where my people are. piece of paper pinned to her thigh. It was a all 13 of them lining up like soldiers at at-
And this has become a passion for me, a note from Nkazi, her daughter. tention. Good years and terrible years. The
kind of calling. To carry them to the finish.” “Mommy,” it read in bubbled letters, “I good years when they played endless games
That finish seemed almost impossibly love you loads! Make me proud.” of pool late into the night, until her pregnant
far, even to Thungo, as she huddled with She tapped it again. She thought of those belly got so big it dragged across the table
her fellow runners at the starting line in long nights after her chemotherapy treat- as she aimed her cue. The bad years, like
Pietermaritzburg that day in June. ments, when she was too weak to move, and when she lost that baby at 11 months old
No matter how well prepared you are, 6-year-old Nkazi made her tea or brought and vowed she’d never have another. The
she knew, running the Comrades is hard. her cans of sharp ginger soda. When she good years, when she got pregnant again.
“You’re nervous? That’s good; be nervous,” promised herself over and over again that The bad years, when he got sick. When
she had counseled runners at the race expo she would beat this thing for this little girl. he died. When she and Nkazi were left
the day before. “It means you respect the “She took care of me,” she says. “That child, alone.
distance.” she dragged me through really dark times.” And now, somehow, it’s another good
And the finish still seemed far away She tapped the note again and kept year, and he’s here, laughing with her again.
as Thungo and her bus shuffled past the going. You’ve gotten this far, he says. You’ve raised
halfway mark 5 hours and 54 minutes later, our daughter. You’re doing well in your life.
singing and clapping as they went. ‘Is this thing even possible?’ So yeah, you’ve got this race.
Easy! Easy! Easy, wena! Like many distance runners, Thungo And then there’s the voice of her mother,
Durban! We are coming! Mabhida Sta- welcomes a race’s dark moments. In those all tough love. I didn’t bring someone into
dium! We are coming! times, she says, she often speaks to the peo- the world who’d come this far and fail, she
“And all the time, she’s looking after ple she loves who have died. Shahieda, she tells her daughter as she runs. If it were
you,” says Ena Du Plessis, a Johannesburg hears J. saying, you’ve got real [guts], run- easy, everyone would do it.
runner who ran with Thungo’s And so Thungo keeps going.
bus in part of the race. “She’s Three more miles pass, then six.
speaking in all different lan- She feels better, at least as much
guages – in Zulu and Afrikaans as she could hope for after run-
and English – asking how you’re ning for 50 miles. And suddenly
doing, seeing if you’re OK.” she is in Durban. The air smells
But there were times, like salt. She can see the sea.
Thungo knew, when even she And just as suddenly, there are
wouldn’t be OK. “Your mo- hundreds of runners behind her,
ment,” she calls it. following her, listening to her
This year, Thungo’s came final promises. We’re almost
about 43 miles into the race. there. We’re getting that medal.
She’d been on the road for nine And even more suddenly,
hours, at an almost impossibly they’re all there, running into
consistent pace (when you’re the stadium with the roar of the
the 12-hour pacer, after all, crowd pressing in against them.
there is no room for error). “I couldn’t hold in my tears,”
She’d passed through chic says Lerato Sekgonyane, anoth-
suburbs and depressed villag- RELIEF: Shahieda Thungo (r.) hugs a friend after completing her third er runner beside her that day.
es, “like seeing all of South Af- Comrades ultramarathon. COURTESY OF DISCOVERY VITALITY And then, with everyone
rica in a day.” She’d sung and else, Mr. Sekgonyane is collaps-
soothed and screamed. And ing over the line into sobs and
now, as she approached the race’s final ning this crazy race. wobbly-legged embraces. Eleven hours, 52
punishing hill, everything ached. She wants to laugh then, thinking of minutes, and 33 seconds. He looks up to
“My eyebrows pained me; my fingernails him. Thinking of the stupid line he used to see Thungo nearby, swallowed in a mess
pained me. If you asked me a place I wasn’t get her attention that day at the gym when of sweaty, teary hugs.
hurting, I couldn’t have named one,” she she was 23. “Hey,” he said as he passed her “Before this run, you wonder to yourself,
says. So she listened quietly to her own rule on the escalator, “you look like someone I Is this thing even possible?” he says. But not
of the race, which played in her head on a know.” And she rolled her eyes. And she now. Not anymore.
kind of tape loop. Just keep moving. shrugged him off. But that was it. That was They’ve done it.
As she repeated those words in her head, the beginning. They’ve made it home. r


Ice surface IceCube
The IceCube Neutrino Observatory detects neutrinos 164 ft. Neutrino Observatory
as they pass through the Antarctic ice.
86 steel cables hold 5,160
digital optical modules (DOMs),
which are sensitive to light and
allow researchers to track the
paths of neutrinos.

4,757 ft.

Neutrino path Neutrino-proton
collision in IceCube
Blazar TXS 0506+056, an elliptical
galaxy some 4 billion light-years IceCube, 8,038 ft.
away with a supermassive black South Pole
hole at its center, shoots out twin 9,350 ft.
For scale: Bedrock
jets of particles at hundreds of Empire State
millions of miles per hour. The jets Building, 1,454 ft.
generate neutrinos, some of
which travel to Earth.

Neutrino demonstration heralds a new way of observing the cosmos. BY EOIN O’CARROLL / STAFF WRITER

Stalking ‘ghost particles’

n Sept. 22, 2017, a shock wave of blue light flashed century with its mind-bending breakthroughs, the history of as-
through the crystal-clear glacial ice a mile beneath the tronomy has been defined largely by one particle, the photon. All
South Pole, heralding an entirely new way of looking the light in the sky, from the distant stars and nebulae to the sun-
at the universe. light reflecting off the planets, moons, and other celestial bodies,
The light arose from the collision between a remarkably ener- reaches our eyes, photographic plates, and camera sensors in the
getic neutrino – a wraithlike subatomic particle moving close to form of these subatomic packets of energy.
the speed of light – and the nucleus of a hydrogen or oxygen atom Neutrinos are vastly more abundant than photons but much
deep within the ice. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, an array of harder to detect, earning them the nickname “ghost particles.”
more than 5,000 basketball-sized sensors suspended thousands of They are believed to have a mass of less than one-millionth of that
feet beneath the surface, detected the flash and then reconstructed of an electron and no electrical charge, so they travel unhindered
the neutrino’s path. and unnoticed, often for billions of light-years.
According to research published earlier this month in the journal The IceCube observatory at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole
Science, IceCube sent out alerts to more than a dozen observatories Station in Antarctica aims to capture these exceptionally rare
around the world, directing their attention to the region in the sky collisions between neutrinos from beyond our solar system and
where the neutrino was thought to have originated. atomic nuclei. On average, this occurred once every eight weeks
There, about 4 billion light-years from Earth, they saw a familiar or so in the 19 months before this particular neutrino was detected.
object: TXS 0506+056, as it is known, is a blazar, a When that happened, observatories around the
giant elliptical galaxy with a supermassive black hole world, from an optical telescope in the Canary Is-
spinning at its core. As it devours material around it, lands to a gamma-ray observatory orbiting hundreds
the black hole spews twin jets of particles moving at of miles above Earth, leapt into action. One of the
hundreds of millions of miles an hour, with one of those jets aimed two papers on the findings involves more than 1,000 scientists.
in Earth’s direction. The event marked the first time scientists “I can’t remember a time when so many instruments came to-
have identified the likely origin of a neutrino from beyond our gether to work on a single science case,” says Reshmi Mukherjee,
solar system. a physicist at Barnard College and a member of the VERITAS ob-
“It’s a demonstration that neutrinos can do astronomy,” says servatory, a gamma-ray telescope in southern Arizona that helped
Naoko Kurahashi Neilson, a physicist at Drexel University in Phil- pinpoint the likely source of the neutrino.
adelphia and a member of the IceCube team. “We’ve been talking “The popular image of the lone astronomers is, I’m afraid, out
about neutrino astronomy for 10 years, but it’s hard to be taken of date,” says Dawn Williams, a particle astrophysicist at the Uni-
seriously when you haven’t even seen anything definitively from versity of Alabama and a member of the IceCube team. “Science
outside the solar system before.” is definitely moving in the direction of more collaboration, larger
From the time of the ancient Babylonians through the 20th collaboration, and collecting large data sets.” r

r Questions? Comments? Email the science team at



Cowboys tend to a cow they’ve
lassoed on a cattle ranch in
Big Piney, Wyo.


When animals are your neighbors

EDEN, WYOMING – The Zakotniks spend long days to protect the landscape where they work, but
tending to their herd of hundreds of cattle on their landowners in this area also talk about the land and
ranch in rural Eden, Wyo., (pop. 281). But they its local wildlife as having intrinsic value. Conflicts
make sure that their between ranchers and
schedule includes time wildlife still occur. Miles
to care for their wild of cattle fencing, for
neighbors as well. Gary example, often impede
Zakotnik is sheepish mule deer migration. But
about admitting it, but in railroad development in
the cold, grassless months southern Wyoming after
of winter, he scatters hay the Civil War created a
for hungry mule deer and checkerboard pattern
pronghorn. And when his of public and private
wife, JoAnn, mows their landownership. Migrating
fields in the summer, she species don’t recognize
leaves an area untouched these boundaries, so
2 LONGTIMER Gary Zakotnik works on a ranch that has been in his
for “the chickens,” their conservationists rely on
wife’s family for 110 years.
nickname for the iconic local landowners to help.
Western bird known as the greater sage grouse. “Most ranchers are active environmentalists, not
Landowners in southwestern Wyoming, such as the environmental activists,” says Mr. Zakotnik. “We do
Zakotniks, tend to see themselves as stewards of the things on our own, because we want to do it.” r
land. Cattle ranchers have an economic incentive VMORE PHOTOS ON PAGE 22




5 6
3 AS IT WAS The Sommers Homestead Living History
Museum in the Upper Green River Valley shows what
homestead life was like in the first half of the 20th

4 FIRST LEGS Katie Burnett, Mr. Zakotnik’s granddaugh-

ter, checks on a week-old filly on her family’s ranch in
Farson, Wyo.

5 ON ALERT Outside Big Piney, mule deer get ready to

flee when a car stops nearby.

6 SHUTTING THE DOOR Zakotnik closes a fence where

his cattle are grazing on leased private land in Eden Valley.

7 WORK SHOES Cowboy boots are lined up in the

Zakotniks’ entry hall.

7 8 ON THE MOVE A freight train rolls through the wide-

open spaces near Rock Springs, Wyo.

Police wade into a throng of anti-Vietnam War protesters in Grant Park during the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on Aug. 28, 1968.






Protesters, upset over children being separated from their parents at the US-Mexican border, participate in a Families Belong Together march in
Chicago on June 30, 2018, in the latest act of resistance to President Trump’s immigration policies.

s 2018
TO TWEETS 2 0 1 8


ON THE ROAD FROM LOS ANGELES TO WASHINGTON scorned by the country for which they had fought.
he day was dying. We watched it go, the sun streaking This was our third stop on a cross-country drive from Los Ange-
the sky pink and orange as it sank behind the red clay les to Washington, D.C. Our quest was to find out how activism has
mountains that rule the Arizona landscape. evolved in the past 50 years. Standing on that bluff saluting eras
We had just hiked to the top of Mares Bluff here in gone by, we could easily feel connected to our trailhead: 1968, an
Clifton, a mining town of 4,500 near the New Mexico iconic year in US history, one rocked by war and assassinations,
border. The steep, rocky path is marked by gold plaques commem- by race riots and tear gas, by music, marches, and movements.
orating every conflict involving the United States since World War Activism had taken center stage that year, shaping Ameri-
I. On the cliff’s edge, flags representing each of the branches of can culture, race relations, gender norms, and politics for half a
the armed forces stand billowing over the town’s buildings and century. We wanted to understand what the period meant to the
bungalows. The Stars and Stripes towers above them all. generation who’d lived during it – and how we, their political and
The memorial had been built in 1999 by a group of local veter- cultural descendants, continue to wrestle with the fallout in 2018.
ans, most of whom had served in Vietnam at the height of antiwar The trip took 13 days and spanned more than 3,200 miles.
fervor. The place is a physical display of advocacy – a silent salute Hours of interviews with former and current activists showed
to fellow soldiers by service members who for decades had felt VNEXT PAGE


on the world and say: ‘This is the moment
we’re going to try something.’ ”
“People today are operating in that same
spirit,” he says.

WE STARTED OUR TRIP with a visit to the Au-

try Museum of the American West in Los
Angeles. The museum was staging an exhi-
bition on La Raza, a bilingual magazine pub-
lished by Chicano, or Mexican-American,
activists from 1967 to 1977. The paper had
covered the major demonstrations of the
Chicano movement, including the East
L.A. rallies in the spring of ’68, when thou-
sands of high school students marched to
protest poor conditions in predominantly
Mexican-American schools. (Three months
later, Los Angeles would reel from the assas-
sination of then-presidential candidate Rob-
ert Kennedy, who was in California to meet
with farmworker advocate Cesar Chavez.)
Luis Garza had been a photographer for
La Raza and co-curated the exhibition. As
A cross draped with red, white, and blue ribbon stands atop a veterans memorial on Mares Bluff in he walked us through the images on display,
Clifton, Ariz. Local Vietnam veterans built the memorial in 1999. he told us how the paper’s staff had strived
to capture not just protests and riots but
also life in “the barrios” of East L.A. “It was
VFROM PREVIOUS PAGE But today’s progressive movements are about family, it was about children, it was
us that while the blueprints for battle have still coalescing around race, gender, and in- about culture and art,” he says. “It was about
changed, the issues many people are fight- equity – the same issues that undergirded representation ... and making an argument
ing for have not. In 1968, the goal was to movements 50 years ago. Now, as then, for inclusion.”
raise public awareness about the struggle there’s a sense that the system desperately We noted that minus the beehive hair and
of marginalized communities. Activists needs a shake-up. muscle cars, La Raza’s photos could have
then used music, art, and writing as well “What drove those movements was a been lifted from the Women’s Marches that
as protests to bring that struggle forward. rather wild hope that it was time for the followed President Trump’s inauguration in
In 2018, the dream is not just recognition country to repair what had been broken in 2017, or the student-led March for Our Lives
but representation. Activists today are using American history,” says sociologist Todd against gun violence earlier this year. “Noth-
the ballot box in a bid to address inequali- Gitlin, author of “The Sixties: Years of Hope, ing has changed,” Mr. Garza agrees, peering
ty from positions of power. They also have Days of Rage.” “It’s the kind of hope that at us behind big, round glasses. “That’s the
technology to magnify their impact online, generates commitment ... built on a moral tragedy of it.” Young people today are con-
in the streets, and in political discourse. fiber that comes to people as they look out VNEXT PAGE


Founding co-editor of La Raza Ruth Robinson (left, r.) with Margarita

Sanchez at a high school walkout in Los Angeles in 1968. Luis Garza
(above), a former photographer for La Raza, a publication that covered
the local Chicano movement in the 1960s and ’70s, looks at an exhi-
bition of his photographs at the Autry Museum of the American West


tending with the same issues. “That’s why to widen and trees filled the roadsides. By ‘What drove those
this exhibition resonates,” he says. the time we crossed the Mississippi River
As we made our way across the coun- into Memphis, Tenn., the desert was a dis- movements [in the
try, we would hear echoes of that idea from tant memory. 1960s] was a rather
people who’d lived through the upheavals It was in Memphis that we got perhaps
of the ’60s and those who’ve inherited the our clearest sense of the ties binding ac- wild hope that it was
outcomes. The era saw major progressive tivism today and 50 years ago, and what time for the country to
victories: the expansion of voter rights, has and hasn’t changed since. On April 4,
the abolition of the draft, the beginning of 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and repair what had been
the end of segregation. Yet “none of those killed on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel broken in American
issues have really stopped being issues,” in downtown Memphis. For a young Al Bell,
says Professor Gitlin, who teaches at the King’s death was a personal blow. Mr. Bell history.’
Columbia University School of Journalism had marched with the Southern Christian – Todd Gitlin,
in New York City. “The Vietnam War came to VNEXT PAGE sociologist and author of a book on the ’60s
an end, but America’s role in the world, and
how to conduct race relations, and how to
conduct relations between the sexes – those
are all in play.”
After our tour with Garza, we struck
southeast for Clifton, about 580 miles away.
We arrived on a scorching Saturday and
took refuge in Steve Guzzo’s blessedly cool
kitchen, where he met us with his friend Bob
Jackson. Both men had served in Vietnam
– Mr. Guzzo from 1966 to 1968 and Mr. Jack-
son from 1969 to 1970. Guzzo is president
of the veteran support group that built the
memorial atop the bluff. Jackson helps him
manage the site.
Like many Vietnam vets, Guzzo and
Jackson are skeptical of activism and its
ability to produce positive change. Both men
had returned from the service to a country
that had turned against the war, and against
them. Guzzo recalled the day he landed in
Oakland, Calif., in the spring of 1968.
“I come off the plane, and there’s all
these protesters protesting the war,” Guzzo
says. “This guy spits on me. And he called
me a baby killer, drug addict, warmonger.”
That hostility, directed at them first by
activists and then the public in general,
has made them both wary of marches and
movements – even as they applaud their
generation’s efforts to make the country a
better place. “The ’60s was one of the great-
est generations of all time,” Guzzo says as
he served up chips and homemade salsa.
“All kinds of rights came out of there. We’re
talking women’s liberation, gay rights, hu-
man rights. It was an explosion.”
But, like Garza, the two veterans are not
sure America has improved in the years
since. “It peaked, and then it went the other
way,” Guzzo says.

WE LEFT CLIFTON on a series of state high-

ways that took us north through New Mex-
ico’s Gila National Forest up into Albuquer-
que. From there it was due east on Interstate
40, through empty stretches of northern The former Lorraine Motel (top), where Martin Luther King Jr. was shot on April 4, 1968, is part of a
Texas and the plains of Oklahoma. Then, complex of buildings that make up the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tenn. King links arms
suddenly, the land turned lush: Rivers began with other civil rights activists during a march in Memphis in March 1968 (above).



A member of the Women’s Liberation Movement drops a bra in a trash barrel in protest of the Miss director, Paul McKinney, told us that con-
America pageant in Atlantic City, N.J., on Sept. 7, 1968 (above, left). Hundreds of thousands of people necting the students with the label’s history
turned out for the Women’s March in Washington on Jan. 21, 2017, President Trump’s first day in office.
is a key part of the program. Their hope is
to provide young Memphians with the same
VFROM PREVIOUS PAGE is a miracle!’ ” kind of opportunity Stax Records did for
Leadership Conference in Savannah, Ga., In 1968, Bell set out to simultaneously black artists more than a half-century ago.
as crowds of angry whites spat at and beat release 30 singles and 28 albums in a proj- “I want them to be armed and educated
them. He’d debated the merits of passive ect he called “Soul Explosion.” The goal ... to go out to say, ‘Guess what? I’m good
resistance and economic empowerment was to prove that Stax could still make hit enough. I can do it. I don’t need anybody
with the reverend himself, and had even records – and that its black artists, espe- to give me handouts,’ ” Mr. McKinney says.
co-written a song for King called “Send cially, could sell music to mainstream, or “The students are still facing a lot of sim-
Peace and Harmony Home.” white, audiences. The label was also a way ilar issues, you know, that those Stax artists
King was trying “to instill in us hope, to represent “the lives, lifestyles, and living from the ’50s and ’60s had to deal with.”
pride, and belief in a better day, as opposed of African-Americans” through music, he
to hopelessness,” Bell says. “That was very, says. “That was our activism.” THE MOVEMENTS OF THE 1960S did move
very important to me.” the needle. Laws such as the Civil Rights
The assassination had also come at a
time when Bell already had his hands full:
‘I’m just so fired Act and Voting Rights Act provided real
protections that have helped historically
He had just taken over as chief executive up. Going from marginalized groups begin to find equal
of Stax Records, a soul music label head- footing in American society. In 2018 many
quartered on East McLemore Street, just homeless single people know and accept that they need to
a couple of miles from the Lorraine. Four mom to entrepreneur speak out and stand against various kinds
months earlier, the company’s biggest star, of discrimination. That was not necessarily
Otis Redding, had died in a plane crash. Stax to activist to now true in 1968.
had also just lost its entire music catalog politician?’ But neither the best-intentioned laws
after a deal with its longtime distributor, nor the changing tide of public opinion can
Atlantic Records, fell through. – Cara McClure, candidate for a seat on the erase centuries of oppression and disenfran-
Stax’s survival was important to Bell, not Alabama Public Service Commission chisement, says Lorena Oropeza, an associ-
just because he was running the company ate professor of history at the University of
but because of what it stood for. Stax had Today, on the site where Stax once stood, California, Davis. Just because a society has
maintained a policy of racial integration a museum celebrates the label’s legacy. Next decided something is wrong doesn’t mean
at a time when Memphis was still deeply door is the Stax Music Academy, which it’s solved the problem.
segregated. Bell still remembers the first offers after-school and summer program- “Things have become more complicat-
time he walked into a studio and saw black ming for at-risk, inner-city youth. The day ed,” Professor Oropeza says. “It’s no longer,
and white musicians writing and recording we arrived, we caught the academy’s sum- you’re a black child and you can’t go to a
together. “I’d never seen anything like that mer alumni band warming up. The group white school. It is the case that you’re a
before,” he says. “I couldn’t believe that plucked songs from the Stax catalog, urging black child or a poor child and you’re in a
that sound and that feeling and that spirit visitors to sing and dance to classics such as bad school. It’s much more structural, and
were coming out of these two black guys “I’ll Take You There” by The Staple Singers. that’s harder.”
and these two white guys. I thought, ‘This Later, the academy’s instrumental music VNEXT PAGE



joined the Berets at age 19, had spent most With rain misting the windows, the wom-
of her time with the group running a free en told us how crucial technology had been
clinic that served poor Mexican families in to their effort. All 55 West Virginia coun-
East L.A. She still believes that that was the ties had closed schools to join the strikes,
most important part of her activism. which wouldn’t have been possible without
“[People] will say, ‘I came out, I did what cellphones or the internet. “I could reach
I had to do. Tomorrow I go back to my life,’ ” 400 people with this phone instantly,” Ms.
she says, shaking her head as she sits on Barnette says, waving the device. “We had
her porch in El Monte, Calif. “No. You don’t a text tree set up so I could send a text and
just march and that makes change. That’s it went out to the whole county.”
not what makes change.” Facebook and Twitter also kept people
connected to the cause. Teachers and their
STILL, SOME OF THE MOST successful move- supporters were able to track hearings and
ments today wouldn’t be where they are recruit new people, even when they were a
without modern technology. hundred miles away.
In February, teachers across West Vir- Another shift in activism between 1968
ginia mounted a series of strikes over pay and today is the way groups are trying to
and working conditions in public schools. induce change. Now they’re as likely to do
The state teachers unions, with the support it at the ballot box as with a placard.
of local school districts and administrators, Following the 2016 elections a wave of
canceled classes for nine days while educa- women and minorities began running for
tors rallied at the State Capitol in Charles- office, many for the first time. The sudden
ton. In the end, the teachers won all five rush toward positions of leadership, espe-
Clockwise from top: Kari Powell, Stacie Propst,
Heather Milam, and Cara McClure are all involved
of their demands – and reclaimed a sense cially among women, marks an evolution
with Emerge Alabama, a group that trains Demo- of pride and empowerment after years of from ’60s-era feminist strategies of march-
cratic women to run for state and local offices. being overlooked. Teachers in Arizona and ing in the streets, lobbying for reforms, or
Oklahoma would later follow their lead. tossing bras into the trash.
We met Adena Barnette – president of The idea is that the most relevant way to
As the challenges facing activists the Jackson County Education Association boost a cause is to do it from within govern-
evolved, so did the technology that helps and one of the most visible figures during ment. “If the current system and the men in
them organize. Social media now makes the strikes – in an empty classroom at Rip- charge were going to do things for women
it possible to rapidly coordinate massive ley High School, about 35 miles north of and children, they would’ve done it by now,”
demonstrations across cities – as it did Charleston. With her were music teacher says Stacie Propst, who in 2017 founded the
during the Women’s Marches, the March Annie Hancock and English teacher Emily Alabama arm of Emerge, a national non-
for Our Lives, and the recent Families Be- Oakes, both of whom had gone out on strike. VNEXT PAGE
long Together rallies against the separation
of children from their parents at the US-
Mexican border. Instant communication al-
lows organizations to flourish without the
need for a unifying leader. Smartphones give
anyone the power to capture injustice when
they see it and upload it to a public forum.
“What took us days, weeks, months,
years is now instantaneous,” Garza says.
“You have here what makes the difference,
the very thing they cannot suppress.” He
raises his cellphone. “This is your voice.”
The downside, of course, is that the prob-
lems of the internet age apply to activism,
too. Misinformation can spread quickly and
be difficult to correct, leading to misplaced
outrage and sometimes violence. The daily
rush of headlines can overwhelm people,
creating apathy. And while Twitter can get
people donating to a cause or out on the
streets, it doesn’t push them to do the grunt
work on which real change is founded.
“I see the gathering, and the intention,
and the passion people have,” says Gloria
Arellanes, a former member of the Brown
Berets, a paramilitary group that cam-
paigned for Chicano rights in Los Angeles A Memphis police officer swings a nightstick at a reported looter during racial violence that erupted
in the 1960s and ’70s. Ms. Arellanes, who’d during a civil rights march on March 28, 1968, in the Tennessee city.


profit that recruits and trains
women to run for state and lo-
cal office under the Democratic
We met Ms. Propst and three
other Emerge women, all of
whom are on ballots this fall,
at Propst’s home in Irondale,
just outside Birmingham. “We
haven’t done ads,” she says, af-
ter installing us at her big, oval
dining table. “It’s been network-
ing woman-to-woman, and so-
cial media is often the way that
women do it.”
Cara McClure, who’s
running for a seat on the Al-
abama Public Service Com-
mission, not only discov-
ered Emerge on Facebook,
she also raised the funds for
her filing fee – more than
$1,900 – through GoFundMe.
Ms. McClure posts regularly on
her Facebook page as a way to
both campaign and share her Stax Music Academy students Jamaal Franklin (l.), Jax Dood (c.), and David B. Foster II practice in Memphis, Tenn. The
experiences with friends and academy offers after-school and summer programs for at-risk, inner-city youth.
followers. “I write my fears, in-
securities,” she says in a soft lilt that belies ing up to causes – conservative and liberal visionary leadership? Oh my God, chill
her tough history. A marketer by training, – they can support and finding a way to fight bumps.”
McClure had lived on the streets, raising her for them, just as activists did in 1968. Back “I think too many of us were way too
son, before deciding to become an activist then it might have meant wearing a brown complacent because we were comfortable
and now politician. beret or a black jacket, taking photos for a and we felt as if it didn’t matter,” says Heath-
She sees social media as an important magazine, or writing a song with a person er Milam, who’s running for secretary of
way of changing the narrative, regardless of whose skin was a different color. Today it State in Alabama. “If we’ve learned anything
her campaign’s outcome. “I’m very mindful would look more like donning a pink hat or from history,” she adds, “it’s that we can’t
rest on our laurels.”
Back in Clifton, Guzzo and Jackson, nei-
‘The best therapy for me, and the best ther of whom would consider themselves
therapy I’ve seen for a lot of people, is getting politically progressive or liberal, have found
their own brand of activism. Guzzo regular-
involved. The more active you can become, ly maintains the memorial on Mares Bluff,
keeping the plaques free of graffiti and the
the more self-worth you have.’ trail clear of debris. Jackson prints dog tags
– Steve Guzzo, who served in Vietnam during the height of the antiwar protests for service members to display on the me-
morial. The tags hang on wire strung across
the flagpoles lining the cliff’s edge. Together
that people are watching, and young women waving a rainbow flag or running for office the two men helped build another, smaller,
are watching,” she says. “So every step of when everyone says you can’t or shouldn’t. memorial park in town for people who can’t
the way I’m thinking about what I’m doing “I’ve become more aware at all levels. make the hike up to the bluff.
represents.” I never really felt like I was organizing to Guzzo says helping others – and dedicat-
make change until this event,” says Ms. ing himself to a cause he cares about – has
IN MANY WAYS, ACTIVISM in 2018 looks Oakes, the English teacher in West Virgin- been the most effective form of healing he’s
nothing like activism in 1968. We no longer ia. “We have a platform to build on that found since the war.
burn draft cards or spit on returning vets. I don’t think we had a year ago. And it’s “The best therapy for me, and the best
There’s less rioting, more tweeting. Anger been inspiring to see how we’ve started therapy I’ve seen for a lot of people, is get-
flares faster, but it also burns out quicker. something.” ting involved,” he says. “The more active you
Still, as we wound our way east, we sensed “We’re changing the conversation,” adds can become, the more self-worth you have.”
an energy in the air, one that called to mind McClure in Irondale. “I’m just so fired up.
the “wild hope” that Gitlin, the author, had Going from homeless single mom to entre- r Dylan Lewis contributed to this
spoken of. preneur to activist to now politician? The cross-country report, both from behind the
Across the country, we saw people wak- proper, the right type of politician with wheel and with his notebook.




After Trump-Putin meeting, the world order is in for a shake-up

“The press conference following the Donald Trump-Vladimir Putin summit in Helsinki was easily the
most unusual one any US president has given since World War II...,” writes Cornelia Meyer. “After lam-
basting his allies and even putting the EU on top of a list of foes, Trump gave in to Putin.... One could also
argue that it is Trump’s job to secure all the advantages for the US he can on behalf of his allies. He seemed
uninterested in that. He has a personal preference for autocrats over multilateral agreements and old
established Western alliances.... A word of warning to all those who believe in democracy, a liberal world
order, free trade, multilateral alliances and agreements: Fasten your seat belts, the ride is about to get very


No, Trump is not Putin’s puppet

“For American Democrats [and] some Republicans ... [President Trump’s July 16 meeting with Russian
President Vladimir Putin] was yet another proof that Trump has become Putin’s puppet...,” writes Roman
Dobrokhotov. “[But] Trump ... has to be judged by his actions, not by his rhetoric.... Oil and gas are the
Kremlin’s main foreign policy weapon.... And what has Trump been doing about that? He’s been putting
pressure on Saudi Arabia to increase its oil output in order to ... keep the prices low.... More importantly,
Trump has also been demanding that Europe cancel Nordstream-2, a gas pipeline project which is meant
to increase the supply of Russian gas to northern Europe.... In other words, Trump does not behave as
Putin’s puppet. He behaves as a person who sees himself as a great deal-maker....”


There’s still time to reverse the embrace of genome editing

“The Nuffield Council on Bioethics has taken what it clearly regards as a brave new step: it has openly
endorsed the use of genome editing to engineer the traits of future children and generations...,” writes Mar-
cy Darnovsky. “In effect, it argues that the creation of genetically modified human beings should proceed
after a few bioethics-lite boxes are checked off. The report’s conclusion flies in the face of a widespread
global agreement that heritable genetic modification should remain off-limits.... Sadly, the Nuffield Council
on Bioethics has given its blessing to an unneeded and societally dangerous biotechnology.... There is still
time to turn back. We can refuse to allow inequalities to be inscribed in our genomes.”


Trade wars are not ‘good’ or ‘easy to win’

“US President Donald Trump’s conviction that ‘trade wars are good, and easy to win’ certainly runs
against well-established economic doctrine and history, both of which suggest no one can win and all will
lose in such a mutually destructive war...,” writes Cary Huang. “The first shots of the current war have been
fired, with the United States and China each imposing punitive tariffs [on one another].... Trump has also
fired a salvo of shots on all of America’s main trade partners.... History provides ample evidence that trade
problems have heightened tensions among nations. Such fights lead to economic crises, and trigger politi-
cal and social crises and, finally, trigger wars.”


Djokovic found his way out of the cruel sporting wilderness

“The sporting wilderness is a cruel, unforgiving place...,” states an editorial. “Ever since Novak Djokovic
won his 12th Major at Roland Garros in 2016 ... he has wandered the wastelands that strugglers frequent....
He said he wasn’t sure if he would play on grass. And yet, a little over a month later, he was back on the
most famous court in tennis, bending to extract some of its hallowed turf so he could chew it – a victory
celebration that had all but slipped from collective memory. In many ways, the performance against Kevin
Anderson in the Wimbledon final was vintage Djokovic.... [L]ike [Roger] Federer and [Rafael] Nadal have
over the last year and a half, Djokovic showed that the elite can never be written off.”



Founded in 1908 by Mary Baker Eddy

A peace deal in Africa EDITOR: Mark Sappenfield

cemented in forgiveness

he new prime minister of Ethiopia, For his part, Mr. Isaias promised the two “First the blade, then the ear,
Abiy Ahmed, made a bold assertion countries would move forward as one. “No then the full grain in the ear.”
on July 15 after he helped end a one can steal the love we have regained
two-decade conflict with neighboring Er- now. Now is the time to make up for the
itrea. “The reconciliation we are forging lost times.” lessness. Eritrea has seen a mass exodus of
now is an example to people across Africa Vast crowds cheered the two men in their people to Europe while Ethiopia saw mass
and beyond,” said the young reformist lead- visits as they took steps to bring Eritrea and protests recently that shook the ruling party
er who holds a doctorate in peace studies. Ethiopia together. They opened embassies and brought Abiy to power in April.
The example is not simply that peace in each other’s country, restored phone and Their conflict had long had repercussions
broke out quickly between the two countries airline service, and made plans to demarcate in nearby countries, such as Somalia and
on the Horn of Africa, where a war between the border and establish trade links. South Sudan. And with Eritrea situated
them had killed more than 70,000. While the The two sides had many economic and across the Red Sea from Yemen and its vi-
reconciliation was widely welcomed, Prime political reasons to reconcile, aided by olent conflict, Arab leaders had reason to
Minister Abiy and his counterpart, Eritrean foreign help from the World Council of seek peace on the Horn of Africa.
President Isaias Afwerki, also tried, as they Churches, Saudi Arabia, the United States, Now the peace deal, and the heartfelt
exchanged visits to each other’s capitals, to and others. Both are dealing with high job- motives behind it, may be an example
explain their motives in forging a peace. for the nations involved in the many
A key motive, they indicated, was to unfinished wars in Africa. The re-
offer mercy to the other side after years sumption of ties, said United Nations
of conflict over a border dispute driven Secretary-General António Guterres,
in part by ethnic tensions. was “illustrative of a new wind of hope
“Forgiveness frees the conscious- blowing” across the continent.
ness,” said Abiy. “When we say we have Both Ethiopia and Eritrea still have
reconciled, we mean we have chosen a far to go to establish free and demo-
path of forgiveness and love.” cratic governance. Their conflict was
And, he added, “Love is greater a frequent excuse to suppress dissent.
than modern weapons like tanks and But, said Isaias, “Hate, discrimina-
missiles. Love can win hearts, and we tion, and conspiracy is now over.” Each
have seen a great deal of it today here side appears ready to set an example
in Asmara [Eritrea’s capital].” ERITREA’S ISAIAS AFWERKI (L.) AND ETHIOPIA’S ABIY AHMED REUTERS for other nations to follow. r

Mexico: haven for asylum-seekers

ecause of its strong appeal as a hav- safe haven as well as an easier place for American migration may be shifting. In
en, the United States received more Central Americans to assimilate. The US 2016, an amendment to the country’s
asylum requests than any other de- already has a “safe third country agreement” Constitution recognized a right to seek
veloped nation last year. In fact, the number with Canada to deal with asylum-seekers and be granted asylum. During the recent
jumped 26 percent to 330,000 from the year transiting through that country. And since presidential election, the three candidates
before, with about half coming from three 2014, the US has paid Mexico to beef up acknowledged a moral need to welcome
Central American countries (Guatemala, security at its southern border to include genuine asylum-seekers. The election win-
El Salvador, and Honduras). With this US better screening of asylum-seekers. ner, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who
generosity under strain and migration in It is unclear how many Central Ameri- takes office Dec. 1, promised to improve
general fueling divisions among Americans, cans would actually seek or gain asylum in Mexico’s “outrageous” treatment of undoc-
is there a way to share this responsibility? Mexico. For many years, a large majority of umented Central Americans. “We criticize
Many are encouraged by the fact that those seeking asylum in the US have had [President] Trump, but we [Mexicans] do
the US is in talks with Mexico to assist that their claims denied. Last year, about 20 per- the same thing with the Central American
country – and its incoming, migrant-friendly cent of 1,000 Central Americans surveyed migrants,” he said.
president – in becoming an appealing refuge while passing through Mexico decided to Over the past four decades, the US has
itself for those fleeing violence or repression stay in the country. Raising that percentage resettled more than 3.3 million refugees, the
in Central America. even to 50 percent would help restore bal- largest number of any country. As Mexico’s
Mexico still has far to go in how it pro- ance to the US as well as dampen political economy improves, it can join the US in
cesses asylum-seekers and protects them fights over immigration. being a new home to migrants fleeing from
from abuse. Still it could become another The mood in Mexico toward Central fear. r



The Monitor and musical history

I wanted to pass along this interesting and
unique story of how a rolled-up copy of The Chris-
tian Science Monitor played a role in what many
say is the greatest saxophone solo in musical
A few days ago, I was looking at my collection
of 33 r.p.m. records and one of them is titled “El-
lington at Newport.” This album is the recording
of the famous 1956 Newport Jazz Festival. On the
back of the album is a note written by album pro-
ducer George Avakian. Here is what he writes in
the first paragraph: “Overshadowing everything
else, including the introduction of a new work
written expressly for this recording at Newport,
Duke Ellington’s performance of ‘Diminuendo
and Crescendo in Blue’ in the last set of the 1956
Festival turned into one of the most extraordinary
moments in the history of this annual event.”
The highlight was the incredible saxophone
solo performance of Paul Gonsalves. He “played
for 27 straight choruses,” Mr. Avakian notes.
Avakian writes, “Out of sight of the crowd was
an unsung hero who is quite possibly the person
most responsible for this explosive performance.
No one will ever know for sure, but perhaps the
Ellington band might never have generated that
terrific beat if it weren’t for Jo Jones, who had
played drums that night with [jazz pianist] Teddy
Wilson. Jo happened to be in a little runway below
the left front of the stage, at the base of the steps
leading up from the musicians’ tent behind the
bandstand. From this vantage point, hidden from
the crowd by a high canvas, but visible from the
shoulders up to the musicians, Jo egged on the
band with nothing more than appreciation and a
rolled-up copy of the ‘Christian Science Monitor.’
As Duke (whose voice you can hear from time to
time) drove the band in the early stages of ‘Di-
minuendo and Crescendo,’ first the reed section
and then the trombones and finally the rest of the
band picked up on Jo, who was shouting encour-
agement and swatting the edge of the stage with
the newspaper, about eighteen inches from my
squatting haunch.”
I thought this story was worth passing along.
Las Vegas

SEND COMMENTS about issues and topics in this

publication to: or Readers Write,
210 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, MA 02115.
Comments are subject to editing and may be published on, other editions of the Monitor, or through
the Monitor’s licensees (see “Postings and Submissions”
Terms on for more details). For verification,
your comments must include the article’s headline, and
your full name, address, email address (if applicable), and
DAVE GRANLUND © 2018 WWW.DAVEGRANLUND.COM telephone number. Also find us on Twitter and Facebook!


THE MIX M O V I E S . M U S I C . T V . B O O K S . C U LT U R E . T R E N D S

more as symbols than as individuals. Miri-

am, Antoine, and, to a lesser extent, Julien
resemble stand-ins for all those who have
preceded them in the domestic violence
arena. They don’t quite have the fullness
of characterization that would lift this film
into a richer realm where the emphasis is
not so much on whodunit as whydunit.
There are still moments that sear, many
of them centered on Julien. We can see how
his need for a father is severely complicated
by his love for his mother and his desire to
protect her. When Antoine pressures the boy
into revealing, against the court’s ruling,
where Miriam is living, he is crestfallen (and
too scared to show it). As in all good movies
of this kind, the ordeal of the children is
not skimped. They bear the brunt, and the
legacy, of the anguish.
r This movie is not rated.

‘Custody’ doesn’t skimp on ‘Mamma Mia!

Here We Go Again’
ordeal of child in custody battle Not that I mark it a milestone for the
ages, but has it really been a decade since
XAVIER LEGRAND’S FILM PRESENTS PEOPLE AS SYMBOLS. “Mamma Mia!” hit the movie theaters? Be-
ware of sequels that come 10 years after
By Peter Rainer / Film critic the father who is only trying to do right by the original. “Mamma Mia! Here We Go
Xavier Legrand’s intense debut feature, his son, or is the bearish Antoine anything Again,” directed by Ol Parker, and with an
“Custody,” takes place a few years after the but a teddy bear? ABBA backbeat, comes across as an all-too-
events depicted in his Oscar-nominated Legrand began his movie career as an strenuous cash grab for the earlier film’s
29-minute short film “Just Before Losing actor – he was one of the boys in Louis mega-success. The free-living, free-loving
Everything,” which featured a physically Malle’s great 1987 autobiographical Holo- Donna, played by Meryl Streep in the first
abusive marriage. Since few people, includ- caust drama “Au Revoir les Enfants” – so film, is no longer among the living here, but
ing myself, have seen that film, “Custody” it makes sense that much of this movie is her daughter, Sophie (Amanda Seyfried), is
will seem like fresh territory to most audi- focused on the actors’ faces and on how managing her mother’s Greek island inn in
ences, and Legrand assumes as much. In the their bodies contort in moments of high preparation for a bevy of guests that may
custody hearing that opens the film, Miriam duress. “Custody” is structured as a sus- include her three possible fathers (Pierce
(Léa Drucker) and her ex-husband, Antoine pense film that incrementally morphs into Brosnan, Colin Firth, and Stellan Skarsgård,
(Denis Ménochet), flanked by their lawyers, a kind of horror film, but I was too fixated reprising their roles and looking and sound-
square off before a judge. Legrand plays on what the characters were going through ing as uncomfortable as ever), Donna’s two
out the “he said, she said” scenario without to think much about genre mechanics. (Leg- best friends (Christine Baranski and Julie
tipping his hand. Who is telling the truth? rand claims his movie’s three big influences Walters), and a horde of others, including
The burly, working-class Antoine claims are “Kramer vs. Kramer,” “The Night of the Cher, wearing what appears to be an albino
he changed jobs and residences to be near Hunter,” and “The Shining,” which pretty fright wig, as Sophie’s grandmother. Even
his 11-year-old son, Julien (Thomas Gio- much cover the waterfront.) Streep shows up briefly at the end, appear-
ria), of whom he seeks joint custody. Julien, What rescues the film from melodrama is ing way too heartfelt for this curdled cotton
however, as is demonstrated at the hearing, that Legrand drew on extensive interviews candy confection.
is fearful of his father. So is his sister, Jose- with psychologists, emergency police per- The film cuts back and forth between
phine (Mathilde Auneveux), who will legally sonnel, female victims, and batterers. The the present and 1979, when Donna, blandly
be an adult soon and therefore beyond her bone-deep chill of real, observed experience played as a young woman by Lily James,
father’s control. When, shortly after this cuts through this film and gives it a veri- met her three beaus and went gaga for
scene, Antoine is unexpectedly granted joint ty that at times reminded me of Frederick Greece. Scenery-wise, I can see why she
custody of Julien, it is the boy who is caught Wiseman’s harrowing documentary “Do- did. I trust that everyone connected with
in the middle of all this toxicity. But we still mestic Violence.” this film had time to work on their tans.
don’t know what’s going on: Has his mother, The drawback to Legrand’s approach
in vengeance, poisoned his relationship with is that at times the people are presented r Rated PG-13 for some suggestive material.


MoviePass has changed The latest film adaptation of the
play Journey’s End stars Asa
moviegoing – will it last? Butterfield as a British World
War I soldier newly arrived in
the trenches in France. Each of
the jaded soldiers who greet
him, Monitor film critic Peter
Rainer writes, “is sharply charac- COURTESY OF STEFFAN HILL/PMK

terized and the performances

are expert, right down to the cook,” who is played by Toby
Jones. “Journey’s End” is available on DVD and Blu-ray.


By Rebecca Asoulin / Staff writer

Reid Hoffman, co-founder of LinkedIn, chats with other
entrepreneurs about their businesses, how they got started,
and what others can learn from their successes and mistakes
Mark Ahrens has had a lot of date nights re- on the podcast Masters of Scale with Reid Hoffman. A
cently at the movies – with himself. It’s a time new season just kicked off; the episode detailing the import-
to enjoy the films his wife may not have interest ant business lesson of “keep[ing] humans in the equation”
in or have time to see. MoviePass allows him to
includes an interview with Stacy Brown-Philpot of TaskRabbit.
save money on tickets, which alleviates him of
You can find the podcast at
the guilt caused by taking that time for himself.
While movie theater attendance in the United
States has declined since peaking in 2002, ac- GOLF HELP
cording to the National Association of Theater
Owners, people still crave the movie theater ex- The Hole19 app can be
perience – just not at its current price tag. Enter a valuable companion if
subscription service MoviePass. you’re planning a day of
“We do want to go out,” says Curtis Medina, golf. Using the app, you can
who lives in Missoula, Mont., and Myrtle Beach, record your score and golf
S.C., and is a MoviePass subscriber. “We do want shots, get statistics on your
to see [movies]. We just needed a better business accuracy, and let others on
model.... [MoviePass] cuts out the question of the app know how you’re
whether or not it’s going to be worth it to go out.” doing. There are also reviews
Mr. Medina describes the monthly pass as “movie of various courses around
insurance” against rising prices. the world if you’re looking for somewhere new to play. Hole19
People can often feel as if they are wasting is free for iOS and Android.
their time or money on collective experiences like
going to the movies or sporting events, says Shira

Gabriel, a psychology professor at the Universi- RAILWAY JOURNEY
ty at Buffalo, State University of New York. But
Actress Julie Walters explores areas including Wales; Liverpool,
“people 100 percent should let that go,” she says,
as these experiences foster feelings of belonging,
England; and the Isle of Skye in Scotland on the TV series
meaning, and companionship, and lower anxiety. Coastal Railways with Julie Walters, which debuts on Acorn
“At the heart of it is this desire, that we’re not TV on July 30. Walters is a fun guide, often stepping off the
always aware of, to feel connected to other people, train to learn about the culture and history of the place she’s
to be in the same moment as other people,” says traveling through, and the scenery is breathtaking.
Professor Gabriel.

And with MoviePass, that feeling of wasting
money on a collective experience may be less of a HANDMADE WORK
concern. MoviePass made a huge splash in August NBC puts the focus on those who create
2017 when it lowered its monthly unlimited rate to beautiful crafts with the new reality
$9.95. Its base grew from around 20,000 at the end competition Making It, hosted by actors
of 2016 to more than 3 million as of last month. Nick Offerman and Amy Poehler. The
MoviePass has announced a slew of changes, warmhearted show is perfect for fans still
including peak pricing, bring-a-friend options, missing the NBC sitcom “Parks and Rec-
and premium showings such as those at IMAX reation”; they’ll get a kick out of seeing
theaters, as shares of MoviePass parent company “Parks” stars Poehler and Offerman make NBC
VMOVIEPASS NEXT PAGE each other laugh. “Making It” premières July 31 at 10 p.m.


Monitor readers share their favorite viewing selections.

My favorite sitcom is Aaron Sorkin’s short- I think the most realistic portrait of mar-
lived but incredible Sports Night, which riage I’ve seen on TV is ABC’s The Middle,
aired on ABC from 1998 to 2000. It was hilari- which just ended after nine seasons. All the
ous and ahead of its time. challenges of married life are on full display. I
– Hillary Peatfield, think many families can identify with having
South Berwick, Maine to deal with issues like the quirkiness of son
Brick, the naiveté of ever-positive daughter
I became aware of the Australian TV series A Sue, and continuing financial problems.
Place to Call Home on PBS in its third season Through it all, family bonds prevail. Ev-
(it will soon air its sixth) and was immediately eryone keeps moving forward, even the
hooked. My local library was able to find the less-than-diligent oldest son, Axl. No family is
‘THE GREAT AMERICAN READ’ COURTESY OF NUTOPIA/PBS earlier episodes for me and I got caught up. perfect, and “The Middle” says loud and clear
I have been watching The Great American I stayed because of the complex characters that that is OK.
Read on PBS. It has so many good book and terrific writing. – Jo-Ann Maguire, Norristown Pa.
recommendations by some ordinary readers Questions about tradition, appropriate
and some famous people. relationships, and cultural change challenge
I wish I had a copy in hand of the 100 nov- generations of a prosperous family. There is
els that are nominated as the most- intrigue, sabotage, romance, mur-
loved novel in the United States. der, and meals served by maids
I loved seeing all the children in white aprons. When Season 5
on the coast of Maine waving their became available, before being
beloved copies of “Charlotte’s Web.” shown in the US on TV, again the
There are many wonderful writers library found it for me. I waited a
that have lived in Maine and works month and have had a glorious
that take place there: Stephen binge-watching experience!
King; Christina Baker Kline; “Olive – Ann Hymes,
Kitteridge” and its author, Elizabeth St. Michaels, Md.
Strout; Harriet Beecher Stowe; biog- ‘THE MIDDLE’ COURTESY OF ABC
rapher and children’s author Laura E. Richard; My favorite sitcom is M.A.S.H., which aired
“The Cider House Rules,” etc. on CBS from 1972 to 1983. It had real charac-
WHAT ARE YOU WATCHING? Write and tell us
– Martha F. Barkley, ters and real issues and was really funny.
Belgrade Lakes, Maine – Jeff Scott, San Diego

VMOVIEPASS FROM PREVIOUS PAGE The average annual US movie ticket price
Helios and Matheson reached an Price in 2018 dollars where there is a sense of commu-
all-time low earlier this month. The 10 nity, especially among strangers....
The 2018 price is for Q1

company has also been plagued by [T]o be in a place and experience

complaints about bad customer it with a crowd is just different. to
service. 6 hear them laugh at the same type
Is MoviePass sustainable? “I of jokes or be shocked at the same
don’t know, [and] to be perfectly 4 Price surprises,” says Ahrens, who lives
honest, I think most of us don’t,” in California’s Orange County.
says BoxOffice Pro editorial di- For Medina, who has friends
rector Daniel Loria. “But ‘I don’t 0 and family who are subscribers,
know’ isn’t the answer you want 1948 ’71 ’94 2018 the movies have become a re-
newed place to bond without wor-
subscription.” rying “about breaking the bank.”
MoviePass pays full price for tickets, two other subscription services. Even if MoviePass does not survive,
a model that industry experts say can’t Medina and Mr. Ahrens both said it has been good because of its disrup-
last. Meanwhile, AMC announced it would the price of movies meant that before tion, says Medina. He hopes it will force
be offering its own subscription service, MoviePass, they only went to “tentpole” the movie industry to change the way it
Stubs A-List, which costs about $20 a movies. Now they’re seeing classic films, does business and do more than “rehash
month for three AMC movies per week. independent films – even films they know sequels and remakes.” “It’s a revolution
Cinemark’s Movie Club service and Sin- nothing about. for moviegoers,” he says. “They have a
emia’s European subscription import are “There are so few things left in our life power that they didn’t realize they had.” r



How the ‘Uncle Remus’ stories came to be

A TALE OF LITERARY fired up with, of all things, the literary
“The Confederacy would be crude
LONDON TO GEORGIA. and unacceptable to the world until
the new nation established itself as a
creative power,” he thought. “A nation
By Steve Donoghue had to be known for something more
On the surface, the new than military might. It had to have arts.
book by Julie Hedgepeth It needed its own literature.” He de-
Williams, Three Not-So- cided to help midwife that literature
Ordinary Joes, is the story into existence by starting his own
of the genesis of literary newspaper, The Countryman, in
culture in the post-Civil an outbuilding of his family’s
War American South. One Georgia plantation.
of the “not-so-ordinary Turner’s dreams never
Joes” referred to in the title came true in quite the way
is, after all, Joel Chandler he hoped, but in one sense
Harris (his childhood nick- he was more successful than
name was Joe), author of he could have dreamed: When
the “Uncle Remus” stories he took in a young printer’s
that sold astoundingly well devil, a boy named Joel Chan-
both in postwar America dler Harris, the boy worked
and around the world and JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS hard, absorbed everything
helped create a distinctive about the literary and printing
Southern literary tradition. world (and about the writings
But in addition to that surface story, of Addison) that Turner could
there’s also a deeper narrative in “Three would take both of them – the ambition share, and spent many of his
Not-So-Ordinary Joes,” a narrative about of it! – because whereas The Tatler [a mag- off-hours in slave quarters, listening to the
the unpredictable, often byzantine connec- azine Addison founded in 1709] had been stories the slaves told – strange admixtures
tions that trace their way from one literary published three times a week, The Specta- of folklore and invention that lodged in
generation to another. In this case, Williams tor would come out daily.” It takes a good Harris’s mind and would later become the
quite delightfully follows such a thread deal of quiet confidence in your ability as a basis for the “Uncle Remus” stories that
through the same name, linking two gen- storyteller to throw in an exclamation like would, in their turn, help to lay a foundation
erations of 19th-century American South- “the ambition of it!” – and that ability is in for a kind of Southern literature that could
erners with a namesake from 18th-century evidence on every page of the book. be embraced by North and South alike. As
England, a man who never knew anything The literary reach of Addison and Williams puts it, this was Harris’s “diplo-
about either of them or about the American Steele’s The Spectator may never be fully matic mission to an alienated enemy that
South itself. mapped, but the magazine’s reputation was desperately needed to forget that it had ever
That 18th-century figure is strong enough to prompt a Georgia been an enemy at all.”
the most famous of the book’s NONFICTION plantation owner named William Despite the delicate and often prob-
trio: Joseph Addison, the es- “Honest Billy” Turner to name his lematic nature of 21st-century concerns
sayist and playwright who in son Joseph Addison Turner. And like cultural appropriation and sensitivity,
1711 founded The Spectator despite the three-part arrangement “Three Not-So-Ordinary Joes” will make
magazine with his longtime of Williams’s book, the heart of the many readers want to find an unbowdler-
friend and collaborator, Rich- whole story is the life of this mid- ized, unsanitized edition of “Uncle Remus.”
ard Steele, and quickly began dle Joe. And more than that, Williams’s book
establishing it as a high-water J.A. Turner was small, wiry, and will make them appreciate all over again
standard of witty and incisive intensely confident even from his how fascinating and unpredictable a course
English prose. days at school, which he entered literary inspiration can take. An essay writ-
Williams is as charmingly in- only after a protracted childhood ten in a bitter London winter is adoringly
formal when dealing with this illness. According to Williams, he read in a steamy, humid Georgia bedroom
legendary figure in English let- “could never quite see that he was a century later, and the two give rise to a
ters as she is with her two other THREE NOT-SO- rather conceited about his academ- classic children’s book that was read all over
subjects. “Addison was ready to ORDINARY JOES ic prowess – he was just plain too the world for another century. We can nev-
turn the tables and take over as By Julie Hedgepeth proud that he had made up for all er know which seeds will take, or where
the genius behind the new pa- Williams that lost time from school as a boy.” they’ll flower.
per, which he named The Spec- When the South began to secede
NewSouth Books
tator,” she writes. “Dick [Steele] from the Union and attempt to r Steve Donoghue regularly reviews books
would still be involved, and it
216 pp. create its own country, Turner was for The Christian Science Monitor.



1 The Billionaire Raj, by James Crabtree 6 Proud,

Journalist and National University of Sin- by Ibtihaj Muhammad with Lori Tharps
gapore professor James Crabtree spins this Olympic saber fencer Ibtihaj Muhammad
examination of the rise of India’s super-elite tells what she faced as the first Muslim
– and the shocking distance between the American woman to compete for Team
nation’s wealthy and its poor – into a highly USA while wearing a hijab. As an Afri-
compelling read. Crabtree’s reporting is can-American, she confronted racism
top-notch and provides plenty of insight. along with religious bigotry. According to
Welcome to India’s “Gilded Age.” Muhammad, her teammates and the coach
ostracized her, but she powered through
2 What We Were Promised, by Lucy Tan and contributed to Team USA’s bronze
Beyond divisions of class, culture, and medal in the 2016 Rio Olympics. Her story
background, a single African ivory brace- is inspiring and illuminating.
let connects a Chinese-American family,
the staff who enable their overprivileged 7 Barons of the Sea, by Steven Ujifusa
lives, and their left-behind Chinese fami- In the mid-19th century, Americans were
lies in Lucy Tan’s intriguing debut novel. consumed with the race to build the sleek-
Set in Shanghai, made empathetic with a est, most advanced “90-day sailer.” These
multigenerational family saga, and embel- were the famous clipper ships – trim-lined
lished with timeless class conflict, this story vessels piled high with tall white pyramids
entertains and enlightens. of sails, carefully designed to slice through
the sea at unprecedented speeds. These
3 A Bite-Sized History of France, ships are the dreams floating before the
by Stéphane Hénaut and Jeni Mitchell eyes of all the characters in Steven Ujifusa’s
This impressive book intertwines tales of fast-paced and entrancing book.
gastronomy, culture, war, and revolution.
Each amuse-bouche-sized chapter tackles 8 The Mere Wife,
a different theme, connecting revolution by Maria Dahvana Headley
with potatoes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau Bestselling author Maria Dahvana Headley
with a search for “authentic” French food. takes a significant gamble in recasting Old
Whatever this book lacks in focus, it more English epic “Beowulf” in the American
than makes up for with brisk wit, imagina- suburbs – but the gamble pays off. She
tion, and its shotgun generalist approach enhances the themes of the classic with
to both history and gastronomy. contemporary and feminist accents, creat-
ing a work that is both unique and worthy.
4 Indianapolis,
by Lynn Vincent and Sara Vladic 9 City of Devils, by Paul French
The 1945 sinking of the USS Indianapolis The history of Shanghai’s Old City begins
led to the greatest loss of life at sea from a in 1843, when the Chinese city was opened
single ship in the history of the US Navy. as a foreign port, and comes to an abrupt
Lynn Vincent and Sara Vladic do a fabu- end in 1932 when Japanese troops invad-
lous job of bringing this tragedy to life and ed. In between Shanghai was a sprawling,
setting it in its proper context. They follow hyperenergetic demimonde of opium dens,
with the haunting story of the 50-year battle gambling casinos, and illicit dance halls.
to exonerate the ship’s captain. Author Paul French tells the gripping story
of two of the men who ran this city.
5 Clock Dance, by Anne Tyler
Willa Drake is caught up in a steady, secure 10 Verdi, by John Suchet
life that offers little fulfillment. When she This new biography of the great Italian
receives a call for help from halfway across composer is an attempt to uncover the man
the country, Willa surprises herself by ac- behind the art. Primarily, John Suchet, a
cepting the role of temporary caregiver to classic music host on British radio, offers
a mother-daughter pair of strangers. That an introduction to Verdi, taking great pains
decision begins a transformation of Willa’s not to get bogged down in boring details
cautiously constructed life. In Anne Tyler’s or obscure music theory. His book is full
effortless, uncluttered prose, the novel of humorous anecdotes and observations
beautifully explores an older woman’s calculated to keep operatic neophytes
search for meaning and agency in her life. interested.


Robin Steinberg is disrupting the bail system that keeps
poor defendants in jail before trial.


HER INITIATIVE: Last year Robin Steinberg launched The Bail Project, a five-year plan to bail out 160,000 people in more than 40 US locations.

By Simon Montlake / Staff writer age, Steinberg was able to work on their She wondered, why stop in the Bronx?

TULSA, OKLA. cases while they went back to their homes Although other community bond funds
t was over a late-night Chinese meal and families and jobs. And her team made had popped up and lawmakers in New
in New York with her then colleague, sure that clients showed up for court dates. Jersey and Maryland had capped the use
now husband, that Robin Steinberg Once their cases are heard and judged, the of cash-based bail, the scale of pretrial
first hit on the idea for a bail fund. bond money returns to the fund, with each incarceration across the United States has
Ms. Steinberg and David Feige were dollar circulating more than twice a year. remained immense. On an average night,
both public defenders in the Bronx, a What Steinberg found was that free- 450,000 people are in local jails awaiting
borough of New York, where they saw trial. Most are too poor to pay bail.
every day how cash bail hampered cli- Last November, Steinberg launched
ents who couldn’t afford to pay to get out Robin Steinberg is The Bail Project, a five-year, $52 million
of detention. plan to bail out 160,000 people in more
“We were venting about some client ‘extremely loyal and than 40 locations, starting with New York
who had just pled guilty [to avoid being
stuck in jail] and how frustrating it was
extremely committed to City. It has since set up funds in Tulsa,
Okla.; St. Louis; Detroit; and Louisville,
and how outrageous it was. And he said, this work. She’s resilient.’ Ky., hiring local “bail disrupters” to track
‘You should just start a bail fund and start and assist low-income defendants.
– Anna Verghese, executive director
bailing people out of jail,’ ” Steinberg says. of the TED Audacious Project The initiative is one of five chosen this
Bail was instituted as a way to ensure year as a TED Audacious Project, which
that a defendant returns to court – to re- pools money from philanthropists for “big
trieve the money he or she posted. But too dom made all the difference. bets” on ideas with broad social effect. The
often it hasn’t worked that way. So in 2007, More than half of the cases resulted in Bail Project will receive $24 million over
Steinberg launched the Bronx Freedom all charges being dismissed, while others five years, while Steinberg continues to
Fund, a revolving nonprofit fund for poor ended in noncustodial sentences. Only raise money to expand its reach, says Anna
people being held in jail before trial. 2 percent of clients were sentenced to jail Verghese, who runs the Audacious Project.
By bailing them out for $768 on aver- for the original charges. VNEXT PAGE


Three groups taking up
human rights
UniversalGiving (www.universalgiving
.org) helps people give to and volunteer
V FROM PREVIOUS PAGE women’s studies program. for top-performing charitable organiza-
She moved back to New York and went tions around the world. All the projects
“There was something game-changing to law school. As a public defender, she was below are vetted by UniversalGiving;
about this idea,” she says. It was also a re- drawn to the South Bronx, one of the coun- 100 percent of each donation goes
flection on Steinberg’s determination to de- try’s most deprived districts. directly to the listed cause.
liver. “She’s extremely loyal and extremely The Bronx Defenders now has 300 law-
committed to this work. She’s resilient.” yers who represent more than 30,000 people r Shirley Ann Sullivan Educational
“Impatience is probably what drives me a year. Steinberg stepped down last Decem- Foundation (
most,” says Steinberg, who talks with ex- ber as its executive director so she could run Foundation) improves the quality of
pansive hand gestures and empathetic nods. The Bail Project from her new position as life for children by providing education
“Nothing’s ever happening quickly enough.” a senior fellow at the UCLA School of Law. and lobbying for their protection from
On a recent afternoon, Steinberg wraps exploitation. Take action: Support this
‘From the ground up’ approach up a lunch with new interns at Still She Ris- group in its efforts to stop child traffick-
Steinberg takes a worm’s-eye view of es, a brightly lit office located in a run-down ing (
social issues that puts her legal clients first, mall in North Tulsa, a predominantly black r Giraffe Heroes Project (http://bit
says Mr. Feige, who helped her set up the neighborhood where most of the firm’s cli- .ly/GiraffeHP) encourages people to stick
Bronx Defenders, a nonprofit law firm, in ents live. Outside the office, she gets into her their necks out for the common good
1997. “Her profound belief is that answers 2004 Volvo station wagon with its bumper and gives them tools to solve public
to vexing criminal justice problems can be sticker – Well Behaved Women Rarely Make problems. Take action: Help fund this or-
best assessed from the ground up,” he says. History – and heads downtown. ganization’s work in publicizing “Giraffe
Indeed, each jurisdiction has its own Tulsa’s bail disrupters are two blocks Heroes.” (
set of factors. In Tulsa, Steinberg opened from the courthouse in an Art Deco office
Still She Rises in 2017 with support from building that’s a reminder of the city’s 1920s r BRAC USA (
a local philanthropist. It’s a legal-aid firm oil wealth. Upstairs, Steinberg’s technology aims to empower those dealing with
for low-income mothers – the first of its director is coaching the team – two women poverty, illiteracy, disease, or social injus-
kind – and is in a state that locks up the and one man, each with a personal story of tice. Take action: Support the persecuted
most women per capita. Similarly, The Bail incarceration and injustice – on how to use Rohingya with humanitarian aid (http://
Project in Tulsa focuses on mothers held in mobile apps to track bail recipients. On the
pretrial detention, including those at risk of table are juice boxes and snacks for recipi-
losing custody of their children the longer ents who have just been bailed out.
they stay behind bars. Steinberg wants to test her belief that voice belongs to Richard Baxter. “Hang on!
“I went to [law] school thinking I wanted bail is both unjust and ineffective. Most But one thing is being unafraid.” He pauses
to be a legal defender for women, then spent poor people aren’t flight risks; they miss to look at Steinberg. “See, she didn’t say
most of my career defending men,” she says. court dates because they don’t have sub- nothing; no rebuttal there. She’s not afraid.”
way fare or a fixed address,
legal advocates say. That’s One bail recipient


why disrupters get contact More than 100 women have been bailed
KANSAS details for the friends and
family members of defen-
out in Tulsa since January. One is Cynthia
Reed, a middle-aged homeless woman from
dants and make sure they Texas arrested in May after she took a folder

have a ride to court. from a dumpster that allegedly contained a
Tulsa In the Bronx, Steinberg police document. Four days later, Mr. Baxter

Oklahoma found that money isn’t paid $3,000 to the court. “I thought nobody
City A what makes people come
back, and that inspires her
was going to bail me out. Nobody knows me
here,” she says.
hope that bail reform is Baxter has since helped her find a home-
possible in Tulsa and oth- less shelter and get food stamps and a cell-
TEXAS er cities. “The work here is phone. Ms. Reed, her face and shoulders
going to inform people that brown from the summer sun, drops by the
you don’t need all those office to meet with Baxter. She’s upbeat
systems,” she says. about beating the charges at her court hear-
Law school wasn’t a given for Stein- Shawna Robinson, one of the disrupters, ing. “I’m not going to cop to it,” she says.
berg, who was a politically active teen and nods admiringly. “They have never gone up Steinberg has a dinner with a donor, so
middling student in New York. During her against a strategic intelligent workhorse like she packs into the elevator with her team
senior year of high school, her mother Robin in this town, ever.” and Reed, who’s headed to her shelter. She
remarried and moved her, unwillingly, to “Oh, nonsense,” Steinberg says. “There smiles as Baxter chats about next steps.
California. Prodded by her stepfather to go are a lot of strategically brilliant people in Steinberg turns to Reed and says, “You have
to college, she enrolled at the University of this town, including you three around this the most beautiful face.”
California, Berkeley and found her tribe. In table.”
1978 she was the first to graduate from its Everyone begins talking, but the loudest r For more, visit




The book next to the one I was looking for

I NEVER MASTERED THE ART OF EFFICIENT ment searching for a Library of Congress decimal. Somehow,
LIBRARY RESEARCH. BUT I FOUND GREAT STUFF. the number I sought was always nestled on the lowest shelf,
hiding in the shadows. Now where is it? Ah. There it is. But as I
The journey home for Odysseus was a long and tortuous contorted my body to reach the desired volume, my eyes might
one. Beset by mythical monsters, seductive goddesses, fall on a nearby title. Interesting. A volume of Chaucer in the
and the chill of loneliness, the warrior king never fell prey to original Middle English with a gilded cover, sewn binding, and
despair. brittle pages. When I opened it, the musty smell of antiquity
There is a story in “The Odyssey” in which Odysseus and his sent me sneezing. And before I knew it, I was sitting on the floor
crew must sail past the Sirens, who sang so sweetly that sailors surrounded by books that had little or nothing to do with my
would run their ships onto the rocks in order to embrace these original search. Helios sped me on his chariot while another
heavenly chanters. Crafty Odysseus deafened his men’s ears afternoon spilled through my fingers.
with wax for safety’s sake. But he was so determined to experi- Another day, another pledge to get organized.
ence these songs that he had his men tie him to the ship’s mast While it seemed I had wasted a lot of time in the library, I
until they were out of range of the deadly music. now realize that I enhanced my education in
Odysseus begged, he commanded, he de- Soon I’d be ways I’d never dreamed of all those years ago.
manded his release, but the ropes restrained Hours spent paging through books is never
him. He was known for his intelligence, which surrounded by wasted. There is something valuable in the
was fed by this boundless curiosity. He was will- books that had random discoveries made while searching for
ing to risk everything for new experiences, new something else. In those days I traveled with
emotions, new worlds. He would not be denied. nothing to do with Dante through Paradiso, explored the blue high-
My college library was a modern Siren for my original search. ways with William Least Heat-Moon, mounted a
me. It was not imposing. It wasn’t even large. But sandworm on Arrakis with Paul Maud’Dib, and
it had overwhelming intellectual breadth and attended lectures in the Athenian Academy with
depth. During my four years of undergraduate studies I never master Plato. All by random chance.
quite mastered the efficient and sensible method of scholarly To me, there was nothing more enticing than books plucked
bookmanship. In those days, the card catalog was the key to from the lower shelves of my college library. They filled a need
saving time and completing assignments in the most effective that could never be fulfilled in the classroom. The desire for
way. I enjoyed following the book trails to develop a topic. Bib- learning requires instinct and curiosity as well as reason. It was
liographic undercurrents were my fuel. But once I waded into not always easy, but today I would never trade that “wasted”
the lower depths of academia, I faced my own rough waters of time on the library floor. They brought me an accidental educa-
diversion that sang persuasively to me from the shelves. tion that continues to enrich my life.
On a typical day I might find myself kneeling in the base- – Tom O’Malley




Words in the news

Bolded clues are linked to events. What nation
aims to be fourth to land a probe on the moon?
By Owen Thomas
Across 24. US Department of Justice
7. Empty has again reopened the case
of Emmett ____, a black teen-
8. Announced plans to become
ager who was killed in the
the fourth nation to land a
Jim Crow South
spacecraft on the moon
26. LeBron James’s new team
9. Norway’s capital
27. What Kilauea does
10. A California mayor wants
ordinance prohibiting this
office attire to be required
11. Surprise winner of lion’s Down
share of Emmy nominations 1. Presence of this invasive
13. Gorge land species has recently
been linked to the declining
17. Water conveyances
health of the world’s coral
20. Recently began purging tens reefs
of millions of fake online
2. Pink slip
3. Part of a place setting 15. Fable finale 22. Donald Trump philosophy:
23. In astronomical break-
through, Antarctic observa- 4. Nada 16. Fainted “America _____”
tory recently detected this 5. A miserable person 18. In Eugene O’Neill’s play, the 25. Better this than never
subatomic particle from a 6. Alcove or playtime one that “cometh”
galaxy 3.7 billion light-years 9. Confess 19. One or the other
12. A dance or faucet 21. “For shame!”
14. Appropriate

Sudoku Difficulty:    
How to do sudoku
Fill in the grid so the numbers 1 through 9 appear just once
Questions? Comments? Contact us at in each column, row, and three-by-three block.




The return of the exclamation point!
Recently I wrote a four-sentence time this form of punctuation offered so sending the message clearly signals the
email that contained three exclama- little bang for the buck was during the end of the sentence or thought. As a re-
tion points: “It was so hot last week!” Victorian Era. Victorian writers loaded sult, the period has come to be considered
“Have a great time on your trip!” “See you informal personal letters and novels with formal – a sign, according to my daughter
soon!” This goes against the rules I a bounty of exclamation marks. In his and her friends (as well as linguists who
learned in school. Like most wonderful “Making a Point: study texting), that the writer is dis-
students in the past 100 years, I The Persnickety Story of pleased, even angry.
was taught to employ these English Punctuation,” David The exclamation point is the new
marks “rarely,” because, as Crystal quotes an 1841 par- period, one with a built-in warmth. When
Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern ody of the “popular cheap texting, “I’m coming home” is a simple
English Usage puts it, “Overuse novels of the day” in which statement of fact. “I’m coming home.”
of exclamation marks in By Melissa Mohr a character reacts to news means you told your daughter to leave
expository prose is a sure sign that his love Clare is marry- her friend’s house and she’s not hap-
of an unpractised writer or of one who ing a man named Job Snooks: “Can’t be py about it. “I’m coming home!” is the
wants to add a spurious dash of sensation – No go – Stump up to church – Too true – default polite way to convey that you
to something unsensational.” Clare just made Mrs. Snooks – Madness!! are looking forward to it, or at least not
Now, though, we are in a period of rage!! death!!!” Critical reaction to this upset. “I’m coming home!!!” shows actual
exclamation inflation, and I have suc- sort of prose led to the strictures against excitement.
cumbed. In certain contexts today, it is exclamation points that governed our This usage is spreading from texting
quite normal to use exclamation marks writing for most of the 20th century. to other informal kinds of writing, hence
where once we used periods, and if we Today we mostly use exclamation my email. I had to say “See you soon!” to
have something we really want to empha- marks in informal contexts, such as on seem excited. It had to be “Have a great
size, we need two or three or five. social media. Our punctuation changes time on your trip!” because this is now the
Like monetary inflation, exclamation when we text, in particular. Periods are polite form. And I had to write “It was so
inflation goes through cycles, and the last not necessary, since hitting “return” or hot last week!” because it was HOT!!! r

A rainbow message la continually asked for more money. The and guides His entire creation, and I saw
agency in the United States had no idea how that included everyone involved in
It was a terrific downpour. But the air why it was taking so long, and its lawyer in the adoption. I realized Maria’s true home
was warm, and the children wanted to Guatemala had stopped responding. I felt wasn’t dependent on a process but on the
play in the rain. When we determined it locked in a terrible storm of emotions and permanent abode we all have in our divine
was safe, we ran outside to splash in the events over which I felt I had no control. I Parent’s limitless love. This idea of having
puddles. As we played, the most beautiful had been praying all along. But now I really the same divine Parent and being at home
rainbow appeared at the end of our street. got down on my mental knees. My prayer in divine Love brought me comfort. I knew
I love rainbows and their brilliant colors. went something like this: I could trust in God’s care.
However, this time we could not see the “Dear God, Maria is Your In that moment I felt such
sun. It was still raining, and thunder could beloved child. You are her a sense of God’s love for
be heard in the distance. But the rainbow true Mother and Father. all His children, and I felt
was all we needed to know the storm was Thank you for caring for at peace.
passing and the sun would soon appear. and loving all of us as Your spiritual off- Right on the heels of this came a clear
As I stood admiring this, I was struck by spring, all brought together in Your family.” thought: “Go to Guatemala.” Although the
how often God’s love had shown itself to There is a Bible passage that speaks to circumstances had not changed, this idea
me in this way – through inspiration that everyone’s right to a family: “God setteth felt right. When I arrived, to my grateful
had come, sometimes right in the midst the solitary in families” (Psalms 68:6). And surprise I was met by the adoption lawyer’s
of a stormy situation, helping me feel the the Lord’s Prayer that Christ Jesus shared assistant, Maria’s foster mother, and Maria.
presence of divine Love and bringing heal- indicates the spiritual family we are all part We subsequently completed the adoption
ing and safety. of. It begins, “Our Father which art in heav- process, and Maria has been in our family
I had a beautiful example of this when en” (Matthew 6:9). Not “his,” “her,” or “their,” ever since. The bleakness was behind us.
we were adopting our first child. Our but “our” – everyone’s – Parent. In a spiri- On a cloudy day, we always know the
adoption agency let us know in April that tual interpretation of the Lord’s Prayer in sun is still there. Similarly, no matter how
we would be able to pick up baby Maria “Science and Health with Key to the Scrip- dark a situation may appear, we can affirm
in Guatemala by June. My husband and I tures,” by Mary Baker Eddy, the discoverer in prayer that God is there to dispel the
were so excited! of Christian Science, this line reads, “Our clouds and reveal the sunshine of His heal-
But by December, we still did not have Father-Mother God, all-harmonious” (p. 16). ing presence and pure love.
the green light. The agency in Guatema- As our Father and Mother, God cares for – Laurie Toupin


Waiting for the Peak of Perfection.
©/TM/® The J. M. Smucker Company

With a name like Smucker’s, it has to be good.®