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p 490 Information System

Engineering I

Prof. Hong Man

Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering
Stevens Institute of Technology
Chapter 1

d i to Internetworking
Introduction to Internetworking

• Data networking: g sharingg information,, sharingg media.

• Internet becomes a necessity.
• Various networks have been setup with various
characteristics and for various purposes.
• Internetworking connects heterogeneous networks, hides
details of network hardware,
hardware allows computers to
communicate independent of their physical network
Internet Technology

• Internet technology
gy resulted from Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA).
• TCP/IP technology particular fits very large scale networks
– the
th ARPA/NSF IInternet,
t t th
the TCP/IP IInternet,
t t th
the global
l b l
Internet or the Internet all refer to the same network.
C / Internet
te et Protocol
otoco Suite
Su te for
o data communications
co u cat o s
across any set of interconnected networks. (Not necessary
pass through the global Internet.)
• Networks
N i TCP/IP ≠ the
k using h global
l b l Internet.
Internet Service

• Protocols for communication is what algorithms

g for
• Protocols: the syntactic and semantic rules for data
i ti
• Protocol describes: message format, how to transmit and/or
espo d messages,
essages, how
ow to handle
a d e eerrors.
o s.
• Advantages of high-level abstraction: programmers can
quickly create new programs; programs will not be
i d to a particular
i l architecture,
hi same code
d can be
compiled and run on different machines; applications can
communicate between arbitraryy ppair of computers.
Internet Services

• Each internetworkingg service is pprovided byy a separate

protocol. Examples:
– Application level: services for users — www, email,
ft telnet,
ftp, t l t http
– Transport level: services for application programs —
co ect o ess pac
et de
ve y services
se v ces (U
(UDP),), reliable
e ab e
stream transport service (TCP).
Internet Services

• Differences between TCP/IP services and other network

– Independent network technology. TCP/IP protocols
define the unit of data transmission (datagram) and
specify the way to transmit them on particular
– Universal interconnection
interconnection. TCP/IP internetwork assigns
a universal address to each computer (IP address), and
each datagram carries the addresses of its source and
– End-to-end acknowledgements.
– Application
pp pprotocol standards.
Internet History

• 1977-1979,, Advanced research pprojects

j agency
g y (ARPA),
( ),
• 1979-1983, Internet control and configuration board
(ICCB) ARPANET bbecomes bbackbone
(ICCB), kb off th
the Internet.
I t t
• 1983, Berkeley software distribution of UNIX and TCP/IP
– soc
et, aan operating
ope at g system
syste abstraction
abst act o allows
a ows
application programs to access communication protocols.
• 1986, NSF, NSFNET, regional networks
• 1986, ARPANET tied with NSFNET
• 1987, Domain name system (DNS)
Internet Architecture Board

• Internet Architecture Board ((IAB)) sets the technical

direction and decides which and when protocols become
• IAB formed in 1983 from ICCB. It had several Internet
Task Forces. It shifted from ARPA group to an
autonomous organization. Volunteers performed much of
the work.
• By 1989, commercial production and market place
overcame researches and dominated the evolution of
• IAB reorganized with Internet Research Task Force
(IRTF) and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
Internet Architecture Board

• IETF: concentrates on short-term to medium-term

engineering problems. It is managed by the Internet
Engineering Steering Group (IESG), with about ten areas.
IRTF coordinates
di t researchh activities
ti iti related
l t d to
t Internet
I t t
architecture in general. It is managed by the Internet
Research Steering Group (IRSG).
• Internet Society (ISOC), an independent society organized
and the new host for the IAB since 1992.
Request For Comments

• Internet documentation of pprotocols,, standards and policies

are posted on-line and can be accessed at no charge.
• Internet Request For Comments (RFCs) are documents
b t worksk on the
th Internet,
I t t proposals
l for
f new or revised
i d
protocols and TCP/IP protocol standards. They are edited
and approved by IESG.
• RFCs have the status of industrial standard.
• Internet Drafts (IDs) are preliminary versions of RFC
Future Growth and Technology

• Significant
g changes:
g traffic loads,, traffic ppatterns and

• Bandwidth increases, demands increases.

• Distributed
Di t ib t d operation
ti andd management.
Chapter 10

Protocoll Layering
Multiple Protocols

• Multiple
p pprotocols needed to handle different pproblems:
– Hardware failure
– Routing
– Network congestion
– Packet delay and loss
– Data corruption
– Data duplication and out-of-order
Layers of Protocols

• The conceptual
p organization
g of pprotocol software in layers.
(Figure 10.1)
Layers of Protocols

• The ppath of a message

g over the IP network. ((Figure
g 11.3))
ISO 7-Layer Reference Model

• ISO Reference Model of Openp System

y Interconnection
(OSI). (Figure 11.4)
– It is a conceptual
model, not an
implementation guide.
– This
Thi model d l is
i honored
h d
in ITU X.25
(connection oriented)
ISO 7-Layer Reference Model

• Physical
y Layer
y ((layer
y 1):) pphysical
y interconnection between
host computers and network switches. Data unit = raw bits.
• Data Link Layer (layer 2): data transfer between host and
it h – error detection,
d t ti ACK.ACK Data
D t unitit = frame.
• Network Layer (layer 3): interactions between host and
etwo – data unit,
u t, addressing,
add ess g, routing,
out g, congestion
co gest o
control. Data unit = packet.
• Transport Layer (layer 4): end-to-end reliable data transfer
– ensure no noded failure.
f il
ISO 7-Layer Reference Model

• Session Layer
y ((layer
y 5): ) remote terminal access – terminal
to host interconnection, uni- or bi-directional dialogue
control, synch for file transfer.
• Presentation
P t ti Layer
L (l
(layer 6):
6) syntax
t andd semantics
conversions for applications – data codecs.
• Application
pp cat o Layer
aye ((layer
aye 7): application
app cat o programs.
p og a s.
Inter-Layer Interactions
TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model

• TCP/IP Reference Model. ((Figure

g 10.5))
TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model

• Five conceptual
p layers:
y four software layer
y and one
hardware layer.
– Network Interface Layer: accepting IP datagrams and
transmitting them over specific network. Data unit =
– Internet Layer: communications between two machines
– datagram formation
formation, addressing and routing,
routing ICMP
control. Data unit = datagram.
– Transport Layer: end-to-end communication – flow
l reliable
li bl transfer
f (ACK andd ARQ).
ARQ) Data
D uniti =
(transport protocol) packet.
– Application
pp Layer:
y application
pp pprograms.
Difference Between ISO and Internet Layering

• Comparisons
p are made based on implementations,
p , i.e.
X.25 for ISO model, Internet for TCP/IP model.
• Reliable transfer:
– X.25: error detection and handling at all layers.
– Internet: consider it as an end-to-end problem at transport layer.
Simplifies network interface layer and internet layer – unreliable
data link.
• Authority and Control:
– X.25: network vendor has all the authority and controls on network
access and traffic monitoring – routing, flow control internal ACK,
reliable transfer – hosts can do little.
– Internet: hosts have to participate in most of network protocols.
Protocol Layering Principle

• Layering
y g pprinciple:
p layered
y pprotocols are designed
g so that
layer n at the destination receives exactly the same object
sent by layer n at the source.
– It allows protocol designer to focus attention on one
layer at a time.
– Software program at one layer on one host only talks to
the software program at the same layer on the other
• Layering in a TCP/IP internet environment.
– Transport layer and Application layer: end-to-end
– Internet Layer and Network Interface: hophop-to-hop
to hop
Protocol Layering Principle

• Layering
y g in IP network. ((Figure
g 10.7))
Two Important Boundaries in The TCP/IP Model

• Important
p boundaries in the TCP/IP Model. (Figure
( g 10.9))
Two Important Boundaries in The TCP/IP Model

• High-level
g pprotocol address boundary. y
– Application programs and all protocol software from
Internet layer upward use only IP addresses.
– The network interface layer handles physical addresses.
• Operating System Boundary.
– Application
A li ti programs are outside t id the
th operating
ti system.
– Protocol software programs are inside the operating
• Passing data between lower layers of protocol
software is much easier than passing data between
th application
the li ti layer
l andd the
th transport
t t layer.
Disadvantages of Layering

• Software based on strict layering

y g can be extremelyy
– Communications only through horizontal directions –
th same layer
the l talk
t lk to
t the
th same layer
l att different
diff t hosts.
h t
– Vertical information exchange is not allowed except
passingg data.
• Optimizations can be made by introducing limited
interlayer information exchange.