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Chapter 4- INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

3 KINDS OF MEASUREMENTS
Nominal – no. used to identify diff. categories
Ordinal designates rank or order
Internal represents diff. magnitude
TERMINOLOGIES
Frequency distribution- set of data which varies.
Frequency- How many no. falls in one category
Unordered distribution- No.s is arranged in columns for convenience.
Ranked distribution- Data arranged in highest to lowest.
TEST
Reliability whether or not test scores are self consistent.
Validity test come up with what they are supposed to measure.
Kinds of test
Aptitude- attempt to predict the success.
Achievement- Measure present attainment.
Projective- used in determining personality traits EX. RORSCHACH INKBLOT
Behavior- respondent’s behavior is observe without their knowledge
Intelligence- intended to measure intellectual ability
Stadford- binet- measure for verbal intelligence
Performance- measured the non verbal ability

LOUIS TERMAN- introduce intelligence quotient


IQ=Mental age/Chronological age*100
INTELLIGENCE- complex group of primary ability which are relatively independent to each other.
Factor analysis- used to determined abilities involving intelligence test.
Experimental intelligence- ability to formulate new ideas.
RETARDATION- deficiency present from birth with no obvious brain damage.
Mental Retardation- feeble- minded or mentally defective.
Idiots- Profoundly mentally retarded- lowest in Intelligence
Imbeciles- trainable mentally retarded- highest in intelligence
Morons- educable mentally retarded- Highest of the feeble minded.
OTHER TYPES
Microcephalic- abnormally small pointed skull and small brain.
Macrocephalic- large skull and brain with deficiency.
Cretinism- disability due to insufficient secretion of the thyroid gland.
Mongolism- “DOWN SYNDROME”. Due to disturbance in endocrine glands.
Hydrocephalism- defects that produces a very large skull.
Mentally gifted- shows superior attainment through out childhood and early adult life.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
Musical- music
Bodily Kinesthetic- dancers, actors, athlete’s surgeons etc.
Logical/Mathematical- problem solving and abstract thinking.
Linguistic- use of language.
Spatial- spatial configuration.
Intrapersonal- interacting with others.
Interpersonal- awareness of internal aspects of oneself.
Chapter 5- LEARNING AND THINKING
Learning- relatively permanent change in behavior.
TYPES
Classical conditioning- Ivan Pavlov simplest form of learning.
Unconditioned stimulus- which is adequate at the outset of training to produce a response in question.
Conditioned Stimulus- to evolve the response in question.
Discrimination- eliciting different responses to two diff. stimuli.
Extinction- responses that are no longer reinforced tend to disappear from the org. repertoire of behavior.
Instrumental Conditioning- involves a selection from many responses of the one that habitually will be given in a
stimulus situation.
- First tried by E.L Thorndike by puzzle box. In recent years B.F Skinner by Skinner box.
Primary reward Conditioning- biologically significant reward
Escape Conditioning- getting out of place one prefer not to be in.
Avoidance Conditioning- avoiding a painful experience.
Secondary reward conditioning- No biological utility itself
REINFORCEMENT- increases the strength of response.
Insightful Learning- also known as AHA.
Sign Learning- What leads to what.
Programmed Learning- Method of self instruction.
Learning to learn- past experiences with similar problem.
MULTIPLE RESPONSE LEARNING
Associative- behavior learned through formation by associating Stimulus and response.
Rational- process of abstraction.
Motor- learning is skill.
Associational- learning is the acquisition and retention of facts and information.
Appreciation- aesthetic improvement .
LEARNING CURVES- graphical representation/ illustration w/c shows change in the subject performance as an
affect of practice.
E. L Thorndike- formulated the law of effect.
Law of Effect- response is rewarded and reward is satisfying.
Guthrive- contagious conditioning theory- combination of stimuli.
Edward tolman- Sign Learning.
Hull Spence theory- habit strength.
REMEMBERING AND FORGETTING.
Reintegrated memory- recollection of personal experiences.
Recognition- Remembering 0nly a sense of familiarity.
Recall- reinstatement in learned in the past.
Saving of relearning- way of finding out the influence of prior learning.
Retroactive inhibition- new learning interfering in prior one.
Proactive inhibition- prior learning interfering learning and recall of new materials.
THINKING- inner representation of inner object.
Direct thinking- aim, goal or end point.
Creative thinking- attempt to discover something new.
Peripheralist- thinking goes on muscular movement.”STIMULUS- RESPONSE ANALYSIS.’’
Centralist- thinking goes on inside the brain and nervous system
Habitual set- tendency to persist in applying a solution but no longer applicable.
Functional Fixedness- object whose familiar use meaning has become fixed.
A Preparation- No idea comes in final form.
Chapter 6- DRIVES and MOTIVATION
BIOLOGICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL DRIVES
Hunger, Thirst, Air hunger, Warmth and cold, Pain, Rest and sleep drives and sex motives.
PSYCHOSOCIAL MOTIVES
Affiliation, Dependency, Social approval, Status, Security and Achievement.
COMPLEX MOTIVES- Associated with the satisfaction of one drive, may later satisfy another less obvious drive.
UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVES- Repression
REPRESSION- Sigmund Freud- Explain the active forgetting of unpleasant memories.
Hierarchy of motives- Abraham Maslow- this study suggested that what people really want is more of everything.
The hierarchy as originally described by Maslow ( a theory of human motivation, 1943) is as follow;
* The Physiological needs
* Safety Needs
* Belongingness and Love needs.
* Esteem Needs
* Need of self Actualization.
* Cognitive needs
*Esthetic needs.
MASLOW LADDER OF HUMAN NEEDS
1. PHYSICAL NEEDS ( Food, water, clothing, shelter, medicines.)
2. SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS
3. LOVE ANG BELONGING (Social needs)
4. SELF-RESPECT (Esteem needs)
5. PERSONAL GROWTH (Self realization needs.)
Theories of human motivation
BEHAVIOR THEORY- Whiting and Child (1953), stated that a few basic motives acquired in early infancy
proliferate into the behavior system in later life.
THEORY OF UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATION-Freud and Psychoanalysis-manifested in the form of reams,
mannerism, slip of speech and symptoms of neurosis.
COGNITIVE THEORY OF MOTIVATION- J.W. Atkinson (1964)-Goals control behavior.
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
• Existence- Food, air, water and working pay and conditions.
• Relatedness- Social and interpersonal relationship
• Growth- Creative or productive distribution.

CHAPTER 7- EMOTION
Emotion-comes from the Latin word emovere meaning to move out.
Emotions have four aspects
1. Personal emotional experiences
2. Physiological or bodily changes that occur during the emotion.
3. Behavior of the person
4. Motivational aspects
Emotions are defined as organic readjustments.
PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIONS IN EMOTIONS
1. Galvanic Skin Response- Electrical changes in the skin.
2. Blood Pressure and Volume- changes in pressure and distribution of the blood between the surface and
the interior of the body.
3. Heart Rate- Acceleration of heart rate.
4. Respiration- increased and irregular breathing rate.
5. Pupillary Response- dilation of the pupil eye.
6. Salivary Secretion- Dryness of the mouth.
7. Pilomotor response- “Goose Pimples” as it is commonly called, appear and sometimes gives a “creepy”
feeling.
8. Gastrointestinal Motility- movements of stomach and intestines.
9. Muscles tension and tremor- contraction of the muscles.
10. Blood Composition- when adrenin is absorbed by the blood during an emotional excitement.
CLASSES OF EMOTIONAL REACTION
1. Fear- One of the most troublesome of all emotional reactions.
2. Anger- emotional accompaniment of something else.
3. Depressive Reactions Or Grief- finality depressive state than in anger situation
4. Love- focusing of strong positive feelings on a person.
EMOTIO NAL DEVELOPMENT
Temperament- emotional response and reactivity of a person.
Mood- When the feeling tone ingers on for a period of time.
THEORIES OF EMOTIONS
1. James-Lange theory- Emotional experience occurs after bodily changes.
2. Cannon-Bard’s Thalamic Theory- Emotion is regenerated when the impulses reach the cortex.
PERCEPTION-----Hypothalamic arousal*Emotional
* Viscera
* Arousal
COGNITIVE THEORY OF EMOTION- Emotions is interpretations of stirred-up bodily states.

BY: Kevin dela Rosa Cahanding


CE21FA1, Civil Engineering