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# Internal Flow &

Pressure Drop
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,

## 1. Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications

Third Edition in SI Units, Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2014
2. Chapter 4 (notes)
Internal flows through pipes, elbows, tees, valves,
etc., as in this oil refinery, are found in nearly
every industry.
2
Objectives
 understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in
pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow
 Know the major and minor losses associated
with pipe flow.
 Recognize the importance of pressure drop in heat
transfer system design .
 Know the three mechanisms governing pressure
drop, i.e. gravity, fluid acceleration and friction.
 Be able to use correlations to determine the
magnitude of the pressure drop in single phase
flows.
 Be aware of the strategy used in determining
pressure drop in two-phase flows.
3
INTRODUCTION
• Liquid or gas flow through pipes or ducts is commonly used in heating and
cooling applications and fluid distribution networks.
• The fluid in such applications is usually forced to flow by a fan or pump
through a flow section.
• We pay particular attention to friction, which is directly related to the pressure
drop and head loss during flow through pipes and ducts.
• The pressure drop is then used to determine the pumping power requirement.

## Circular pipes can withstand large pressure differences

between the inside and the outside without undergoing any
significant distortion, but noncircular pipes cannot. 4
Theoretical solutions are obtained only for a few simple cases such as fully
developed laminar flow in a circular pipe.
Therefore, we must rely on experimental results and empirical relations for
most fluid flow problems rather than closed-form analytical solutions.

## The value of the average velocity Vavg at

some streamwise cross-section is
determined from the requirement that the
conservation of mass principle be satisfied

## The average velocity

for incompressible
flow in a circular pipe

## Average velocity Vavg is defined

as the average speed through a
cross section. For fully developed
laminar pipe flow, Vavg is half of
the maximum velocity. 5
LAMINAR AND Laminar flow is encountered when
highly viscous fluids such as oils flow
TURBULENT FLOWS in small pipes or narrow passages.

Laminar: Smooth
streamlines and highly
ordered motion.
Turbulent: Velocity
fluctuations and highly
disordered motion.
Transition: The flow
fluctuates between
laminar and turbulent
flows.
Most flows encountered
in practice are turbulent.

The behavior of
colored fluid
Laminar and injected into the
turbulent flow flow in laminar
regimes of and turbulent
6
candle smoke. flows in a pipe.
Reynolds Number At large Reynolds numbers, the inertial
forces, which are proportional to the
The transition from laminar to turbulent fluid density and the square of the fluid
flow depends on the geometry, surface velocity, are large relative to the viscous
roughness, flow velocity, surface forces, and thus the viscous forces
temperature, and type of fluid. cannot prevent the random and rapid
The flow regime depends mainly on the fluctuations of the fluid (turbulent).
ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces At small or moderate Reynolds
(Reynolds number). numbers, the viscous forces are large
enough to suppress these fluctuations
and to keep the fluid “in line” (laminar).

## Critical Reynolds number, Recr:

The Reynolds number at which the
flow becomes turbulent.
The value of the critical Reynolds
number is different for different
geometries and flow conditions.

## The Reynolds number can be

viewed as the ratio of inertial
forces to viscous forces
7
acting on a fluid element.
For flow through noncircular The hydraulic diameter Dh = 4Ac/p is
pipes, the Reynolds number defined such that it reduces to ordinary
is based on the hydraulic diameter for circular tubes.
diameter
For flow in a circular pipe:

## In the transitional flow region of 2300  Re

 10,000, the flow switches between
8
laminar and turbulent seemingly randomly.
THE ENTRANCE REGION
Velocity boundary layer: The region of the flow in which the effects of the
viscous shearing forces caused by fluid viscosity are felt.
Boundary layer region: The viscous effects and the velocity changes are
significant.
Irrotational (core) flow region: The frictional effects are negligible and the
velocity remains essentially constant in the radial direction.

## The development of the velocity boundary layer in a pipe. The developed

average velocity profile is parabolic in laminar flow, but somewhat flatter or 9
fuller in turbulent flow.
Hydrodynamic entrance region: The region from the pipe inlet to the point
at which the boundary layer merges at the centerline.
Hydrodynamic entry length Lh: The length of this region.
Hydrodynamically developing flow: Flow in the entrance region. This is the
region where the velocity profile develops.
Hydrodynamically fully developed region: The region beyond the entrance
region in which the velocity profile is fully developed and remains unchanged.
Fully developed: When both the velocity profile the normalized temperature
profile remain unchanged.
Hydrodynamically fully developed

## In the fully developed flow

region of a pipe, the velocity
profile does not change
downstream, and thus the
wall shear stress remains
constant as well. 10
The pressure drop is higher in the entrance regions of a pipe, and the
effect of the entrance region is always to increase the average friction
factor for the entire pipe.

The variation of wall shear stress in the flow direction for flow in a pipe 11
from the entrance region into the fully developed region.
Entry Lengths
The hydrodynamic entry length is usually taken to be the distance from
the pipe entrance to where the wall shear stress (and thus the friction
factor) reaches within about 2 percent of the fully developed value.

## The pipes used in practice are

hydrodynamic usually several times the
entry length for length of the entrance region,
laminar flow and thus the flow through the
pipes is often assumed to be
hydrodynamic fully developed for the entire
entry length for length of the pipe.
turbulent flow
This simplistic approach gives
reasonable results for long
hydrodynamic entry
pipes but sometimes poor
length for turbulent flow,
results for short ones since it
an approximation
underpredicts the wall shear
stress and thus the friction
factor.
12
Pressure Drop in Channels and Heat Exchangers
 As a fluid flows through a heat
exchanger there will normally be
a pressure drop in the direction
of the flow.
 In some special situations where
the fluid velocity decreases
there may be an increase in
pressure.
 Pressure drops occur in the flow
channels, nozzles, manifolds and
turning regions in the headers of
heat exchangers.
 Each of these pressure drops must be evaluated, unless experience
suggests that one or more may be neglected.
 when deriving Reynolds Analogy, there is a relationship between
heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure gradient 13
For the purposes of the design examples in this
module, it is assumed that the maximum allowable
pressure drops are given to the designer.
The designer must then predict the pressure drop
for candidate heat exchanger designs.
If the pressure drop on one or both sides of the
heat exchanger is excessive, then the design is
unacceptable.
If the pressure drops are significantly below the
permissible level then the designer may wish to
attempt to reduce the size and cost of the heat
exchanger while “using” the available pressure
drops.
14
Pressure Drop in Channels
 The pressure gradient for a fluid flowing in the z direction
along a channel is given by:

where:
(dp/dz) = Pressure gradient at position z in the channel
(dp/dz)f = frictional pressure gradient at position z in the
channel,
(dp/dp)a= Pressure gradient due to the momentum change at
position z in the channel
(dp/dz)h = Hydrostatic pressure gradient at position z in the
channel
and z is the coordinate in the flow direction along the channel
15
Single Phase Pressure Drop in Channels

##  In most single phase flows in channels (the exception

being gases undergoing significant temperature change)
the pressure gradient due to momentum change may be
neglected.
The hydrostatic pressure gradient is given by:

## For θ = 0, i.e. a horizontal channel, then the hydrostatic

 For constant fluid density,
 so that Δp, the pressure drop,

16
The frictional pressure gradient may be determined from:

## where cf and f are the Fanning skin friction coefficient and

Darcy friction factor, the –ve sign as pressure decrease in
the direction of the flow.
de is the hydraulic diameter.
If fluid properties may be regarded as constant over a length
l then the above equation may be integrated, again with the
pressure drop regarded as positive:

Since f =4cf,
Note: be sure which factor is given by a particular data17
source
 For the remainder of this section the Darcy friction f

##  The value of f is a function of the flow Reynold’s number

the roughness of the channel surface and the channel
geometry.
 There are numerous correlations which may be used in
the estimation of f.
 As with heat transfer, the pressure drop characteristics
differ greatly depending whether the flow is laminar or
turbulent, with transition occurring at a Reynolds number
of 2000-10000.
 For laminar flow f is independent of surface roughness
and inversely proportional to the Re.

For laminar
18
 The simplest expression for friction factor f in turbulent flow,
which is applicable to smooth pipes, is that due to Blasius:

corroded tubes:

##  The variation of f is traditionally presented on a Moody

Diagram, Roughness values for a range of pipe
materials and conditions are given.
19
Surface Roughness value ε

20
The Moody
Chart and
the Colebrook equation (for smooth and rough pipes)

Colebrook The friction factor in fully developed turbulent pipe flow depends
Equation on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness  /D.

Explicit Haaland
equation

The friction
factor is
minimum for a
smooth pipe
and increases 21
with roughness.
22
The Moody Chart
23
8–6 ■ MINOR LOSSES
The fluid in a typical piping system passes
through various fittings, valves, bends,
elbows, tees, inlets, exits, enlargements,
and contractions in addition to the pipes.
These components interrupt the smooth
flow of the fluid and cause additional
losses because of the flow separation and
mixing they induce.
In a typical system with long pipes, these
losses are minor compared to the total
head loss in the pipes (the major losses)
and are called minor losses.
Minor losses are usually expressed in For a constant-diameter section of a pipe
terms of the loss coefficient KL. with a minor loss component, the loss
coefficient of the component (such as the
gate valve shown) is determined by
measuring the additional pressure loss it
causes and dividing it by the dynamic
to component 26
pressure in the pipe.
 Many heat exchanger tubes are drawn copper and therefore
have a representative roughness of some 0.0025mm;
 for a 19mm diameter tube this implies a relative roughness of
0.00014,
 Steel tubes having a representative roughness of 0.025mm, for a
19mm tube this gives a relative roughness of 0.0014, rising by a
further factor of 10 when a coating of light rust forms.
 If dealing with initially rough tubes, tubes which are roughened
by corrosion, or high Reynolds number flow, then the roughness
must be taken into account.
 When carrying out hand calculations involving rough tubes or
pipes then the quickest method of estimating f is to use a
Moody Diagram.
 For calculations using a computer it is necessary to put
this data in numerical form.

27
 Alternative correlations are available, for example ASHRAE
recommend that 2for complete turbulence, where, as can be
seen from, the friction factor becomes independent of
Reynolds number,

 In general,

##  The difficulty with this equation being it must be solved

iteratively.
 Entry effects are significant when the channels are
short, for example in many compact heat exchangers or
in heat sinks for cooling electronic devices,
 Then this must be taken into account. Values of f or cf
are available for many plate-fin surfaces.

28
Single phase pressure drop across tube bundles

##  The pressure drop across a tube bundle depends on:

 the geometry of the bundle,
 fluid properties and
 flow rate.
 For plain tube bundles, assuming constant fluid
properties, the pressure drop is given by:

##  where Eu is the Euler number and Nr is the number of

tube rows.
 Eu is analogous to the friction factor in internal flows
(and is referred to as a friction factor in some texts).
 Vmax is the maximum velocity between the tubes:

## For in line tube banks

29
 For staggered tube banks the
maximum velocity may occur
either between adjacent tubes in a
row or between one tube and a
neighboring tube in the succeeding
row,

## and the maximum velocity is the larger of VX and VY.

30
EU is similar to f

 The pressure drop in the first few (3 or 4) rows differs from that predicted
from fig 4.3. It may be higher or lower than the average value, depending
upon geometry and Re. Correction factors may be defined

## Pressure drop of in-line banks as referred to the relative longitudinal pitch b

31
Pressure drop of staggered banks as referred to the relative transverse pitch a

32
Correction factors for row-to-row variations 33
Property variations
 In general, fluid properties should be evaluated at the
mean bulk temperature,
 When the fluid properties vary due to heat transfer (or
in the case of a gas, due to pressure drop) this may
require the introduction of correction factors, or
 in the case of properties varying in the flow direction,
division of the heat exchanger into several sections
over which the fluid properties may be regarded as
constant.
 If the temperature difference between the wall and the
bulk of the fluid is large, the viscosity may vary
significantly between the bulk of the fluid and the fluid
close to the wall. Typically, a correction factor of the
form used.

34
Pressure drop in nozzles and headers
 The pressure drop in headers and nozzles (and in pipe
fittings in general) is usually expressed in terms of
 The appropriate velocities and typical values of K, the
number of velocity heads lost, are given below.
Channel (i.e. tube-side) inlet and outlet nozzles:

## based on mass flux or velocity in nozzles

based on mass flux or velocity in tubes, Np= number of tube side passes.

35
Shell- side inlet and outlet nozzles:

## Without impingement plate :

Where
An= flow area of nozzle
Ae= escape are at nozzle = (perimeter of nozzle x distance from nozzle
to impingement plate or closest tubes)
do= tube outside diameter
S= tube pitch
calculated for the core of the heat exchanger. 36
Two-phase pressure drop (vapour + liquid)
 The evaluation of the pressure drop during two-phase
flow in a heat exchanger is generally complex.
 Each component of the pressure gradient is a function of,
amongst other parameters:
 the quality, x, defined as the ratio of vapour mass flow
to total mass flow.
 Each component of pressure gradient listed in the
equation

## must be evaluated independently and applied to a

short flow length, using a mean value of x for that
length.
 The pressure drop for that length is then determined.
 The mean quality for the next increment of flow
length is then calculated and the process repeated.
 The pressure drop is then the sum of the pressure 37
gradient x section length for each of the sections.
Laminar Flow in
Noncircular Pipes
The friction factor f relations
are given in Table 8–1 for fully
developed laminar flow in
pipes of various cross
sections. The Reynolds
number for flow in these pipes
is based on the hydraulic
diameter Dh = 4Ac /p, where
Ac is the cross-sectional area
of the pipe and p is its wetted
perimeter

38
8–5 ■ TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES
Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent, and thus it is
important to understand how turbulence affects wall shear stress.
Turbulent flow is a complex mechanism dominated by fluctuations, and it is still
not fully understood.
We must rely on experiments and the empirical or semi-empirical correlations
developed for various situations.
Turbulent flow is characterized by
disorderly and rapid fluctuations of swirling
regions of fluid, called eddies, throughout
the flow.
mechanism for momentum and energy
transfer.
In turbulent flow, the swirling eddies
transport mass, momentum, and energy to
other regions of flow much more rapidly
The intense mixing in turbulent flow than molecular diffusion, greatly enhancing
brings fluid particles at different mass, momentum, and heat transfer.
momentums into close contact and As a result, turbulent flow is associated
thus enhances momentum transfer. with much higher values of friction, heat
39
transfer, and mass transfer coefficients
Water exiting a tube: (a) laminar
flow at low flow rate, (b) turbulent
flow at high flow rate, and (c)
same as (b) but with a short
shutter exposure to capture
individual eddies.

40
The Moody
Chart and
the Colebrook equation (for smooth and rough pipes)

Colebrook The friction factor in fully developed turbulent pipe flow depends
Equation on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness  /D.

Explicit Haaland
equation

The friction
factor is
minimum for a
smooth pipe
and increases 41
with roughness.
42
The Moody Chart
43
Observations from the Moody chart
• For laminar flow, the friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds
number, and it is independent of surface roughness.
• The friction factor is a minimum for a smooth pipe and increases with
roughness. The Colebrook equation in this case (  = 0) reduces to the
Prandtl equation.

## • The transition region from the laminar to turbulent regime is indicated

by the shaded area in the Moody chart. At small relative roughnesses,
the friction factor increases in the transition region and approaches the
value for smooth pipes.
• At very large Reynolds numbers (to the right of the dashed line on the
Moody chart) the friction factor curves corresponding to specified
relative roughness curves are nearly horizontal, and thus the friction
factors are independent of the Reynolds number. The flow in that
region is called fully rough turbulent flow or just fully rough flow
because the thickness of the viscous sublayer decreases with
increasing Reynolds number, and it becomes so thin that it is negligibly
small compared to the surface roughness height. The Colebrook
equation in the fully rough zone reduces to the von Kármán equation.
44
In calculations, we should
make sure that we use the
actual internal diameter
of the pipe, which may be
different than the nominal
diameter.

## At very large Reynolds numbers, the friction factor

curves on the Moody chart are nearly horizontal, and
thus the friction factors are independent of the
Reynolds number. See Fig. A–12 for a full-page
moody chart.

45
8–6 ■ MINOR LOSSES
The fluid in a typical piping system passes
through various fittings, valves, bends,
elbows, tees, inlets, exits, enlargements,
and contractions in addition to the pipes.
These components interrupt the smooth
flow of the fluid and cause additional
losses because of the flow separation and
mixing they induce.
In a typical system with long pipes, these
losses are minor compared to the total
head loss in the pipes (the major losses)
and are called minor losses.
Minor losses are usually expressed in For a constant-diameter section of a pipe
terms of the loss coefficient KL. with a minor loss component, the loss
coefficient of the component (such as the
gate valve shown) is determined by
measuring the additional pressure loss it
causes and dividing it by the dynamic
to component 46
pressure in the pipe.
When the inlet diameter equals outlet
diameter, the loss coefficient of a
component can also be determined by
measuring the pressure loss across the
component and dividing it by the dynamic
pressure:
KL = PL /(V2/2).
When the loss coefficient for a component
is available, the head loss for that
component is
Minor
loss

Minor losses are also expressed in terms The head loss caused by a
of the equivalent length Lequiv. component (such as the angle
valve shown) is equivalent to the
head loss caused by a section of
the pipe whose length is the
equivalent length.

47

## The head loss at the inlet of a pipe

is almost negligible for well-
rounded inlets (KL = 0.03 for r/D >
0.2) but increases to about 0.50 for
sharp-edged inlets. 48
49
50
51
The effect of rounding
of a pipe inlet on the
loss coefficient.

## Graphical representation of flow

52
loss at a sharp-edged pipe inlet.
All the kinetic energy of the flow is “lost”
(turned into thermal energy) through friction
as the jet decelerates and mixes with ambient
fluid downstream of a submerged outlet.

## The losses during changes of direction

can be minimized by making the turn
“easy” on the fluid by using circular
arcs instead of sharp turns. 53
(a) The large head loss in a
partially closed valve is due
to irreversible deceleration,
flow separation, and mixing
of high-velocity fluid coming
from the narrow valve
passage.
(b) The head loss through a
fully-open ball valve, on the
other hand, is quite small.
54
To Compare f for Fanning and Darcy
(f (Darcy) = 4 f (Fanning)

## If the Reynolds number is below 2000, the flow is laminar

and the friction factor is given by:

16
f 
Re
If the Reynolds number is above 2000, the flow is
turbulent and the friction factor in a smooth pipe is given
by:
0.079
f  0.25
Re
55
56