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Jul 27, 2018

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Methods for the Pressure drop evaluation

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Methods for the Pressure drop evaluation

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Pressure Drop

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,

Third Edition in SI Units, Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2014

2. Chapter 4 (notes)

Internal flows through pipes, elbows, tees, valves,

etc., as in this oil refinery, are found in nearly

every industry.

2

Objectives

understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in

pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow

Know the major and minor losses associated

with pipe flow.

Recognize the importance of pressure drop in heat

transfer system design .

Know the three mechanisms governing pressure

drop, i.e. gravity, fluid acceleration and friction.

Be able to use correlations to determine the

magnitude of the pressure drop in single phase

flows.

Be aware of the strategy used in determining

pressure drop in two-phase flows.

3

INTRODUCTION

• Liquid or gas flow through pipes or ducts is commonly used in heating and

cooling applications and fluid distribution networks.

• The fluid in such applications is usually forced to flow by a fan or pump

through a flow section.

• We pay particular attention to friction, which is directly related to the pressure

drop and head loss during flow through pipes and ducts.

• The pressure drop is then used to determine the pumping power requirement.

between the inside and the outside without undergoing any

significant distortion, but noncircular pipes cannot. 4

Theoretical solutions are obtained only for a few simple cases such as fully

developed laminar flow in a circular pipe.

Therefore, we must rely on experimental results and empirical relations for

most fluid flow problems rather than closed-form analytical solutions.

some streamwise cross-section is

determined from the requirement that the

conservation of mass principle be satisfied

for incompressible

flow in a circular pipe

of radius R

as the average speed through a

cross section. For fully developed

laminar pipe flow, Vavg is half of

the maximum velocity. 5

LAMINAR AND Laminar flow is encountered when

highly viscous fluids such as oils flow

TURBULENT FLOWS in small pipes or narrow passages.

Laminar: Smooth

streamlines and highly

ordered motion.

Turbulent: Velocity

fluctuations and highly

disordered motion.

Transition: The flow

fluctuates between

laminar and turbulent

flows.

Most flows encountered

in practice are turbulent.

The behavior of

colored fluid

Laminar and injected into the

turbulent flow flow in laminar

regimes of and turbulent

6

candle smoke. flows in a pipe.

Reynolds Number At large Reynolds numbers, the inertial

forces, which are proportional to the

The transition from laminar to turbulent fluid density and the square of the fluid

flow depends on the geometry, surface velocity, are large relative to the viscous

roughness, flow velocity, surface forces, and thus the viscous forces

temperature, and type of fluid. cannot prevent the random and rapid

The flow regime depends mainly on the fluctuations of the fluid (turbulent).

ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces At small or moderate Reynolds

(Reynolds number). numbers, the viscous forces are large

enough to suppress these fluctuations

and to keep the fluid “in line” (laminar).

The Reynolds number at which the

flow becomes turbulent.

The value of the critical Reynolds

number is different for different

geometries and flow conditions.

viewed as the ratio of inertial

forces to viscous forces

7

acting on a fluid element.

For flow through noncircular The hydraulic diameter Dh = 4Ac/p is

pipes, the Reynolds number defined such that it reduces to ordinary

is based on the hydraulic diameter for circular tubes.

diameter

For flow in a circular pipe:

10,000, the flow switches between

8

laminar and turbulent seemingly randomly.

THE ENTRANCE REGION

Velocity boundary layer: The region of the flow in which the effects of the

viscous shearing forces caused by fluid viscosity are felt.

Boundary layer region: The viscous effects and the velocity changes are

significant.

Irrotational (core) flow region: The frictional effects are negligible and the

velocity remains essentially constant in the radial direction.

average velocity profile is parabolic in laminar flow, but somewhat flatter or 9

fuller in turbulent flow.

Hydrodynamic entrance region: The region from the pipe inlet to the point

at which the boundary layer merges at the centerline.

Hydrodynamic entry length Lh: The length of this region.

Hydrodynamically developing flow: Flow in the entrance region. This is the

region where the velocity profile develops.

Hydrodynamically fully developed region: The region beyond the entrance

region in which the velocity profile is fully developed and remains unchanged.

Fully developed: When both the velocity profile the normalized temperature

profile remain unchanged.

Hydrodynamically fully developed

region of a pipe, the velocity

profile does not change

downstream, and thus the

wall shear stress remains

constant as well. 10

The pressure drop is higher in the entrance regions of a pipe, and the

effect of the entrance region is always to increase the average friction

factor for the entire pipe.

The variation of wall shear stress in the flow direction for flow in a pipe 11

from the entrance region into the fully developed region.

Entry Lengths

The hydrodynamic entry length is usually taken to be the distance from

the pipe entrance to where the wall shear stress (and thus the friction

factor) reaches within about 2 percent of the fully developed value.

hydrodynamic usually several times the

entry length for length of the entrance region,

laminar flow and thus the flow through the

pipes is often assumed to be

hydrodynamic fully developed for the entire

entry length for length of the pipe.

turbulent flow

This simplistic approach gives

reasonable results for long

hydrodynamic entry

pipes but sometimes poor

length for turbulent flow,

results for short ones since it

an approximation

underpredicts the wall shear

stress and thus the friction

factor.

12

Pressure Drop in Channels and Heat Exchangers

As a fluid flows through a heat

exchanger there will normally be

a pressure drop in the direction

of the flow.

In some special situations where

the fluid velocity decreases

there may be an increase in

pressure.

Pressure drops occur in the flow

channels, nozzles, manifolds and

turning regions in the headers of

heat exchangers.

Each of these pressure drops must be evaluated, unless experience

suggests that one or more may be neglected.

when deriving Reynolds Analogy, there is a relationship between

heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure gradient 13

For the purposes of the design examples in this

module, it is assumed that the maximum allowable

pressure drops are given to the designer.

The designer must then predict the pressure drop

for candidate heat exchanger designs.

If the pressure drop on one or both sides of the

heat exchanger is excessive, then the design is

unacceptable.

If the pressure drops are significantly below the

permissible level then the designer may wish to

attempt to reduce the size and cost of the heat

exchanger while “using” the available pressure

drops.

14

Pressure Drop in Channels

The pressure gradient for a fluid flowing in the z direction

along a channel is given by:

where:

(dp/dz) = Pressure gradient at position z in the channel

(dp/dz)f = frictional pressure gradient at position z in the

channel,

(dp/dp)a= Pressure gradient due to the momentum change at

position z in the channel

(dp/dz)h = Hydrostatic pressure gradient at position z in the

channel

and z is the coordinate in the flow direction along the channel

15

Single Phase Pressure Drop in Channels

being gases undergoing significant temperature change)

the pressure gradient due to momentum change may be

neglected.

The hydrostatic pressure gradient is given by:

pressure gradient is zero.

For constant fluid density,

so that Δp, the pressure drop,

16

The frictional pressure gradient may be determined from:

Darcy friction factor, the –ve sign as pressure decrease in

the direction of the flow.

de is the hydraulic diameter.

If fluid properties may be regarded as constant over a length

l then the above equation may be integrated, again with the

pressure drop regarded as positive:

Since f =4cf,

Note: be sure which factor is given by a particular data17

source

For the remainder of this section the Darcy friction f

the roughness of the channel surface and the channel

geometry.

There are numerous correlations which may be used in

the estimation of f.

As with heat transfer, the pressure drop characteristics

differ greatly depending whether the flow is laminar or

turbulent, with transition occurring at a Reynolds number

of 2000-10000.

For laminar flow f is independent of surface roughness

and inversely proportional to the Re.

For laminar

18

The simplest expression for friction factor f in turbulent flow,

which is applicable to smooth pipes, is that due to Blasius:

corroded tubes:

Diagram, Roughness values for a range of pipe

materials and conditions are given.

19

Surface Roughness value ε

20

The Moody

Chart and

the Colebrook equation (for smooth and rough pipes)

Colebrook The friction factor in fully developed turbulent pipe flow depends

Equation on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness /D.

Explicit Haaland

equation

The friction

factor is

minimum for a

smooth pipe

and increases 21

with roughness.

22

The Moody Chart

23

8–6 ■ MINOR LOSSES

The fluid in a typical piping system passes

through various fittings, valves, bends,

elbows, tees, inlets, exits, enlargements,

and contractions in addition to the pipes.

These components interrupt the smooth

flow of the fluid and cause additional

losses because of the flow separation and

mixing they induce.

In a typical system with long pipes, these

losses are minor compared to the total

head loss in the pipes (the major losses)

and are called minor losses.

Minor losses are usually expressed in For a constant-diameter section of a pipe

terms of the loss coefficient KL. with a minor loss component, the loss

coefficient of the component (such as the

gate valve shown) is determined by

measuring the additional pressure loss it

Head loss due

causes and dividing it by the dynamic

to component 26

pressure in the pipe.

Many heat exchanger tubes are drawn copper and therefore

have a representative roughness of some 0.0025mm;

for a 19mm diameter tube this implies a relative roughness of

0.00014,

Steel tubes having a representative roughness of 0.025mm, for a

19mm tube this gives a relative roughness of 0.0014, rising by a

further factor of 10 when a coating of light rust forms.

If dealing with initially rough tubes, tubes which are roughened

by corrosion, or high Reynolds number flow, then the roughness

must be taken into account.

When carrying out hand calculations involving rough tubes or

pipes then the quickest method of estimating f is to use a

Moody Diagram.

For calculations using a computer it is necessary to put

this data in numerical form.

27

Alternative correlations are available, for example ASHRAE

recommend that 2for complete turbulence, where, as can be

seen from, the friction factor becomes independent of

Reynolds number,

In general,

iteratively.

Entry effects are significant when the channels are

short, for example in many compact heat exchangers or

in heat sinks for cooling electronic devices,

Then this must be taken into account. Values of f or cf

are available for many plate-fin surfaces.

28

Single phase pressure drop across tube bundles

the geometry of the bundle,

fluid properties and

flow rate.

For plain tube bundles, assuming constant fluid

properties, the pressure drop is given by:

tube rows.

Eu is analogous to the friction factor in internal flows

(and is referred to as a friction factor in some texts).

Vmax is the maximum velocity between the tubes:

29

For staggered tube banks the

maximum velocity may occur

either between adjacent tubes in a

row or between one tube and a

neighboring tube in the succeeding

row,

30

EU is similar to f

The pressure drop in the first few (3 or 4) rows differs from that predicted

from fig 4.3. It may be higher or lower than the average value, depending

upon geometry and Re. Correction factors may be defined

31

Pressure drop of staggered banks as referred to the relative transverse pitch a

32

Correction factors for row-to-row variations 33

Property variations

In general, fluid properties should be evaluated at the

mean bulk temperature,

When the fluid properties vary due to heat transfer (or

in the case of a gas, due to pressure drop) this may

require the introduction of correction factors, or

in the case of properties varying in the flow direction,

division of the heat exchanger into several sections

over which the fluid properties may be regarded as

constant.

If the temperature difference between the wall and the

bulk of the fluid is large, the viscosity may vary

significantly between the bulk of the fluid and the fluid

close to the wall. Typically, a correction factor of the

form used.

34

Pressure drop in nozzles and headers

The pressure drop in headers and nozzles (and in pipe

fittings in general) is usually expressed in terms of

velocity heads.

The appropriate velocities and typical values of K, the

number of velocity heads lost, are given below.

Channel (i.e. tube-side) inlet and outlet nozzles:

Headers:

based on mass flux or velocity in tubes, Np= number of tube side passes.

35

Shell- side inlet and outlet nozzles:

Where

An= flow area of nozzle

Ae= escape are at nozzle = (perimeter of nozzle x distance from nozzle

to impingement plate or closest tubes)

do= tube outside diameter

S= tube pitch

Nozzle and header losses must be added to the pressure drops

calculated for the core of the heat exchanger. 36

Two-phase pressure drop (vapour + liquid)

The evaluation of the pressure drop during two-phase

flow in a heat exchanger is generally complex.

Each component of the pressure gradient is a function of,

amongst other parameters:

the quality, x, defined as the ratio of vapour mass flow

to total mass flow.

Each component of pressure gradient listed in the

equation

short flow length, using a mean value of x for that

length.

The pressure drop for that length is then determined.

The mean quality for the next increment of flow

length is then calculated and the process repeated.

The pressure drop is then the sum of the pressure 37

gradient x section length for each of the sections.

Laminar Flow in

Noncircular Pipes

The friction factor f relations

are given in Table 8–1 for fully

developed laminar flow in

pipes of various cross

sections. The Reynolds

number for flow in these pipes

is based on the hydraulic

diameter Dh = 4Ac /p, where

Ac is the cross-sectional area

of the pipe and p is its wetted

perimeter

38

8–5 ■ TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent, and thus it is

important to understand how turbulence affects wall shear stress.

Turbulent flow is a complex mechanism dominated by fluctuations, and it is still

not fully understood.

We must rely on experiments and the empirical or semi-empirical correlations

developed for various situations.

Turbulent flow is characterized by

disorderly and rapid fluctuations of swirling

regions of fluid, called eddies, throughout

the flow.

These fluctuations provide an additional

mechanism for momentum and energy

transfer.

In turbulent flow, the swirling eddies

transport mass, momentum, and energy to

other regions of flow much more rapidly

The intense mixing in turbulent flow than molecular diffusion, greatly enhancing

brings fluid particles at different mass, momentum, and heat transfer.

momentums into close contact and As a result, turbulent flow is associated

thus enhances momentum transfer. with much higher values of friction, heat

39

transfer, and mass transfer coefficients

Water exiting a tube: (a) laminar

flow at low flow rate, (b) turbulent

flow at high flow rate, and (c)

same as (b) but with a short

shutter exposure to capture

individual eddies.

40

The Moody

Chart and

the Colebrook equation (for smooth and rough pipes)

Colebrook The friction factor in fully developed turbulent pipe flow depends

Equation on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness /D.

Explicit Haaland

equation

The friction

factor is

minimum for a

smooth pipe

and increases 41

with roughness.

42

The Moody Chart

43

Observations from the Moody chart

• For laminar flow, the friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds

number, and it is independent of surface roughness.

• The friction factor is a minimum for a smooth pipe and increases with

roughness. The Colebrook equation in this case ( = 0) reduces to the

Prandtl equation.

by the shaded area in the Moody chart. At small relative roughnesses,

the friction factor increases in the transition region and approaches the

value for smooth pipes.

• At very large Reynolds numbers (to the right of the dashed line on the

Moody chart) the friction factor curves corresponding to specified

relative roughness curves are nearly horizontal, and thus the friction

factors are independent of the Reynolds number. The flow in that

region is called fully rough turbulent flow or just fully rough flow

because the thickness of the viscous sublayer decreases with

increasing Reynolds number, and it becomes so thin that it is negligibly

small compared to the surface roughness height. The Colebrook

equation in the fully rough zone reduces to the von Kármán equation.

44

In calculations, we should

make sure that we use the

actual internal diameter

of the pipe, which may be

different than the nominal

diameter.

curves on the Moody chart are nearly horizontal, and

thus the friction factors are independent of the

Reynolds number. See Fig. A–12 for a full-page

moody chart.

45

8–6 ■ MINOR LOSSES

The fluid in a typical piping system passes

through various fittings, valves, bends,

elbows, tees, inlets, exits, enlargements,

and contractions in addition to the pipes.

These components interrupt the smooth

flow of the fluid and cause additional

losses because of the flow separation and

mixing they induce.

In a typical system with long pipes, these

losses are minor compared to the total

head loss in the pipes (the major losses)

and are called minor losses.

Minor losses are usually expressed in For a constant-diameter section of a pipe

terms of the loss coefficient KL. with a minor loss component, the loss

coefficient of the component (such as the

gate valve shown) is determined by

measuring the additional pressure loss it

Head loss due

causes and dividing it by the dynamic

to component 46

pressure in the pipe.

When the inlet diameter equals outlet

diameter, the loss coefficient of a

component can also be determined by

measuring the pressure loss across the

component and dividing it by the dynamic

pressure:

KL = PL /(V2/2).

When the loss coefficient for a component

is available, the head loss for that

component is

Minor

loss

Minor losses are also expressed in terms The head loss caused by a

of the equivalent length Lequiv. component (such as the angle

valve shown) is equivalent to the

head loss caused by a section of

the pipe whose length is the

equivalent length.

47

Total head loss (general)

is almost negligible for well-

rounded inlets (KL = 0.03 for r/D >

0.2) but increases to about 0.50 for

sharp-edged inlets. 48

49

50

51

The effect of rounding

of a pipe inlet on the

loss coefficient.

contraction and the associated head

52

loss at a sharp-edged pipe inlet.

All the kinetic energy of the flow is “lost”

(turned into thermal energy) through friction

as the jet decelerates and mixes with ambient

fluid downstream of a submerged outlet.

can be minimized by making the turn

“easy” on the fluid by using circular

arcs instead of sharp turns. 53

(a) The large head loss in a

partially closed valve is due

to irreversible deceleration,

flow separation, and mixing

of high-velocity fluid coming

from the narrow valve

passage.

(b) The head loss through a

fully-open ball valve, on the

other hand, is quite small.

54

To Compare f for Fanning and Darcy

(f (Darcy) = 4 f (Fanning)

and the friction factor is given by:

16

f

Re

If the Reynolds number is above 2000, the flow is

turbulent and the friction factor in a smooth pipe is given

by:

0.079

f 0.25

Re

55

56

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