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Motivation is a goal-oriented feature that can help a person achieve his goals. It promotes personal
efforts to achieve his or her goals. Executives must have the right leadership qualities to influence
motivation. However, there is no specific motivational blueprint.
As a leader, we should maintain an open vision of human nature. Understanding the different needs
of subordinates will certainly make the decision making process easier.
An effective leader must have a thorough understanding of the incentives of others. He must
understand the basic needs of employees, colleagues, and superiors. Leadership is used as a means
to motivate others.
 Coordinate and match subordinate needs with organizational needs. As a leader, he should
ensure that his subordinates are encouraged and trained to meet business needs.
 Appreciation and rewards are the key drivers that affect a person’s achievement of the
desired goals. Using small admiration, certificates or letters to reward good/special
behavior may be a good motivator.
 Being a role model is also a key driver of people’s achievement of goals. Leaders should
set a good example to ensure that their employees develop effectively and achieve their
 Encouraging individuals to participate in programs and important problem solving
procedures not only motivates them, but also teaches the complexity of these key decision-
making factors.
 The cultivation of morality and team spirit certainly has an important influence on the well-
being of the organization. Leaders' behavior and decisions can affect the morale of
subordinates. Therefore, he should understand his decisions and activities from time to
 Leaders should go deeper into subordinates' perspectives and look at things from
subordinates' perspectives. He should sympathize with them in difficult times. Giving
thanks to their personal problems makes them more mentally and emotionally strong.
 Complete meaningful and challenging work and inspire employees' sense of
accomplishment. Executives must make their employees feel they are performing an
important job that is necessary for the well-being and success of the organization. This
motivational factor motivates them to achieve their goals.

Remember, “To become an efficient leader, you must be self-motivated”.

Leadership Theories:-

Just as management knowledge is supported by various theories, the leadership role of

management is also confirmed by various theories.
Over time, some leadership theories have been proposed. Here are some of the main ideas.

1. Great Man Theory:-

Leaders are born and not made.
Great leaders will arise when there is a great need.
Early research on leadership is based on research of people who are already great leaders. These
people often come from the aristocracy, because there are very few lower classes who have the
opportunity to lead. This contributed to the concept of leadership and breeding.
The idea of the big man also deviated from the mythological field. Some people think that when a
need arises, a great man will appear, almost through magic. By pointing out people like Eisenhower
and Churchill, not to mention those who are even further along the timeline, even Jesus, Moses,
Muhammad and Buddha.
The "great man" theory was first proposed by Thomas Carlyle.
When the "big people" theory is proposed, gender issues are not on the agenda. Most of the leaders
are men. The idea of great women is generally in areas other than leadership. Most researchers are
also men, and there is still a long way to go before the concerns of eccentric bias are realized.
Some people say that history is nothing more than the story of a great man. Of course, many people
have this prejudice, although of course there are many people and a broader life.

2. Trait Theory:-
People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.
Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the time, namely people with
genetic characteristics or characteristics. Therefore, it is usually through the study of successful
leaders to notice the discovery of these features, but there is a potential assumption that if others
can also be found to have these characteristics, then they can also become great leaders.

Features: - Adaptation; alertness to the social environment; ambitious, results-oriented; assertive;

cooperation; decisive; credible; dominant (eager to influence others); energetic (high activity
level); persistence; self-confidence; tolerance of stress; Willing to take responsibility.

Skills: - Smart (smart); Conceptual Skills; Creative; Diplomatic and Euphemistic; Fluent; Familiar
with Team Tasks; Organization (Administrative Ability); Persuasive; Social Skills.
Many different studies of leadership traits were conducted and they agreed only on the quality of
the general saint who needed to be a leader.
For a long time, genetic characteristics have been neglected because learning and situational
factors are believed to be more in line with people's reasons for acquiring leadership positions.
Paradoxically, studies of new twins, such as segregating births, and new sciences such as
behavioral genetics, show far more than previously assumed. Maybe one day they will find a
"leadership gene."

3. Behavioral Theory:-
Leaders can be made, rather than are born.
Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.
Leadership behavior theory does not seek natural qualities or capabilities. Instead, they see what
the leader actually does.
If you can define success with descriptive actions, it should be relatively easy for others to act in
the same way. It is easier to teach and learn, and then use more short-lived "features" or
Behavior is a major leap in trait theory because it assumes that leadership can be learned rather
than inherent. This will open the door to leadership development, rather than simply assessing
psychometrics, categorizing those with leadership potential from those who will never have the

Dysfunctions of groups refer to the negative functions of groups. In almost all organizations
informal organizations exist to serve the following purposes:
• Meet social needs.
• Provide a sense of belonging.
• Provide information on approved behaviors.
• Provide a sympathetic ear.
• Assist individuals to achieve goals.
• Provide opportunities for influence and creativity.
• Enables members to maintain their cultural value forever.
• Provide members with additional communication channels.
• Provide satisfaction and stability for members.
• Compensation management restrictions.

Benefits of the informal organisation

• Assist in completing the work in the organization

• Helps to eliminate weaknesses in the formal structure. For example, orders issued by managers
may be inconsistent with organizational needs, for example, from 8 to 5 pm.
• Extend the effective time frame of control by exchanging knowledge and experience within the
group so that staff can understand their expectations without requiring supervision.
• Compensation for situations that violate the principles of formal organization, such as managers
may need help from employees to achieve efficiency or effectiveness.
• Provide additional communication channels to a certain extent, faster and more accurately.
• Provide emotional support to employees, which is necessary for efficient performance of
employees, but formal organizations do not provide them.
• Encourage better management. Managers accept the fact that a pure formal structure may not
lead to organizational efficiency.

Dysfunctions of informal organisations:-

• May be contrary to the purpose of the formal organization, especially when the goals of the
formal organization go against the goals of the organization.
• Reduce managers' productivity and control. Because of the impact of informal groups on the
behavior of members, managers have no control over the members and cannot predict the results.
• Reduce the number of actual substitutes. The solidarity of the development of informal groups
has strengthened their cohesiveness, thereby reducing the ability of managers to change workers'
• Increase the time needed to complete the activity. Informal work group behaviors such as chat,
consultation, long breaks, and e.t.c are time consuming and may delay the completion of tasks.
• Resist change. If change can affect informal groups, they will resist change. Therefore, assuming
that the change is functional, any conflict with the change is invalid.
• The source of rumors.
• Meet unacceptable standards.

Address personal strategies for dysfunctional workplaces: -

1. Hold and try to change this situation
2. Leave the organization
3. Keep silent
4. Keep and try the "best" system

Managing workplace dysfunction management strategies: -

1. There is no purpose only means.
2. Trust is the foundation for building a functional work environment.
3. Fairness does not always require the same treatment.
4. Need courage and perseverance to create and maintain a functional workplace.

I. Arnold Conflict Resolution Process:- The ten steps are as follow:

1. Specify conflict - based on identity, location and time.

2. Description - Content outside the conflict (ie identity, location, time).
3. Determine the difference to the conflict.
4. Test the reason for these differences.
5. Determine the values of each party and your own values.
6. Adopt a successful philosophy of opportunism.
7. Set standards - achieve / maintain / avoid.
8. Priority - Enter the "absolute" and "very desirable" criteria.
9. Generate a possible solution.
10. Evaluate and select the best resolution based on the criteria - test options.

II. Four Phase Organizational Change Process:-

1. Strategic direction setting
2. Prepare for assessment
3. Implementation
4. Evaluation

(a) Attitudes: Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
The main components of attitude: -
• Cognitive components: Attitudes or beliefs in attitudes.
• The effective part: The emotional or emotional part of attitude.
• Behavioural component: Intent to express someone or something in a certain way.
The main working attitude: -
• Job Satisfaction: Positively influences work by evaluating its characteristics.
• Job Engagement: A person identifies with the degree of work and actively participates in the
work, and considers that performance is of great importance to self-worth.
o Psychological empowerment: employees believe in the extent to which they influence their work
environment, their abilities, the significance of their work, and their autonomy in their work.
• Organizational Commitment: Employees agree with the level of specific organizations and their
goals, and want to maintain the membership of the organization.
• Perceived Organizational Support (POS): The extent to which employees think organizations
value their contributions and care about their well-being.
• Employee participation: Individuals' participation, satisfaction and enthusiasm for the work they
Satisfactory and dissatisfied employees' impact on the workplace: -
• Exit: Express dissatisfaction with the behavior of leaving the organization.
• Voice: Express dissatisfaction by improving conditions with positive and constructive attempts.
• Loyalty: Passively wait for conditions to improve expression of dissatisfaction.
• Ignore: Express dissatisfaction by making conditions worse.
• Job satisfaction and job performance: Happy workers are more likely to become productive sex
• Job satisfaction and OCB: Job satisfaction is moderately related to organizational citizenship
• Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction: For Front-line Employees: Satisfied Employees Can
Improve Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty
• Job satisfaction and absenteeism: There is a negative correlation between satisfaction and
absenteeism, but moderate to weak.
• Job satisfaction and turnover: Compared with absenteeism, the relationship between job
satisfaction and turnover is stronger.
• Job Satisfaction and Workplace Deviation: Job dissatisfaction and confrontational relationship
with colleagues predict that the organization finds undesired behavior.

Perception: The process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to
give them environmental meaning.

Factors that influence Perception

Human perception: making judgments on others
Attribution theory: Trying to determine whether an individual's behavior is caused by internal or
external factors. It depends on three factors:
1. Uniqueness
2. Consensus
3 consistency

The importance of perception: -

We need to understand what the role of perception in the organization is. This is very important
for building different cognitive roles, for example -

• Understand the tasks to perform.

• Understand the relative importance of assignment tasks.
• Understand preferred behavior to accomplish the appropriate task.
• Clarify role awareness.

Understanding personality types can help you understand your preferences and other people's
preferences and how or why they are preferred. Personality types are very useful for understanding
how we lead, influence, communicate, collaborate, negotiate business and manage pressure. It can
help our leadership style, resolve conflicts more effectively, communicate more effectively,
understand how others make decisions, mentor others, improve sales skills, and retain key

1. Use type in leadership

When leaders try to participate in and inspire others to accomplish organizational goals, they rely
on a wide range of capabilities. These include: Making wise decisions under ambiguous
conditions, communicating and pursuing a clear vision, establishing effective working
relationships, leveraging everyone's abilities, adapting to changes and tolerating change, and
tolerating healthy differences and conflicts.

2. Use type in conflict

Conflicts can describe many different types of interactions, but always people associate conflicts
with negative emotional conflicts. Conflicts may arise for many different reasons, but in the main
it seems that most conflicts result from lack of trust or when our values, beliefs or authority are
challenged. By emphasizing the root causes of conflict, we can better translate this negative energy
into positive results.

3. Use the type in communication

Communication is the key to successful business and personal interaction. You communicate with
others on many levels every day. Understanding, admiring and adapting individual differences in
communication style can enhance your ability to communicate effectively. This communication
advantage will increase your effectiveness as an employee, supervisor, trainer, coach, team
member, and/or leader.

4. Use the type in the decision

We are constantly bombarded with decision-making opportunities, whether we find them or put
them on us. By understanding your own type, you will learn more about your decision-making
process and, more importantly, how others handle decisions. This gives you the unique advantage
of working with others to make more balanced and effective decisions, while also reducing
conflicts in the decision-making process.

5. Use the type in coaching

This personal development process involves determining goals and setting a series of goals to help
achieve these goals. Coaches can be asked for help.

By understanding the type of coach you can help others in many different ways. Coaches can help
people explore and improve their self-awareness, discover advantages, understand and manage
development needs, and formulate career development and personal development strategies.

6. Use type in sales

Understanding types can play an important role in improving the efficiency of any sales team.
When you can understand your own types and the types of others, you can better understand and
appreciate the differences in communication styles. Once you understand the type and the different
types of decision-making, you can develop a more persuasive style of communication that takes
into account the information others need.

7. Use type reservation

The high turnover of any organization is expensive. Retaining key employees is important for the
bottom line of any organization. Companies that strive to manage and retain talent are often better
than those that do not. The retention of key employees is also related to higher customer and
employee satisfaction.