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F. Symbol for fluorine; the molecular formula is plex, especially if its exact chemical nature is un-
F2. known or if its function in cellular metabolism has
not been elucidated. Several of the B-complex vita-
F1. See filial generation. mins were originally referred to as factors until their
identity had been established by research. There are
F2. See filial generation. a number of blood-coagulation factors.
See Rh factor.
FAB. Abbreviation of fast atom bombardment.
facultative. See bacteria.
fabric. A textile structure composed of mechani-
cally interlocked fibers or filaments. It may be ran- facultative cells. Cells that can live in the pres-
domly integrated (nonwoven) or closely oriented by ence or absence of oxygen.
warp and filler strands at right angles to each other
(woven). While the word usually refers to wool, FAD. (flavin adenine dinucleotide). The coen-
cotton, or synthetic fibers, fabrics can also be made zyme of some redox enzymes. It contains riboflavin.
of glass fiber and graphite.
Fahrenheit. The scale of temperature in which
fabrication. The molding, forming, machining, 212 degrees is the boiling point of water at 760 mm
assembly, and finishing of metals, rubber, and plas- Hg and 32 degrees is the freezing point of water. The
tics into end-use products. In the paper industry, the scale was invented by a German physicist, G. D.
term converting is used in this sense. Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who introduced the use of
mercury instead of alcohol in thermometers. The
“Fabrikoid” [Du Pont]. TM for pyroxylin- entry for centigrade contains a method of converting
coated fabrics that are water-resistant and soap and from Fahrenheit to centigrade. The entry for abso-
water washable. lute temperature contains a method for converting
Use: Book binding, luggage. Fahrenheit to absolute Rankine.
See centigrade.
“Fabrilite” [Du Pont]. TM for vinyl-coated
fabrics and selected vinyl compounds without fabric falecalcitriol. See hexafluorocalcitriol.
Use: Pocketbooks, bags, upholstery, etc. fallout. Deposition on the earth of the radioactive
particles resulting from a nuclear explosion, e.g.,
“Fabrisoil” [Phillips]. TM for engineered strontium-90.
nonwoven fabric.
Use: Landfill daily cover. “Falone” [Uniroyal]. TM for tris(2,4-dichlo-
rophenoxyethyl) phosphite.
face-centered cubic structure. An internal Properties: Viscous, amber liquid. D 1.434, mp
crystal structure, determined by X rays, in which the 70–72C. Soluble in benzene, xylene and aromatic
equivalent points are at the corners of the unit cell hydrocarbons; insoluble in water; available as an
and at the centers of the six faces of a cube. emulsifiable concentration and a granular solid.
Use: A preemergence herbicide.
F acid. See Casella’s acid.
famphur. (famophos; (generic name for O,O-
facilitated diffusion. Diffusion of a molecule dimethyl-O-[p-(dimethylsulfa-
across a biological membrane via a protein trans- moyl)phenyl]phosphorothioate).
porter down a concentration gradient. Also called CAS: 52-85-7. (CH3O)2P(S)OC6H4SO2N(CH3)2.
passive diffusion. Properties: Crystalline powder. Mp 55C. Very solu-
ble in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride; slightly
factice. (vulcanized oil). A soft, mealy material soluble in water.
made by reaction of sulfur or sulfur chloride with a Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor, use may be re-
vegetable oil. stricted.
Use: Erasers, rubber goods (bath spray tubing, etc.) to Use: Insecticide.
give soft “hand.”
“Fanal” [BASF]. TM for phosphotungstic
factor. A term used chiefly by biochemists to lakes. Characterized by brilliancy of shade and good
indicate any member of a biologically active com- fastness to light.

Use: Printing inks. the only distinction being that fats are solid at room
temperature and oils are liquid. The term fat usually
faraday. The quantity of electricity that can depo- refers to triglycerides specifically, whereas lipid is
sit (or dissolve) one gram-equivalent weight of a all-inclusive.
substance during electrolysis (approximately See lipid.
96,500 coulombs).
fat dyes. Oil-soluble dyes for candles, wax, etc.
Faraday, Michael. (1791–1867). A native of
England, Faraday did more to advance the science of fatigue. Incremental weakening of a material as a
electrochemistry than any other scientist. A pro- result of repeated cycles of stresses that are far lower
found thinker and accurate experimentalist and ob- than its breaking load, ending in failure. For metals,
server, he was the first to propound correct ideas as to which the term usually refers, the number of low-
to the nature of electrical phenomena, not only in stress cycles may be of the order of 107. Failure is
chemistry but in other fields. His contributions to due to development of cumulative imperfections in
chemistry include the basic laws of electrolysis, the crystal structure, with consequent minute interi-
electrochemical decomposition (the basis of corro- or cracks. Gear failure is often caused by fatigue. It
sion of metals) of battery science, and electrometal- has been reported in experimental windmills for
lurgy. His work in physics led to the invention of the power generation in which steel blades have failed
dynamo. Faraday was in many respects the exemp- after a few hundred hours of operation due to centrif-
lar of a true scientist, combining meticulous effort ugal stress. In elastomeric materials, fatigue in-
and interpretive genius. volves complete dissipation of their resilient energy
by repeated cycles of low-order stresses.
farnesol. (generic name for 3,7,11-trimethyl-
2,6,10-dodecatrienol). fat liquoring agent. An oil-in-water emulsion
CAS: 4602-84-0. C15H25OH. usually made from raw oils such as neatsfoot, cod,
Properties: Colorless liquid; delicate floral odor. D etc., made soluble by dispersing agents such as sul-
0.885 (15C), bp 145–146C (3 mm Hg). Soluble in fonated oils.
three volumes of 70% alcohol. Combustible. Use: Leather processing to replace natural oils re-
Derivation: Found in nature in many flowers and moved from hides by tanning operations.
essential oils such as cassia, neroli, cananga, rose, See neatsfoot oil; emulsion.
balsams, ambrette seed.
Use: Perfumery, flavoring, insect hormone. fat splitting. See hydrolysis.

fast. (1) Descriptive of a dye or pigment whose fatty acid. A carboxylic acid derived from or
color is not impaired by prolonged exposure to light, contained in an animal or vegetable fat or oil. All
steam, high temperature, or other environmental fatty acids are composed of a chain of alkyl groups
conditions. Inorganic pigments are normally superi- containing from 4 to 22 carbon atoms (usually an
or in this respect to organic dyes. (2) In nuclear even number) and characterized by a terminal car-
technology, the term refers to neutrons moving at boxyl group −COOH. The generic formula for men-
the speed at which they emerge from a ruptured tioned acetic is CH3(CH2)xCOOH (the carbon atom
nucleus as opposed to “slow” or thermal neutrons count includes the carboxyl group). Fatty acids may
whose speed has been reduced by impinging on a be saturated or unsaturated (olefinic), and solid,
neutral substance called a moderator. Fast neutrons semisolid, or liquid. They are classed among the
are used in breeder reactors. lipids, together with soap and waxes. Saturated: A
fatty acid in which the carbon atoms of the alkyl
fast atom bombardment. (FAB). One of chain are connected by single bonds. The most im-
several techniques for ionizing solids from solu- portant of these are butyric (C4), lauric (C12), palmi-
tions. In FAB, a thin film of the dissolved solid to be tic (C16), and stearic (C18). They have a variety of
analyzed is bombarded with fast atoms. These dislo- special uses (see specific entry). Stearic acid leads
cate ions by impact; the ions are then analyzed by all other fatty acids in industrial use, primarily as a
mass spectroscopy. Peptide ions with molecular dispersing agent and accelerator activator in rubber
weight of approximately 6000 have been produced products and soaps. Unsaturated: A fatty acid in
and analyzed by this method. which there are one or more double bonds between
the carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. These acids are
fastogen super magneta r. See 2,9-dime- usually vegetable derived and consist of alkyl chains
thylquinacridone. containing 18 or more carbon atoms with the charac-
teristic end group −COOH. Most vegetable oils are
fat. A glyceryl ester of higher fatty acids such as mixtures of several fatty acids or their glycerides;
stearic and palmitic. Such esters and their mixtures the unsaturation accounts for the broad chemical
are solids at room temperature and exhibit crystal- utility of these substances, especially of drying oils.
line structure. Lard and tallow are examples. There The most common unsaturated acids are oleic, lin-
is no chemical difference between a fat and an oil, oleic, and linolenic (all C18). Safflower oil is high in

linoleic acid, peanut oil contains 21% linoleic acid, of carbons in each. The length varies from 8 to 22
olive oil is 38% oleic acid, palmitoleic acid is abun- carbon atoms.
dant in fish oils. Aromatic fatty acids are now avail- Derivation: Fatty acids are treated with ammonia
able. and heated to form fatty acid amides which are
See phenylstearic acid. converted to nitriles and reduced to the amine.
Note: Linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids are Use: Organic bases, soaps, plasticizers, tire cords,
called essential fatty acids by biochemists because fabric softeners, water-resistant asphalt, hair condi-
such acids are necessary nutrients that are not syn- tioners, cosmetics, medicinals.
thesized in the animal body.
Use: Special soaps, heavy-metal soap, lubricants, fatty ester. A fatty acid with the active hydrogen
paints and lacquers (drying oils), candles, salad oil, replaced by the alkyl group of a monohydric alco-
shortening, synthetic detergents, cosmetics, emulsi- hol. The esterification of a fatty acid, RCOOH, by an
fiers. alcohol, R′OH, yields the fatty ester RCOOR′. The
most common alcohol used is methanol, yielding the
fatty acid enol ester. A fatty acid reacted with methyl ester RCOOCH3. The methyl esters of fatty
enolic form of acetone for the purpose of increasing acids have higher vapor pressures than the corre-
the chemical reactivity of the acid. Stearic acid (18- sponding acids and are distilled more easily.
carbon) combined with acetone (3-carbon) gives
isopropenyl stearate (21-carbon). This is effective in fatty nitrile. (RCN). An organic cyanide de-
making the fatty stearoyl group available for synthe- rived from a fatty acid.
sis of polymers, medicinals, and the like. Derivation: Fatty acids are treated with ammonia
See fatty ester. and heated to form fatty acid amides, which are
converted to nitriles.
fatty acid pitch. A by-product residue from (1) Use: Intermediates for fatty amines, lubricating oil
soap stock and candle stock manufacture; (2) refin- additives, plasticizers.
ing of vegetable oils; (3) refining of refuse greases;
and (4) refining of wool grease. faujasite. Na2CaO•Al2O3•5SiO2•10H2O. A min-
Properties: Dark-brown to black. Properties anal- eral.
gous to complex hydrocarbons, contains fixed car- Use: Zeolite; molecular sieve.
bon (5–35%), soluble in naphtha and carbon disul-
fide. Favorskii-Babayan synthesis. Synthesis of
Use: Manufacture of black paints and varnishes, acetylenic alcohols from ketones and terminal acet-
tarred papers, printers’ rolls, rubber filing agent, ylenes in the presence of anhydrous alkali.
impregnating agent, electrical insulations, marine
caulking, waterproofing, sealant. Favorskii rearrangement. Base-catalyzed
rearrangement of ␣-haloketones to acids or esters.
fatty alcohol. A primary alcohol (from C8 to The rearrangement of ␣,␣′-dibromocyclohexanones
C20), usually straight chain. High molecular weight to 1-hydroxycyclopentanecarboxylic acids, fol-
alcohols are produced synthetically by the Oxo and lowed by oxidation to the ketones, is known as the
Ziegler processes. Those from C8 to C11 are oily Wallach degradation.
liquids; those greater than C11 are solids. Other meth-
ods of production are (1) reduction of vegetable seed FBR. Abbreviation for fast breeder reactor.
oils and their fatty acids with sodium; (2) catalytic See breeder.
hydrogenation at elevated temperatures and pres-
sures; and (3) hydrolysis of spermaceti and sperm oil FCC. (1) Abbreviation for Food Chemicals Co-
by saponification and vacuum fractional distillation. dex, a publication giving specifications and test
The more important commercial saturated alcohols methods for chemicals used in foods. (2) Abbrevia-
are octyl, decyl, lauryl, myristyl, cetyl, and stearyl. tion for fluid-cracking catalyst as used in the petrole-
The commercially important unsaturated alcohols, um refining industry. Examples are powdered silica
such as oleyl, linoleyl, and linolenyl, are also nor- alumina, in which alumina is impregnated with dry
mally included in this group. The odor tends to synthetic silica gel, and various natural clays im-
disappear as the chain length increases. pregnated with alumina.
Use: Solvent for fats, waxes, gums, and resins; phar-
maceutical salves and lotions; lubricating-oil addi- FDA. Abbreviation for Food and Drug Adminis-
tives; detergents and emulsifiers; textile antistatic tration.
and finishing agents; plasticizers; nonionic surfac-
tants; cosmetics. FD&C color. A series of colorants permitted in
food products, marking inks, etc., certified by the
fatty amine. A normal aliphatic amine derived FDA. Among the more important are the following:
from fats and oils. May be saturated or unsaturated, Blue No. 1: disodium salt of 4-((4-(N-ethyl-p-sulfo-
and primary, secondary, or tertiary, but the alkyl benzylamino)-phenyl)-(2-sulfoniumphenyl)-meth-
groups are straight chain and have an even number ylene)-(1-(N-ethyl-N-p-sulfobenzyl)-⌬2,5-cyclohex-
551 FELT

adienimine). Blue No. 2: disodium salt of 5,5′- ly weighs the material passing over it. These are
indigotin disulfonic acid. Green No. 3: disodium salt used in operations that are not suitable for volumet-
of 4-((4-(N-ethyl-p-sulfobenzylamino)-phenyl-(4- ric feed.
hydroxy-2-sulfonium phenyl)-methylene)-(1-(N-
ethyl-N-p-sulfobenzyl))-⌬2,3-cyclohexadienimine). feedstock. Gaseous or liquid petroleum-derived
Green No. 6: 1,4-di-p-toluidinoanthraquinone. Red hydrocarbons or mixture of hydrocarbons from
No. 2: trisodium salt of 1-(4-sulfo-1-naphthylazo)- which gasoline, fuel oil, and petrochemicals are
2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid. Formerly the largest produced by thermal or catalytic cracking. It is also
volume food color in commercial use. A carcinogen. called charging stock. Feedstocks commonly used
Use prohibited by FDA. Red No. 40 is currently a include ethane, propane, butane, butene, benzene,
permissible substitute. Red No. 3: disodium salt of toluene, xylene, naphtha, and gas oils.
isoxanthone (erythrosin). Red No. 4: disodium salt FEFO. See formaldehyde bis(2-fluoro-2,2-dini-
of 2-(5-sulfo-2,4-xylylazo)-naphthyl-4-sulfonic troethyl) acetal.
acid. Use in foods prohibited by FDA. Violet No. 1:
monosodium salt of 4-((N-ethyl-p-sulfobenzylami- Fehling’s solution. A reagent used as a test for
no)-phenyl)-(4(N-ethyl-p-sulfoniumbenzylamino)- sugars, aldehydes, etc. It consists of two solutions,
phenyl)-methylene)-(N,N-dimethyl-⌬2,5-cyclohex- copper sulfate and alkaline tartrate, which are mixed
adienimine). Use prohibited by FDA in 1973 and by just before use. Benedict’s modification is a one-
USDA in 1976. Yellow No. 5: trisodium salt of 3- solution preparation. Additional details are avail-
carboxy-5-hydroxy-1-p-sulfophenyl-4-sulfopheny- able in the Book of Methods, Association of Official
lazopyrazole. Yellow No. 6: disodium salt of 1-p- Analytical Chemists.
sulfophenylazo-2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid.
See food color; food additive. Feist-Benary synthesis. Formation of furans
from ␣-halogeno ketones or ethers and 1,3-dicarbo-
Fe. Symbol for iron. nyl compounds in the presence of pyridine. With
ammonia as condensing agent, pyrrole derivatives
feathers. See keratin. are always formed as secondary products.

Federal Trade Commission. (FTC). The felbamate.

Federal Trade Commission enforces a variety of CAS: 25451-15-4. mf: C11H14N2O4.
federal antitrust and consumer protection laws. The Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion. Human systemic
Commission seeks to ensure that the nation’s mar- effects.
kets function competitively, and are vigorous, effi-
cient, and free of undue restrictions. The Commis- feldspar. (potassium aluminosilicate). General
sion also works to enhance the smooth operation of name for a group of sodium, potassium, calcium,
the marketplace by eliminating acts or practices that and barium aluminum silicates. Commercially,
are unfair or deceptive. It main office is located at feldspar usually refers to the potassium feldspars
600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. with the formula KAlSi3O8, usually with a little sodi-
20580. Website: um. Noncombustible.
Occurrence: North Carolina, Colorado, New Hamp-
feedback inhibition. Inhibition of an allosteric shire, South Dakota, California, Arizona, Wyoming,
enzyme at the beginning of a metabolic sequence by Virginia, Texas.
the end product of the sequence. Grade: Usually based on silicon dioxide content,
potassium-sodium ratio, iron content, and fineness
feeder. An accessory equipment unit that pro- of grinding.
vides controlled flow of materials of a wide range of Hazard: Toxic as fine-ground powder.
particulate sizes to or from processing operations. Use: Pottery, enamel, and ceramic ware; glass; soaps;
Major types include the following: (1) Vibratory: an abrasive; bond for abrasive wheels; cements and
enclosed bowl or open trough, activated electromag- concretes; insulating compositions; fertilizer; poul-
netically, that vibrates at a constant rate of 3600 try grit; tarred roofing materials.
oscillations a minute (electromechanical, hydraulic,
and pneumatic types are also used). Capacities are felsic rock. A silicon-rich igneous rock that con-
up to 2000 lb/hr. The bowl type is applicable to tains only a small percentage of iron and magne-
large-size units of materials up to several inches in sium. Granite is the most abundant example. Felsic
diameter (wood, plastics, ceramics, etc.). (2) Volu- rocks dominate the crusts of continents.
metric: an enclosed device that meters a particulate
by volume; there are a number of types, including felt. A compressed, porous, nonwoven fabric usu-
the rotary lock, the helix, and the roll. Bulk density, ally made of wool and used as a vibration damper
particle size, and moisture content of the material and caulking agent. Its moisture-absorbing property
handled are important factors. (3) Gravimetric: a is utilized in the drying section of fourdrinier ma-
belt conveyor provided with a scale that continuous- chines.
FEMA 552

FEMA. See Flavor Extract Manufacturers Asso- fenitrothion. [O,O-diemthyl-O-(3-methyl-4-ni-

ciation. trophenyl)phosphorothioate].
CAS: 122-14-5. C9H12NO5PS.
femto-. Prefix meaning one-quadrillionth (10−15). Properties: Yellow, oily liquid. Bp 118C (0.05 mm
Laser pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds have been Hg), d 1.322, refr index 1.552. Insoluble in water;
produced. soluble in most organic solvents except aliphatics.
Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor, use may be re-
fenac. (2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid).
Use: Insecticide.
CAS: 85-34-7.
Use: Herbicide.
fenitrothion-malathion mixture.
CAS: 8067-98-9. mf: C10H19O6PS2•C9H12NO5PS.
fenamidone. Hazard: Human systemic effects.
CAS: 161326-34-7. mf: C17H17N3OS.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con-
tact. Low toxicity by inhalation. Fenn, John B. (1917– ). An American born in
Use: Agricultural chemical. New York City who won the Nobel Prize for chem-
istry in 2002 for his pioneering work concerning for
fenamiphos. (ethyl-3-methyl-4-(methylthio) the development of methods for identification and
structure analyses of biological macromolecules.
phenyl(1-methylethyl) phosphoramide).
Awarded an undergraduate degree from Berea Col-
CAS: 22224-92-6. C13H22NO3PS.
lege and Allied Schools, and a Ph.D. from Yale
Properties: Tan, waxy solid. Mw 303.4, mp 49.2C
University. He was a long-time Professor at Prince-
(pure) 40C (tech). Soluble in organic solvents;
ton University.
slightly soluble in water.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and skin contact. TLV:
0.1 mg/m3; not classifiable as a human carcinogen. fenoprop. See silvex.
Use: Nematocide and insecticide.
“Fenox” [Regal]. TM for a flowable system
fenchone. fungicide.
CAS: 1195-79-5. C10H16O. Use: Controls disease caused by Oomycete class of
Properties: Oil with camphorlike odor. D 0.9465 fungi.
(19C), bp 193C. Soluble in ether; insoluble in water.
Combustible. fenpropidine.
Derivation: A ketone found (1) as dextrofenchone in CAS: 67306-00-7. mf: C19H31N.
oil of fennel; (2) as levofenchone in oil of thuja. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation,
Use: Flavoring. and skin contact.

fenchyl alcohol. (fenchol; 2-fenchanol; 1-hy- fenprostalene.

droxyfenchane). CAS: 69381-94-8. mf: C23H30O6.
CAS: 512-13-0. C10H18O. Use: Drug (veterinary); food additive.

CAS: 55512-33-9. mf: C19H23ClN2O2S.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con-
Use: Agricultural chemical.

fenson. (p-chlorophenyl benzene sulfonate;

Properties: Colorless, oily liquid (d and l forms) or murvesco).
solid (dl form). D approximately 0.96, bp 201C, mp CAS: 80-38-6. ClC6H4OSO2C6H5.
39C, refr index 1.473. Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 61–62C. Soluble
Derivation: Pine oil, fennel oil, also made syntheti- in organic solvents; insoluble in water.
cally. Use: Acaricide.
Use: Solvent, organic intermediate, odorant, fla-
voring. fensulfothion. (O,O-diethyl-O-[p-(methylsulfi-
fenhexamid. CAS: 115-90-2. C11H17O4PS2.
CAS: 126833-17-8. mf: C14H17Cl2NO2. Properties: Liquid. Bp 138C (0.01 mm Hg).
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, and Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor. TLV: 0.1 mg/m3;
skin contact. not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
Use: Agricultural chemical. Use: Insecticide, especially for nematocide control.

fenthion. (generic name for O,O-diethyl-O-[4- TLV: 10 mg/m3; not classifiable as a human carcin-
(methylthio)-m-tolyl]phosphorothioate (generic)). ogen.
CAS: 55-38-9. (CH3O)2P(S)OC6H3(CH3)SCH3. Use: Fungicide.
Properties: Brown liquid. Bp 105C (0.01 mm Hg).
Insoluble in water; soluble in most organic solvents. “Fermate” [Du Pont]. (ferric diethyl dithio-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin carbamate). TM for a wettable powder containing
absorption; use may be restricted, cholinesterase 76% ferbam.
inhibitor. TLV: 0.2 mg/m3, toxic by skin absorption; Use: Fruit fungicide.
not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
Use: Insecticide, acaricide. fermentation. A chemical change induced by a
living organism or enzyme, specifically bacteria or
fenticlor. (2,2′-thiobis(4-chlorophenol); novex). the microorganisms occurring in unicellular plants
C12H8Cl2O2S. such as yeast, molds, or fungi. The reaction usually
Properties: Acicular crystals. Mp 170C. Soluble in involves the decomposition of sugars and starches to
alcohol, hot benzene, and sodium hydroxide solu- ethanol and carbon dioxide, the acidulation of milk,
tion. or the oxidation of nitrogenous organic compounds.
Derivation: Cholorination of bis(2-hydroxyphen- The basic reaction is catalyst C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH +
yl)sulfide. 2CO2 Enzymes are usually involved in such reac-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. tions; with yeast, the effective enzyme is zymase.
Use: Fungicide. Fermentation is essential in the preparation of
breads and other food products and in the manufac-
Fenton reaction. Oxidation of ␣-hydroxy acids ture of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages, as
with hydrogen peroxide and ferrous salts (Fenton’s well as of citric acid, gluconic acid, sodium gluco-
reagent) to ␣-keto acids or of 1,2-glycols to hydroxy nate, and synthetic biopolymers. Much of the indus-
aldehydes. trial alcohol used in the U.S. is made by fermenta-
tion of blackstrap molasses, a by-product of sugar
Fenton’s reagent. A solution of sulfuric acid manufacture. Antibiotics are produced by various
and a ferrous salt. forms of microorganisms active in molds, especially
Use: Oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. bacteria and actinomycetes. The activated sludge
process for sewage digestion is a form of fermenta-
fenuron. (generic name for 3-phenyl-1,1-di- tion. A continuous fermentation process for deriving
methylurea). edible protein from petroleum has been introduced.
CAS: 101-42-8. C6H5NHCON(CH3)2. Fermentation is also used in making synthetic amino
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 127–129C. acids. Research in this field is being directed toward
Almost insoluble in water (0.3% at 25C), sparingly conversion of agricultural, urban, and animal wastes
soluble in hydrocarbon solvents, stable toward oxi- to fuels by fermentation processes.
dation and moisture. See yeast; sewage sludge; antibiotics; bacteria; bio-
Use: Weed and brush killer. technology.

fenvalerate. (cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl- fermentation alcohol. See ethanol.

CAS: 51630-58-1. Fermi, Enrico. (1901–1954). An Italian physi-
Use: Insecticide. cist who later became a U.S. citizen. He developed a
statistical approach to fundamental problems of
fenylfosfin. See phenylphosphine. physical chemistry based on Pauli’s exclusion prin-
ciple. He discovered induced or artificial radioactiv-
FEP resin. Abbreviation for fluorinated ethyle- ity resulting from neutron impingement, as well as
nepropylene resin. slow or thermal neutrons. He was professor of phys-
ics at Columbia (1939) and awarded the Nobel Prize
ferbam. (generic name for ferric dimethyldi- in physics in 1938. He was the first to achieve a
thiocarbamate). controlled nuclear chain reaction, directed the con-
CAS: 14484-64-1. [(CH3)2NCSS]3Fe. struction of the first nuclear reactor at the University
Properties: Black or dark-colored, fluffy powder. of Chicago (1942), and worked on the atomic bomb
Decomposes above 180C. Usually readily dispersi- at Los Alamos. He also carried on fundamental re-
ble but very slightly soluble in water; pH of saturat- search on subatomic particles using sophisticated
ed solution 5.0. statistical techniques. Element 100 (fermium) is
Derivation: By addition of carbon disulfide to an named after him.
alcoholic solution of dimethylamine and precipita-
tion with a ferric salt. fermium. (Fm). Element 100, aw 254, valence
Grade: 76% wettable powder, 87% technical of 3, half-life 3 h. A synthetic radioactive element
powder. with atomic number 100 discovered in 1952. Fermi-
Hazard: Irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. um has since been prepared in a nuclear reactor by

irradiating californium, plutonium, or einsteinium ferric ammonium oxalate. (iron ammonium

with neutrons in a cyclotron; by bombarding urani- oxalate; ammonioferric oxalate).
um with accelerated oxygen ions; and by other nu- CAS: 14221-47-7. (NH4)3Fe(C2O4)3•3H2O.
clear reactions. The element is named for Enrico Properties: Green crystals. Soluble in water and al-
Fermi. It has chemical properties similar to those of cohol; sensitive to light.
the rare earth erbium. Isotopes are known with mass Derivation: Interaction of ammonium binoxalate
numbers 254, 255, and 256. and ferric hydroxide.
Use: Tracer studies. Hazard: Irritant to skin and mucous membranes.
See actinide element. Use: Blueprint photography.

Ferrario reaction. Formation of phenoxathiins ferric ammonium sulfate. (iron ammonium

by cyclization of diphenyl ethers with sulfur in the sulfate; ferric ammonium alum; ammonio ferric
presence of aluminum chloride. sulfate). FeNH4(SO4)2•12H2O.
Properties: Lilac to violet, efflorescent crystals. D
ferrate. See ferrite (2). 1.71, mp 39–41C, bp loses 12H2O at 230C. Soluble
in water; insoluble in alcohol.
Derivation: By mixing solutions of ferric sulfate and
ferredoxin. An iron-containing protein thought ammonium sulfate followed by evaporation and
to be involved in photosynthesis as an acceptor of crystallization.
energy-rich electrons from chlorophyll. It occurs in Use: Medicine, analytical chemistry, textile dyeing
green plants and in bacteria that metabolize elemen- (mordant).
tal hydrogen.
ferric arsenate.
ferric acetate, basic. (iron acetate, basic). CAS: 10102-49-5. FeAsO4•2H2O.
Fe(C2H3O2)2OH. Properties: Green or brown powder. D 3.18, decom-
Properties: Red powder. Soluble in alcohol and poses on heating. Insoluble in water; soluble in di-
acids; insoluble in water. Combustible. lute mineral acids. Nonflammable.
Derivation: Action of acetic acid on ferric hydrox- Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
ide, with subsequent crystallization. irritant.
Use: Mordant in dyeing textiles, wood preservative, Use: Insecticide.
ferric arsenite.
ferric acetylacetonate. CAS: 63989-69-5. 2FeAsO3•Fe2O3•5H2O. A basic
Fe[OC(CH3):CHC(O)CH3]3. salt of variable composition.
Properties: Crystalline powder. Mp 179–182C. Properties: Brownish-yellow powder. Soluble in
Slightly soluble in water; soluble in most organic acids; insoluble in water. Nonflammable.
solvents, resistant to hydrolysis, a chelating nonion- Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
izing compound. Combustible. irritant.
Use: Moderating and combustion catalyst, solid fuel Use: Combined with ammonium citrate (ferric am-
catalyst, bonding agent, curing accelerator, interme- monium citrate) and used in medicine.
ferric bromide. (ferric tribromide; iron bro-
ferric ammonium alum. See ferric ammo- mide).
nium sulfate. CAS: 10031-26-2. FeBr3.
Properties: Dark-red, deliquescent crystals. Mp
ferric ammonium citrate. (iron ammonium (sublimes). Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether.
citrate). Derivation: By the action of bromine on iron filings.
Properties: Thin, transparent, garnet-red scales or Use: Bromination catalyst.
granules or a brownish-yellow powder; odorless (or
slight ammonia odor); saline, mildly ferruginous ferric chloride, anhydrous. (ferric trichlo-
taste. Deliquescent, affected by light. Soluble in ride; ferric perchloride; iron chloride, iron tri-
water; insoluble in alcohol. Combustible. chloride, iron perchloride).
Derivation: Addition of citric acid to ferric hydrox- CAS: 7705-08-0. FeCl3.
ide, addition of ammonium hydroxide, followed by Properties: Black-brown solid. D 2.898 (25C), mp
filtration. 306C (partly decomposes), bp 319C. Soluble in wa-
Grade: Technical. ter, alcohol, glycerol, methanol, and ether. Noncom-
Use: Medicine, blueprint photography, feed additive. bustible.
Derivation: Action of chlorine on ferrous sulfate or
ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. chloride.
CAS: 25869-00-5. mf: C6FeN6•Fe•H4N. Grade: Anhydrous 96%; 42 degrees Bé solution,
Hazard: Low toxicity. photographic and sewage grades.

Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, strong irritant to skin ferrichrome. C27H42FeN9O12. A cyclic iron che-
and tissue. late compound.
Use: Treatment of sewage and industrial wastes; Properties: Yellow needles. Soluble in water and
etching agent for engraving, photography, and print- methanol; slightly soluble in alcohol, acetone, and
ed circuitry; condensation catalyst in Friedel-Crafts chloroform.
reactions; mordant; oxidizing, chlorinating, and Derivation: Isolated from rust fungus in 1952, syn-
condensing agent; disinfectant; pigment; feed addi- thesized in 1969.
tive; water purification. Use: Growth-promoting factor in medicine.

ferric chromate. (iron chromate). Fe2(CrO4)3. ferric hydroxide. (ferric hydrate; iron hy-
Properties: Yellow powder. Soluble in acids (espe- droxide; iron hydrate; iron oxide, hydrated; fer-
cially hydrochloric) insoluble in water and alcohol. ric oxide, hydrated). Fe(OH)3.
Derivation: By adding sodium chromate to a solu- Properties: Brown flocculant precipitate that dries
tion of a ferric salt. as the oxide. D 3.4–3.9, mp loses water at approxi-
Hazard: Carcinogenic. Toxic by ingestion and inha- mately 500C. Soluble in acids; insoluble in water,
lation. Strong irritant. Moderate fire risk by reaction alcohol, and ether. Noncombustible.
with reducing agents. Derivation: Addition of ferrous sulfate solution to
Use: Metallurgy, ceramics (color), paint pigment. ammonia solution.
Use: Water purification, manufacturing pigments,
ferric citrate. (iron citrate). rubber pigment, catalyst.
CAS: 2338-05-8. FeC6H5O7•5H2O.
Properties: Reddish-brown scales. Keep away from ferric hypophosphite. (iron hypophosphite).
light. Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol. Fe(H2PO2)3.
Derivation: By the action of citric acid on ferric Properties: White or grayish-white powder;
hydroxide and crystallization. odorless; tasteless. Slightly soluble in water; more
Use: Medicine, blueprint paper. soluble in boiling water.
Hazard: Explosion may occur if triturated or heated
ferric dichromate. (iron dichromate; ferric with nitrates, chlorates, or other oxidizing agents.
bichromate). Fe2(Cr2O7)3.
Properties: Reddish-brown granules. Soluble in wa- ferric naphthenate.
ter and acids. Properties: A heavy-metal soap. Combustible.
Derivation: By heating aqueous chromic acid and Derivation: Fusion method by heating naphthenic
moist ferric hydroxide. acids with the metallic oxide.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and ingestion, strong Use: Conditioning and waterproofing agent, sludge
irritant. Moderate fire risk by reaction with reducing preventive, fungicide, and paint drier.
agents. See soap (2).
Use: Preparation of pigments.

ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate. See ferric nitrate. (iron nitrate).

ferbam. CAS: 10421-48-4. Fe(NO3)3•9H2O.
Properties: Violet crystals. D 1.684, mp 47.2C, de-
ferric ferrocyanide. (iron ferrocyanide; composes at 125C. Soluble in water and alcohol.
Prussian blue). Blue pigment described under iron Derivation: Action of concentrated nitric acid on
blue. scrap iron or iron oxide and crystallization.
Hazard: Dangerous fire risk in contact with organic
ferric fluoride. (iron fluoride). materials. Strong oxidant and irritant.
CAS: 7783-50-8. FeF3. Use: Dyeing (mordant for buffs and blacks), tanning,
Properties: Green crystals. D 3.52. Soluble in dilute analytical chemistry.
hydrogen fluoride; insoluble in alcohol and ether.
Hazard: Strong irritant. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3. ferric octoate. See soap (2).
Use: Ceramics (porcelain, pottery), catalyst.
ferric oleate. (iron oleate). Fe(C18H33O2)3.
ferric fluoroborate. Properties: Brownish-red lumps. Soluble in alcohol,
Use: Rebuilding of worn iron parts, such as cylinders, ether, and acids; insoluble in water. Combustible.
stereotypes, and electrotypes; plating of solder iron See soap (2).
ferric oxalate. Fe2(C2O4)3.
ferric glycerophosphate. (iron glycerophos- Properties: Pale-yellow amorphous scales or pow-
phate). Fe2[C3H5(OH)2PO4]3•xH2O. der; odorless. Decomposes on heating to 100C. Sol-
Properties: Yellowish scales; odorless; nearly tas- uble in water and acids; insoluble in alkali. Combus-
teless. Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol. tible.
Use: Pharmaceuticals. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.

Use: Catalyst in making O2, silvertone photographic ferric sodium pyrophosphate. See sodium
printing papers. ferric pyrophosphate.

ferric oxide. (ferric oxide, red; iron oxide; ferric stearate. (iron stearate). Fe(C18H35O2)3.
red iron trioxide; ferric trioxide). Properties: Light-brown powder. Soluble in alcohol
CAS: 1309-37-1. Fe2O3. and ether; insoluble in water. Combustible.
Properties: Dense, dark-red powder or lumps. D Derivation: Interaction of solutions of ferric sulfate
5.12–5.24, mp 1565C. Soluble in acids; insoluble in and sodium stearate.
water. Use: Varnish driers, photocopying.
Grade: Technical, 99.5% pure, electronic. See soap (2).
Use: Metallurgy, gas purification, paint and rubber
pigment, component of thermite, polishing com- ferric sulfate. (iron sulfate; ferric trisulfate;
pounds, mordant, laboratory reagent, catalyst (p-hy- iron tersulfate; iron persulfate).
drogen), feed additive, electronic pigments for TV, CAS: 10028-22-5. (1) Fe2(SO4)3, (2)
permanent magnets, memory cores for computers, Fe2(SO4)3•9H2O.
magnetic tapes. Properties: Yellow crystals or grayish-white pow-
See iron oxide reds. der. D (1) 3.097, (2) 2.0–2.1, mp decomposes at
480C, (1) slightly soluble in water, (2) very soluble
ferric perchloride. See ferric chloride. in water. Keep well closed and protected from light.
Derivation: By adding sulfuric acid to ferric hy-
ferric phosphate. (iron phosphate). droxide.
CAS: 10045-86-0. FePO4•2H2O. Grade: Technical, CP, partly hydrated.
Properties: Yellowish-white powder. D 2.87. Insol- Use: Pigments, reagent, etching aluminum, disinfec-
uble in water; soluble in acids. tant, textiles (dyeing and calico printing), flocculant
Derivation: By adding a solution of sodium phos- in water and sewage purification, soil conditioner,
phate to a solution of ferric chloride. The product is polymerization catalyst, metal pickling, chelated
filtered and then dried. iron products, intermediate.
Use: Fertilizers, feed and food additive.
ferric tallate. See soap (2).
ferric pyrophosphate. (iron pyrophosphate).
CAS: 10058-44-3. Fe4(P2O7)3•xH2O. ferric tannate. (iron tannate; iron gallotan-
Properties: Yellowish-white powder. Insoluble in nate). Fe2(C14H7O9)(OH)3.
water; soluble in dilute acid. Contains 24% iron min, Properties: Dark-brown or bluish-black powder.
not to be confused with ferric pyrophosphate, sol- Variable composition. Soluble in alkalies and dilute
uble. acids; insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Com-
Use: Source of nutritional iron, catalyst, pigments, bustible.
flame- retardant. Derivation: Interaction of ferric acetate and tannic
acid solutions.
ferric pyrophosphate, soluble. A combina- Use: Medicine.
tion of ferric pyrophosphate and sodium citrate.
Properties: Apple-green crystals. Very soluble in ferric tribromide. See ferric bromide.
water; insoluble in alcohol. Protect from light, 11%
iron. ferric trichloride. See ferric chloride.
Use: Feed additive.
ferric trioxide. See ferric oxide.
ferric resinate. (iron resinate).
Properties: Reddish-brown powder. Soluble in lig- ferric trisulfate. See ferric sulfate.
roin, carbon disulfide, ether, oil of turpentine; slight-
ly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in water. ferric vanadate. (iron metavanadate).
Use: Drier (paints, varnish). Fe(VO3)3.
See soap (2). Properties: Grayish-brown powder. Soluble in
acids; insoluble in water and alcohol. Noncombust-
ferric sodium oxalate. (iron sodium oxa- ible.
late). Na3Fe(C2O4)3•5.5H2O. Derivation: By adding a solution of a ferric salt to the
Properties: Emerald-green crystals, decomposed by liquor obtained by leaching vanadium ores with
heat or light. D 1.973 (18C), decomposes at 300C, caustic-soda solution or by lixivating the slags ob-
protect from light. Soluble in water and alcohol. tained when vanadium ores are fused with soda ash,
Derivation: By the interaction of sodium acid oxa- etc.
late and ferric hydroxide. Grade: Technical.
Use: Photography, blueprinting. Use: Metallurgy.

ferric versenate. See iron(III)-edta complex.

ferrite. (1) Iron in the body-centered cubic form;

commonly occurs in steels, cast iron, and pig iron at
approximately 910C. ␣ and ␤ iron are the common
varieties of ferrite, and the name is also applied to ⌬
iron. (2) A compound, a multiple oxide, of ferric
oxide with another oxide, as sodium ferrite, NaFeO2,
but more commonly a multiple oxide crystal. Fer-
rites are made by dissolving hydrated ferric oxide in Properties: Orange, crystalline solid; camphorlike
concentrated alkali solution; by fusing ferric oxide odor. Mp 173–174C; resists pyrolysis at 400C. In-
with alkali metal chloride, carbonate, or hydroxide; soluble in water; soluble in benzene, ether, and alco-
or by simply heating metal oxides with ferric oxide. hol. Iron content 29.4–30.6%.
Ceramic ferrites are made by press-forming pow- Derivation: From ferrous chloride and cyclopenta-
dered ingredients (with a binder) into a sheet, then diene sodium.
sintering or firing. Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Evolves toxic products
Use: The oxide ferrites in rectifiers on memory and on decomposition and heating.
record tapes, for permanent magnets, semiconduc- Use: Additive to fuel oils to improve efficiency of
tors, insulating materials, dielectrics, high-frequen- combustion and eliminate smoke, antiknock agent,
cy components, and various related uses in radio, catalyst, coating for missiles and satellites, high-
television, radar, computers, and automatic control temperature lubricant, intermediate for high-tem-
systems. perature polymers, UV absorber.
See metallocene.

ferro-alloy. An alloy of iron with some element ferrocenecarboxylic acid ethyl ester. See
other than carbon used as a vehicle for introducing ethyl ferrocenoate.
such an element into steel during its manufacture.
The element may alloy with the steel by solution or 1,1′-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid diethyl
as the carbide, neutralize the harmful impurities by ester. See 1,1′-diethyl ferrocenoate.
combining with them, and separating from the steel
as flux or slag before solidification. 1,1′-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl
ester. See dimethyl ferrocenoate.

ferroboron. A ferro-alloy used as a hardening 1,1′-ferrocenediyl dichlorosilane.

agent in special steels. It also is an efficient deoxi- (C5H5)2FeSiCl2. An experimental ferrocene deriv-
dizer. Boron steel is used in controlling the operat- ative that prevents oxidative deterioration of the
ing rate of nuclear reactors. Two grades are avail- surfaces of photoelectrodes with which it is in con-
able, 10 and 17% boron. tact. It increases the stability of light-sensitive elec-
trodes in energy-conversion reactions occurring in
liquid media.
“Ferrocarbo” [Carborundum]. TM for bri- ferrocenoyl chloride. See chlorocarbonyl
quetted or granular silicon carbide. ferrocene.
Use: Cupola addition in the production of gray iron or
as a ladle addition to steel. Decomposes into its ferrocenoyl dichloride. See 1,1′-dichlorocar-
component elements and acts as a powerful deoxi- bonyl ferrocene.
dizer and graphitizer. Machinability and strength of
the iron or steel are increased with no loss of ferrocenylborane polymer.
hardness. Properties: Long-term heat resistance at 315C,
short-term stability approximately 815C, good re-
sistance to oxidation and hydrolysis, contains up to
ferrocene. (dicyclopentadienyliron). (C5H5)2Fe. 30% iron directly combined.
A coordination compound of ferrous iron and two Use: Specialty plastics, coatings, fibers; ablative ma-
molecules of cyclopentadiene in which the organic terial for space vehicles.
portions have typically aromatic chemical proper-
ties. Its activity is intermediate between phenol and ferrocenyl methyl ketone. See acetylferro-
anisole. The first compound shown to have the cene.
“sandwich” structure found in certain types of me-
tallocene molecules. Two structures of ferrocene are ferrocerium. A pyrophoric alloy of iron and
shown below: misch metal.

ferrochromium. (ferrochrome). An alloy, molybdenum to steel. Engineering steels rarely con-

composed principally of iron and chromium, used as tain more than 1% molybdenum, stainless steels
a means of adding chromium to steels (low, medi- may contain 3%, and tool steels as much as 10%.
um, and high-carbon) and cast iron. Available in Ferromolybdenum is available in several grades in
several classifications and grades, generally con- which molybdenum ranges from 55 to 75% and the
taining between 60 and 70% chromium, in crushed maximum carbon content is 1.10%, 0.60%, or
sizes and lumps up to 75 pounds that readily dissolve 2.50%. It is generally added in the furnace since it
in molten steel. does not oxidize under steelmaking conditions. Mp
approximately 1630C. Available in crushed sizes up
ferroconcrete. See concrete. to one inch.

ferroelectric. A crystalline material such as bari- ferroniobium. An alloy of iron and niobium
um titanate, monobasic potassium phosphate, or po- made by reducing the ore columbite with silicon.
tassium-sodium tartrate (Rochelle salts) that, over Use: Stainless steels and other alloys for welding
certain limited temperature ranges, has a natural or rods.
inherent deformation (polarization) of the electrical
fields or electrons associated with the atoms and ferrophosphorus. An alloy of iron and phos-
groups in the crystal lattice. This results in the devel- phorus used in the steel industry for adjustments of
opment of positive and negative poles and a conse- phosphorus content of special steels.
quent “direction” of polarization, which can be re- Grade: (1) 18% phosphorus, (2) 25% phosphorus.
versed when the crystal is exposed to an external Use: In preventing thin sheets from sticking together
electric field. Ferroelectric crystals are internally when rolled and annealed in bundles.
strained and, as a consequence, show unusual piezo-
electric and elastic properties. ferrosilicon. An alloy of iron and silicon used to
Use: Capacitors, transducers, computer technology. add silicon to steel and iron, d 5.4, insoluble in water.
See ceramic, ferroelectric. Small quantities of silicon deoxidize the iron, and
larger amounts impart special properties.
ferroin chelation group. A functional group Available forms: Six grades containing from 20 to
characteristic of heterocyclic ring nitrogen com- 95% silicon. The 20% grade is made in a blast
pounds: furnace, but grades of higher silicon content are
made in electric furnaces.
Hazard: Ferrosilicon containing from 30 to 90%
silicon is flammable and evolves gases in the pres-
Among such compounds are 2,2′-bipyridine; 1,10- ence of moisture.
phenanthroline; and the 2-pyridyl triazines. These pro- Use: Pidgeon process for producing metallic magne-
vide a large number of terminal (≡C−H) groups in sium.
which the hydrogen can be replaced by many chemical
groupings (carboxyl, hydroxyl, halogen, etc.). Thus, ferrosoferric oxide. See iron oxide, black.
synthesis of an almost endless number of substituted
ferroin reactants is possible. About 200 such chelation ferrotitanium. An alloy composed principally
reagents have been synthesized. Ferroin chelation of iron and titanium, used to add titanium to steel. It
chemicals in general form complex undissociated cat- is often made from titanium scrap. Three classifica-
ions with divalent metal ions, e.g., [(C12H8N2)3Fe]2+. tions are available: low, high, and medium carbon
content. Furnished in various lump, crushed, and
ferromagnesite. An iron-bearing variety of ground sizes.
Use: Refractory owing to its ability to bond under ferrotungsten. An alloy of iron and tungsten
heat. used as a means of adding tungsten to steel. Contains
70 to 80% tungsten and no more than 0.6% carbon.
ferromagnetic oxide. See ferrite (2). Melting range 1648–2750C, dissolves readily in
molten steel. Furnished in ground and crushed sizes
ferromanganese. An alloy consisting of manga- up to one inch.
nese (approximately 48%), plus iron and carbon. See tungsten steels.
Available forms: Standard, low-carbon, and medi-
um-carbon grades in ground, crushed, and lump ferrous acetate. (iron acetate).
sizes ranging from 80 mesh to 75-lb lumps, suitable Fe(C2H3O2)2•4H2O.
for ladle or furnace addition. Properties: Greenish crystals when pure and unex-
Use: Vehicle for adding manganese to steel. posed to air; usually partly brown from action of air.
See nodules. Soluble in water and alcohol. Oxidizes to basic fer-
ric acetate in air. Combustible.
ferromolybdenum. An alloy, composed largely Derivation: Action of acetic acid or pyroligneous
of iron and molybdenum, used as a means of adding acid on iron with subsequent crystallization.

Use: Textile dyeing, medicine, dyeing leather, wood ferrous-2-ethylhexoate. A paint drier.
preservative. See soap (2).

ferrous ammonium sulfate. (Mohr’s salt; ferrous fluoride. (iron fluoride). FeF2.
iron ammonium sulfate). Properties: Green crystals. D 4.09. Soluble in acids;
Fe(SO4)•(NH4)2SO4•6H2O. slightly soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol and
Properties: Light-green crystals. Soluble in water; ether.
insoluble in alcohol. D 1.865, decomposes at Hazard: Strong irritant. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3.
100–110C, deliquescent. Affected by light. Use: Ceramics, catalyst.
Derivation: By mixing solutions of ferrous sulfate
and ammonium sulfate, followed by evaporation ferrous fumarate.
and subsequent crystallization. CAS: 141-01-5. FeC4H2O4. Anhydrous salt of a
Use: Analytical chemistry, metallurgy. combination of ferrous iron and fumaric acid, stable,
odorless, substantially tasteless. Reddish-brown,
ferrous arsenate. (iron arsenate). anhydrous powder, contains 33% iron by weight,
CAS: 10102-50-8. Fe(AsO4)2•6H2O. does not melt at temperatures up to 280C, insoluble
Properties: Green, amorphous powder. Insoluble in in alcohol, very slightly soluble in water. Combus-
water; soluble in acids. tible.
Derivation: Interaction of solutions of sodium arse- Grade: USP.
nate and ferrous sulfate. Use: Dietary supplement.
Use: Insecticide.
ferrous gluconate. (iron gluconate).
ferrous ascorbate. CAS: 299-29-6. Fe(C6H11O7)2•2H2O.
CAS: 14536-17-5. Properties: Yellowish-gray or pale-greenish-yellow
Properties: Blue-violet solid. fine powder or granules with slight odor, solution (1
Hazard: A nuisance dust. in 20) is acid to litmus. Soluble in water and glycer-
Use: Food additive. ol; insoluble in alcohol. Combustible.
Grade: Pharmaceutical, NF.
Use: Feed and food additive, vitamin tablets.
ferrous bromide. (iron bromide).
FeBr2•6H2O. ferrous iodide. (iron iodide; iron protoiod-
Properties: Green, crystalline powder; very deli- ide). FeI2•4H2O.
quescent. D 4.636, mp 27C. Readily oxidized in Properties: Dark-violet to black hygroscopic leaf-
moist air; soluble in water and alcohol. lets. Soluble in water and alcohol. D 2.873, decom-
Derivation: Action of bromine on iron filings. poses at 90–98C, mp (anhydrous) 177C, deliques-
Use: Polymerization catalyst. cent, affected by light.
Derivation: By the action of iodine on iron filings.
ferrous carbonate. Use: Manufacture of alkali metal iodides, pharma-
CAS: 563-71-3. mf: CFeO3. ceutical preparations, catalyst.
Properties: White solid; odorless; gray solid. De-
composes yielding CO2 + FeO at 2°. Insol in H2O; sol ferrous lactate. (iron lactate).
acids to give CO2; sol in H2O saturated with CO2 to CAS: 5905-52-2. Fe(C3H5O3)•3H2O.
give Fe(HCO3)2 which then oxidizes. Properties: Greenish-white crystals; slight peculiar
Hazard: A nuisance dust. odor. Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol. Deli-
Use: Food additive. quescent, affected by light. Combustible.
Derivation: By interaction of calcium lactate with
ferrous chloride. (iron chloride; iron dichlo- ferrous sulfate or direct action of lactic acid on iron
ride; iron protochloride). filings.
CAS: 7758-94-3. (1) FeCl2, (2) FeCl2•4H2O. Use: Food additive and dietary supplement.
Properties: Greenish-white crystals. D (1) 3.16
(25C), (2) 1.93, mp (1) 670–674C, deliquescent, ferrous naphthenate. A soap based on mixed
readily oxidized. Soluble in alcohol and water. naphthenic acids. Available commercially as a liq-
Derivation: Action of hydrochloric acid on an excess uid containing 6% iron.
of iron, with subsequent crystallization. See soap (2).
Use: Mordant in dyeing, metallurgy, pharmaceutical
preparations, manufacture of ferric chloride, sewage ferrous octoate. A paint drier.
treatment. See soap (2).

ferrous citrate. ferrous oxalate. (iron oxalate).

CAS: 23383-11-1. mf: C6H6FeO7. FeC2O4•2H2O.
Properties: White crystals or sltly colored powder. Properties: Pale-yellow, crystalline powder;
Use: Food additive. odorless. Soluble in acids; insoluble in water. D

2.28, decomposes at 160C releasing carbon mon- sticks, or granules. D 4.75, mp 1195, bp (decom-
oxide. poses). Soluble in acids; insoluble in water.
Derivation: By the interaction of solutions of ferrous Derivation: By fusing iron and sulfur.
sulfate and sodium oxalate. Use: Generating hydrogen sulfide, ceramics, other
Hazard: Toxic. Evolves carbon monoxide on sulfides, pigment.
heating. See pyrite.
Use: Photographic developer, pigment in glass, plas-
tics, paints. ferrovanadium.
CAS: 12604-58-9. An iron-vanadium alloy used to
ferrous oxide. (iron monoxide). add vanadium to steel. Vanadium is used in engi-
CAS: 1345-25-1. FeO. neering steels to the extent of 0.1–0.25% and in
Properties: Black powder. D 5.7, mp 1420C. Insolu- high-speed steels to the extent of 1–2.5% or higher.
ble in water; soluble in acid. Melting range 1482–1521C. Furnished in a variety
Derivation: Prepared from the oxalate by heating, of lump, crushed, and ground sizes.
but the product contains some ferric oxide. Derivation: By reduction of the vanadium oxide with
Use: Catalyst, glass colorant, steel manufacture. aluminum or silicon in the presence of iron in an
electric furnace.
ferrous phosphate. Fe3(PO4)2•8H2O. Grade: Available containing from 50 to 80% vana-
Properties: Bluish-gray powder. D 2.58. Soluble in dium.
inorganic acids; insoluble in water. Hygroscopic. Hazard: Moderate fire risk. TLV: (dust) 1 mg/m3;
Use: Catalyst, ceramics. STEL 3 mg/m3.

ferrous phosphide. (iron phosphide). Fe2P. ferrozirconium. Alloys used in the manufacture
Properties: Bluish-gray powder. D 6.56, mp 1290C. of steel. (1) 12–15% zirconium alloy. Approximate
Ferromagnetic. Insoluble in water. analysis: zirconium 12–15%, silicon 39–43%, iron
Grade: 24–25% phosphorus. 40–45%; application: steel of high silicon content.
Hazard: Evolves toxic and flammable products on (2) 35–40% zirconium alloy. Approximate analysis:
exposure to moisture or acids. zirconium 35–40%, silicon 47–52%, iron 8–12%;
Use: Iron and steel manufacture. application: steel of low silicon content.

ferrous selenide. FeSe. ferrum. Latin name for iron, hence the symbol
Properties: Black, shiny solid. D 6.8. Almost insolu- Fe.
ble in water; soluble in hydrochloric acid, evolving
selenium hydride. fertile material. In nuclear technology, any
Use: Semiconductor technology. substance not capable of fission but that can be
converted into a fissionable material in a nuclear
ferrous sulfate. (iron sulfate; iron vitriol; reactor. 238Uranium (converted to 239plutonium) and
copperas; green vitriol; sal chalybis). 232
thorium (converted to 233uranium) are the most
CAS: 7720-78-7. FeSO4•7H2O. important fertile materials.
Properties: Greenish or yellow-brown crystals or
granules; odorless. Soluble in water with saline fertilizer. A substance or mixture that contains
taste; insoluble in alcohol. D 1.89, mp 64C, loses one or more of the primary plant nutrients and some-
7H2O by 300C, pH 3.7 (10% solution), hygroscopic. times also secondary and/or trace nutrients. The
Derivation: (1) By-product from the pickling of steel primary nutrients are nitrogen (supplied as anhy-
and many chemical operations, (2) by action of di- drous ammonia or solutions containing nitrogen de-
lute sulfuric acid and iron, (3) oxidation of pyrites in rived from ammonia, ammonium nitrate, or urea),
air followed by leaching and treatment with scrap phosphorus (as superphosphates derived from phos-
iron. phate rock), and potassium (in the form of KCl from
Method of purification: Recrystallization. sylvite ore or natural brines). Secondary nutrients
Grade: Technical, anhydrous, CP, USP. are calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Trace elements
Hazard: Ingestion causes intestinal disorders. (iron, copper, boron, manganese, zinc, and molyb-
Use: Iron oxide pigment; other iron salts; ferrites; denum) are also among the 12 elements considered
water and sewage treatment; catalyst, especially for essential for plant growth. Nitrogen solutions and
synthetic ammonia; fertilizer; feed additive; flour anhydrous ammonia are used both in fertilizer man-
enrichment; reducing agent; herbicide; wood pre- ufacture and for direct application to the soil. Sub-
servative; process engraving. stantial amounts of both separate materials and mix-
tures are used in liquid form. Controlled-release
ferrous sulfide. (iron sulfide; iron protosul- fertilizers are those whose particles are coated with
fide). polymeric sulfur by a proprietary process. Their
CAS: 1317-37-9. FeS. advantages include more uniform supply of nutrient,
Properties: Dark-brown or black metallic pieces, lower labor costs, and reduced leaching losses in

areas of irrigation and high rainfall. fiberfill. A fiber designed specifically for use as a
See superphosphate; nutrient solution. filling material in such products as pillows, comfort-
ers, quilted linings, and furniture battings, e.g., sisal,
fertilization. The process by which an egg is jute.
made capable of generating offspring. It is often
synonymous with syngamy. “Fiberfrax” [Carborundum]. TM for ceram-
ic fiber made from alumina and silica. Available in
festucine. bulk as blown, chopped and washed, long staple,
CAS: 25161-91-5. mf: C8H14N2O. paper, rope, roving, blocks.
Hazard: A poison. Properties: Retains properties to 1260C and under
Source: Natural product. some conditions used to 1648C, light weight, inert to
most acids and unaffected by hydrogen atmosphere,
FFA. Abbreviation for free fatty acid. resilient.
Use: Describing specifications for fatty esters, glyc- Use: High-temperature insulation of kilns and fur-
erides, oils, etc. naces, packing expansion joints, heating elements,
burner blocks; rolls for roller hearth furnaces and
FFPA. Abbreviation for “free from prussic acid.” piping; fine filtration; insulating electrical wire and
motors; insulating jet motors; sound deadening.
FGAN. Fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate.
Use: In blasting agents, as well as fertilizers, because fiber gear. A driver gear made of a material of
its coating of kieselguhr and its prilled form, making somewhat lower strength than the driven gear (cast
it safer to handle than the usual grades. iron); for example, a composite such as fiberglass-
reinforced plastic or an engineering plastic (e.g.,
fiber. A fundamental form of solid (usually crys- nylon). It is intended to fail under overload, thus
talline) characterized by relatively high tenacity and protecting the driven master gear from destructive
an extremely high ratio of length to diameter (sever- stress.
al hundred to one). Natural fibers are animal, e.g.,
wool and silk (proteins), vegetable, e.g., cotton (cel- “Fiberglas” [Owens-Corning]. TM for a va-
lulose), and mineral (asbestos). Cotton fiber is called riety of products made of or with glass fibers or glass
staple and rarely exceeds 2 inches in length. flakes, including insulating wools, mats and rov-
Semisynthetic fibers include rayon and inorganic ings, coarse fibers, acoustical products, yarns, elec-
substances extruded in fibrous form, such as glass, trical insulation, and reinforced plastics.
boron, boron carbide, boron nitride, carbon, graph- See glass fiber; reinforced plastic.
ite, aluminum silicate, fused silica, and some metals
(steel). Synthetic fibers are made from high poly- fiber glass. See glass fiber.
mers (polyamides, polyesters, acrylics, and polyole-
fins) by extruding from spinnerettes (nylon, “Or- fiber, graphite. See graphite fiber.
lon,” etc.). Some are being used in specialty papers,
though the primary use is in textile fabrics. See fiber, optical. A fine-drawn silica (glass) fiber
“Fiberfax.” or filament of exceptionally high purity and specific
Metal fibers are used in several ways: (1) As whisk- optical properties (refractive index) that transmits
ers, which are single-crystal fibers up to 2 inches laser light impulses almost instantaneously with
long having extremely high tensile strength; they are high fidelity. Such fibers are made from quartz coat-
made from tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, and other ed with germanium-doped silica by vapor deposi-
metals and are used largely in composite structures tion; 100 or more filaments are assembled into a
for specialized functions. (2) As filaments, which cable that has extremely high data-carrying capaci-
are alloys drawn through diamond dies to diameters ty. These are applicable not only to telephonic com-
as small as 0.002 cm; steel for tire cord and antistatic munication systems, for which they are now being
devices has been developed for such applications. used, but also to remote-sensing devices that permit
(3) In biconstituent structures composed of a metal analysis of samples at widely separated locations.
and a polymeric material; for example, aluminum Thus, one of the most important developing uses of
filament covered with cellulose acetate butyrate. optical fibers is in analytical instrumentation. Be-
Hollow fibers of cellulose acetate and nylon are used cause, as they are nonelectrical and noncorrosive,
as membranes in the reverse osmosis method of optical fiber cables are safe to use in highly toxic or
water purification. See filament; denier; explosive environments, e.g., radioactive separa-
whiskers; glass fiber. tions and hazardous waste analyses. The laser beam
is coupled to the end of the cable (which may be up
fiber, biconstituent. A composite fiber com- to 1000 m long) by a device called an optrode; the
prising a dispersion of fibrils of one synthetic mate- light traverses the cable and interacts with the sam-
rial within, and parallel to, the axis of another; also a ple, eliciting a signal that is reflected back through
fiber made up of polymeric material and a metal or the same cable to a spectrometer. Fiber optics are
alloy filament. also used in other forms of instrumentation, e.g.,

radiation dosimeters and high-temperature ther- fibrous glass See glass fiber.
mometers. In the latter case, the fibers are made
from single crystals of alumina. fibrous proteins. Water-insoluble proteins that
See glass, optical; laser; thermometer (5). serve in a protective or structural role. The ratio of
length to width generally exceeds 10.
fiber-reactive dye. See dye, fiber-reactive.
ficin. A proteolytic enzyme hydrolyzing casein,
fiber roll. A calender roll constructed of special- collagen, edestin, fibrin, liver, and other protein like
ly prepared papers or fabrics on a steel base. The material.
fibrous material is cut into circular sheets with a hole Properties: Buff to cream-colored powder; acrid
at the center; these are stacked on a steel core and odor. Very hygroscopic. Partially soluble in water;
then compressed under high pressure, producing a insoluble in organic solvents.
dense, hard material with a smooth surface. As such, Source: Fig latex or sap, commercially prepared by
it is used in supercalenders for paper finishing. An filtering and drying the latex.
intaglio design can be impressed on it by an en- Use: Food industry, bating leather, tenderizing meat,
graved steel roll; this operation requires several days shrink proofing wool, coagulation of milk, chill
and is facilitated by application of water, soap, or proofing beer, Rh-factor determination.
other softener. So prepared, it is used in embossing
calenders for applying decorative patterns on spe-
cial paper or plastic products. “Fi-Con” [Phillips]. TM for fiber additive.
See supercalender. Use: Concrete additive.

fibrid. Generic name for a fibrous form of syn- fictile. Descriptive of certain molecules that have
thetic polymeric material used for example as a no permanent structure but are constantly changing
binder material in the manufacture of textryl. their shapes and arrangements. An example is the
metal carbonyl Fe3(CO)12, in which, according to Dr.
fibril. (1) Extremely fine fiber or cell-like mass F. Albert Cotton, originator of the term, “carbonyl
formed during first stages of gel formation; (2) pro- groups readily move from one iron atom to another
tein filament of hide fiber. through the rapid formation and dissolution of car-
bonyl bridges between iron atoms.”
fibrin. An insoluble blood protein resulting from
the hydrolysis of fibrinogen by the action of throm- field-ion microscope. A type of microscope
bin; it polymerizes to form blood clots. Recent re- whose unique feature is that it has no lens system.
search has found that it forms a protective coating on Invented by Muller in 1951, it is capable of resolving
tumors that inhibits antigenic activity, thus protect- metal atoms 2–3 Å in diameter. Its essential compo-
ing the tumor and neutralizing the immune system of nents are an evacuated glass chamber through which
the organism. runs a wire carrying an electric impulse of 30,000
volts that establishes a field strength of 500 million
fibrinogen. A sterile fraction of normal human volts/cm. A specimen of the metal to be observed,
blood plasma, dried from the frozen state. In solu- which is machined to an extremely fine tip and is
tion, it has the property of being converted into positively charged, is connected to the wire. An inert
insoluble fibrin when thrombin is added. It is an gas such as helium or neon is then admitted. The
essential factor in the blood-clotting mechanism. positively charged tip of the specimen attracts elec-
Properties: White or grayish amorphous substance. trons from the helium atoms, creating positive heli-
Grade: USP. um ions. These are strongly repelled by the metal
Use: Medicine (coagulant). atoms and stream to the negatively charged fluores-
cent screen, producing an image of the individual
fibrinolysin. (plasmin). A proteolytic enzyme atoms of the metal. Magnifications of one million
that dissolves fibrin and hastens the solution of clots times or more have been obtained of atoms of indi-
that may form in the bloodstream. It is prepared by um, tungsten, and others.
activating a fraction of normal human plasma with See electron microscope.
highly purified streptokinase.
Fieser, Louis F. (1899–1977). A distinguished
fibroblast. A cell of connective tissue that sec- American chemist, Fieser became professor of or-
retes connective tissue proteins, such as collagen. ganic chemistry at Harvard in 1930 after teaching
for several years at Bryn Mawr. He achieved the
fibroin. The fibrous material in silk; a scleropro- synthesis of vitamin K1 and did fundamental re-
tein containing glycine and alanine; light-yellow, search on cortisone, the chemistry of steroids, and
silk like mass; insoluble in water; soluble in concen- aromatic carcinogens. His achievements as a chem-
trated alkalies and concentrated acids. ist and educator are recognized throughout the
world. Unique in his facility in laboratory demon-
fibrolite. See sillimanite. stration and as a lecturer and author, he exemplified

that rare combination of a great teacher and a pro- used in electronic and semiconducting devices.
found scholar. Electrodeposited metals (chromium, copper, nickel)
are conventionally (and perhaps illogically) called
filament. A continuous fiber usually made by coatings. The term film is also applied to sheets of
extrusion from a spinnerette (nylon, rayon, glass, cellophane, polyethylene, polyvinylidene chloride,
polyethylene). It also may be a drawn metal (tung- etc., used for wrapping and packaging of food prod-
sten, gold) or a metal carbide. ucts, meats, and poultry (especially shrink films that
See fiber. are stretched before application). These function as
a moisture vapor barrier. Plastic films are also used
filament winding. The process of winding fi- as slip surfaces in concrete structures such as air-
bers under tension onto a prepared core. Before or strips, ice rinks, and highways. Photographic film is
during the winding operation, the assembly is im- made from cellulose acetate.
pregnated with a thermosetting resin. Structures of
considerable size and strength can be made in this filter. See filtration; leaf, filter; baghouse.
way. The fibers used are chiefly glass, boron, or
silicon carbide. filter aid. See filter media; filtration.
See filament.
filter alum. See aluminum sulfate.
filial generation. (F1; F2). Each generation of
offspring in a breeding program, designated F1, F2, filter medium. Almost any water-insoluble, po-
etc. rous material having a reasonable degree of rigidity
can serve as a filter. Sand is used in simple large-
filler. (1) An inert mineral powder of rather high scale water filtration, the voids between the grains
specific gravity (2.00–4.50) used in plastic products providing the porosity. In industrial operations, cot-
and rubber mix to provide a certain degree of ton duck, woven wire cloth, nylon cloth, and glass
stiffness and hardness and to decrease cost. Exam- cloth are used. For laboratory work, Whatman filter
ples are calcium carbonate (whiting), barytes, blanc paper, diatomaceous earth, and closely packed glass
fixe, silicates, glass spheres and bubbles, slate flour, fibers are standard materials. Plastics membranes
soft clays, etc. Fillers have neither reinforcing nor containing more than a million pores per square inch
coloring properties, and the term should not be ap- are used in bacteriological filtration.
plied to materials that do, i.e., reinforcing agents or See filtration; screen.
pigments. Fillers are similar to extenders and dilu-
ents in their cost-reducing function; exact lines of filter sand. Sand used to separate sediment and
distinction between these terms are difficult, if not suspended matter from water.
impossible, to draw. Use of fillers and extenders in
plastics has increased in recent years due to short- filtration. The operation of separating suspended
ages of basic materials. solids from a liquid (or gas) by forcing the mixture
(2) The cross or transverse thread in a fabric or other through a porous barrier (see filter media). The con-
textile structure. struction and operation of the many kinds of indus-
(3) A metal or alloy used in brazing and soldering to trial filtration equipment are too detailed to permit
effect union of the metals being joined. See dilu- description. The most widely used types may be
ent; extender; reinforcing agent. classified as follows: (1) gravity filters, used largely
for water purification and consisting of thick beds of
film. An extremely thin continuous sheet of a sand and gravel that retain the flocculated impurities
substance that may or may not be in contact with a as the water passes through; (2) pressure filters of
substrate. There is no precise upper limit of plate-and-frame or shell-and-leaf construction that
thickness, but a reasonable assumption is 0.010 utilize filter cloths of coarse fabric as a separating
inch. The protective value of any film depends on its medium; (3) vacuum or suction filters of the rotating
being 100% continuous, i.e., without holes or drum or disk type, used on thick sludges and slurries;
cracks, since it must form an efficient barrier to (4) edge filters; (5) clarification filters; (6) bag filters
molecules of atmospheric water vapor, oxygen, etc. (dust collectors). Gel filtration is a chromatographic
A long-chain fatty acid or alcohol on water produces technique involving separation at the molecular lev-
a film whose thickness is the length of one molecule el. For bacteriological filtration, membranes having
(approximately 200 Å). The fatty acid molecules are more than a million pores per square inch are used,
oriented with the radical end in the water. Such films e.g., collodion or synthetic film. Some types of vi-
are good evaporation barriers and have been suc- ruses will pass through such membranes and are thus
cessfully imposed on glass. Soap bubbles are elastic known as filterable viruses.
films about one micron thick and have considerable See baghouse.
strength. Film-forming agents (drying oils) are es-
sential in paints and lacquers. Oxide films formed fine chemical. A chemical produced in compa-
automatically on the surface of aluminum protect it ratively small quantities and in a relatively pure
from corrosion. Thin metallic oxide films are widely state. Examples are pharmaceutical and biological

products, perfumes, photographic chemicals, and cal equipment. The use of carbon dioxide gas or dry
reagent chemicals. They are sold on the basis of chemical extinguishers is recommended. Water
specifications (on the basis of what they are, not should not be used. Class D fires are burning metals.
what they do). A powder formulation such as “Met-L-X” pow-
dered graphite or trimethoxyboroxine will extin-
fines. The portion of a powder composed of parti- guish a metal fire. Water should not be used. In
cles that are smaller than a specified size (MPA general, for small fires, salt (sodium chloride) and
definition, MPA Standard 9–50T). sodium bicarbonate, either dry or in concentrated
solution are effective. Carbon tetrachloride and
fine structure. See ultrastructure. methyl bromide should be avoided as extinguishing
agents because of the toxicity of their decomposition
fingerprinting. The characteristic two-dimen- products, for example, phosgene.
sional pattern (on paper or gel) formed by the sepa- See foam, fire-extinguishing.
ration of a mixture of peptides resulting from partial
hydrolysis of a protein; also known as peptide map- “Firefrax” [Carborundum]. TM for a group
ping. of refractory cements made from kaolin or fireclay
base materials for applications where aluminum sili-
finished DNA sequence. High-quality, low cate cements are best suited.
error, gap-free DNA sequence of the human ge- Use: Laying and repairing fireclay and silica brick-
nome. Achieving this ultimate 2003 HGP goal re- work, bond for crushed firebrick or ganister for
quires additional sequencing to close gaps, reduce patching furnace linings and for making rammed-up
ambiguities, and allow for only a single error every or monolithic linings, patching materials for by-
10,000 bases—the agreed-upon standard for HGP product coke ovens, and as a wash for small pouring
finished sequence. ladles in nonferrous foundry.
See sequencing; draft sequence.
fire point. The lowest temperature at which a
finishing compounds. Materials that impart liquid evolves vapors fast enough to support contin-
softness, flexibility, stiffness, color, water and fire uous combustion. It is usually close to the flash
resistance, etc. point.
Use: In the final or finishing stages of manufacture of See autoignition temperature.
a product, usually textiles and leather, to make them
suitable for specific purposes. fire-retarding agent. See flame-retarding
Finkelstein reaction. Reaction of alkyl halides
with sodium iodide in acetone. fire sand. See furnace sand.

“Firebrake ZB” [U. S. Borax]. (zinc bo- fir-needle oil. (fir oil). An essential oil ob-
rate). TM for a synergist with antimony compounds tained by the steam distillation of needles and twigs
and alumina trihydrate. of several varieties of coniferous trees (Abies) na-
Use: Flame and smoke suppressant. tive to both Canada and Siberia.
Use: Odorant in perfumery, flavoring agent.
fireclay. See refractory.
fir needle oil, Canadian type.
fire extinguishment. Fires are divided into 4 Properties: Found in the needles and twigs of Abies
classes, each requiring special treatment. The essen- balsamea L. Mill (Fam. Pinaceae). Colorless to
tial point in extinguishing all types is exclusion of air faintly yellow liquid; pleasant odor. Sol in fixed oils,
from the fire by an effective means. Class A includes mineral oil; sltly sol in propylene glycol; insol in
fires in combustible materials, such as wood, paper, glycerin.
and cloth, where the quenching and cooling effect of Use: Food additive.
quantities of water or of solutions containing a high
percentage of water is of primary importance. Fire first law of thermodynamics. Energy can
extinguishers utilizing the pressure of carbon diox- be neither created nor destroyed, only converted to
ide to throw a stream of water onto the fire are the other forms.
most widely used for this class. In the soda-acid
extinguisher, the carbon dioxide is generated within Fischer, Emil. (1852–1919). A German organic
the cylinder at the time of use. In another type, chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in chemistry
carbon dioxide gas is stored in the cylinder under (1902) for his original research in the chemistry of
pressure and is released by opening a valve. Class B purines and sugars. He was professor of Chemistry
includes fires in flammable liquids where a blanket- at the University of Berlin (1882), succeeding Hof-
ing or smothering effect is essential. Carbon dioxide mann. He synthesized fructose and glucose and elu-
gas, dry chemical, or foam are suitable. Water cidated their stereochemical configurations; he also
should not be used. Class C includes fires in electri- established the nature of uric acid and its deriva-

tives. Additional work included enzyme chemistry, Fischer’s reagent. A reagent used as a test for
proteins, synthetic nitric acid, and ammonia produc- sugars.
tion. Derivation: Three parts of sodium acetate and two
parts of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride in 20 parts
Fischer, Ernst Otto. (1918– ). A German in- of water.
organic chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chem- Note: Do not confuse with Karl Fischer reagent.
istry in 1973 with Wilkinson for their independent
work on the chemistry of organometallic “sandwich Fischer’s salt. See cobalt potassium nitrite.
compounds.” He was the contributor to many publi-
cations on organometallic chemistry. His education Fischer-Tropsch process. Synthesis of liquid
and work were primarily in Munich. or gaseous hydrocarbons or their oxygenated deriv-
atives from the carbon monoxide and hydrogen mix-
Fischer, Hans. (1881–1945). A German bio- ture (synthesis gas) obtained by passing steam over
chemist who studied under Emil Fischer. He was hot coal. The synthesis is carried out with metallic
awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1930 for his catalysts such as iron, cobalt, or nickel at high tem-
synthesis of the blood pigment hemin. He also did perature and pressure. The process was developed in
important fundamental research on chlorophyll, the Germany in 1923 by F. Fischer and H. Tropsch and
porphyrins, and carotene. was used there for making synthetic fuels before and
during World War II. It has never been used for this
Fischer-Hepp rearrangement. Rearrange- purpose in the U.S.; the only coal-to-gasoline con-
ment of secondary aromatic nitrosamines to p-nitro- version plant using this process is Sasol in South
soarylamines. Africa, though the closely related Lurgi process is
being used rather extensively in a number of loca-
Fischer indole synthesis. Formation of in- tions. Easing of the petroleum crisis has tended to
doles on heating aryl hydrazones of aldehydes or diminish conversion activity in the U.S.
ketones in the presence of catalysts such as zinc
chloride, or other Lewis acids, or proton acids. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. (Synthol pro-
cess; Oxo synthesis). Synthesis of hydrocarbons,
Fischer oxazole synthesis. Condensation of aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones by the
equimolar amounts of aldehyde cyanohydrins and catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide using
aromatic aldehydes in dry ether in the presence of enriched synthesis gas from passage of steam over
dry hydrochloric acid. heated coke. The ratio of products varies with condi-
tions. The high-pressure Synthol process gives
Fischer peptide synthesis. Formation of mainly oxygenated products and addition of olefins
polypeptides by treatment of an ␣-chloro or ␣-bro- in the presence of cobalt catalyst (Oxo synthesis)
mo acyl chloride with an amino acid ester, hydroly- produces aldehydes. Normal-pressure synthesis
sis to the acid, and conversion to a new acid chloride leads mainly to petroleum-like hydrocarbons.
that is again condensed with a second amino acid
ester, and so on. The terminal chloride is finally
converted to an amino group with ammonia. fisetin. (3,7,3′-tetrahydroxyflavone). C15H10O6.
See flavanol.
Fischer phenylhydrazine synthesis. For-
mation of arylhydrazines by reduction of diazo com- FISH. (Florescent in situ hybridization). A
pounds with excess sodium sulfite and hydrolysis of technique for uniquely identifying whole chromo-
the substituted hydrazine sulfonic acid salt with hy- somes or parts of chromosomes using florescent
drochloric acid. The process is a standard industrial tagged DNA.
method for production of arylhydrazines.
Fisher’s solution. See physiological salt so-
Fischer phenylhydrazone and osazone lution.
reaction. Formation of phenylhydrazones and
osazones by heating sugars with phenylhydrazine in fish glue. An adhesive derived from the skins of
dilute acid. commercial fish (chiefly cod). A ton of skins yields
about 50 gal liquid glue. Bond strength on wood is
Fischer projection formulas. Formulas approximately 2500 psi, pH approximately 6.5–7.2.
which, by convention, show bonds coming out of the Compatible with animal glues, some dextrins, some
plane drawn vertically, and bonds that project be- polyvinyl acetate emulsions, and rubber latex. Chief
hind the plane drawn horizontally. applications are in gummed tape, cartons, blueprint
paper, and letterpress printing plates. Fish glue can
Fischer-Speier esterification method. Es- be made light sensitive by adding ammonium bi-
terification of acids by refluxing with excess alcohol chromate and water insoluble by UV radiation,
in the presence of hydrochloric acid or other acid hence its usefulness in the photoengraving process.
catalysts. See adhesive.

fish-liver oil. An oil containing a high percent- dioactive and have high kinetic energy; (2) the dis-
age of vitamin A. High-potency livers, as from cod, rupted nucleus emits an average of 2.5 neutrons
shark, and halibut, contain from 100,000 to (235U) or three neutrons (239Pu), which in turn split
1,500,000 A units/g. The oil is extracted by cooking other nuclei of the fissionable material in a chain
the livers under low-pressure steam and removing reaction that is self-perpetuating; (3) it also emits the
the oil, which floats on the condensate. Livers of low energy equivalent of the mass defect of the nucleus,
oil content are processed with a weak solution of usually approximately 200 MeV per nucleus, some
sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, which ex- of which is in the form of ␥ rays. A nuclear explosion
tracts the oil in emulsified form. will not occur until a critical mass of fissionable
Use: Medicine and dietary supplement. material is attained, that is, the smallest amount
See fish oil. capable of sustaining a chain reaction. Similarly, a
nuclear reactor will not produce power until the
fish meal. A fishery by-product consisting es- assembly achieves a critical activity. This occurs as
sentially of processed scrap from the filleting opera- follows: The neutrons introduced to the system are
tion or from whole fish. In the dry process, the waste continually escaping–some are lost through the
from cod, halibut, and haddock heads is disinte- walls, some are captured by structural materials, and
grated and dried. The oil and proteins are largely some are absorbed by the fissionable atoms them-
retained. In the wet process, the whole fish (chiefly selves without fission taking place. When the neu-
menhaden and pilchard) are used. These are steam- trons entering the system are very slightly in excess
cooked and run through a screw press to remove the of those lost to it, the assembly is said to be critical
oil. The resulting meal is then dried and packed. Its and measurable power generation takes place. The
chief use is now for animal feeds and as a raw ratio is carefully controlled, the rate of energy pro-
material for fish protein concentrate. duction rising exponentially. Control rods made of
Hazard: Flammable, strong tendency for spontane- cadmium absorb neutrons so readily that the reactor
ous heating. can function at precisely predetermined levels of
activity. Nuclear fission is used for electric power
fish oil. A drying oil obtained chiefly from men- generation and for making radioactive isotopes.
haden, pilchard, sardine, and herring. Extracted See nuclear reactor.
from the entire body of the fish by cooking and
compressing. Should not be confused with fish-liver Fittig’s synthesis. The preparation of aromatic
oil. It contains approximately 20% polyunsaturated hydrocarbons by condensation of aryl halides with
fatty acids, which enables it to lower cholesterol alkyl halides in the presence of metallic sodium.
content of the human diet. Chemically modified fish
oil is used in soaps, detergents, protective coatings,
and alkyd resins. The hydrogenated product is used fix. (1) To cause an unreactive element, e.g., nitro-
as a base for margarines and shortenings and as an gen to combine into a chemical compound, as in
industrial dispersing agent. ammonia synthesis. (2) To hold a dye permanently
Hazard: Subject to spontaneous heating. on a fiber or fabric by chemical or mechanical action
or a combination of both. (3) To retard the evapora-
fish protein concentrate. (FPC). A flour or tion rate of the volatile components of essential oils,
pastelike product prepared from whole fish includ- as in perfumes.
ing bones and viscera, of a size and type not accept- See nitrogen fixation.
able for sale as such. Both biological (enzymatic)
and chemical (solvent extraction) methods are used fixation. See nitrogen fixation.
to obtain the proteins.
fixative. (1) See fixing agent, perfume; (2) a sub-
fissile. Synonymous with fissionable. stance applied as a spray or solution to harden and
See fission. preserve objects for microscopic examination, or to
pencil and ink drawings to prevent blurring, e.g., a
fissiochemistry. The process by which a chemi- sodium silicate solution.
cal change or reaction is brought about by nuclear
energy, for example, the production of anhydrous
hydrazine from liquid ammonia in a nuclear reactor. fixed oil. A nonvolatile, fatty oil characteristic of
vegetables as opposed to the volatile essential oils of
fission. The splitting of an atomic nucleus in- flowers.
duced by bombardment with neutrons from an exter-
nal source and propagated by the neutrons so re- fixing agent, chemical. (1) A substance that
leased. When a fissionable (unstable) nucleus, such aids fixation of mordants on textiles by uniting
as 235U or 239Pu, is struck by a neutron in a critical chemically with them and holding them on the fiber
area, the following events occur: (1) the nucleus until the dyes can react with them. (2) A substance
disintegrates to form several other elements, called that causes actual precipitation of mordant on the
fission products or fragments, all of which are ra- fiber by double decomposition.

fixing agent, mechanical. (1) A substance aramids) are inherently flame-retardant, e.g., nylon,
(e.g., albumin) capable of holding pigments perma- “Nomex,” “Kevlar.”
nently on textile fibers. (2) Certain gums and Use: Carpets, rugs, upholstery, plastics used in con-
starches that hold dyes and other substances on tex- struction and miscellaneous wearing apparel.
tile fibers long enough to permit a desirable reaction
to take place.
flammability. The ease with which a material
(gas, liquid, or solid) will ignite either spontaneous-
fixing agent, perfume. (fixative). A sub- ly (pyrophoric) or from exposure to a high-tempera-
stance that prevents too rapid volatilization of the ture environment (autoignition) or a spark or open
components of a perfume and tends to equalize their flame. It also involves the rate of spreading of a
rates of volatilization. It thus increases the odor life flame once it has started. The more readily ignition
of a perfume and keeps the odor unchanged. For occurs, the more flammable the material; less easily
many years, the chief fixatives were animal products ignited materials are said to be combustible, but the
(ambergris, civet, musk, castoreum), but these have line of demarcation is often indefinite and depends
been largely replaced by synthetics. on the state of subdivision of the material, as well as
See perfume. its chemical nature. The Flammable Fabrics Act
establishes standards of flammability to which all
flagellum. Hair-like structure attached to a cell, textile manufacturers must conform.
used for locomotion in many protists and proka- See flammable material; combustible material.
ryotes. The prokaryotic flagellum differs from the
eukaryotic flagellum in that the prokaryotic flagel-
lum is a solid unit composed primarily of the protein flammable material. Any solid, liquid, vapor,
flagellin, while the eukaryotic flagellum is com- or gas that will ignite easily and burn rapidly. Flam-
posed of several protein strands bound by a mem- mable solids are of several types: (1) dusts or fine
brane and does not contain flagelli powders (metals or organic substances such as cellu-
lose, flour, etc.); (2) those that ignite spontaneously
“Flagyl” Tablets [Searle]. TM for metroni- at low temperatures (white phosphorus); (3) those in
dazole. which internal heat is built up by microbial or other
Use: Drug. degradation activity (fish meal, wet cellulosic mate-
rials); (4) films, fibers, and fabrics of low-ignition-
point materials. Flammable liquids are defined by
flake lead. See lead carbonate, basic.
the National Fire Protection Association and the
Department of Transportation (DOT) as those hav-
flame cracking. See ethylene (note). ing a flash point (flash p) less than 100F (37.7C)
(CC) and a vapor pressure of not more than 40 psi(a)
flame photometry. See emission spectros- at 100F. Flammable gases are ignited very easily;
copy. the flame and heat propagation rate is so great as to
resemble an explosion, especially if the gas is con-
flame-retarding agent. A substance applied to fined. The most common flammable gases are hy-
or incorporated in a combustible material to reduce drogen, carbon monoxide, acetylene, and other hy-
or eliminate its tendency to ignite when exposed to a drocarbon gases. Oxygen, though essential for the
low-energy flame such as a match or cigarette. There occurrence of combustion, is not itself either flam-
are three methods of application: (1) as a coating or mable or combustible; neither are the halogen gases,
surface finish (nondurable, readily removed); (2) in sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen. Flammable gases are
solution form to penetrate the fibers (semidurable, extremely dangerous fire hazards and require pre-
reasonably stable); and (3) as an integral part of the cisely regulated storage conditions.
polymer structure of a synthetic fiber (durable, not Note: The terms flammable, nonflammable, and com-
removable). The latter method provides permanent bustible are difficult to delimit. Since any material
protection because it not only makes the material that will burn at any temperature is combustible by
self-extinguishing but cannot be leached out by definition, it follows that this word covers all such
laundering or dry cleaning. Substances commonly materials, irrespective of their ease of ignition.
used in methods (1) and (2) include such inorganic Thus, the term flammable actually applies to a spe-
salts as ammonium sulfamate, zinc borate, and anti- cial group of combustible materials that ignite easily
mony oxychloride; chlorinated organic compounds and burn rapidly. Some materials (usually gases)
such as chlorendic anhydride; alumina trihydrate: classified in shipping and safety regulations as non-
and certain organic phosphates and phosphonates. flammable are actually noncombustible. The dis-
Method (3) is exemplified by a polyester fiber, TM tinction between these terms should not be over-
“Trevira 271,” composed of polyethylene tereph- looked. For example, sodium chloride, carbon
thalate and an undisclosed flame-retardant chemi- tetrachloride, and carbon dioxide are noncombusti-
cally linked to the polymer molecule. A copolymer ble; sugar, cellulose, and ammonia are combustible
of styrene and phosphazene has also been re- but nonflammable.
searched. Certain types of fibers (polyamides and See combustible material.

flamprop-m-isopropyl. flavanone. (2,3-dihydroflavone). A group of

CAS: 63782-90-1. mf: C19H19ClFNO3. colorless derivatives of flavone distributed in higher
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con- plants either in free form or as glucosides. About 25
tact. different types have been isolated. It comprises one
Use: Agricultural chemical. of the major groups of flavonoids. Examples are
hesperidin and naringin.
flash. The overflow of rubber or plastic at the
parting line of a mold when subjected to full pres- flavanthrene. (indanthrene yellow; chloran-
sure. It is removed in the finishing operation. threne yellow). C28H12O2N2.
Properties: Brownish-yellow needles. Soluble in di-
flash distillation. Distillation in which an ap- lute alkaline solutions.
preciable proportion of a liquid is quickly converted Derivation: Action of antimony pentachloride on ␤-
to vapor in such a way that the final vapor is in aminoanthraquinone in boiling nitrobenzene.
equilibrium with the final liquid. This method is Use: Vat dye for textiles, etc.
now widely used for desalination of seawater.
flavianic acid. See 2,4-dinitro-1-naphthol-7-
sulfonic acid.
flash photolysis. A method of investigating the
mechanism of extremely rapid photochemical reac- flavin. (1) isoalloxazine. C10H6N4O2. The nu-
tions involving the formation of free radicals (both cleus of various natural yellow pigments.
inorganic and organic) by irradiating a given reac- See riboflavin; flavin enzymes.
tion mixture with a flash of high-intensity light, thus (2) tetrahydroxyflavanol. C15H10O7•2H2O.
producing the short-lived radicals that activate pho- A yellow dye derived from oak bark.
tochemical reactions. These products are instanta-
neously analyzed spectroscopically, which permits flavine. See acriflavine.
identification of the radical species from the spectra
obtained. The time lapses involved in this technique
are approximately 1/100,000 second. It has also
flavin enzyme. (flavoprotein). An enzyme
composed of protein linked to coenzymes that are
been applied to study of the exceedingly fast reac-
mono- or dinucleotides containing riboflavin. Be-
tions occurring in flames and explosions.
cause of their distinctive color, they are also called
See photochemistry; free radical; photolysis.
yellow enzymes. The flavin enzymes function in
tissue respiration as dehydrogenases, the hydrogen
flash point. The temperature at which a liquid or atoms being taken up by the riboflavin group.
volatile solid gives off vapor sufficient to form an
ignitable mixture with the air near the surface of the flavin-linked dehydrogenases. Dehydroge-
liquid or within the test vessel (NFPA). For the nases requiring one of the riboflavin coenzymes,
purposes of the official shipping regulations, the either FMN or FAD.
flash point is determined by the Tagliabue open cup
method (ASTM D1310–63), usually abbreviated flavin mononucleotide. See riboflavin phos-
TOC. (IATA also permits the Abel or Abel-Pensky phate.
closed cup tester.) Other methods used, generally for
the higher flash points, are the Tag closed cup (Ta- flavin nucleotides. Nucleotide coenzymes con-
gliabue closed cup, TCC) and Cleveland open cup taining riboflavin, either FMN or FAD.
(COC). The open cup method more nearly approxi-
mates actual conditions. flavone. (2-phenylchromone). One of a group of
See flammable material. flavonoid plant pigments existing as colorless nee-
dles, that are insoluble in water and melting at 100C.
flatting agent. A substance ground into minute It fluoresces violet in concentrated sulfuric acid. It
particles of irregular shape and used in paints and can be synthesized. Treatment with alcoholic alkali
varnishes to disperse incident light rays so that a dull yields flavanone. The flavones produce ivory and
or flat effect is produced. Standard flatting agents yellow colors in plants and flowers.
are heavy-metal soaps, finely divided silica, and See flavonoid.
diatomaceous earth.
flavonoid. A group of aromatic, oxygen-contain-
flavanol. (3-hydroxyflavone). A derivative of ing, heterocyclic pigments widely distributed
flavanone; yellow needles melting at 169C, has vio- among higher plants. They constitute most of the
let fluorescence in concentrated sulfuric acid. It is a yellow, red, and blue colors in flowers and fruits.
flavonoid pigment. Dyes cotton a bright yellow Exceptions are the carotenoids. The flavonoids in-
when mordanted with aluminum hydroxide. Other clude the following subgroups: (1) catechins; (2)
hydroxyflavones are chrysin, fisetin, and quercitin. leucoanthocyanidins and flavanones; (3) flavanins,
Eleven different flavonols are known. Not identical flavones, and anthocyanins; and (4) flavonols.
to flavonol. For details consult specific entries.

flavonol. (flavon-3-ol). A flavonoid plant pig- “Flectol” [Solutia]. TM for polymerized 1,2-
ment giving ivory and yellow colors to flowers. Not dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline.
identical with flavanol. Use: Rubber antioxidant to retard oxidation, deterio-
ration, and normal aging in belts, tires, hoses, re-
flavoprotein. An enzyme containing a FMN or tread, rubber, and general mechanics.
FAD as a tightly bound prosthetic group.
See flavin enzyme. Fleming, Sir Alexander. (1881–1955). A
Scottish biochemist and bacteriologist who discov-
flavor. (1) The simultaneous physiological and ered (1928) the bactericidal properties of molds pro-
psychological response obtained from a substance duced from the plant Penicillium notatum. A broad
in the mouth that includes the senses of taste (salty, spectrum of antibiotics has been developed from this
sour, bitter, sweet), smell (fruity, pungent), and feel. discovery.
The sense of feel as related to flavor encompasses See antibiotic.
only the effect of chemical action on the mouth
membranes such as heat from pepper, coolness from “Flexamine G” [Uniroyal]. TM for a mixture
peppermint, and the like (Institute of Food Technol- of N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine and a com-
ogists). No reliable correlation of taste with chemi- plex diarylamine-ketone reaction product.
cal structure has yet been possible. Flavor is a criti- Properties: Brownish-gray granules. D 1.20, melt-
cal factor in the acceptability of foods, medicines, ing range 75–90C. “Flexamine S” is soluble in ace-
confectionery, and beverages. Flavors are used in tone, benzene, and ethylene dichloride and insoluble
insect and animal baits to induce ingestion of the in water and gasoline.
bait, also to prevent rodent attack on organic materi- Use: Antioxidant used in tires, camelback, wire insu-
als, e.g., tributyl tin in cable covers. Substances that lation, neoprene belting, and soles.
affect flavor often have a synergistic effect (for
example, monosodium glutamate and certain nucle- “Flexol” [Dow]. TM for a series of plasticizers
otides). Sodium chloride is classed as a seasoning and stabilizers including phthalates, adipates, poly-
agent. alkylene glycol derivatives, polymeric epoxies, de-
See potentiator; enhancer. canoates, octoates, hexoates, tri(2-ethylhex-
(2) Any substance or mixture of substances that yl)phosphate, and dibutyltin dilaurate.
contributes a positive taste to a food product, such as Use: Film and sheeting; flooring; coated fabrics;
vanillin, cacao, and fruit extracts among natural wire, cable and other extrusions; organosols; plasti-
products, together with numerous synthetic com- sols and plastigels; lacquers; and rubbers.
pounds that imitate or duplicate these tastes. Unde-
sirable or off flavors occur in milk, meat, and other “Flexomer” [Dow]. TM for very low density,
food products as a result of improper preparation, extremely flexible, olefin copolymers that bridge
oxidation, and incipient rancidity. There are over the gap between plastics and rubber.
1500 flavoring materials listed as food additives Use: For hose and tubing, ice and frozen-food bags,
under provisions of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics food packaging and stretch wrap, and impact modi-
Act. fiers when blended with other polymers.
See odor.
“Flexsil” [Ametek]. TM for for a high silica
Flavor Extract Manufacturers Association. refractory cloth filter designed to extract dross, slag,
(FEMA). The FEMA makes recommendations refractory particles, and nonmetallic inclusions
to the FDA on safety aspects of flavoring materials. from molten metals. An important property is its
Membership is composed of firms engaged in the chemically active surface.
manufacture and sale of flavoring extracts. It is lo- Use: In-mold filtration of gray, malleable, or white,
cated at 1620 I Street, NW, Ste. 925, Washington compacted graphite, and ductile cast irons, as well as
DC 20006. nonferrous aluminum- and copper-based alloys.

“Flexzone” [Uniroyal]. TM for a series of an-

flax. Bast fibers, approximately 20 inches long, tiozonants, antioxidants, and stabilizers based on p-
obtained from the stems of the linseed plant, Linum phenylenediamine.
usitatissimum. Stronger and more durable than cot-
ton. Combustible. flint. A crystalline form of native silica or quartz.
Use: Apparel fabrics (linens), thread, rope, twine, Properties: Smoky-gray, brownish, blackish or dull
cigarette paper, duplicating papers. yellowish in color; waxy to greasy luster. Mohs
hardness 6.5–7, d 2.60–2.65. More easily soluble in
flaxseed oil. See linseed oil. hot caustic alkali than is crystallized quartz.
Occurrence: Europe, U.S.
flecainide. Use: Abrasive; balls for ball mills; paint extender;
CAS: 54143-55-4. mf: C17H20F6N2O3. filler for fertilizer, insecticides, rubber, plastics, and
Hazard: Human systemic effects. road asphalt; ceramics; chemical tower packing.

“Flintflex” [Du Pont]. TM for air- or force- flooding, chemical. See chemical flooding.
dried organic coating system.
Use: Linings in interiors of containers that haul dry Flood reaction. Formation of trialkylsilyl ha-
bulk ladings of edibles or chemicals. Complies with lides from hexaalkyldisiloxanes using concentrated
FDA regulations. Accepted by the Meat Inspection sulfuric acid in the presence of ammonium chloride
Division of the USDA for interiors of freight cars, or fluoride, or by treatment of the intermediate sil-
motor trucks, and trailers and in federally inspected ane sulfates with hydrochloric acid in the presence
meat-processing plants. of ammonium sulfate.
flint glass. See glass, optical. “Floropryl” [Merck]. TM for diisopropyl
“FLIT”. [Clarke Mosquito]. Proprietary in-
secticide containing coal tar oil and refined petro-
Flory, Paul J. (1910–1986). An American
chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1974 for his
work in polymer chemistry. He published extensive
floatation. Purification and/or classification of work on the physical chemistry of polymers and
finely divided solids, e.g., clays, by passing them macromolecules. He held many medals and awards.
through an air blast. Do not confuse with flotation. Flory received his doctorate from Ohio State Uni-
versity in 1934. He was the C. J. Wood professor of
flocalcitriol. See hexafluorocalcitriol. chemistry at Stanford University.
flocculant. A substance that induces floccula- flotation. A method of separating minerals from
tion. Flocculants are used in water purification, liq- waste rock or solids of different kinds by agitating
uid waste treatment, and other special applications. the pulverized mixture of solids with water, oil, and
Inorganic flocculants are lime, alum, and ferric chlo- special chemicals that cause preferential wetting of
ride; polyelectrolytes are examples of organic floc- solid particles of certain types by the oil, while other
culants. kinds are not wet. The unwetted particles are carried
to the surface by the air bubbles and thus separated
flocculation. The combination or aggregation of from the wetted particles. A frothing agent is also
suspended colloidal particles in such a way that they used to stabilize the bubbles in the form of a froth
form small clumps or tufts. The word is derived from that can be easily separated from the body of the
this appearance. Carbon black displays a tendency liquid (froth flotation). Do not confuse with floata-
to flocculate in rubber when improperly dispersed, tion.
and some clays have the same property. Oil-well
drilling muds are made alkaline to prevent floccula-
tion of their components. Flocculation can often be flow cytometry. Analysis of biological material
reversed by agitation, because the cohesive forces by detection of the light-absorbing or fluorescing
are relatively weak. This is not true of other forms of properties of cells or subcellular fractions (i.e., chro-
aggregation (coalescence and coagulation), which mosomes) passing in a narrow stream through a
are irreversible. laser beam. An absorbance or fluorescence profile
See agglomeration; aggregation. of the sample is produced. Automated sorting de-
vices, used to fractionate samples, sort successive
droplets of the analyzed stream into different frac-
flocculation value. See coagulation value. tions depending on the fluorescence emitted by each
flock. A light powder, composed of ground wood
or cotton fibers, used as an extender or filler in
plastics, low-grade rubber, and flooring composi- flow diagram. (flow sheet). A chart or line
tions. drawing used by chemical engineers to indicate suc-
cessive steps in the production of a chemical, mate-
rials input and output, by-products, waste, and other
“Flo-Fre” [Oil-Dri]. (bentonite).
relevant data.
CAS: 1302-78-9. TM for flowability aid for soybean
meal and other feeds.
Use: Drying agent in fertilizer impregnations. flow karyotyping. Use of flow cytometry to
analyze and/or separate chromosomes on the basis
“Flo-Gard” [PPG]. TM for amorphous calci- of their DNA content.
um polysilicate used as an anticaking agent for salt.
flowers. A fine powder usually resulting from
“Flomet-Z” [Mallinckrodt]. TM for a fine, sublimation of a substance, e.g., flowers of sulfur.
white, grit-free powder containing 12.5–14.0% zinc The term is now obsolete.
Use: Lubricant in powdered iron metallurgy. flowers of Benjamin. See benzoic acid.

flox. A mixture of liquid fluorine (30%) and liquid teins that create a mosaic. Both protein and lipid
oxygen (70%), designed for use as a space-vehicle components of the bilayer are able to move but
propellant. exhibit both structural and functional asymmetry.
Hazard: Explosively flammable.
fluid, supercritical. See supercritical fluid.
CAS: 69806-50-4. mf: C19H20F3NO4. fluoboric acid. (fluoroboric acid; hydrogen
Properties: Pale straw-colored, odorless liquid. Bp: tetrafluoroborate).
165°, mp: 13°, d: 1.21 @ 20°. CAS: 16872-11-0. HBF4.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Properties: Colorless. Strongly acidic liquid. D ap-
Use: Food additive; herbicide; agricultural chemical. proximately 1.84; bp 130C (decomposes). Miscible
with water and alcohol.
fluazinam. See 3-chloro-n-(5-chloro-2,6-dini- Derivation: Action of boric and sulfuric acids on
tro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5. fluorspar.
Grade: Technical (approximately 48%), pure.
flucarbazone-sodium. Hazard: Highly toxic, corrosive, irritant.
CAS: 181274-17-9. mf: C12H10F3N4O6S•Na. Use: Production of fluoborates, electrolytic brighten-
Hazard: Moderately toxic. ing of aluminum, throwing power aid in electrolytic
plating baths, esterification catalyst, metal cleaning,
flucythrinate. See (+)cyano(3-phenoxyphe- making stabilized diazo salt.
fluometuron. (N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-
fluid. Any material or substance that changes N′,N′dimethylurea).
shape or direction uniformly in response to an exter- CAS: 2164-17-2. C10H11F3N2O.
nal force imposed on it. The term applies not only to Properties: Crystalline solid. Mp 163C. Partially
liquids but also gases and finely divided solids. soluble in water; soluble in alcohol and acetone.
Fluids are broadly classified as Newtonian and non- Derivation: Reaction of dimethylamine with 3-tri-
Newtonian depending on their obedience to the laws fluoromethylphenyl isocyanate.
of classical mechanics. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.
See liquid, Newtonian; rheology; fluidization; hy- Use: Herbicide.
draulic fluid.
fluophosphate alkyl ester. See diisopropyl
fluid bed. See fluidization. fluorophosphate.
fluidization. A technique in which a finely divid- fluor. See phosphor.
ed solid is caused to behave like a fluid by suspend-
ing it in a moving gas or liquid. The solids so treated
are frequently catalysts, hence the term fluid cataly- fluoranthene. (idryl).
sis. The fluidized catalyst, e.g., alumina-silica gel, is CAS: 206-44-0. C16H10. A tetracyclic hydrocarbon.
brought into intimate contact with the suspending Properties: Colored needles. Fp 107C, bp 250C (60
liquid or gas mix, usually a petroleum fraction. Lo- mm Hg). Insoluble in water; soluble in ether and
cal overheating of the catalyst is greatly reduced, benzene. Combustible.
and portions of catalyst can be easily removed for Derivation: From coal tar.
regeneration without shutting down the unit. There
are also noncatalytic applications of fluidization, fluorapatite. See apatite.
e.g., reduction of iron ore. Important uses of the
fluidized bed process are (1) cracking of petroleum fluorbenside. ClC6H4CH2SC6H4F. (generic
fractions, (2) gasification of coal, (3) application of name accepted for p-chlorobenzyl-p-fluorophe-
organic coatings to metals (fusion bond method), (4) nyl sulfide).
coal combustion, in which sulfur-bearing coal Properties: Crystals, mp 36C, insoluble in water,
(1.33-inch diameter) is fed into a fluidized bed of soluble in acetone and oils.
limestone. Combustion occurs at 1600F, at which Use: Acaricide.
temperature the limestone is reduced to lime, which
reacts with the sulfur in the coal to form gypsum. “Fluorel” [3M]. TM for a fully saturated fluori-
This technique makes possible the use of high-sulfur nated polymer containing more than 60% fluorine
coal without necessity of scrubbers. The bed materi- by weight.
al is approximately 5% coal and 95% limestone Use: O-rings, gaskets, hoses, wire and fabric coat-
products. ings, diaphragms, fuel cells, expellent bladders,
sealants, insulation, containers.
fluid mosaic model. A model proposed by
Singer and Nicholson, describing biological mem- fluorene. (␣-diphenylenemethane).
branes as a fluid lipid bilayer with embedded pro- CAS: 86-73-7.

fluorescent brightener 220. See C.I. fluor-

escent brightener 220.

fluoridation. Addition to public drinking water

supplies of 1 ppm of a fluoride salt for the purpose of
Properties: Small, white, crystalline plates; fluores- reducing the incidence of dental caries. The chemi-
cent when impure. Mp 116C, bp 295C (decom- cals most commonly used for city fluoridation pro-
grams are fluosilicic acid, sodium silicofluoride,
poses). Soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, and car-
and sodium fluoride. The concentration used has
bon disulfide; insoluble in water. Combustible.
been established to be far below the permissible
Derivation: By reduction of diphenylene ketone
level of toxicity of fluorine-containing compounds
with zinc, from coal tar.
in the human body. The program was successfully
Grade: Technical, 98% pure.
tested for over 20 years on local populations and
Use: Resinous products, dyestuffs.
since then has been widely adopted in large cities in
the U.S. The protection is especially effective for
9-fluorenone. children, whose teeth are usually more susceptible
CAS: 486-25-9. C13H8O. to caries than those of adults. Fluorine is a bone-
Properties: Solid. Mw 180.21, mp 82−85C, bp seeking element; tooth protection is due to the abili-
342C. ty of fluoride ion to replace other ions in hydroxyap-
Use: Intermediate. atite, the chief mineral component of bones and
teeth. Fluorides are used in toothpastes and other
fluorescein. (resorcinolphthalein; diresorcinol-
phthalein; CI 45350). fluorinated ethylene-propylene resin.
CAS: 2321-07-5. C20H12O5 (FEP resin). A copolymer of tetrafluoroethyl-
Properties: Orange-red, crystalline powder. Very ene and hexafluoropropylene with properties simi-
dilute alkaline solutions exhibit intense greenish- lar to polytetrafluoroethylene resin. The repeating
yellow fluorescence by reflected light, while the structure of the molecule is
solution is reddish-orange by transmitted light. Mp [−CF2−CF2−CF2CF(CF3)−]n.
decomposes at 290C; soluble in dilute alkalies, boil- See “Teflon.”
ing alcohol, ether, dilute acids, and glacial acetic Properties: Similar to polytetrafluoroethylene but
acid; insoluble in water, benzene, chloroform. Com- has a higher coefficient of friction.
bustible. Available forms: Extrusion and molding powder,
Derivation: By heating phthalic anhydride and res- aqueous dispersion, film, monofilament fiber, and
orcinol. nonsticking finish.
Grade: The sodium salt (uranine) and potassium salt Use: Wire and cable insulation, pipe linings, lining
are marketed. for processing equipment. Fibers are used for filtra-
Use: Dyeing seawater for spotting purposes, tracer to tion screening and mist separators.
locate impurities in wells, dyeing silk and wool,
diagnostic aid in ophthalmology, indicator and re- fluorine.
agent for bromine. CAS: 7782-41-4. F. Nonmetallic halogen element in
See uranine. group 17 of the periodic table. An 9, aw 18.99840,
valence of 1, no other stable isotopes, the most
fluorescence. A type of luminescence in which electronegative element and most powerful oxidiz-
an atom or molecule emits visible radiation in pass- ing agent known.
ing from a higher to a lower electronic state. The Properties: Pale-yellow diatomic gas or liquid; pun-
term is restricted to phenomena in which the time gent odor. Bp −188C, fp −219C, d (gas) 1.695 (air =
interval between absorption and emission of energy 1.29), d (liquid) 1.108 (−188C), sp vol 10.2 cu ft/lb
is extremely short (10−8 to 10−3 second). This distin- (21C). Reacts vigorously with most oxidizable sub-
guishes fluorescence from phosphorescence, in stances at room temperature, frequently with igni-
which the time interval may extend to several hours. tion; forms fluorides with all elements except heli-
Fluorescent materials may be liquid or solid, organic um, neon, and argon.
or inorganic. Fluorescent crystals such as zinc or Occurrence: Widely distributed to the extent of
cadmium sulfide are used in lamp tubes, television 0.03% of the earth’s crust. The chief minerals are
screens, scintillation counters, and similar devices. fluorapatite, cryolite, and fluorspar (Spain, Mexico,
Fluorescent dyes are used for labeling molecules in South Africa).
biochemical research. Derivation: Electrolysis of molten anhydrous hydro-
See phosphorescence; phosphor; resonance (2). fluoric acid–potassium fluoride melts with special
copper-bearing carbon anodes, steel cathodes and
containers, and Monel screens.
fluorescent brightener 85. See C.I. fluores- Hazard: Powerful oxidizing agent; though non-
cent brightener 85. flammable, it reacts violently with a wide range of

both organic and inorganic compounds and thus is a Use: Agricultural chemical.
dangerous fire and explosion risk in contact with
such materials. Toxic by inhalation, extremely fluoroboric acid. Legal label name (Air) for
strong irritant to tissue. TLV: 1 ppm; STEL 2 ppm. fluoboric acid.
Use: Production of metallic and other fluorides; pro-
duction of fluorocarbons, active constituent of fluo- fluorocarbon. Any of a number of organic com-
ridating compounds used in drinking water, tooth- pounds analogous to hydrocarbons in which the
pastes, etc. hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine. The
term is loosely used to include fluorocarbons that
fluorine cyanide. See cyanogen fluoride. contain chlorine; these should properly be called
chlorofluorocarbons or fluorocarbon chloride, since
fluorine nitrate. they deplete the ozone layer of the upper atmo-
CAS: 7789-26-6. FNO3. sphere.
Properties: Gas or liquid. Ignites in contact with See chlorofluorocarbon.
alcohol, aniline, and ether. Properties: Fluorocarbons are chemically inert, non-
Hazard: Strong oxidizing agent, liquid explodes on flammable, and stable to heat up to 260–315C. They
shock or friction. are denser and more volatile than the corresponding
Use: Rocket propellants. hydrocarbons and have low refractive indices, low
dielectric constants, low solubilities, low surface
fluoroacetic acid. tensions, and viscosities comparable to hydrocar-
CAS: 144-49-0. CH2FCOOH. bons. Some are compressed gases and others are
Properties: Colorless crystal. Mp 33C, bp 165C. liquids.
Soluble in water and alcohol. Hazard: Nonflammable; reacts violently with reac-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. tive substances, e.g., barium, sodium, and potas-
Use: Rodenticide. sium.
Use: Refrigerants, solvents, blowing agents, fire ex-
fluoroacetophenone. (phenacyl fluoride; tinguishment, lubricants and hydraulic fluids, flota-
phenyl fluoromethylketone). C6H5COCH2F. tion and damping fluids, dielectric, plastics, electri-
Properties: Brown liquid; pungent odor. Bp 98C (8 cal insulation, wax coatings for alkali cleaning
mm Hg). tanks, air- conditioning. Note: Many of these com-
Derivation: By Friedel-Crafts synthesis. pounds are designated by a number system preceded
Hazard: Irritant. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3. by the word refrigerant, propellant, fluorocarbon or
by a TM (“Freon,” “Ucon,” “Genetron”).
p-fluoroaniline. They are cross-referenced in this book as follows:
CAS: 371-40-4. FC6H4NH2. 11. See trichlorofluoromethane.
Properties: Liquid. D 1.1524 (25C), bp 187.4C, fp 12. See dichlorodifluoromethane.
−2C, refr index 1.5395 (20C). 13. See chlorotrifluoromethane.
Hazard: Toxic material. 14. See tetrafluoromethane.
Use: Intermediate (herbicides), preparation of p-fluo- 21. See dichlorofluoromethane.
rophenol. 22. See chlorofluoromethane.
See aniline. 23. See fluoroform.
113. See 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane.
fluorobenzene. (phenyl fluoride). 114. See 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane.
CAS: 462-06-6. C6H5F. 115. See chloropentafluoroethane.
Properties: Colorless liquid; benzene odor. D 116. See hexafluoroethane.
1.0252 (20C), refr index 1.4646 (25C), bp 84.9C, fp
−40C. Insoluble in water, miscible with alcohol and fluorocarbon polymer. This term includes po-
ether. lytetrafluoroethylene, polymers of chlorotrifluoroe-
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Irritant. thylene, fluorinated ethylene-propylene polymers,
TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3. polyvinylidene fluoride, hexafluoropropylene, etc.
Use: Insecticide and larvicide intermediate, identifi- Properties: Thermoplastic; resistant to chemicals
cation reagent for plastic or resin polymers. and oxidation; broad useful temperature range (up to
287C); high dielectric constant; resistant to mois-
1-(2-(4-(6-fluoro-1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)-1- ture, weathering, ozone, and UV radiation. Their
piperidinyl)ethyl)-3-phenyl-2- structure comprises a straight backbone of carbon
imidazolidinone. atoms symmetrically surrounded by fluorine atoms.
CAS: 200398-40-9. mf: C23H25FN4O2. Noncombustible.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Available forms: Powders, dispersions, film, sheet,
tubes, rods, tapes, and fibers.
p-fluorobenzoic acid 2-phenylhydrazide. Use: High-temperature wire and cable insulation,
CAS: 1496-02-2. mf: C13H11FN2O. electrical equipment, drug and chemical equipment,
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. coating of cooking utensils, piping gaskets, continu-

ous sheet, bonding industrial diamonds to metal ponents after testing, bp range 31–173C, high die-
(grinding wheels). lectric strength, colorless, nonflammable.
See fluoroelastomer.
fluorol. See sodium fluoride.
fluorochemical. Organic compounds, not nec-
essarily hydrocarbons, in which a large percentage “Fluorolubes” [Occidental]. TM for poly-
of the hydrogen directly attached to carbon has been mers of trifluorovinyl chloride (−CF2−CFCl−)x con-
replaced by fluorine. The presence of two or more taining 49% fluorine and 31% chlorine. Products are
fluorine atoms on a carbon atom usually imparts light oils, heavy oils, and greaselike materials.
stability and inertness to the compound, and fluorine Use: Lubricant and sealant for plug cocks, valves,
usually increases the acidity of organic acids. and vacuum pumps; impregnant for gaskets and
Derivation: (1) Electrolysis of solutions in hydrogen packings; fluid for hydraulic equipment, heat ex-
fluoride (Simons process); (2) replacement of chlo- change, and instrument damping.
rine or bromine by fluorine with hydrogen fluoride
in the presence of a catalyst (antimony trifluoride or
pentafluoride); (3) addition of hydrogen fluoride to fluoromethane. (methyl fluoride).
olefins or acetylene. CAS: 593-53-3. CH3F.
Use: Dielectric and heat-transfer liquids, pump seal- Properties: Colorless gas. Bp −78.2C, fp −142C, d
ants, surfactants, metering devices, special solvents. 1.19 (air = 1.29). Soluble in alcohol and ether.
See fluorocarbon; fluoroelastomer. Hazard: Flammable. Narcotic in high concentra-
tions. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3.
5-fluorocytosine. (flucytosine).
CAS: 2022-85-7. C4H4FN3O. fluorometholone. (9-fluoro-11,17-dihydroxy-
Properties: Crystalline solid. Mw 129.09, mp 295C 6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione; fluormeth-
(decomposes), light sensitive. olone). C22H29FO4.
Properties: Crystalline solid. Mp 292−303C.
fluorodichloromethane. See dichlorofluoro- Use: A steroid, glucocorticoid, antiinflammatory.
fluoroelastomer. Any elastomeric high polymer dimethyl-1h-pyrrole, el-(2r,3r)-2,3-
containing fluorine; they may be homopolymers or dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1).
copolymers. Fluorocarbon polymers include a large CAS: 326800-76-4. mf: C16H16FN•C4H6O6.
group of fluoroelastomers, including a copolymer in Hazard: A poison.
which the molecular skeleton is a −P==N− chain
containing approximately equal numbers of tri- and 3-(6-fluoro-2-naphthalenyl)-1,2-dimethyl
heptafluoroethoxy side groups. Such polymers are (2r,3s)-rel-3-pyrrolidinol hydrochloride.
amorphous, thermally stable, noncombustible. Gen- CAS: 302959-28-0. mf: C16H18FNO•ClH.
erally resistant to attack by solvents and chemicals, Hazard: A poison.
have low glass transition temperature (−77C), and
are generally resistant to attack by solvents and fluoronitrofen.
chemicals. CAS: 13738-63-1. mf: C12H6Cl2FNO3.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.
fluoroform. (trifluoromethane; propellant 23; Use: Agricultural chemical.
refrigerant 23).
CAS: 75-46-7. CHF3.
Properties: Colorless gas. Bp −84C, mp −160C. p-fluorophenol. (4-fluorophenol).
Nonflammable. CAS: 371-41-5. FC6H4OH.
Grade: 98% min purity. Properties: White, crystalline solid. D 1.1889 (56C),
Use: Refrigerant, intermediate in organic synthesis, mp 48.2C (stable form), 28.5C (unstable form), bp
direct coolant for infrared detector cells, blowing 185.6C. Soluble in water.
agent for urethane foams. Hazard: Irritant.
Use: Fungicide, intermediate for pharmaceuticals.
fluoroformyl fluoride. See carbonyl fluo-
ride. 2-(4-fluorophenyl)imidazo(2,1-
“Fluorographite” [Atofina]. TM for fluori- CAS: 61001-09-0. mf: C17H11FN2.
nated graphite cathode material. Hazard: A reproductive hazard.
Use: Lithium anode batteries, lubricant chromato-
graphic materials. 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-n-(4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-
“Fluoroinert” [3M]. TM for a series of per- CAS: 315706-75-3. mf: C18H24FNO.
fluorinated liquids used for cleaning electronic com- Hazard: A poison by ingestion.

8-fluoro-n-(2-(4-phenyl-2-thiazolyl)ethyl)-4- fluorspar. (fluorite; florspar). CaF2. Natural

quinolinamine. calcium fluoride; yellow, green, or purple crystals.
CAS: 124533-50-2. mf: C20H16FN3S. Mohs hardness 4, d 3.2, mp 1350C.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Grade: Metallurgical; ceramic and acid, containing
more than 85 and 98% CaF2, respectively.
fluorophosphoric acid, anhydrous. Occurrence: U.S., Canada, Europe, Mexico.
CAS: 13537-32-1. H2PO3F. Use: Principal source of fluorine and its compounds
Properties: Colorless, viscous liquid. D 1.1818 by way of hydrogen fluoride, flux in open-hearth
(25C). Miscible with water. steel furnaces and in metal smelting, in ceramics, for
Hazard: Strong irritant to tissue. synthetic cryolite, in carbon electrodes, emery
Use: Metal cleaners, electrolytic or chemical polish- wheels, electric arc welders, certain cements, denti-
ing agents, formation of protective coatings for met- frices, phosphors, paint pigment, catalyst in wood
al surfaces, catalyst. preservatives, optical equipment.
See difluorophosphoric acid; hexafluorophosphoric
acid. fluosilicate. A salt of fluosilicic acid, H2SiF6.
4-fluoro-n-(4-propylcyclohexyl)benzamide. fluosilicic acid. (hydrofluosilicic acid; fluoro-
CAS: 315706-67-3. mf: C16H22FNO. silicic acid; hexafluorosilicic acid; hydrogen
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. hexafluorosilicate; hydrosilicofluoric acid; hy-
drofluorosilicic acid).
6-fluoro-7-(1-pyrrolyl)-1-ethyl-1,4-dihydro- CAS: 16961-83-4. H2SiF6.
4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. Properties: Aqueous solution: Colorless fuming liq-
CAS: 91524-15-1. mf: C16H13FN2O3. uid. Attacks glass and stoneware.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion. Derivation: By-product of the action of sulfuric acid
on phosphate rock containing fluorides and silica or
fluorosilicic acid. See fluosilicic acid. silicates. The hydrogen fluoride acts on the silica to
produce silicon tetrafluoride, SiF4, which reacts with
fluorosulfonic acid. See fluosulfonic acid. water to form fluosilicic acid, H2SiF6.
Grade: Technical, CP.
fluorosulfuric acid. See fluosulfonic acid. Hazard: Extremely corrosive by skin contact and
fluorothane. (ethyl fluoride). CH3CH2F. Use: Water fluoridation, ceramics (to increase
Use: Replaces ether in surgery. hardness), disinfecting copper and brass vessels,
hardening cement, etc., wood preservative and im-
n-(2-fluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylthio)- pregnating compounds, electroplating, manufacture
methanesulfoanilide. of aluminum fluoride, synthetic cryolite and hydro-
CAS: 22729-75-5. mf: C9H8Cl4FNO2S2. gen fluoride, sterilizing bottling and brewing equip-
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion. ment (1–2% solution).
Use: Agricultural chemical.

5-fluoro-3-(tetrahydro-2-furyl)uracil. fluosulfonic acid. (fluorosulfuric acid; fluo-

CAS: 63901-83-7. mf: C8H9FN2O3. rosulfonic acid).
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. CAS: 7789-21-1. HSO3F.
Properties: Colorless, fuming liquid. D 1.745 (15C);
fluorothene. See chlorotrifluoroethylene fp −87C; bp 165C. Soluble in nitrobenzene. Reacts
polymer. violently with water, does not attack glass.
Derivation: Reaction of anhydrous hydrogen fluo-
8-fluoro-n-(2-(2-thienyl)ethyl)-4- ride with sulfuric acid or sulfuric acid anhydride.
quinolinamine. Hazard: Extremely irritating to eyes and tissue.
CAS: 124533-68-2. mf: C15H13FN2S. Use: Catalyst in organic synthesis, electropolishing,
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. fluorinating agent.

fluorotrichloromethane. See trichlorofluoro- flushed color. A pigment dispersed in oil, var-

methane. nish, etc., the transfer from the water phase to the oil
phase having been effected without the usual drying
5-fluorouracil. [5-fluoro-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidi- and subsequent grinding of the dry pigment. It is
nedione]. claimed that flushed colors are ready for use without
CAS: 51-21-8. C4H3FN2O2. grinding.
Properties: Crystalline solid. Mw 130.08, mp 282C
(decomposes). Soluble in water or methanol-water fluvoxamine.
mixtures. CAS: 54739-18-3. mf: C15H21F3N2O2.
Use: Antineoplastic agent. Hazard: A poison.

fluvoxamine maleate. etc. Useful foams for automobile seats, mattresses,

CAS: 61718-82-9. mf: C15H21F3N2O2•C4H4O4. and similar uses are made from natural and synthetic
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Human systemic latexes, e.g., polystyrene, polyurethane. A glass
effects. foam is based on sodium silicate and rock wool, and
vitreous ceramic foams are also available. Metals
flux. (1) A substance that promotes the fusing of can be caused to foam. Concrete foams are also in
minerals or metals or prevents the formation of ox- general use. Foams designed for fire extinguishment
ides. For example, in metal refining lime is added to are agglomerations of small bubbles of gas produced
the furnace charge to absorb mineral impurities in by two methods: (1) by chemical reaction between
the metal. A slag is formed that floats on the bath and aluminum sulfate and sodium bicarbonate to gener-
is run off. (2) A substance applied to metals that are ate carbon dioxide (chemical foams), and (2) by
to be united. On application of heat, it aids the flow mixing or agitation of air with water containing the
of solder and prevents formation of oxides. (3) Any foaming ingredients (mechanical foams). The two
readily fusible glass or enamel used as a base or types are equally efficient in fire-extinguishing abil-
ground in ceramic processing. (4) The rate of flow or ity. Besides the foaming ingredients, the foams con-
transfer of electricity, magnetism, water, heat, ener- tain stabilizing agents to assure permanence; there
gy, etc., the term being used to denote the quantity are many of these, for example, soaps, proteins,
that crosses a unit area of a given surface in a unit of extract of licorice root, fatty acids, and sulfite li-
time. (5) The intensity of neutron radiation, ex- quors. The ingredients of chemical foams are assem-
pressed as the number of neutrons passing through bled in two separate units, which generate the foam
one square centimeter in one second. (6) A mixture on blending. Fire foams are used primarily on fires
of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; oxidizing agent in hydrocarbon liquids (class B fires). There are
used as a low explosive. many special types tailored for specific uses. Some
fire-protection systems for aircraft include an in-
fluxing lime. See calcium oxide. stant-generating foam for cabin interiors, using a
2.5% aqueous solution of alkyl sulfonate and rigid
fly ash. The very fine ash produced by combus- polyurethane foams for use in fuel tanks.
tion of powdered coal with forced draft and often See fire extinguishment.
carried off with the flue gases. Special equipment is An unusually stable foam that remains intact much
required for effective recovery, e.g., electrostatic longer than fire-fighting foams has been developed
precipitators. Fly ash is a mixture of alumina, silica, at Sandia National Laboratories. It results from a
unburned carbon, and various metallic oxides. It is synergistic action caused when a water-soluble
reported to have mutagenic properties after passing polymer and a fatty alcohol are blended with a sol-
through stack precipitators. The alumina is recover- vent and a surfactant. A possible agricultural use
able by calsintering, which makes it a possible alter- would be in insecticide application.
native source of aluminum.
Use: Cement additive for oil-well casings, absorbent
for oil spills (silicone-coated), to replace lime in
foam, metal. A cellular metallic structure, usu-
ally of aluminum or zinc alloys, made by incorporat-
scrubbing sulfur dioxide from flue gas, as a filler in
ing titanium or zirconium hydride in the base metal.
plastics, source of germanium (England), proposed
This subsequently evolves hydrogen to produce a
as catalyst for coal liquefaction, removal of heavy
uniform, foamlike material. Its density is approxi-
metals from industrial wastewaters, separation of
mately that of seawater so that it is weightless when
oil-sand tailings.
submerged. The principal use of foamed metals is in
See calsintering.
absorption of shock impact without elastic rebound.
Fiber-reinforced light-metal foams have potential
Fm. Symbol for fermium. application in reducing the weight of automobile
FMN. Abbreviation for flavin mononucleotide.
See riboflavin phosphate.
foam, plastic. A cellular plastic that may be
foam. A dispersion of a gas in a liquid or solid. either flexible or rigid. Flexible foams may be poly-
The gas globules may be of any size, from colloidal urethane, rubber latex, polyethylene, or vinyl poly-
to macroscopic, as in soap bubbles. Bakers’ bread mers; rigid foams are chiefly polystyrene, polyure-
and sponge rubber are examples of solid foams. thane, epoxy, and polyvinyl chloride. The blowing
Typical liquid foams are those used in fire-fighting, agents used are sodium bicarbonate, halocarbons
shaving creams, etc. In such foams, the liquid must such as CCl3F, and hydrazine. Flexible polystyrene
have sufficient cohesion to form an elastic film, e.g., foam is available in extruded sheets and also in the
soap, oil, protein, fatty acids, etc. Surfactant-in- form of beads made by treating a polystyrene sus-
duced foams have been developed to increase the pension with pentane; these expand from 30 to 50
efficiency of fuel cells. Foams made by mechanical times on heating and are used as automobile radiator
incorporation of air are widely used in the food sealants. Rigid foams are widely used for boat con-
industry, e.g., whipped cream, egg white, ice cream, struction, filtration, fillers in packing cases, absorp-
577 FOOD

tion of oil spills, and building insulation. The latter Grade: 10% feed grade, USP.
application involves a fire risk described below. Use: Medicine, nutrition, food additive (maximum
Hazard: The most widely used types of organic foam daily ingestion not to exceed 0.01 mg).
plastics (polystyrene, polyurethane, polyisocyanu- See folinic acid.
rate) are combustible; even when fire-retardant
agents are incorporated, such foams will burn. The folinic acid. (5-formyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropter-
extent of burning or fire severity will vary with oyl-l-glutamic acid; citrovorum factor; leucove-
surface treatment, end-use location, recipe, and de- rin). C20H23N7O7. A member of the folic acid group
gree of protection. Thin coatings of fire-retardant of vitamins and a growth factor for the bacterium
paint, metal, or automatic sprinkler systems may not Leuconostoc citrovorum. Folinic acid is an impor-
adequately protect against rapid fire spread. Organic tant metabolite of folic acid and may be the active
foamed plastic surfaces should not be left exposed. form in cellular metabolism. It is an effective hema-
Multiple adjacent surfaces such as walls and ceiling topoietic factor. Ascorbic acid and vitamin B12 are
create a most severe hazard because of the chemical essential for the conversion of folic acid to folinic
kinetics associated with radiative, conductive, and acid.
convective currents developed during a building Properties: (dl form): Crystals. Decompose
fire. New methods of making such plastic foams as 240–250C. Sparingly soluble in water.
polyurethane that are reported to reduce their com- Derivation: (1) Prepared by catalytic reduction of
bustibility have been developed, for example, use of folic acid, (2) produced microbially.
trichlorobutylene oxide instead of propylene oxide. Use: Medicine, nutrition, biochemical research.
Use of urea-formaldehyde foams for building insu-
lation has been restricted in some areas due to poten- folpet. (phaltan; (N-(trichloromethylthio)-
tial toxic effect of the formaldehyde. phthalimide)).
CAS: 133-07-3. C6H4(CO)2NSCCl3.
fob. Abbreviation for “freight on board,” a desig- Properties: Light-colored powder. Insoluble in wa-
nation used in shipping a material to indicate that ter, slightly soluble in organic solvents.
freight charges are to be paid by the purchaser. This Use: Fungicide-bactericide for vinyls, paints, and
is in contrast to “freight prepaid and allowed,” indi- enamels.
cating that freight charges are paid by the manufac-
turer. “Fomerez” [Crompton & Knowles]. TM
for a series of polyester and polyether resins, stan-
fog. A suspension of liquid droplets in air; an nous octoate catalysts, and coupling agents used in
aerosol. The size of the droplets ranges from colloi- the manufacture of urethane foams.
dal to macroscopic. “Synthetic” fogs can be pro-
duced on a laboratory scale by ultrasonic vibrations, fonofos. See dyfonate.
and natural fogs can be precipitated by the same
means. Mists or fogs composed of atomized parti- “Fonoline” [Crompton & Knowles]. TM
cles of oil are used as military concealment screens for petrolatum of soft consistency and low melting
and for insecticidal purposes in orchards and truck point with color range of white to yellow and meet-
gardens. ing USP or NF purity requirements for petrolatum.
See smog; chemical smoke; aerosol.
fonophos. (ethylphosphonodithioic acid-O-eth-
folacin. See folic acid. yl-S-phenyl ester).
CAS: 944-22-9. C10H15OPS2.
folic acid. (pteroylglutamic acid; folacin; Properties: Yellow liquid. Insoluble in water; misci-
PGA). C19H19N7O6. Considered a member of the ble with organic solvents.
vitamin B complex. At least three substances with Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor.
folic acid activity occur in nature, one of which, Use: Insecticide, soil fumigant.
pteroylglutamic acid, is made synthetically.
Properties: Pteroylglutamic acid: Orange-yellow food. Any substance or mixture that, when ingest-
needles or platelets; tasteless; odorless. Slightly sol- ed by humans or animals, contributes to the mainte-
uble in methanol and sparingly soluble in water; nance of vital processes. With the exception of sodi-
insoluble in acetone, ether, benzene; moderately um chloride and water, all foods are derived from
soluble in dilute alkali hydroxide and carbonate so- plants, either by direct consumption or by ingestion
lutions; stable in heat in neutral and alkaline solu- of animal tissue or such animal products as eggs,
tion; destroyed by heating with acid; inactivated by milk, etc., which are derived metabolically from
light. vegetable sources. Basic foods are composed of
Source: Green plant tissue, fresh fruit, liver, and proteins, fats (lipids), and carbohydrates, together
yeast. Synthetic pteroylglutamic acid made by the with vitamins and minerals. Ancillary items that are
reaction of 2,3-di-bromopropanol, 2,4,5-triamino- associated with foods, though with little or no nutri-
6-hydroxypyrimidine, and p-aminobenzoyl glutam- tive value, are collectively called food additives,
ic acid. e.g., flavorings, spices, preservatives, and colorants.

Many of these are also plant-derived, though some ics, conditions of state and equilibrium, rate pro-
are now made synthetically. cesses, and transport phenomena. The unit
See plant (1); nutrient. operations of chemical engineering and basic phys-
ics and mechanics are also involved.
food additive. (1) Intentional: The Food Protec-
tion Committee of the National Research council food starch, modified.
states that a food additive is “a substance or mixture Properties: White powders; tasteless and odorless.
other than a basic foodstuff that is present in food as Insol in water, alc, ether, chloroform.
a result of any aspect of production, processing, Use: Food additive.
storage, or packaging.” (2) Unintentional: Sub-
stances that may become part of a food product as a food technology. Practice of the techniques
result of chance contamination, such as insecticide used in the preparation of foods for large-scale hu-
residues, fertilizers, and the like. The permissible man use. Among others these include harvesting,
content of insecticide residues has been established postharvest treatment, all forms of cooking, tender-
by the FDA. The Food Additives Amendment to the izing, preservation by chemicals, heating, dehydra-
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act empowers the FDA tion, drying and freezing, distillation and solvent
to disapprove or discontinue any food additive that it extraction, milling, refining, hydrogenation, emulsi-
determines to be unsafe at the level of intended use, fication, packaging materials and storage, labeling,
based on data supplied by the manufacturer. and transportation. Other aspects of food technology
Note: Unintentional additives should more logically are bacteriology, sanitation, quality control, and for-
be called contaminants. mulation of ingredients for a wide variety of end
products. A recent development of importance is the
Food and Drug Administration. (FDA). growth of convenience and quick-service foods.
The federal agency responsible for administering
and enforcing the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, food web. The nutritional structure of an ecosys-
including the Food Additives Amendment, which tem in which more than one species occupies each
went into effect in March 1960 and has been exten- level. Thus, there are usually several producer spe-
ded and updated regularly. It has the authority to cies and several consumer species in a food web.
require proof of the efficacy and safety of drugs,
foods, and pharmaceuticals; to conduct and evaluate
screening tests; and to compel withdrawal from the
footprinting. A technique for identifying the nu-
cleic acid sequence bound either by a DNA- or by an
market of any such product that it finds ineffective
RNA-binding protein. This sequence is protected
or hazardous. It establishes tolerances on food and
from digestion by the protein.
animal feed additives of all types, including pesti-
cides, as well as on cosmetic products, flammable
fabrics, and packaging and labeling materials. It can foots. (soapstock). The mixture of soap, oil, and
also require specific statement on labels of the com- impurities that precipitates when natural fatty oils
ponents or ingredients of a product, as well as pre- are refined by treatment with caustic soda or soda
cautionary warnings. Headquarters are located at ash. Usually contains 30–50% free and combined
5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville MD 20857-0001. fatty acids. A related meaning is the suspended solid
Website: See Environmen- matter in crude oils.
tal Protection Agency; food additive. Use: Manufacture of relatively low-grade soaps, as a
source of free fatty acids.
food chain. The sequence of nutritional steps in
an ecosystem, with producers at the bottom and foots oil. The oil sweated out of slack wax. It
consumers at the top. takes its name from the fact that it goes to the bot-
tom, or foot, of the pan when sweated.
food color. (certified color). A colorant that See foots; slack; wax.
may be either dye (soluble) or a lake (insoluble)
permissible for use in foods, drugs, or cosmetics by “Foray” [Ansul]. TM for a monoammonium
the FDA. The dyes color by solution and the lakes by phosphate–based formulation used to extinguish
dispersion. All must satisfy strict regulations as to fires in flammable liquids (Class B fires) and in
toxicity. combustible materials such as wood and paper
See FD&C colors. (Class A fires).

food engineering. Application of engineering forensic chemistry. See legal chemistry.

principles to the design of equipment for large-scale
food processing, e.g., automatic harvesting devices, forensics (DNA). The use of DNA for identifi-
dryers of various types, crystallizers, ovens and heat cation. Some examples of DNA use are to establish
exchangers, comminuting and mixing equipment, paternity in child support cases; establish the pres-
distillation units, packaging machines. Food engi- ence of a suspect at a crime scene; and identify
neering requires an understanding of thermodynam- accident victims.

forge. A furnace used for heating and softening a Use: Rubber accelerator, intermediate.
metal in preparation for hot working, e.g., wrought
iron. formaldehyde bis(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl)
forging. Shaping a heated metal by means of CAS: 17003-79-1. mf: C5H6F2N4O10.
repeated impact, thus improving its strength. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.

formal. See methylal. formaldehyde cyanohydrin. See glycoloni-

formaldehyde. (oxymethylene; formic alde-
hyde; methanal). formaldehyde, polymer with
CAS: 50-00-0. HCHO. A readily polymerizable gas. (chloromethyl)oxirane and phenol.
Formaldehyde is commercially offered as a 37–50% CAS: 9003-36-5. mf: (C6H6O•C3H5ClO•CH2O)x
aqueous solution that may contain up to 15% metha- Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con-
nol to inhibit polymerization. These commercial tact. A mild skin irritant.
grades are called formalin. It is one of the few organ-
ic compounds known to exist in outer space. formaldehyde, polymer with 4-nonylphenol
and oxirane.
CAS: 30846-35-6. mf: (C15H24O•C2H4O•CH2O)x
Hazard: A mild eye irritant.

Properties: (Gas) Strong, pungent odor. Vap d 1.067 formaldehyde-p-toluidine. (methylene-p-to-

(air = 1.000), vap d 0.815, (-20/4C), bp −19C, fp - luidine). (CH3C6H4NCH2)x.
118C, autoign temp 806F (430C), soluble in water Properties: White powder with grayish-yellow cast;
and alcohol. (Aqueous 37% solution with 15% aromatic odor. D 1.11. Soluble in acetone.
methanol) Bp 96C, flash p 122F (50C). (Methanol Derivation: Reaction between formaldehyde and p-
free) Bp 101C, flash p 185F (85C). toluidine.
Derivation: Oxidation of synthetic methanol or low- Use: Rubber accelerator, dyes.
boiling petroleum gases such as propane and butane.
Silver, copper, or iron-molybdenum oxide are the formalin. An aqueous 37–50% solution of form-
most common catalysts. aldehyde that may contain 15% methyl alcohol.
Grade: Aqueous solutions: 37, 44, 50% inhibited See formaldehyde.
(with varying percentages of methanol) or stabilized
or unstabilized (methanol-free); also available in
solution in n-butanol, ethanol, or urea; USP (37% formamide. (methanamide).
aqueous solution containing methanol). CAS: 75-12-7. HCONH2.
See paraformaldehyde. Properties: Colorless, hygroscopic, oily liquid. D
Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Explosive limits in air 1.146, bp 200–212C with partial decomposition be-
7–73%. Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant, a carcin- ginning at approximately 180C, mp 2.5C, flash p
ogen. (Solution) Avoid breathing vapor and avoid 310F (154C). Soluble in water and alcohol. Com-
skin contact. TLV: 1 ppm; suspected human carcin- bustible.
ogen. Derivation: Interaction of ethyl formate and ammo-
Use: Urea and melamine resins, polyacetal resins, nia, with subsequent distillation.
phenolic resins, ethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 10 ppm, toxic by skin
hexamethylenetetramine, fertilizer, disinfectant, bi- absorption.
ocide, embalming fluids, preservative, reducing Use: Solvent, softener, intermediate in organic syn-
agent as in recovery of gold and silver, corrosion thesis.
inhibitor in oil wells, durable-press treatment of
textile fabrics, industrial sterilant, treatment of grain formaniline. See formaldehyde aniline.
smut, foam insulation, particle board, plywood, a
versatile chemical intermediate. “Formcel” [Celanese]. TM for a series of wa-
ter-free formaldehyde solutions in alcohols.
formaldehyde aniline. (formaniline). Use: Alcoholated urea and melamine resins, em-
C6H5NCH2. balming fluids.
Properties: Colorless to yellowish crystals. Initial
mp 133C, bp 271C, d 1.14 (but these vary somewhat formetanate. (3-dimethylaminoethy-
from sample to sample). Soluble in water, ether, and leneiminophenyl-N-methylcarbamate hydrochlo-
alcohol. ride).
Derivation: Condensation of formaldehyde and ani- CAS: 23422-53-9.
line. Properties: Water soluble.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. Use: Acaricide for deciduous fruits.

“Formica” Brand Laminate [Formica]. the kind of atoms in a molecule of one or more
TM for high-pressure laminated sheets of mela- compounds; it indicates composition only, not struc-
mine and phenolic plastics for decorative applica- ture. Example: CH is the empirical formula for both
tions such as surfacing, adhesives for bonding lami- acetylene and benzene. (2) Molecular. Shows the
nated plastic to other surfaces. actual number and kind of atoms in a chemical entity
(i.e., a molecule, group, or ion). Examples: H2 (one
formic acid. (hydrogen carboxylic acid; molecule of hydrogen), 2H2SO4 (two molecules of
methanoic acid). sulfuric acid), CH3 (a methyl group), Co(NH3)62+ (an
CAS: 64-18-6. HCOOH. ion). (3) Structural. Indicates the location of the
Properties: Colorless, fuming liquid; penetrating atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in a
odor. D 1.2201 (20/4C), mp 8.3C, bp 100.8C, flash p molecule, as well as the number and location of
156F (69C) (OC), bulk d 10.16 lb/gal (20C), refr chemical bonds. Examples:
index 1.3719 (20C), autoign temp 1114F (600C),
strong reducing agent. Soluble in water, alcohol, and
ether. Combustible.
Derivation: (1) By treatment of sodium formate and
sodium acid formate with sulfuric acid at low tem-
peratures and distilling in vacuo; (2) by acid hydrol-
ysis of methyl formate; (3) as a by-product in the
manufacture of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
Method of purification: Rectification.
Grade: Technical, 85%, 90%, CP, FCC.
Hazard: Corrosive to skin and tissue. TLV: 5 ppm;
STEL 10 ppm.
Use: Dyeing and finishing of textile; leather treat- Since all molecules are three-dimensional, they can-
ment; chemicals (formates, oxalic acid, organic es- not properly be shown in the plane of the paper. This
ters); manufacture of fumigants, insecticides, refrig- third dimensionality is sometimes indicated by extra-
erants; solvents for perfumes, lacquers; heavy lines or three-dimensional artwork (configura-
electroplating; brewing (antiseptic); silvering glass; tional formula) as in this representation of an ethanol
cellulose formate; natural latex coagulant; ore flota- molecule:
tion; vinyl resin plasticizers.

formic aldehyde. See formaldehyde.

formonitrile. See hydrocyanic acid.

“Formopon” [Rohm & Haas]. TM for sodi- (4) Generic. Expresses a generalized type of organic
um formaldehyde hydrosulfite. “Formopon” Extra compound in which the variables stand for the number
is the basic zinc salt. of atoms or for the kind of radical in a homologous
series. Examples:
formothion. [S-(N-formyl-N-methylcarbamoyl- CnH2n+2 CnH2n
methyl)-dimethyl phosphorodithioate]. a paraffin an olefin
CAS: 2540-82-1. C6H12NO4PS2.
Properties: Yellow liquid. Fp 25C. Insoluble in wa- ROR ROH
ter; miscible with common organic solvents. an ether an alcohol
Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor. (R = a hydrocarbon radical)
Use: Systemic insecticide. (5) Electronic. A structural formula in which the bonds
are replaced by dots indicating electron pairs, a single
“Form Release Gold” [Unitex]. TM for a bond being equivalent to one pair of electrons shared
general use premium type form release product. by two atoms. Example: the electronic formula for
Use: For steel, aluminum, plywood and composition methane is

“Formrez” [Crompton & Knowles]. Spe-

cialty oxylates or polyethers.
Use: In polyurethane foams, prepolymers, coatings,
elastomers, adhesives, caulks, and sealants.

formula, chemical. A written representation formula, product. A list of the ingredients and
using symbols of a chemical entity or relationship. their amounts or percentages required in an industri-
There are several kinds of formulas: (1) Empirical. al product. Such formulas (or recipes) are mixtures,
Expresses in simplest form the relative number and not compounds; they are generally used in such

industries as adhesives, food, paint, rubber, and aldehyde, addition of alkyl halide to the Schiff base,
plastics. and subsequent hydrolysis.
See formulation.
“FORTEX” [Baker Petrolite]. TM for an
formulation. Selection of components of a prod- oxidized hydrocarbon wax.
uct formula or mixture to provide optimum specific
properties for the end use desired. Formulation by “Forticel” [Celanese]. TM for a cellulosic
experienced technologists is essential for products thermoplastic for use in injection molding, extru-
intended to meet specifications or special service sion, rotational casting, and blow molding.
conditions. Properties: Pellets (crystals, translucent, metallic,
and opaque colors). D 1.20, highest use temperature
formula weight. The sum of the atomic weights 80C. Soluble in organic solvents; insoluble in min-
represented in a chemical formula. Thus, since the eral oils. Combustible.
atomic weight of hydrogen is 1 and that of oxygen is Use: Pen and pencil barrels, telephone bases, eyeg-
16, the formula weight of water (H2O) is 18 (approx- lass frames, tool handles, sheeting, steering wheels,
imate atomic weights used). etc.

2-formyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran. See acro- fortification. In food technology, addition to a

lein dimer. food ingredient or product of nutrients that are not
normally present, for example, addition of vitamin
formyl fluoride. HCOF. D to milk or of vitamin C to cake fillings. Nutrition-
Properties: Gas at normal temperature and pressure. ists apply this term to foods especially designed for
Bp −26C, fp −142C. Decomposes slowly with for- schoolchildren and older persons.
mation of hydrogen fluoride and carbon monoxide. See nutrification; enrichment.
Soluble in water (decomposes).
Derivation: Interaction of benzoyl chloride and a “Fortiflex” [Celanese]. TM for a high-density
formic acid solution of potassium fluoride. polyethylene consisting mainly of long molecules
Grade: Technical. with occasional short side branches. Thermoplastic.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant to tissue. Properties: Milk-white, translucent pellets (colors
TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3. are also available). D 0.95; melt index 0.2–8; tensile
Use: Organic synthesis (acetylating agent). strength 3100–3700 psi; highest use temperature
225F. Combustible.
2-formyl-2′-methyl-1,1′-(oxydimethylene) See polyethylene.
dipyridinium, dichloride oxime.
CAS: 70441-84-8. mf: C14H17N3O2•2Cl. “Fortisan” [Celanese]. TM for a cellulosic
Hazard: A poison. fiber manufactured by partial saponification of
stretched cellulose acetate. A semisynthetic prod-
formyloxytribenzylstannane. uct, it resembles cellulose (cotton) in many respects.
CAS: 17977-68-3. mf: C23H24O2Sn. The high-tenacity product has a dry strength of 5–7
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. A skin and eye irri- lb/denier (100,000–130,000 psi); wet strength is
tant. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 85% of dry strength. It has relatively low elongation
(skin). under stress, elastic recovery is approximately 70%
after extension to break, immediate elastic recovery
1-formylpiperidine. is 46%, delayed recovery is 30% at 5% strain.
❘ ❘ Young’s modulus 1650; can be dyed in the same
C 5 H5 NCH==O. way as cotton. The monofilament can be produced
Properties: Colorless liquid. Liquid from −30 to to a fineness of one denier. D 1.50. Resists stretching
222C, aprotic, low volatility. Miscible with alco- both dry and wet. Combustible.
hols, esters, ketones, amines, amides, inorganic
acids, organometallics; soluble in water and hexane. fortovase.
Use: Solvent for polar and nonpolar compounds, as CAS: 149845-06-7. mf: C38H50N6O5•CH4O3S.
well as many high polymers; gas absorption; plastics Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.
See N,N-dimethylformamide. “Fortrel” [Celanese]. TM for a polyester-type
synthetic fiber.
CAS: 79710-86-4. mf: C5H8O2. “Fosfodril” [FMC]. TM for a glassy phosphate
Hazard: A mild eye irritant. of high molecular weight (sodium hexametaphos-
Forster reaction. Formation of secondary Use: Thickener for drilling muds, water treatment in
amines by condensation of a primary amine with an oil-well flooding operations.

fosfomycin. formed on this wire almost instantly, most of the

CAS: 23155-02-4. C3H7O4P. water draining through the interstices of the wire.
Properties: Water-soluble crystals. Mp 95C. After leaving the wire, the sheet (called the web)
Derivation: Produced by Streptomyces, also made passes through the press section of the machine
synthetically. where a number of rollers express enough of the
Use: General antibiotic. remaining water to enable the sheet to hold together.
It then moves into the multiroller drying section.
fossil. Any material that results from an animal or The dried sheet (4–6% moisture content) is then fed
vegetable source in past geologic ages and has been to a high-speed calender for compaction and finish-
buried (compressed) in the earth. Examples are fos- ing. The entire process is continuous and rapid, the
sil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, coal, lignite), fossil machine often operating for several days without
waxes (ozocerite, montan), fossil resins (amber), shutdown.
and fossil woods partially preserved (petrified) by See calender; drying (2); paper; couch roll; dandy
the action of silica. roll; supercalender.

“Fosterite” [Westinghouse]. TM for a family Fourier-transform NMR. (FT-NMR).

of resins. Largest application is as solventless var- A type of spectroscopy, developed by Ernst, which
nishes for electric insulation, also as a photoelastic multiplies sensitivity 10 to 100 times compared to
resin and as a bond for impregnating and laminating dispersive NMR instruments.
asbestos sheets. Rods made of this plastic will carry See spectroscopy.
a beam of light without the dispersion that occurs in
air, making it possible to bend the beam. “FP” Acids [Atofina]. TM for a series of fluo-
rophosphoric acid.
fostion. (O,O-diethyl-S-(N-isopropyl carba-
moylmethyl) phosphorodithioate). FPC. (1) Abbreviation for fish protein concen-
CAS: 2275-18-5. (C2H5O)2SPSCH2SCH(CH3)2. trate. (2) Abbreviation for Federal Power Commis-
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 24C. Solu- sion.
ble in most organic solvents.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and skin absorption,
cholinesterase inhibitor.
Fr. Symbol for francium.
Use: Fungicide, ovicide.
fraction. Any portion of a mixture characterized
“Fotoceram” [Corning]. TM for a photosen- by very similar properties. The most important frac-
sitive, crystalline ceramic. tions of petroleum are naphtha, gasoline, fuel oil,
Use: Electronics and industrial arts. kerosene, and tarry or waxy residues. These are
obtained by fractional distillation.
“Foundrez” [Reichhold]. TM for a group of See separation.
water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde and urea-form-
aldehyde resins for foundry applications. fractional distillation. Distillation in which
rectification is used to obtain product as nearly pure
foundry sand. (greensand; molding sand). as possible. A part of the vapor is condensed and the
Sand containing zirconium, titanium, and other met- resulting liquid contacted with more vapor, usually
als and mixed with suitable binders used in making in a column with plates or packing. The term is also
molds for casting metals. The sand/binder mixture is applied to any distillation in which the product is
either rammed into place around the mold or baked collected in a series of separate components of simi-
into a core at 204–260C (dry-sand molding). The lar boiling range.
binders used are resins of various types, casein, etc. See reflux.

fourdrinier. The machine most widely used for fractionation. In general, the separation or isola-
papermaking, named for its English inventors who tion of components of a mixture or a micromolecular
introduced it in the mid-19th century. It provides a complex. In distillation, this is done by means of a
wide range of papers from heavy board to light tower or column in which rising vapor and descend-
tissue and is of impressive size and complexity. Its ing liquid are brought into contact (countercurrent
unique feature is the traveling mesh belt onto which flow). Macromolecular components (proteins and
the slurry of fiber and water is run from the headbox. other high polymers) can be separated by a number
The wire was formerly a screen made of specially of methods, including electrophoresis, gel filtration,
annealed bronze and brass in 55–85 mesh size range. chromatography, centrifugation, foam fraction-
This has largely been replaced by single and multi- ation, and partition.
layer woven polyester-forming fabrics, which are See reflux.
plastic screens woven with approximately 0.20 mm
polyester monofilament. The plastic-forming fabric fracturing, hydraulic. See hydraulic frac-
is longer lasting and more adaptable. The sheet is turing.
583 “FREON”

fragile sites. A non-staining gap of variable free energy. (⌬G; Gibbs free energy). An
width that usually involves both chromatids and is exact thermodynamic quantity used to predict the
always at exactly the same point on a specific chro- maximum work obtainable from the spontaneous
mosome derived from an individual or kindred. transformation of a given system. It also provides a
criterion for the spontaneity of a transformation or
fragrance. An odorant used to impart a pleasant reaction and predicts the greatest extent to which the
smell to lotions, toothpastes, cosmetics, etc.; bal- reaction can occur, i.e., its maximum yield. Trans-
samic and piney odors are typical. formation of a system can be brought about by either
heat or mechanical work. Free energy is derived
fraissite. (benzyl iodide). C6H5CH2I. from the internal energy and entropy of a system in
Use: A tear gas. accordance with the laws of thermodynamics.
See also enthalpy.
frame shift. A mutation caused by insertion or
deletion of one or more paired nucleotides, changing free radical. A molecular fragment having one
the reading frame of codons and therefore the amino or more unpaired electrons, usually short-lived and
acids incorporated into proteins. highly reactive. In formulas, a free radical is conven-
tionally indicated by a dot, as in Cl and —, (C2H5)•. In
Franchimont reaction. Carboxylic acid di- spite of their transitory existence, they are capable of
merization to 1,2-dicarboxylic acids by treating ␣- initiating many kinds of chemical reactions by
bromocarboxylic acids with potassium cyanide fol- means of a chain mechanism. Free radicals are
lowed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation. formed only by the splitting of a molecular bond. A
chain can result only if (1) radicals attack the sub-
francium. Fr. Element of atomic number 87, strate and (2) the radicals lost by this reaction are
group IA of the periodic table system, aw 223, va- regenerated. Chain mechanisms for the thermal de-
lence of 1; it appears to exist only as radioactive composition of many substances have been estab-
isotopes. One isotope is actinium K (223Fr). Other lished. Free radicals are known to be formed by
isotopes have been made artificially: 223Fr is the ionizing radiation and thus play a part in deleterious
longest-lived isotope, having a half-life of 21 min- degradation effects that occur in irradiated tissue.
utes, and is the only natural isotope. Francium is the They also act as initiators or intermediates in such
heaviest of the alkali-metal family. basic phenomena as oxidation, combustion, photol-
ysis, and polymerization.
frankincense. (olibanum). A gum resin. See carbonium ion.

frankincense oil. See olibanum oil. free sulfur. Sulfur that is left chemically uncom-
bined after vulcanization of a rubber compound.
Frankland-Duppa reaction. Formation of ␣- When this exceeds 1%, the upper limit of solubility
hydroxycarboxylic esters by reaction of dialkyl oxa- of sulfur in rubber, blooming will occur. Most rub-
lates with alkyl halides in the presence of zinc, or ber products are vulcanized with as low a sulfur
amalgamated zinc, and acid. content as possible so that the free sulfur content of
the product is seldom over 0.5%.
Frankland synthesis. Synthesis of zinc dial- See bloom; vulcanization.
kyls from alkyl halides and zinc.
freeze-drying. (lyophilization). A method of
franklinite. (iron, manganese, zinc). dehydration or of separating water from biological
(FeMn)2O4. Black mineral resembling magnetite. materials. The material is first frozen and then
placed in a high vacuum so that the water (ice)
Frary metal. A lead-based bearing metal con- vaporizes in the vacuum (sublimes) without melting
taining 97–98% lead alloyed with 1–2% each of and the nonwater components are left behind in an
barium and calcium; excellent for low-pressure undamaged state.
bearings at moderate temperatures. Use: Blood plasma, certain antibiotics, vaccines, hor-
mone preparations, food products such as coffee and
Frasch process. A process by which much of vegetables. One technique prepares freeze-dried ce-
the world’s sulfur is obtained. Developed about ramic pellets from water solutions of metal salts.
1900 by Herman Frasch, the process involves melt-
ing sulfur underground by introducing superheated “Freezene” [Crompton & Knowles]. TM
water through a pipe under pressure and forcing the for a series of refrigeration white mineral oils.
molten sulfur to the surface by compressed air. Use: Low-temperature lubrication.

Fraunhofer lines. See spectroscopy. freezing point. See melting point.

free electron. Electron not attached to any one “Freon” [Du Pont]. TM for a series of fluoro-
atom and not restricted by potential gradients. carbon products used in refrigeration and air-condi-
“FREON 22” 584

tioning equipment, as blowing agents, fire-extin- transmission belts, and other laminated products
guishing agents, and cleaning fluids and solvents. that are vulcanized.
Properties: Clear, water-white liquids; vapors have a See calender.
mild, somewhat ethereal, odor and are not irritating;
essentially stable and inert. Nonflammable, nonexp- friction welding. See welding.
losive, noncorrosive.
See fluorocarbon. Note: Many types contain chlo- Friedel-Crafts reaction. A type of reaction
rine, as well as fluorine, and should be called chloro- involving anhydrous aluminum chloride and similar
fluorocarbons. metallic halides as catalysts, discovered in 1877 by
Charles Friedel, a French chemist (1832–1899), and
“Freon 22” [Du Pont]. See 1,1,1-chlorodi- James Mason Crafts, an American chemist
fluoroethane. (1830–1917), during joint research in France; it has
been developed since then for many important in-
“Freon 112” [Du Pont]. sym-Tetrachlorodi- dustrial uses, exemplified by the condensation of
fluoroethane. ethyl chloride and benzene to form ethylbenzene
and the manufacture of acetophenone from acetyl
“Freon C-51-12” [Du Pont]. See perfluo- chloride and benzene. The name is now applied to a
rodimethylcyclobutane. wide variety of acid-catalyzed organic reactions.
Use: Alkylation and acylation in general. Some ex-
“Freon 225” [Du Pont]. See 3,3-dichloro- amples are the production of high-octane gasoline,
1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane. cumene, detergent alkylate, and various plastics and
“Freon E” [Du Pont]. TM for a series of
hydrogen endcapped tetrafluoroethylene epoxide Friedlaender synthesis. Base-catalyzed con-
polymers having a DP up to 10, boiling range 39–49 densation of 2-aminobenzaldehydes with ketones to
C, high dielectric constant. form quinoline derivatives.
Use: Coolants in electronic devices.
Fries rearrangement. Rearrangement of phe-
“Fresh Notes” [Florida Chemicals]. TM nolic esters to o- and/or p-phenolic ketones on heat-
for flavor and fragrance fractions. ing with aluminum chloride or other Lewis acid
Use: A flavor and fragrance additive. catalysts.

Freundlich isotherm. The relationship be- Fries rule. The most stable form of a polynu-
tween the amount of a substance adsorbed and the clear hydrocarbon is that in which the maximum
concentration of the solute: number of rings has the benzenoid arrangement of
three double bonds. A benzenoid electronic configu-
x ration is energetically favored and, therefore, partic-
= Kc1/n
m ularly stable.
where x is the amount adsorbed, m the weight of
adsorbent, c the concentration or pressure, and K frit. A ground glass used in making glazes and
and n constants. enamels and also for making so-called frit seals.
Finely powdered glass may be called a frit. The term
Freund’s acid. 1-Naphthylamine 3,6-disulfon- is also used for finely ground inorganic minerals,
ic acid. mixed with fluxes and coloring agents that become a
glass or enamel on heating.
Freund synthesis. Formation of alicyclic hy-
drocarbons by the action of sodium (Freund) or zinc Fritsch-Buttenberg-Wiechell
(Gustavson) on open-chain dihalo compounds; 1,3- rearrangement. The rearrangement of 1,1-di-
dichloropropane derived from the chlorination of aryl-2-haloethylenes to diaryl acetylenes with
propane, obtained from natural gas, is cyclized in the strong bases.
Hass process by treating with zinc dust in aqueous
alcohol in the presence of sodium iodide as catalyst. “FR-N” [B. F. Goodrich]. TM for a series of
butadieneacrylonitrile elastomeric polymers and la-
friction. A soft and extremely tacky mixture of texes.
rubber and softener applied to a fabric by means of a Properties: Oil and solvent resistance combined
three-roll calender. The differential speed of the with good flexibility and resistance to low tempera-
calender rolls drives the material into the interstices tures, water absorption, and permanent set.
of the fabric, forming a strongly adherent coating. Use: Oil-resistant seals, shoe soles, gasoline hose,
Uncured friction on a light sheeting is used for elec- belt conveyors, plasticizers, paper saturation, adhe-
trical insulating or friction tape. Heavy-weave fabric sives, leather finishes, and carpet backing.
coated with high-grade friction (rubber plus softener
and curing agents) is used as piles in tire carcasses, froth flotation. See flotation.

FRP. Abbreviation for glass fiber–reinforced fuel. Any substance that evolves energy in a con-
plastic. trolled chemical or nuclear reaction. The most com-
See reinforced plastic. mon type of chemical reaction is combustion, the
type of oxidation occurring with petroleum prod-
“FR-S” [B. F. Goodrich]. TM for general- ucts, natural gas, coal, and wood; more-rapid oxida-
purpose rubbers and latexes, composed of copoly- tion takes place in rocket fuels (hydrogen, hydrogen
mers of butadiene and styrene. peroxide, hydrazine) and approaches the rate of an
Use: (Rubber): Tires, hose, belting, and packing; explosion. The nuclear fuels used for power genera-
molded and extruded automotive and industrial tion release their energy by fission of the atomic
products; soles and heels; hard rubber. (Latex): Ad- nucleus (uranium, plutonium, thorium).
hesives, foamed rubber, textile and rug backing, See combustion; fission.
paper coating and impregnation, modification of
plastics to produce high-impact strength, asphalt fuel cell. (1) An electrochemical device for con-
additive. tinuously converting chemicals—a fuel and an oxi-
dant—into direct-current electricity. It consists of
fructose. (fruit sugar; D(−)-fructose; levulose). two electronic-conductor electrodes separated by an
C6H12O6. A sugar occurring naturally in a large num- ionic-conducting electrolyte with provision for the
ber of fruits and in honey. It is the sweetest of the continuous movement of fuel, oxidant, and reaction
common sugars. product into and out of the cell. The fuel can be
Properties: White crystals. Mp 103–105C (decom- gaseous, liquid, or solid; the electrolyte liquid or
poses); specific rotation −89 to −91 degrees. Soluble solid; the oxidant gaseous or liquid. The electrodes
in water, alcohol, and ether. Combustible. are solid but may be porous and may contain a
Derivation: Hydrolysis of inulin; hydrolysis of beet catalyst. Fuel cells differ from batteries in that elec-
sugar followed by lime separation, from cornstarch tricity is produced from chemical fuels fed to them
by enzymic or microbial action. as needed, so that their operating life is theoretically
Grade: Technical, NF, food, parenteral. unlimited. The cell products can be regenerated ex-
Use: Foodstuffs, medicine, preservative. ternally into fuel for return to the cell, e.g., carbon
dioxide from the cell can be reacted with coal to
fructose-1,6-diphosphate. (FDP; fructosedi- form carbon monoxide for feed to the cell. Fuel is
phosphoric acid; Harden-Young ester). oxidized at the anode (negative electrode), giving
H2PO4(C6H10O4)H2PO4. Can be prepared from fruc- electrons to an external circuit; the oxidant accepts
tose and certain other sugars by the use of yeasts. It is electrons from the anode and is reduced at the cath-
known to take part in cell metabolism; an intermedi- ode. Simultaneously with the electron transfer, an
ate in carbohydrate metabolism. Usually handled in ionic current in the electrolyte completes the circuit.
the form of its barium or calcium salts, white amor- One type of electrolyte is a solid polymer of perfluo-
phous powders, soluble in ice water and dilute acid rinated sulfonic acid. The fuels range from hydro-
solutions, insoluble in hot water and alcohol. gen, carbon monoxide, and carbonaceous materials
Use: Organic synthesis, research in cell metabolism. to redox compounds, alkali metals, and biochemical
materials. Fuel cells based on hydrogen and oxygen
have a significant future as a primary energy source.
fruit acids. See ␣ hydroxy acids.
Cells of this type are under development for use as a
power source for electric automobiles, the hydrogen
frustule. The mineral “skeleton” of a diatom or being derived from methanol. Large-scale develop-
other unicellular organism. ment of fuel cells for on-site power generation for
housing units is well advanced, and research has
3-FT. See 5-fluoro-3-(tetrahydro-2-furyl)uracil. been completed for construction of a 26-megawatt
cell capable of serving the needs of a small commu-
FT black. Abbreviation for fine thermal black. nity.
See thermal black. (2) An aircraft fuel tank or container made of or lined
with an oil-resistant synthetic rubber.
FTC. Abbreviation for Federal Trade Commis-
sion. fuel element. A fabricated rod, form, or other
shape that consists of or contains the fissionable fuel
fuchsin. (basic fuchsin; magenta). A synthetic for a nuclear reactor. The term does not refer to a
rosaniline dyestuff, a mixture of rosaniline and p- chemical element but rather to a device from which
rosaniline hydrochlorides. power is derived.
Properties: Dark-green powder or greenish crystals
with a bronze luster; faint odor. Soluble in water and fuel oil. Any liquid petroleum product that is
alcohol. burned in a furnace for the generation of heat or used
Grade: NF. in an engine for the generation of power, except oils
Use: Textiles and leather industries, red dye, pharma- having a flash point of approximately 100F (37.7C)
ceutical. and oils burned in cotton or woolwick burners. The

oil may be a distillated fraction of petroleum, a fumagillin.

residuum from refinery operations, a crude petrole- CAS: 23110-15-8. C27H36O7. An antibiotic substance
um, or a blend of two or more of these. Because fuel produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.
oils are used with burners of various types and ca- Properties: Light-yellow crystals from dilute metha-
pacities, different grades are required. ASTM has nol. Mp 189–194C. Insoluble in water, dilute acids,
developed specifications for six grades of fuel oil. saturated hydrocarbons; soluble in most other or-
No. 1 is a straight-run distillate, a little heavier than ganic solvents.
kerosene, used almost exclusively for domestic Use: Medicine.
heating. No. 2 (diesel oil) is a straight-run or cracked
distillate used as a general purpose domestic or com- fumaric acid. (boletic acid; lichenic acid;
mercial fuel in atomizing-type burners. No. 4 is allomaleic acid; trans-butenedioic acid).
made up of heavier straight-run or cracked distillates CAS: 110-17-8. The trans isomer of maleic acid.
and is used in commercial or industrial burner instal-
lations not equipped with preheating facilities. The
viscous residuum fuel oils, Nos. 5 and 6, sometimes
referred to as bunker fuels, usually must be preheat-
ed before being burned. ASTM specifications list
two grades of No. 5 oil, one of which is lighter and
under some climatic conditions may be handled and
burned without preheating. These fuels are used in Properties: Colorless, odorless crystals; fruit acid
furnaces and boilers of utility power plants, ships, taste. Stable in air, d 1.635, sublimes at 290C, mp
locomotives, metallurgical operations, and industri- 287C (sealed tube), soluble in water 0.63g/100 g
al power plants. (25C), soluble in alcohol 5.76 g/100 g (30C). Insolu-
Use: Domestic and industrial heating, power for ble in chloroform and benzene. Combustible.
heavy units (ships, trucks, trains), source of synthe- Derivation: (1) Isomerization of maleic acid, (2)
sis gas. catalytic oxidation of benzene.
See diesel oil. Grade: Technical, crystals, FCC.
Use: Modifier for polyester, alkyd, and phenolic res-
Fujimoto-Belleau reaction. Synthesis of ins; paper-size resins; plasticizers; rosin esters and
cyclic ␣-substituted ␣,␤-unsaturated ketones from adducts; alkyd resin coatings; upgrading natural
enol lactones and Grignard reagents prepared from drying oils (especially tall oil) to improve drying
primary halides. characteristics; in foods as substitute for tartaric
acid, as acidulant and flavoring agent (FDA ap-
Fukui, Kenichi. (1918–1998). A Japanese pro- proved); mordant; organic synthesis, printing inks.
fessor who was corecipient of the Nobel Prize for
chemistry along with Hoffmann in 1981. His work fumaryl chloride.
involved quantum mechanical studies of chemical CAS: 627-63-4. ClCOCH:CHCOCl.
reactivity. Fukui’s entire career has been at Kyoto Properties: Clear, straw-colored liquid. Bp
University. 158–160C, 62–64C (13 mm Hg), d 1.408 (20C).
Hazard: Corrosive to eyes and skin.
Use: Chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals,
fullerines. General name for closed spheroidal dyestuffs, and insecticides.
aromatic molecules with even numbers of carbons.
See buckminsterfullerene.
fume. The particulate, smokelike emanation from
the surface of heated metals. Also the vapor evolved
fuller’s earth. A porous colloidal aluminum from concentrated acids (sulfuric, nitric), from
silicate (clay) that has high natural adsorptive pow- evaporating solvents, or as a result of combustion or
er. Gray to yellow color, noncombustible. other decomposition reactions (exhaust fume).
Occurrence: Florida, England, Canada. Many of these fumes are toxic.
Use: Decolorizing of oils and other liquids, oil-well
drilling muds, insecticide carrier, floor-sweeping fumigant. A toxic agent in vapor form that de-
compounds, cosmetics, rubber filler, carrier for cat- stroys rodents, insects, and infectious organisms; a
alysts, filtering medium. type of pesticide. The most effective temperature for
See bentonite; diatomite. their use is approximately 70F. They are used chief-
ly in enclosed or limited areas (barns, greenhouses,
full gene sequence. The complete order of ships’ holds, and the like) and also are applied local-
bases in a gene. This order determines which protein ly to soils, grains, fruits, and garments. Some com-
a gene will produce. monly used fumigants are formaldehyde, sulfur di-
oxide and other sulfur compounds, hydrogen
fulminates. Materials with carbon-nitrogen-oxy- cyanide, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, p-
gen groups. dichlorobenzene, and ethylene oxide. Care must be
Use: Sensitive explosives. used when handling and applying fumigants be-

cause of their toxicity. clothing. Dithiocarbamate and quinone types were

See repellent; pesticide. introduced about 1940. Mercury compounds are
also effective but have been discontinued because of
fuming. A characteristic of some highly active their toxicity to humans. Hypochlorite solutions are
liquids that evolve visible smokelike emanations on used in swimming pools and water-cooled heat ex-
contact with air. Most familiar are the forms of nitric changers. Some types of fungi that infect the human
and sulfuric acids designated as fuming. These are body are extremely hard to eradicate and require
not pure, concentrated acids; low percentages of highly specific medical treatment.
nitrogen dioxide and water are present in fuming
nitric acid, and fuming sulfuric acid contains sulfur fungizone intravenous.
trioxide. Hydrofluoric acid (a mixture of hydrogen CAS: 58501-21-6. mf: C47H73NO17•C24H40O4•Na.
fluoride and water) also fumes. Pure compounds in Hazard: A poison. Human systemic effects.
which fuming occurs are fluosilicic acid and hydra-
zine. fungocin. See bacillus subtilis BPN.
functional gene tests. Biochemical assays for fungus. Any of a plantlike group of organisms
a specific protein, indicating a specific gene is not that does not produce chlorophyll; they derive their
merely present but active. food either by decomposing organic matter from
dead plants and animals or by parasitic attachment to
functional genomics. The study of genes, their living organisms, thus often causing infections and
resulting proteins, and the role played by the pro- disease. Examples of fungi are molds, mildews,
teins in the body’s biochemical processes. mushrooms, and the rusts and smuts that infect grain
and other plants. They grow best in a moist environ-
fundamental particle. (elementary particle). ment at temperatures of about 25C, little or no light
One of the many constituents of atoms in either the being required.
normal or the excited state, i.e., protons, electrons, See mycotoxin.
and neutrons, that are directly involved in chemical
reactions. Other subatomic species are mesons, po- Funk, Casimir. (1884–1948). Born in Poland
sitrons, neutrinos, hyperons, etc. Photons are light and later becoming an American citizen, Funk in
quanta, i.e., “particles” of energy that have no rest 1911 isolated a food factor, extracted from rice
mass. hulls, that he found to be a cure for a disease caused
See particle; photon. by malnutrition (beri-beri). Believing this to be an
amine compound essential to life, he coined the
fundamental research. (basic research). Sci- name vitamine, from which the final e was later
entific investigations undertaken primarily to in- dropped. The various types and functions of vita-
crease knowledge of a given field on a long-range mins were not differentiated until some years later as
basis. It is free from the time factor usually present in a result of the work of McCollum, Szent-Gyorgi, R.
applied research and is comparatively unlimited by J. Williams, and others.
economic restrictions. In general, it seeks basic
causes for phenomena rather than immediate results. furacrylic acid. See furylacrylic acid.
It has no predetermined goal or purpose. Nonethe-
less, tremendous achievements in chemistry and
other sciences have resulted, and it will always re-
“Furadan.” (carbofuran; 2,3-dihydro-2,2-di-
main the essential cornerstone of science. “Funda-
CAS: 1563-66-2. TM for a pesticide designed to
mental research is essentially a matter of inquiring
combat corn rootworm and rice water weevil. Ap-
into nature. The motivation for this activity is only
proved by USDA. Also effective on alfalfa, sugar-
imperfectly understood but it is primarily an intel-
cane, rice, peanuts, and potatoes.
lectual pursuit. Unlike applied research, the reward
Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 0.1 mg/m3; not classi-
being sought is attained through the ability to under-
fiable as a human carcinogen.
stand and explain natural phenomena. The interest
centers on elucidating the laws of nature, not on
manipulating or exploiting them” (Howard furamide. See furoamide.
furan. (furfuran; tetrol).
fungal protease enzyme. See acid fungal CAS: 110-00-9.
protease. ❘ ❘
HC:CHCH:CHO. A heterocyclic compound. Its basic
fungicide. Any substance that kills or inhibits the structure is
growth of fungi. Older types include a mixture of
lime and sulfur, copper oxychloride, and Bordeaux
mixture. Copper naphthenate has been used to im-
pregnate textile fabrics such as tenting and military

Properties: Colorless liquid turning brown on stand- furazolidone. (N-(5-nitro-2-furfurylidene-3-

ing, this color change is retarded if a small amount of amino)-2-oxazolidinone).
water is added. D 0.938 (20/4C), fp −86C, bp 31.4C, CAS: 67-45-8. C8H7N3O5
flash p <32F (0C) (TOC), refr index 1.4216 (20C). Properties: Yellow powder; odorless. Mp 255C.
Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol and ether. Slightly soluble in polyethylene glycol; insoluble in
Derivation: Dry distillation of furoic acid from fur- water, alcohol, and peanut oil.
fural. Derivation: Synthetically from furfural, hydroxye-
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, flammable thylhydrazine, and diethyl carbonate.
limits 2–24%, forms peroxides on exposure to air. Grade: NF.
Absorbed by skin. Hazard: A carcinogen, use has been restricted.
Use: Organic synthesis, especially for pyrrole, tetra- See nitrofuran.
hydrofuran, thiophene.
See furan polymer. furcellaran.
Properties: Seaweed gum (a natural phycocolloid)
furancarboxylic acid. See furoic acid. available as an odorless white powder, soluble in
warm water. It form gels at low concentrations.
Reputed to be more stable to heat and acids than
2,5-furandione. See maleic anhydride. other vegetable gums. Available in the form of salts.
Derivation: From the seaweed Furcellaria fasti-
2-furanmethanethiol. giata.
Use: Gelling-agent, viscosity-control agent, pud-
❘ ❘ dings, jams, toothpastes, bacterial cultural media,
OCH:CHCH:CCH2SH. pharmaceuticals.
Properties: Liquid. D 1.1319 (20/4C), bp 155C, refr
index 1.5324 (20C). Insoluble in water. furethrin. (generic name for 3-furfuryl-2-
Use: Ingredient for synthetic coffee compositions methyl-4-oxo-2-cyclopenten-1-ylchrysanthemu-
and fortifier for natural coffee blends and flavor mate (generic)). C21H27O4. A synthetic analog of
adjunct. Also inhibits the corrosive power of nitric allethrin substituting the 2-furfuryl for allyl in the
acid. side chain.
Properties: Yellow liquid. Bp 187–188C (0.4 mm
furanodiene. Hg.) Insoluble in water; soluble in light oils.
CAS: 57566-47-9. mf: C15H20O. Use: Insecticide, use like allethrin.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
furfural. (ant oil, artificial; pyromucic alde-
hyde; furfuraldehyde; bran oil).
furanose. A simple sugar structurally analogous
CAS: 98-01-1. C4H3OCHO.
to the five-membered furan ring.

furan polymer. A plastic derived (1) from fur-

furyl alcohol or (2) from furfural or reaction prod-
ucts of furfural and a ketone. The materials are dark
colored and resistant to solvents, most nonoxidizing
acids, alkalies, and specific corrosives such as dini- Properties: Colorless liquid when very pure, be-
trogen pentoxide. comes reddish-brown on exposure to light and air;
Properties: Physical properties of a typical asbestos- odor somewhat similar to benzaldehyde. Forms con-
reinforced furan polymer are d 1.7, tensile strength densation products with many types of compounds,
5000 psi, flexural strength 7500 psi, impact strength phenol, amines, urea, etc. D 1.1598 (20/4C), fp
0.5 ft lb/in. notch, water absorption 0.2%, and coef- −36.5C, bp 161.7C, heat of vaporization 107.5 cal,
ficient of thermal expansion 3.0–10−5 in/in/F. refr index 1.5260 (20C), flash p 140F (60C) (CC),
Use: Coating asphaltic pavements, foundry sand autoign temp 392C (797F). Soluble in alcohol,
cores, shell molding and corrosion-resistant materi- ether, and benzene; 8.3% soluble in water at 20C.
als of construction. Since furfural is readily obtain- Combustible.
able by heating pentosan-containing products such Derivation: From oat hulls, rice hulls, corncobs, ba-
as corncobs with mineral acid, these resins are inex- gasse, and other cellulosic waste materials by steam-
pensive and have great potential use where products acid digestion.
with their characteristics are required. Grade: Technical, refined.
Hazard: Absorbed by skin; irritant to eyes, skin, and
mucous membranes. TLV: 2 ppm, toxic by skin
3-((2-furanylmethylene)amino)-2- absorption; animal carcinogen.
oxazolidone. Use: Solvent refining of lubricating oils, butadiene,
CAS: 6270-33-3. mf: C8H8N2O3. rosin, and other organic materials; solvent for nitro-
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. cellulose, cellulose acetate, shoe dyes; intermediate

for tetrahydrofuran and furfuryl alcohol, phenolic 99F (37.2C) (OC). Soluble in water, alcohol, and
and furan polymers; wetting agent in manufacture of ether.
abrasive wheels and brake linings; weed killer; fun- Derivation: Furfural and ammonia.
gicide; adipic acid and adiponitrile; road construc- Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk.
tion; production of lysine; refining of rare earths and Use: Corrosion inhibitor, component of soldering
metals; flavoring; analytical reagent. flux, chemical intermediate.

furfuralacetic acid. See furylacrylic acid. 6-furfurylaminopurine. See kinetin.

furfuraldehyde. See furfural. 2-(2-furfuryl)furan.

CAS: 1197-40-6. mf: C9H8O2.
furfuramide. See hydrofuramide. Hazard: A poison by skin contact. Low toxicity by
inhalation. A moderate eye irritant.
furfuran. See furan.
furfuryl mercaptan. See 2-furanmethan-
furfuryl acetate. C4H3OCH2OOCCH3.
Properties: Colorless liquid turning brown on expo-
sure to light and air; pungent odor. D 1.1175 (20/ furilazole.
4C), bp 175–177C, refr index 1.4627. Insoluble in CAS: 121776-33-8. mf: C11H13Cl2NO3.
water; soluble in alcohol and ether. Combustible. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation,
Derivation: By treatment of furfuryl alcohol with and skin contact.
acetic anhydride. Use: Agricultural chemical.
Grade: Refined.
Use: Flavor. ␣-furildioxime. (di-2-furanylethanedione di-
oxime). C10H8N2O4.
furfuryl alcohol. (furyl carbinol). Properties: Needlelike crystals. Mp 167C, mw
CAS: 98-00-0. C4H3OCH2OH. 220.18. Very soluble in alcohol, ether; slightly solu-
ble in benzene, petroleum ether.
Use: Reagent in alcohol solution for nickel, gives an
orange-red compound.

CAS: 72239-53-3. mf: C16H20N6O4.
Properties: Colorless, mobile liquid becoming Hazard: A poison.
brown to dark-red on exposure to light and air. It
autopolymerizes with acid catalysts, often with ex-
plosive violence, to form a thermosetting resin that furnace. An enclosed chamber or structure lined
cures to an insoluble, infusible solid, highly resistant with firebrick or similar refractory and containing a
to chemical attack. D 1.1285 (20/4C), bp 170C, refr heat source (coal, coke, gas, or electric elements). It
index 1.4850 (25C), flash p 167F (75C) (OC), aut- may have various designs depending on its function.
oign temp 915F (490C). Soluble in alcohol, chloro- Furnaces are used for steel production (open-hearth
form, benzene, and water; insoluble in paraffin hy- and basic oxygen types), for smelting iron and other
drocarbons. Combustible. ores (blast furnace) and for manufacture of furnace
Derivation: Continuous vapor-phase hydrogenation carbon black, etc. Electric furnaces are used for
of furfural. special types of steel, as well as for high-tempera-
Grade: Technical, refined. ture reactions such as the manufacture of pyrolytic
Hazard: May react explosively with mineral acids graphite, synthetic diamonds, silicon, silicon car-
and some organic acids. Toxic by inhalation and bide, and salt cake. Temperatures obtained range up
skin absorption. Approved for food products. TLV: to 3000C. Laboratory electric furnaces are used for
10 ppm; STEL 15 ppm, toxic by skin absorption. high-temperature experiments and product testing.
Use: Wetting agent, furan polymers, corrosion-resis- See muffle furnace; reverberatory furnace; Mann-
tant sealants and cements, foundry cores, modified heim furnace; kiln; forge; cupola.
urea-formaldehyde polymers, penetrant, solvent for
dyes and resins, flavoring. The polymer is used as a furnace black. See carbon black.
mortar for bonding acid-proof brick and chemical
masonry. furnace oil. Usually No. 1 fuel oil.
See furan polymer. See fuel oil.

␣-furfuryl amine. C4H3OCH2NH2. furnace sand. (fire sand). Sand used to line
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.0550 (17C), bp furnace bottoms or walls, particularly in open-
145C (757 mm Hg), refr index 1.4900 (17C), flash p hearth steel furnaces.

furnish. Term used by papermakers for the mix- 2-furyl-1-nitroethene.

ture containing the constituents of paper as supplied CAS: 699-18-3. mf: C6H5NO3.
to the fourdrinier wire on which the sheet is formed. Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by
furoamide. (pyromucamide; furamide). Use: Agricultural chemical.
Properties: Crystals. Sublimes partly at 100C, mp furyltriazine.
142C. CAS: 4685-18-1. mf: C7H7N5O.
Derivation: Treatment of furoyl chloride with am- Hazard: Moderately toxic.
“Fusabond” [DuPont]. TM for resin used for
coupling in mineral-filled polypropylene systems.
furoic acid. (pyromucic acid; furancarboxylic Works best with long glass fiber systems. The resins
acid). act to bond the filler into the polymer matrix. Also
CAS: 88-14-2. improves surface wetting and dispersion of the fill-
❘ ❘ er. It enhances tensile and impact strength of the
C4H3OCOOH or O CH:CHCH:CCOOH. composite.
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 133–134C, sub-
limes at 130C (50–60 mm Hg). Slightly soluble in fuse. Of a solid, to melt, e.g., fused salt. An electric
cold water; very soluble in hot water, alcohol, and fuse acts as a circuit breaker by the melting of a thin
ether; insoluble in paraffin hydrocarbons. Combus- strip of metal. The term has the connotation of unit-
tible. ing or joining, as in welding. The union of hydrogen
Derivation: Cannizzaro reaction from furfural, oxi- nuclei to yield energy is called fusion.
dation of furfural.
Method of purification: Sublimation, fractional fused ring. A ring having one or more of its sides
crystals from hot water. in common with another ring, as shown:
Grade: Technical.
Use: Preservative, bactericide, furoates for perfume
and flavoring, fumigant, textile processing, chemi-
cal intermediate.

Furol viscosity. The efflux time in seconds

(SFS) of 60 mL of sample flowing through a calib-
rated Furol orifice in a Saybolt viscometer under
specified conditions. Furol viscosity is approxi-
mately 1/10 of Saybolt Universal viscosity and is fused salt. A salt (i.e., ionic compound) in the
used for fuel oil and residual materials of relatively molten state. Halides and nitrates are the salts most
high viscosity. Furol is derived from the words fuel commonly used. High temperatures (500–1000C for
and road oils. the alkali halides) are usually required. Most fused
salts are liquids with viscosities, diffusion coeffi-
furoyl chloride. C4H3OCOCl. cients, thermal conductivities, and surface tensions
Properties: Colorless liquid. Powerful lachrymator. in the same range as water. They conduct electricity
Decomposes in water, mp −2C, bp 176C. Soluble in exceptionally well.
ether. Combustible. Use: Production of sodium by electrolysis, heat trans-
Derivation: Treatment of furoic acid with phospho- fer agents, reaction medium in chemical synthesis,
rus pentachloride. heat-treatment of metals (from 350 to 2400F), sol-
Hazard: Strong irritant to eyes and skin. vents for the metals corresponding to their cations,
Use: Substitute for chloropicrin in disinfecting grain nuclear power reactors.
elevators. See salt bath.

fused silica. See silica.

furylacrylic acid. (furfural acetic acid; fura-
crylic acid). C4H3OCH:CHCOOH.
fusel oil. (amyl alcohol; fermentation; grain
Properties: White powder. Mp 141C, bp 117C (8 oil; potato oil). A volatile, oily mixture consisting
mm Hg), 286C. Slightly soluble in cold water; easily largely of amyl alcohols. Isoamyl alcohol (isobutyl
soluble in hot water; soluble in alcohol, ether, and carbinol) and active amyl alcohol (2-methyl-1-buta-
glacial acetic acid. nol) are chief constituents. Ethyl, propyl, butyl,
Derivation: From furfural. hexyl, and heptyl alcohols, as well as other alcohols,
Use: Derivatives used in perfumes. have been separated. Acids, esters, and aldehydes
are also present. Normal primary amyl alcohol (1-
furyl carbinol. See furfuryl alcohol. pentanol) is not found in fusel oil. Combustible.

Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Toxic by ingestion and successfully attained by this method at the Lawrence
inhalation. Livermore Laboratory. The other approach is a mag-
Use: Chemicals (amyl ether, amyl acetate, pure amyl netic fusion device called a tokamak, located in
alcohols, nitrous ether, various esters), explosives Princeton, N.J. The Joint European Torus (JET) is
(gelatinizing agent), solvent for fats and oils, inter- located in Cambridge, England. Fusion has two
mediate, pharmaceuticals, nitrocellulose plastics, great advantages over fission as an energy source:
synthetic rubber, varnishes, lacquers, solvent for (1) it utilizes water and readily available lithium as
resins and waxes, perfumery. its raw materials instead of scarce and costly urani-
um; (2) it produces only tritium as a radioactive by-
fusible alloy. See alloy, fusible. product. As indicated, the D + T reaction yields 4He
nuclei, as well as 24 MeV neutrons, which carry off
80% of the energy.
fusion. (thermonuclear reaction). An endother- See JET; tokamak.
mic nuclear reaction yielding large amounts of ener-
gy in which the nuclei of light atoms (chiefly the
hydrogen isotopes D [deuterium] and T [tritium]) fusion protein. Depending on the context,
unite or fuse to form helium. Uncontrolled fusion means one of two different things. Most commonly,
was achieved some years ago in the hydrogen bomb, it refers to the protein product of a gene created by
in which the initiating temperature was supplied by a the fusion of two distinct genes, or portions of genes.
fission reaction. Research efforts are now being de- Less commonly it refers to one of a family of pro-
voted to developing a controlled and sustained fu- teins that participate in membrane fusion.
sion reaction that would utilize the deuterium and
tritium in water. Several reactions are possible, but futile cycle. A set of enzyme-catalyzed cyclic
the most efficient is, for each fusion event, D + T + e reactions that result only in the net release of thermal
→ 4He + n + 17.5 MeV. An energy input (e) equiva- energy by the hydrolysis of ATP.
lent to at least 44 million degrees C is necessary. One
approach utilizes powerful laser beams impinging “Fybrene” [Crompton & Knowles]. TM
on a mixture of deuterium and tritium in glass micro- for petrolatum, USP, of medium melting point and
spheres coated with “Teflon” and beryllium, which medium consistency.
have an ablative effect. Fusion reactions have been Use: Paper industry.