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TENSILE STRENGTH

The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that can be applied to it before it ceases to
be elastic.

Tensile strength is measured in units of force per unit area. The unit is newton per square meter (N/m^2), kilogram
(force) per square centimeter (kg/cm^2) or pounds per square inch (psi).

The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of a material is the force per unit area at which it breaks in two.

-The term tensile strength refers to the amount of tensile (stretching) stress a material can withstand before breaking or
failing. The ultimate tensile strength of a material is calculated by dividing the area of the material tested (the cross
section) by the stress placed on the material, generally expressed in terms of pounds or tons per square inch of material.
Tensile strength is an important measure of a material’s ability to perform in an application, and the measurement is
widely used when describing the properties of metals and alloys.

The tensile strength of an alloy is most commonly measured by placing a test piece in the jaws of a tensile machine. The
tensile machine applies stretching stress by gradually separating the jaws. The amount of stretching needed to break the
test piece is then measured and recorded. The yield strength of metals may also be measured. Yield strength refers to
the amount of stress a material can withstand without permanent deformation.

TENSILE STRENGTH OF STEEL

We choose metals for their many applications based on a number of properties. One of these properties is tensile
strength. Metals need to be very strong in some instances, relatively soft and ductile in others. In some cases, they have
to be strong and tough. Corrosion resistance, heat resistance, weldability and machinability are other properties that
come into play in the selection of a metal or alloy for a specific application.

We’ll deal here with the properties most associated with engineering metals and alloys, namely their yield strength (Y.S.)
tensile strength (U.T.S.), elongation (EL%) and reduction of area (R.O.A.%).

When a tensile stress is applied to a test specimen of a metal or alloy bar it will deform, or stretch. Up to the application
of a certain stress force the metal will revert to its original length. If, for example, we’re putting a tensile stress on a steel
or aluminum specimen, the bar will return to its original length until a stress sufficient to cause permanent deformation
is applied. When this stress point is reached, the bar’s cross-section will decrease and with further increasing stress the
bar will rupture.

The stress required to cause permanent deformation is known as the metal’s yield strength, and up to this point the
metal is undergoing elastic deformation. Application of further stress causes plastic or permanent deformation, until
the point where the metal can no longer withstand the stress being applied to it, and it ruptures. The stress value at
which rupture occurs is the metal’s ultimate tensile strength.

Once the yield strength has been exceeded, the metal will stretch and will continue to do so until the rupture point. The
extent to which the bar stretches before rupture is a measure of the metal’s ductility which is expressed as
the percentage elongation. Similarly, the reduction of area of the test specimen may be defined as the difference,
expressed as a percentage of original area, between original cross-sectional area and that after straining the test
specimen to its rupture point.

It should be noted that the above-noted definitions and data apply to those materials known as ductile materials, or
those materials capable of withstanding a good deal of deformation prior to rupture. Brittle materials, or those materials
that are brittle by nature or are designed purely for high strength and hardness, will show effectively no plastic
deformation prior to rupture and their elongation and reduction of area values will be near to zero.
A metal’s yield strength and ultimate tensile strength values are expressed in tons per square inch, pounds per square
inch or thousand pounds (KSI) per square inch. For example, a tensile strength of a steel that can withstand 40,000
pounds of force per square inch may be expressed as 40,000 PSI or 40 KSI (with K being the denominator for thousands
of pounds). The tensile strength of steel may also be shown in MPa, or megapascal.

The properties of engineering metals and alloys may, in most instances, be optimized by heat treatments such as
quenching and tempering or annealing. The temperatures employed during such thermal treatments will determine the
properties obtained in the finished product. Toughness, as measured by the Izod impact test, is greatly enhanced by
tempering and annealing treatments.

The IZOD impact test is an ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard method of determining the
impact resistance of materials. The test is similar to the Charpy impact test but uses a different surface standard than
the Charpy V-notch test.

All testing methods for engineering metals and alloys are covered by ASTM material specification standards. Each
material specification for a metal alloy includes the ultimate tensile strength of steel, plus its yield, elongation and
reduction of area values.

Elongation = FL/AE
Here F stands for applied force/load
L stands for the length of the specified rod
A stands for cross sectional area of the rod
E stands for the modulus of elasticity of the material
Here, all the values are given except cross sectional area :-
The cross sectional area is determined with the following formula :-
A = πD2 /4
PERCENTAGE ELONGATION FORMULA
Percentage elongation can be expressed as;
Percentage elongation =Increase in length× 100Original length
Symbolically it can be expressed as;
Percentage elongation=δl× 100l
PERCENTAGE ELONGATION EXAMPLE
Find percentage elongation of a steel rod, when it is subjected to an axial pulling force of 50 KN.whose diameter is 30
mm and it is 3 meters long. Take E= 200 X 10^9 Newton per meter square.
SOLUTION
Given data is;
Diameter of rod = D = 30 mm
Length of rod = l = 3 m = 3 x 1000 = 3000 mm
Axial Pulling Force = P = 50 KN = 50 X 1000 = 5 X 10^4 KN
Young’s Modulus = E = 200 X 10^9 N/meter square = 200 X 10^3 N/millimeter square
Required;
Percentage Elongation = ?
Percentage elongation=δl× 100l
Original length is known. Now we have to find change in length because of pulling force on steel rod;
Cross Area=A=π× D24
put steel diameter = 30 mm
Hence, Cross sectional Area = A = 706.858 millimeter square.
Find value of stress in steel rod;
Stress = Force/Area
Stress=5× 104706.858
Stress = 70.736 N/millimeter square = 70.736 MPa
Now find strain from young’s modulus formula
Young’s Modulus = Stress/ Strain
Strain = Stress/young’s Modulus
e =fE =70.736200×103
Strain = e = 0.000354
As we know that;
Strain = Change in length/original length
Hence;
Change in length = Strain X Original length
Change in length = 0.000354 X 3000 = 1.062 mm
Now every thing is known, put values in percentage elongation formula and find the percentage elongation as a result
of pulling force;
Percentage elongation=δl× 100l
Percentage Elongation = (1.062 x 100)/ 3000
Percentage Elongation = 0.0345%