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- Structural Steel Design, 5th Ed.
- Staad Viva Question
- design of residential building g+2
- Elementary Structural Analysis and Design of Buildings
- Structural Design
- AISC-Worked Examples for Steel Structures
- Design of Footing for Edge Column1
- Reinforced Concrete Design of a 5 Storey Seminary Main Building
- ASI Connection Design Guide 1 Bolting
- Steel base plate design
- Deflection According to Aci and Bs
- Computation for Apartment
- Analysis and Design of mosque
- Australian Steel Detailers Handbook
- Residential Structural Design Guide
- Pack L., Australian Guidebook for Structural Engineers, 2017.pdf
- Staad Example Space
- Structural Analysis & Design (Investigation)
- Worked Examples Design of Pile Foundations
- Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel - Open Sections

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Al-Mansour University College

Civil Engineering Department

AND DESIGN OF MULTI STORY

BUILDING

Engineering at Al-Mansour University College in Partial

Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree Of BS.C in Civil

Engineering.

By

1.Saif AldeenSaad

2. Khalid Muhsen

3.Jaafar Salah

Supervised by

Dr. Ola Adel Qasim

A.D 2016 A.H 1437

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this project is to analyze and design a multi-story building

(3D-dimensional reinforce concrete frame), the design of reinforced concrete slabs,

beams, columns, footings and Staircase were made by hand calculations according to

ACI code and compare the results by using STAAD.PRO. In order to design, it is

important to first obtain the plan of the particular building that is, positioning of the

particular rooms (Drawing room, bed room, kitchen toilet etc.) such that they serve

their respective purpose and also suiting to the requirement and comfort of the

inhabitants

An office building were used with reinforced concrete frame consists of three

floors where the maximum area of floor =(21.9*40.9) m2. Each floor consists of twelve

offices. We used AutoCAD programs to complete the architectural design, STAAD

Pro v8iSSS to design and analyze the structure of building. Finally, we arranged the

results as architectural and structural maps for this building.

STAAD PRO has a very interactive user interface which allows the user to draw

the frame and input the load values dimensions and materials properties. Then

according to the specified criteria assigned it analysis the structure and design the

members with reinforcement details for reinforced concrete frames.

The design process of structural planning and design requires not only imagination

and conceptual thinking but also sound knowledge of science of structural engineering

besides the knowledge of practical aspects, such as recent design codes, bye laws, backed

up by ample experience, intuition and judgment. The purpose of standards is to ensure and

enhance the safety, keeping careful balance between economy and safety.

For designing of columns and beams, it is necessary to know the moments they are

subjected to. Designing of slabs depends upon whether it is a one-way or a two way slab,

the end conditions and the loading. From the slabs, the loads are transferred to the beam.

Thereafter, the loads (mainly shear) from the beams are taken by the columns. Finally, the

sections must be checked for all the four components with regard to strength and

serviceability. Analysis of multi-storey building frames involves lot of complications and

Abstract

tedious calculations by conventional methods by hand. To carry out such analysis is a time

consuming task.

This project is deal with many computer programs to help us to complete the work.

An excel programs were designed to calculate the moments in slabs using method two

with interpolations to factors and loads in beams with moments and design section and

reinforcement. This program is more effective for analysis the two way slab; by inter a

few numbers of variables that related with type of slab and the dimension of beam and

Columns and the expected applied load. Then the program calculated the combination

load that will be applied on the frame; and then check the thickness of slab with the

limitation of shear. Then the program divided the slab to several frame in the two

directions vertical and horizontal; and calculate the details moment for each part of span;

and then calculate the required area of steel for each moment.

This study is divided into seventh chapters:

The first chapter presents the introduction about Multi-story Buildings and slabs,

beams, columns, footing etc..

The second chapter contains types of load on structure.

The third chapter presents the design calculations of slab and drawing of Building.

The forth chapter presents the design calculations of floor beam.

The fifth chapter presents the design calculations of columns and footing.

The sixth chapter presents the design calculations of Staircase.

The seventh chapters present the conclusions and recommendations of this study.

Supervisor Certification

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF MULTI STORY BUILDING) was prepared

under my supervision in Al-Mansour University College as partial fulfillment

of requirement for the degree of B.Sc in Civil Engineering.

Signature:

Date: / /2016

Committee Certification

CALCULATION, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF MULTI STORY

BUILDING) and, we as the examming committee examined the students in

its content and they did all the change we required and in our opinion it meets

the standard of project for the degree of B.Sc in Civil Engineering.

Signature: Signature:

Name: Name:

(Chairman) (Member)

Signature:

Name: Dr.

Date: / /2016

(Supervisor)

List of Contents

PAGE

SUBJECT

NO.

Acknowledgment.

Abstract. I

List of Contents. III

List of Symbols V

List of Tables. VI

List of Figures. VII

Chapter One:- Introduction.

1-1 Introduction 1

1-2 Reinforced Concrete 2

1-3 Structural Elements 2

1-4 Design Philosophy 3

1-5 Design Bases 3

1-6 Multi-Storey Buildings 4

1-7 Concrete Frame Structures 5

1-8 Reinforced Concrete (RC) 5

1-9 Beam -And-Column Construction 6

1-10 One-Way And Two-Way Reinforced Concrete Slabs. 6

1-11 Beams 8

1-12 Columns. 10

1-13 Footing. 11

1-14 Staircases 12

1-15 Types of Stairs 13

Chapter Two:- Types of Loads.

2-1 Introduction. 15

2-2 Types of Load. 16

2-3 Loads on architectural and civil engineering structure. 16

2-4 Imposed Loads. 17

2-5 Dead Loads. 18

2-6 Live Loads. 18

2-7 Other Loads. 19

2-8 Load Combinations. 19

2-9 Load on supporting beams. 19

2-10 Moment Distribution. 21

2-11 Importance of Hand Calculations. 21

2-12 The Major Qualifying Project. 22

Chapter Three:- Design of Slabs.

3-1 introduction. 23

3-2 Prosperities and Descriptions of Slabs. 26

3-3 Design of Slab in First Floor. 30

3-4 Design of slab in Ground floor. 31

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building III

Chapter Four: - Design of Beams.

4-1 Introduction. 39

4-2 Loading on Beams (calculation of moments in Y-Direction). 39

4-3Beams Design of Ground Floor and First Floor. 40

4-4 Ground Floor Loading on beam. 42

4-5 First Floor Loading on beam. 43

4-6 Solving Moments by Moment Distribution Method. 45

4-7 Design of beams ABCD & A1B1C1D1 for flexural and shear using hand 47

calculation.

4-8 Loading on Beams (Calculation of moments in X-Direction). 57

4-9 STAAB PRO consists of the following. 59

4-10 Analysis And Design of Beams in Ground And First Floor Using Staad.Pro 2008 61

Analysis.

4-11 Comparison Between Hand Calculation and Staad.Pro 2008 Results of Beams. 63

Chapter Five: - Design of Columns and Footing.

5-1 Column B-B1. 64

5-2 Column B1-B2. 67

5-3 Analysis and design of columns in ground and first floor using staad program 70

analysis.

5-4 Comparison between hand calculation and staad.pro 2006 results of columns. 71

5-5 Design of Footing. 71

Chapter Six:- Design of Stair.

6-1 Introduction. 81

6-2 Calculation of thickness. 81

6-3 Calculation of loading. 81

6-4 Calculation of shear and moment. 81

6-5 Design for reinforcement. 82

Chapter Seven:- Conclusions and Recommendation.

7-1 Conclusions. 83

7-2 Recommendation 84

References.

List of Symbols

Symbol Definition

As Area of steel reinforcement (mm2).

d Effective depth length (mm)

Ab Area of bar (mm2).

f'c Concrete compressive strength (MPa).

fy Yielding strength (MPa).

φ Bar diameter.

ρ Ratio of tension steel.

S Spacing between bars (mm).

Mu Factored moment due to factored load (kN.m).

Wu Factored Load (kN/m2).

Lb Long Span (mm).

La Short Span (mm).

List of Tables

Table PAGE

Subject

No. NO.

Chapter Three:- Design of Slabs.

(3-1) Coefficients of Method II. 25

(3-2) Minimum uniformly distributed live load. 26

(3-3) Geometry and descriptions of slabs, beam and column. 26

(3-4) Concrete and steel Prosperities of slabs, beam and column. 27

(3-5) Loads Types and Calculations first floor. 30

(3-6) Dimensions f slab (F1). 30

(3-7) Loads Types and Calculations ground floor. 31

(3-8) Interpolation Program for Solving Coefficients of Method II 32

(3-9) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F1 to 18). 32

(3-10) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G1 to G17). 33

(3-11) Summery of Moments calculated for all slabs. 33

(3-12) Summery of reinforcement detailed calculated for all slabs. 34

Chapter Four: - Design of Beams.

(4-1) Details of moment distribution method for frame A-B-C-D. 46

(4-2) Details of Reinforcement of beams for the two floors 62

(4-3) Comparison between the reinforcement obtained from hand calculation and 63

staad.pro 2008 analysis.

Chapter Five: - Design of Columns and Footing.

(5-1) Reinforcement details of column. 70

(5-2) Shows a comparison between the reinforcement obtained from hand 71

calculation and staad.pro 2008 analysis.

(5-3) Column Load of Exterior Strip (First floor and Ground floor). 74

(5-4) Footing load of hand calculation and staad pro. 80

List of Figures

Figure PAGE

Subject

No. NO.

Chapter One:- Introduction.

(1-1) Multi story Frame Building 2

(1-2) Typical Reinforced concrete frame building. 3

(1-3) Beam column connection. 6

(1-4) Slabs structural element. 8

(1-5) Beam structural element. 10

(1-6) Column structural element. 11

(1-7) Type of footing 12

(1-8) Type of Stairs 12

(1-9) Stairs main technical terms 13

Chapter Two:- Types of Loads.

(2-1) Multi story Frame Building. 15

(2-2) Components of Multi story Frame Building. 17

(2-3) Method of transferring load from the slabs to the beams 20

Chapter Three:- Design of Slabs.

(3-1) Building with Dimension of Slabs (Top view). 23

(3-2) Office Building (front view). 24

(3-3) Building (3-D view). 25

(3-4) Ground Floor. 27

(3-5) First Floor. 28

(3-6) Ground Floor (Positions and dimensions of beams and columns). 29

(3-7) 3-D for First Floor and ground Floor. 30

(3-8) Building in Staad Pro. 30

(3-9) Reinforcement details of ground floor. 37

(3-9) Reinforcement details of first floor. 38

Chapter Four: - Design of Beams.

(4-1) Beam Section. 39

(4-2) Load distribution of two way slabs. 40

(4-3) Transforming Load from Slab to Beams 41

(4-4) Load Distribution of slabs on Beams. 42

(4-5) Load Distribution on Beams. 44

(4-6) Beam Section. 44

(4-7) Moment Coefficient. 46

(4-8) Moment distribution. 47

(4-9) Shear and Moment Diagram of First Floor (AB). 48

(4-10) Shear and Moment Diagram of First Floor (BC). 49

(4-11) Shear and Moment Diagram of First Floor (CD). 50

(4-12) Shear and Moment Diagram of Ground Floor (AB). 53

(4-13) Shear and Moment Diagram of Ground Floor (BC). 54

(4-14) Shear and Moment Diagram of Ground Floor (CD). 55

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building VII

(4-15) Beam Section. 57

(4-16) Transforming Load from Slab to Beams. 57

(4-17) Load Distribution on Beams. 58

(4-18) Moment Diagram From STAAD PRO Program. 60

(4-19) Beam Number (Ground floor. 61

(4-20) (Beam Number (First floor). 61

Chapter Five: - Design of Columns and Footing.

(5-1) Column Chosen for design. 64

(5-2) Transfer of Load to column Chosen for design. 65

(5-3) shows details of reinforcement for column. 69

(5-4) shows name of column in Ground Floor. 69

(5-5) shows name of column in First Floor. 70

(5-6) strip in x and y directions. 72

(5-7) net factored soil pressure. 72

(5-8) sequence of load transfer between elements of a structure and the chosen 74

strip.

(5-9) shows the axial load for exterior strip 75

(5-10) represents shear force diagram for exterior strip footing. 77

(5-11) Details of reinforcement for exterior strip footing. 79

(5-12) Column Load of Exterior Strip and all columns (First floor and Ground 80

floor).

Chapter Six:- Design of Stair.

(6-1) Stairs details. 81

(6-2) Reinforcement details. 82

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building VIII

Chapter

One

Chapter one Introduction

Chapter One

Introduction

1-1 Introduction:

There is growing responsiveness of multi-storey reinforced concrete structures, to

accommodate growing population. Generally such structures have prismatic sections

which are common in developing countries, which resist applied loads without any

appreciable deformation of one part relative to another. It is the need to accomplish some

function, one of them is to receive loads (usually known as service loads) at certain points

& transmit them safely to other points, that prompts the designer to give life to a structure

furthermore since it is the need for a safe, serviceable, feasible and aesthetically pleasing

fulfillment of a structure. The ultimate aim of structural analysis is to design all the

structural elements of a structural system in such a way that they perform their functions

satisfactorily and at the same time assist design to become efficient, elegant and

economical which helps to choose the right type of sections consistent with economy

along with safety of the structure.

Many structures are built of reinforced concrete: bridges, viaducts, buildings,

retaining walls, tunnels, tanks, conduits, and others .This deals primarily with fundamental

principles in the design and investigation of reinforced concrete members subjected to

axial force, bending moment, shear, torsion, or combinations of these. Thus these

principles are basically applicable to the design of any type of structure, so long as

information is known about the variation of axial force, shear moment, etc., along the

length of each member. Although analysis and design may be treated separately, they are

inseparable in practice, especially in the case of reinforced.

The multistory building is statically indeterminate structure and there are several

methods to analysis this structures such as method three and moment distribution…..etc.

To analyze and design the multistory building we must analyze and design the

elements that combined it, such slabs, beams, columns and footing. Large amounts of

Chapter one Introduction

concrete are used in the construction industry in Iraq and most countries due to its

availability. Concrete is arguably the mast I important building material, playing a role in

all structures. It has the virtue of versatility, i.e. its ability to be molded to take different

shapes n the structural work. It is also very durable and fire resistant with good control and

correct construction procedures are followed.

1-2 Reinforced concrete:

Reinforced concrete is simply concrete in which steel bars with desirable magnitude

are introduced in the casting stage; the resulting composite material can resist the stresses

developed by the external loads. The revolutionary engineering concept of reinforcing the

weak tensile zone of the concrete with steel bars was developed in the mid-19lh century.

The early 20'h century witnessed significant improvement in the development and use of

reinforced concrete mainly due to the production of a good quality concrete with improved

strength and the improved quality of steel with surface characteristics suitable to develop a

good bond with the steel and concrete.

1-3 Structural elements:

Each building structure consists of the following elements:-

1. Slabs: horizontal plate elements carrying the loads.

2. Beams: horizontal members carrying the load from slabs.

3. Columns: vertical members carrying mainly axial loads (interior columns) but

sometimes they carry axial loads and moments in the case of exterior beams.

4. Walls: vertical plate elements resisting vertical, lateral or in-plane loads.

Chapter one Introduction

5. Bases and foundations: directly supported by the soil, they help to distribute the loads,

transferred by the elements above, and on a larger area thus reducing the stresses applied

to the soil.

1-4 Design philosophy:

The main objective of reinforced concrete structural design is to comply with the

following essential requirements.

1. Structures designed should satisfy the criteria of the desirable ultimate strength in

flexural, shear, compression, tension and torsion development under a given loading

conditions and their combinations.

2. The structure designed should satisfy the criterion for serviceability, which limits the

deflections and keeps the cracks width with acceptable limits.

3. The structure should also have adequate durability, impermeability, resistance to acids,

corrosion, frost, fire etc.

4. The building should have adequate stability against overturning, sliding, buckling and

vibration under the action of loads.

A satisfactory structural design should ensure the three basic criteria of strength,

serviceability and stability. A good designer should also take into account economy and

aesthetics.

1-5 Design Bases:

The single most important characteristic of any structural member is its actual

strength, which must be large enough to resist, with some margin to spare, all foreseeable

loads that may act on it during the life of the structure, without failure or other distress. It

Chapter one Introduction

is logical, therefore, to proportion members, i.e., to select concrete dimensions and

reinforcement, so that member strengths are adequate to resist forces resulting from certain

hypothetical overload stages, significantly above loads expected actually to occur in

service. This design concept is known as strength design. For reinforced concrete

structures at loads close to and at failure, one or both of the materials, concrete and steel,

are invariably in their nonlinear inelastic range. That is, concrete in a structural member

reaches its maximum strength and subsequent fracture at stresses and strains far beyond

the initial elastic range in which stresses and strains are fairly proportional. Similarly, steel

close to and at failure of the member is usually stressed beyond its elastic domain into

and even beyond the yield region. Consequently, the nominal strength of a member

must be calculated based on this inelastic behavior of the materials. A member designed

by the strength method must also perform in a satisfactory way under normal service

loading. For example, beam deflections must be limited to acceptable values, and

the number and width of flexural cracks at service loads must be controlled. Serviceability

limit conditions are an important part of the total design, although attention is focused

initially on strength.

1-6 Multi-Storey Buildings:

The tallness of a building is relative and cannot be defined in absolute terms either in

relation to height or the number of stories. But, from a structural engineer's point of view

the tall building or multi-storied building can be defined as one that, by virtue of its height,

is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake or both to an extent that they play

an important role in the structural design. Tall structures have fascinated mankind from the

beginning of civilization. The Egyptian Pyramids, one among the seven wonders of world,

constructed in 2600 B.C. are among such ancient tall structures Such structures were

constructed for defense and to show pride of the population in their civilization. The

growth in modern multi-storied building construction, which began in late nineteenth

century, is intended largely for commercial and residential purposes. The development of

the high-rise building has followed the growth of the city closely. The process of

urbanization, that started with the age of industrialization, is still in progress in developing

Chapter one Introduction

countries. Industrialization causes migration of people to urban centers where job

opportunities are significant. The land available for buildings to accommodate this

migration is becoming scarce, resulting in rapid increase in the cost of land.

1-7 Concrete Frame Structures:

Concrete frame structures are a very common - or perhaps the most common- type of

modern building. As the name suggests, this type of building consists of a frame or

skeleton of concrete. Horizontal members of this frame are called beams, and vertical

members are called columns. Humans walk on flat planes of concrete called slabs. Of

these, the column is the most important, as it is the primary load-carrying element of the

building ,lf you damage a beam in a building, it will usually affect only one floor, but

damage to a column could bring down the entire building .When we say concrete in the

building trade, we actually mean reinforced concrete. Its full name is reinforced cement

concrete, or RCC. RCC is concrete that contains steel bars, called reinforcement

1-8 Reinforced concrete (RC):

Is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strenght and

ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength

and/or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing

bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets.

Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions

of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern

reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or

alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may

also be permanently stressed (in compression), so as to improve the behavior of the final

structure under working loads.

In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning

and post-tensioning.

For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the

following properties at least:

• High relative strength, High toleration of tensile strain

Chapter one Introduction

• Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, moisture, and similar factors

• Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing

temperatures, Durability in the concrete environment.

1-9 Beam -and-Column Construction:

This is often called as "skeleton construction". The floor slabs, partitions, exterior

walls etc. are all supported by a framework of steel beams and columns. This type of

skeleton structure can be erected easily leading to very tall buildings. In such a beam and

column construction, the frame usually consists of columns with beams and girders framed

into them from both directions at each floor level. Generally columns used in the

framework are hot-rolled I-sections or concrete encased steel columns. Where the loading

requirements exceed the capacity of available section. The selection of beam sections

depends upon the span, loading and limitations on overall depth from headroom

considerations. Simple beams with precast floors or composite metal deck floors are likely

to be the most economical for smaller spans. For larger spans, plate-girders or plated-

beams are used.

1-10 One-way and two-way reinforced concrete slabs:

These are much heavier than most of the newer light weight floor systems and they take

more time to construct, the floor system is adopted for heavy loads. One way slabs are

used when the longitudinal span is two or more times the short span. In one-way slabs, the

short span direction is the direction in which loads get transferred from slab to the beams.

Chapter one Introduction

Hence the main reinforcing bars are provided along this direction. However, temperature,

shrinkage and distribution steel is provided along the longer direction.

The two-way concrete slab is used when aspect ratio of the slab supported along all four

edges i.e. longitudinal span/transverse span is less than 2. The main reinforcement runs in

both directions.

All permanent constructions of the structure form the dead loads. The dead load comprises

of the weights of walls, partitions floor finishes, false ceilings, false floors and the other

permanent constructions in the buildings. The dead loads may be calculated from the

dimensions of various members and their unit weights. The unit weights of plain concrete

and reinforced concrete made with sand and gravel or crushed natural stone aggregate may

be taken as 24 KN/m3.

In reinforced concrete construction slabs are used to provide flat, useful surfaces .a

reinforced concrete slab is a broad, flat plate, usually horizontal with top and bottom

surfaces parallel or nearly so. It may be supported by reinforced concrete beams, by

masonry or reinforced concrete walls, by structural steel members, directly by columns, or

continuously by the ground.

Concrete slabs may in some cases be carried directly by columns without the use of beams

or girders .such slabs are described as flat plates and are commonly used where spans are

not large and loads not particularly heavy.

Flat plates can be constructed in less time and with minimum labor costs.

In many cities the maximum height of buildings is restricted, and then the thin flat plate

permits the construction of the maximum number of stories in a given height.

Flat plates also provide for the most flexibility in the layout of columns, partitions and

small openings, etc

Another advantage of flat plate slabs that should not be over looked in fire resistance.

And the slabs are classified to one-way slab or two-way slab according to the method of

transfer of moments in the both directions depends on the ratio of long span/short span

If the ratio more than two or equal to two, load transfer predominantly by bending in the

short direction and the panel acts as one-way slab.

Chapter one Introduction

And if the ratio is less than two, then the load is transferred by bending in both orthogonal

directions, and the panel is two-way slab.

We have several methods to design the slabs like direct design method, method three, etc .

1-11 Beams:

A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by

resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of

the external loads, own weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a

bending moment.

Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry

horizontal loads (i.e., loads due to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are

transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent

structural compression members. In light frame construction the joists rest on the beam.

Chapter one Introduction

Beams are characterized by their profile (the shape of their cross-section), their length, and

their material. In contemporary construction, beams are typically made of steel, reinforced

concrete, or wood. One of the most common types of steel beam is the I-beam or wide-

flange beam (also known as a "universal beam" or, for stouter sections, a "universal

column"). This is commonly used in steel-frame buildings and bridges. Other common

beam profiles are the C-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe, and the

angle.

Structural member of reinforced concrete placed horizontally to carry loads over

openings. Because both bending and shear in such beams induce tensile stresses, steel

reinforcing tremendously increases beam strength. Usually, beams are designed under the

assumption that tensile stresses have cracked the concrete and the steel reinforcing is

carrying all the tension. See also stress and strain sections can be singly or doubly

reinforced (sections with only tensile reinforcement or sections with both tensile and

compressive reinforcement). In practice most beams are designed with only tensile

reinforcement (singly reinforced). However, in certain situations it might be necessary to

design beams with both tensile and compression reinforcement (doubly reinforced). For

example, when beam cross section is limited because of architectural or other

considerations, it may happen that the concrete cannot develop the compression force

required to resist the given bending moment. In some cases if a beam is designed with

only tensile reinforcement, the section may become over reinforced, which is neither

desirable nor acceptable by most codes of practice, in these situations the section must also

be designed as doubly reinforced. There are situations in which compressive

reinforcement is used for reasons other than strength.

It has been found that inclusion of some compression reinforcement will reduce the

long-term deflections of beams.

In addition, in some cases, steel will be placed in the compression zone for minimum-

moment loading or as stirrup-support bars continuous throughout the beam span. It is often

desirable to account for the presence of such reinforcement in flexural design. In practice

T, L, and U sections rarely need compression steel for strength reason, and often if this

Chapter one Introduction

steel is present it is ignored in design. However, the Beam Strength applet is capable of

evaluating the strength of T, L, U section with both tensile and compression steel.

The program performs the design of a non-prestressed T or inverted-T concrete beam

when subjected to a combination of bending, torsion and shear loading, based on the latest

ACI torsion design criteria and the Ultimate Strength Design Method.

Per ACI, the contribution of concrete to torsional strength (Tc) is disregarded. Thus,

Vc is unaffected by the presence of torsion. Design for torsion is based on a thin-walled

tube, space truss analogy. The interaction of bending with shear and torsion in a concrete

beam is accounted for by adding the torsion longitudinal steel to that required by flexure.

1-12 Columns:

Columns are defined as members that carry loads chiefly in compression. Usually

columns carry bending moments as well, about one or both axes of the cross-section, and

the bending action may produce tensile forces over apart of cross-section. Even in each

case, columns are generally refer to as compression members, because the compression

forces dominate their behavior.

There are three types of reinforced concrete compression members are in use:

1-members reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

2-members reinforced with longitudinal bars and continuous spiral.

3-composite compression members reinforced longitudinally with structural steel shapes,

pipe, or tubing, with or without additional longitudinal bars, and various types of lateral

reinforcement.

The ACI-code gives the limitations of the area of longitudinal reinforcement, for

noncomposite compression members shall be not less than 0.01 Ag or more than 0.08 Ag.

Chapter one Introduction

Minimum number of longitudinal bars in compression members shall be 4 for bars within

rectangular or circular ties, 3 for bars within triangular ties, and 6 for bars enclosed by

spirals. The slenderness ratio have great effective in describe the type of columns (short or

long) where, when (KL/r ≤ Cc) then the column defined as short column, otherwise the

column defined as long column, Where:

Cc=√2πϵ/fy

But the effect of slenderness neglected in the following cases:

1-In sway frame when KL/r<22. 2-In non-sway frame when KL/r ≤ 34-12 M1/M2 .

1-13 Foundation:

A foundation is a lower portion of building structure that transfers its gravity loads

to the earth. Foundations are generally broken into two categories: shallow

foundations and deep foundations. A tall building must have a strong foundation if it is to

stand for a long time. To make a foundation, we normally dig a trench in the ground,

digging deeper and deeper until we come to subsoil, which is more solid than the topsoil

that is used to grow plants and crops. When the trench is deep enough, we fill it with any

strong, hard material we can find. Sometimes we pour in concrete into the trench, which

we strengthen even more by first putting long thin round pieces of steel into the trench.

When the concrete dries, the steel acts like the bones in our body to tie the foundation

together. We call this reinforced concrete. Once the foundation has been packed down

tightly, or dried hard, we can begin to build the building superstructure.

Chapter one Introduction

1-14 Staircases:

Staircases provide means of movement from one floor to another in a structure.

Staircases consist of a number of steps with landings at suitable intervals to provide

comfort and safety for the users. Some common types of stairs are shown in Fig. (1-8).

These include straight-flight stairs, quarter-turn stairs, half-turn stairs, branching stairs,

and geometrical stairs.

Fig. (1-8) (a); (b) Straight flight stairs; (c) Quarter-turn stairs; (d) Half-turn stairs; (e) Branching

stairs; (f) Open-well (half turn); (g) Open-well with quarter turn landing; (h); (i); (j) Geometrical

stairs Technical Terms

The definitions of some technical terms, which are used in connection with design of

stairs, Fig. (1-9) shows main technical terms associated with stairs design:

a. Tread or Going: horizontal upper portion of a step.

b. Riser: vertical portion of a step.

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building 12

Chapter one Introduction

c. Rise: vertical distance between two consecutive treads.

d. Flight: a series of steps provided between two landings.

e. Landing: a horizontal slab provided between two flights.

f. Waist: the least thickness of a stair slab.

g. Winder: radiating or angular tapering steps.

h. Soffit: the bottom surface of a stair slab.

i. Nosing: the intersection of the tread and the riser.

j. Headroom: the vertical distance from a line connecting the nosing's of all treads and the

soffit above.

1-15 Types of Stairs:

For purpose of design, stairs are classified into two types; transversely and

longitudinally supported.

a- Transversely supported (transverse to the direction of movement):

Transversely supported stairs include:

§ Simply supported steps supported by two walls or beams or a combination of both.

§ Steps cantilevering from a wall or a beam.

§ Stairs cantilevering from a central spine beam.

b- Longitudinally supported (in the direction of movement):

These stairs span between supports at the top and bottom of a flight and unsupported at the

sides. Longitudinally supported stairs may be supported in any of the following manners:

a. Beams or walls at the outside edges of the landings.

b. Internal beams at the ends of the flight in addition to beams or walls at the outside edges

of the landings.

Chapter one Introduction

c. Landings which are supported by beams or walls running in the longitudinal direction.

d. Combination of (a) or (b), and (c).

e. Stairs with quarter landings associated with open-well stairs.

Effective Span:

The effective span is taken as the horizontal distance between centerlines of supporting

elements.

Loading:

a. Dead Load:

The dead load, which can be calculated on horizontal plan, includes:

§ Own weight of the steps.

§ Own weight of the slab. For flight load calculations, this load is to be increased by

dividing it by cosα to get it on horizontal projection, where α is the angle of slope of the

flight.

§ Surface finishes on the flight and on the landings. For flight load calculations, the part of

load acting on slope is to be increased by dividing it by cos α to get it on horizontal

projection.

b. Live Load:

Live load is always given on horizontal projection.

Design for Shear and Flexure:

The stairs slab is designed for maximum shear and flexure. Main reinforcement runs

in the longitudinal direction, while shrinkage reinforcement runs in the transverse

direction. Special attention has to be paid to reinforcement detail at opening joints.

Chapter

Two

Chapter Two Load Type

Chapter Two

Types of Loads

2-1 Introduction:

Structural loads or actions are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to

a structure or its components. Loads cause stresses, deformations, and displacements in

structures. Assessment of their effects is carried out by the methods of structural

analysis. Excess load or overloading may cause structural failure, and hence such

possibility should be either considered in the design or strictly controlled. Mechanical

structures, such as aircraft, satellites, rockets, space stations, ships and submarines, have

their own particular structural loads and actions. Engineers often evaluate structural

loads based upon published regulations, contracts, or specifications. Accepted technical

standards are used for acceptance testing and inspection.

The loads are broadly classified as vertical loads, horizontal loads and longitudinal

loads. The vertical loads consist of dead load, live load and impact load. The horizontal

loads comprises of wind load and earthquake load. The longitudinal loads i.e. tractive

and braking forces are considered in special case of design of bridges, gantry girders etc.

Chapter Two Load Type

2-2 Types of Load:

Dead loads are static forces that are relatively constant for an extended time. They

can be in tension or compression. The term can refer to a laboratory test method or to the

normal usage of a material or structure.

Live loads are usually unstable or moving loads. These dynamic loads may involve

considerations such as impact, momentum, vibration, slosh dynamics of fluids, etc.

An impact load is one whose time of application on a material is less than one-third

of the natural period of vibration of that material.

Cyclic loads on a structure can lead to fatigue damage, cumulative damage, or

failure. These loads can be repeated loadings on a structure or can be due to vibration.

2-3 Loads on architectural and civil engineering structure:

Building codes require that structures be designed and built to safely resist all

actions that they are likely to face during their service life, while remaining fit for use.

Minimum loads or actions are specified in these building codes for types of structures,

geographic locations, usage and materials of construction. Structural loads are split into

categories by their originating cause. In terms of the actual load on a structure, there is

no difference between dead or live loading, but the split occurs for use in safety

calculations or ease of analysis on complex models.

To meet the requirement that design strength be higher than maximum

loads, building codes prescribe that, for structural design, loads are increased by load

factors. These load factors are, roughly, a ratio of the theoretical design strength to the

maximum load expected in service. They are developed to help achieve the desired level

of reliability of a structure based on probabilistic studies that take into account the load's

originating cause, recurrence, distribution, and static or dynamic nature.

Chapter Two Load Type

2-4 Imposed Loads:

Imposed load is produced by the intended use or occupancy of building including

the weight of movable partitions distributed and concentrated loads, load due to impact

and vibration and dust load, imposed do not include due to wind, seismic activity, snow,

and loads imposed due to temperature changes to which the structure will be subjected

to creep and shrinkage of the structure, the differential settlements to which the structure

may undergo. Live loads, or imposed loads, are temporary, of short duration, or

a moving load. These dynamic loads may involve considerations such

as impact, momentum, vibration, slosh dynamics of fluids and material fatigue. Live

loads, sometimes also referred to as probabilistic loads, include all the forces that are

variable within the object's normal operation cycle not including construction or

environmental loads. Roof and floor live loads are produced during maintenance by

Chapter Two Load Type

workers, equipment and materials, and during the life of the structure by movable

objects, such as planters and people. Bridge live loads are produced by vehicles

traveling over the deck of the bridge.

2-5 Dead Loads:

Dead loads are permanent or stationary loads which are transferred to structure

throughout the life span. Dead load is primarily due to self weight of structural

members, permanent partition walls, fixed permanent equipments and weight of

different materials. The dead load includes loads that are relatively constant over time,

including the weight of the structure itself, and immovable fixtures such as

walls, plasterboard or carpet. The roof is also a dead load. Dead loads are also known as

permanent or static loads.

2-6 Live Loads:

Live loads are either movable or moving loads with out any acceleration or impact.

There are assumed to be produced by the intended use or occupancy of the building

including weights of movable partitions or furniture etc. The floor slabs have to be

designed to carry either uniformly distributed loads or concentrated loads whichever

produce greater stresses in the part under consideration. Since it is unlikely that any one

particular time all floors will not be simultaneously carrying maximum loading, the code

permits some reduction in imposed loads in designing columns, load bearing walls, piers

supports and foundations. Live loads include any temporary or transient forces that act

on a building or structural element. Typically, they include people, furniture, vehicles,

and almost everything else that can be moved throughout a building.

Live loads can be prescribed to any structural element (floors, columns, beams,

even roofs) and will ultimately be factored into a calculation of gravity loads, which

we'll explain below We measure uniform live loads as KN/m2. The acceptable live load

will vary considerably based on the occupancy and expected use of a structure or

structural element For example, the live load for a school, and colleges 4-5 KN/m2

Stadiums 5 KN/m2 and houses 2 KN/m2.

Chapter Two Load Type

2-7 Other Loads:

Engineers must also be aware of other actions that may affect a structure, such as:

Foundation settlement or displacement

Fire

Corrosion

Explosion

Creep or shrinkage

Impact from vehicles or machinery vibration

Construction loads

A load combination results when more than one load type acts on the

structure. Building codes usually specify a variety of load combinations together

with load factors (weightings) for each load type in order to ensure the safety of the

structure under different maximum expected loading scenarios. For example, in

designing a staircase, a dead load factor may be 1.2 times the weight of the structure,

and a live load factor may be 1.6 times the maximum expected live load. These two

"factored loads" are combined (added) to determine the "required strength" of the

staircase. The reason for the disparity between factors for dead load and live load, and

thus the reason the loads are initially categorized as dead or live is because while it is

not unreasonable to expect a large number of people ascending the staircase at once, it is

less likely that the structure will experience much change in its permanent load.

2-9 Load on supporting beams:

The loads on supporting beam s for two way panels may be assumed as the load wit

tributary areas of the panel bounded by the intersections of (45)° lines from the comer

with the median of the panel parallel to the long side. The bending moments may be

determined approximately by using an equivalent uniform load per unit length of the

beam as follows:

Chapter Two Load Type

𝑤.𝑆

For short beam:

3

𝑤.𝑆 3−𝑚2 𝑆

For long beam: ( ) Where 𝑚 =

3 2 𝐿

Fig. (2-3) Method of transferring load from the slabs to the beams.

2-10 Moment Distribution:

In the moment distribution method, every joint of the structure to be analyzed is

fixed so as to develop the fixed-end moments. Then each fixed joint is sequentially

released and the fixed-end moments (which by the time of release are not in equilibrium)

are distributed to adjacent members until equilibrium is achieved. The moment

distribution method in mathematical terms can be demonstrated as the process of solving

a set of simultaneous equations by means of iteration. Moment distribution is a great

method for quickly computing end moments on continuous beams. Over the years,

several variations of the method have been presented. These methods take advantage of

various observations made about the process. While this method can be applied to a

variety of indeterminate structures. The moment distribution method begins by

determining the relative flexural stiffness, in the plane of loading, of all the elements

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building 20

Chapter Two Load Type

rigidly connected to each joint. Rotational stiffness of a member is proportional to

material and geometric stiffness:

Relative Rotational Stiffness = EI/L

E is the modulus of elasticity of the material,

I is the moment of inertia about the axis of bending in the plane of the frame, and

L is the length of the member.

The distribution factors are computed joint by joint for the ends of each member

connected to the joint. After computing the fixed end moments (FEM) for each span,

you will observe that there is an unbalanced moment at each joint. In other words, the

sum of moments at the joint does not equal zero, a necessary requirement for

equilibrium. To rectify this problem, a joint is "released" and the unbalanced moment

(i.e. the difference of the FEMs) is divided among the members attached to joint in

proportion to their contributions to the joint rotational stiffness using the distribution

factors. Once the distributed moments are added to each preexisting FEM at the joint,

the resulting FEMs are "balanced". In other words, the sum of the moments at the joint

equal zero and equilibrium is satisfied at that joint (for now!). The addition of moment

to each element attached to the joint induces a moment on the opposite end of each

member. This is called "carry over" (CO). The carry over moment is added to the

preexisting FEM at that joint. The CO moment tends to unbalance the joints adjacent to

newly balanced joint. These joints are, in turn released, balanced and send back CO

moments to unbalance the adjacent joint. Joints are successively released and balanced

until the CO moments get small enough to ignore. This means that this is an iterative

process that looks for convergence.

2-11 Importance of Hand Calculations:

The students have been asked to perform hand calculations. Computer analysis and

design programs offer great benefits to the design engineer. However, the computer

programs can be easily misused without proper precautions in analysis and design

procedures. If the design of any structure is based on the results obtained from erroneous

Chapter Two Load Type

computer analysis, it can lead to structural failures, costly disputes and poor performing

structures. Performing the following procedures can eliminate many of the errors.

1. Model the structure as closely to the real structure as possible.

2. Recognize the important structural reactions

3. Check the input and understand the material behavior and boundary conditions

4. Perform simple equilibrium and compatibility checks using hand calculations.

5. Know and understand the limitations of the software.

A series of hand design calculations were performed on a typical slab panel, a randomly

selected set of three beams and columns, one critical footing supporting the highest

column load in the structure, and a typical combined footing. The purpose of the hand

design calculation was to verify manually, the analysis from the finite element software

package, STAAD and the Indian code driven RC Design Suite programs.

2-12 The Major Qualifying Project:

1. To use Autocad to sketch the floor plan and the details of the frame and foundations

of the structure and also the details of beam etc.

2. To use Microsoft EXCEL to facilitate the computation of the service loads on the

structure.

3. To use STAAD package for the analysis of Multi story building.

4. To familiarize with ACI Code and other codes.

5. To use Reinforced concrete design Suite for the design of slabs, beams, column and

footings.

Chapter

Three

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Chapter Three

Design of Slabs

3-1 Introduction:

The building is official building with dimensions shown in the figure and consist with

columns and beams and slabs with thickness of 200 mm and analyze depend on ACI-Code.

The building consists of two story ground floor and first floor.

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Long

Short Direction

Slab Direction

Position

Case Modular Ratio (m)

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 All

-ve con 0.033 0.04 0.048 0.055 0.063 0.083 0.033

1 -ve dis --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

m=

+ve 0.025 0.03 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.062 0.025

-ve con 0.041 0.048 0.055 0.062 0.069 0.085 0.041

2 -ve dis 0.021 0.024 0.027 0.031 0.035 0.042 0.021

+ve 0.031 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.052 0.064 0.031

-ve con 0.049 0.057 0.064 0.071 0.078 0.09 0.049

3 -ve dis 0.025 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.039 0.045 0.025

+ve 0.037 0.043 0.048 0.054 0.059 0.068 0.037

4 -ve con 0.058 0.066 0.074 0.082 0.09 0.098 0.058

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

-ve dis 0.029 0.033 0.037 0.041 0.045 0.049 0.029

+ve 0.044 0.05 0.065 0.062 0.068 0.074 0.044

-ve con --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

5 -ve dis 0.033 0.038 0.043 0.047 0.053 0.055 0.033

+ve 0.05 0.057 0.064 0.072 0.08 0.083 0.05

Table (3-3) Geometry and descriptions of slabs, beam and column.

Calculation of Thickness of slab For two-way slab:

h=>90 mm

t = (a + b)*2/180

t = (7700+8050)*2/180 =175mm; use slab

thickness=200mm.

Depth of beam From table (9.5 a0 ACI-318)

=L/21= 8050 /21

= 383 mm

Use 600 mm

Width of beam (b) =300 mm for beams.

column 400*400, 500*500, 300*300, 300*600 and

300*500 mm

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Table (3-4) Concrete and steel Prosperities of slabs, beam and column.

Density of concrete 24 kN/m3

Compressive strength (f'c) 25 MPa

Yield stress (fy) 400 MPa

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

$

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Fig. (3-6) Ground Floor (Positions and dimensions of beams and columns).

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

3-3 Design of Slab in First Floor:

Table (3-5) Loads Types and Calculations first floor.

All slabs are two-way slabs

Live load calculation (L.L) Assumed service live load = 2 kN/m2

Dead load calculation (D.L) Weight of gypsum plastering = 0.02 * 13.5 = 0.27kN/m2

Weight of earth filling = 18 * 0.15 = 2.7kN/m2

Weight of roof tiles = 0.03 * 24 =0. 72 kN/m2

Weight of slab = 24 * t = 24 * 0.2 = 4.8kN/m2

Total service dead load = 0.27+2.7+0.72+4.8

= 8.49kN/m2

Wu = 1.2 * WD + 1.6 * WL

Wu =1.2 * 8.49 + 1.6 * 2=13.4 kN/m2

WuL=1.6 * 2=3.2 kN/m2

WuD=1.2 * 8.49 = 10.188 kN/m2

La mm Lb/La= / = < 2 (Two-

Lb mm way slab)

m= La / Lb = / =()

Case ( )

∅= 0.9 fc' = 25 MPa fy = 400 MPa

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

3-4 Design of slab in Ground floor.

Table (3-7) Loads Types and Calculations ground floor.

All slabs are two-way slabs

Live load calculation (L.L) WL = 3 kN/m2

Dead load calculation (D.L) and Weight of gypsum plastering = 0.02 * 13.5 = 0.27

Superimposed dead load (SDL) kN/m2

Weight of slab = 24 * t = 24 * 200 = 4.8 kN/m2

Weight of tiles with mortar = ( 0.02 * 0.03 ) * 23 =

1.15 kN/m2

Wd = 6.22 kN/m2

Wu = 6.22 * 1.2 + 3 * 1.6 = 12.264 kN/m2

WuL=3*1.6=4.8 kN/m2

WuD=6.22 * 1.2= 7.464 kN/m2

Example for calculations:

Slab 1

La = 7.8

Lb = 8.08

m = 0.965

∅= 0.9

d short = t- cover – db/2 (cover =20 mm , db = 12mm)

=200-20-12/2=174mm

d long = d short – db = 174 – 12 = 162mm

Short direction

𝑚

R= =42.2077*1000000/0.9*1000*174*174*25= 0.06196

∅∗𝑏∗𝑑 2 ∗𝑓𝑐 ′

1−√1−2.36∗𝑅

ω= = 0.0644073

1.18

ρ=ω*fc'/fy=0.0644073*25/400=0.00402546

=0.0018*1000*200=360 mm2

Smin=40 mm and Smax= minimum of [3*t], (600mm) or 500 mm; use 500mm

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Table (3-8) Interpolation Program for Solving Coefficients of Method II.

Table (3-9) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F1).

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

3-4-1 Design of Slab (G1):

Table (3-10) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G1).

Case First Floor Ground Floor

Short Long Direction Short Long Direction

Mu kN.m/m Mu kN.m/m Mu kN.m/m Mu kN.m/m

Middle Column Middle Column Middle Column Middle Column

-ve 42.20766 28.13844 39.94754 26.6317 Slab -ve 45.12999 30.08666 21.63811 14.42541

Slab F1 -ve 21.22894 14.15263 20.3814 13.5876 G1 -ve 22.565 15.04333 21.63811 14.42541

+ve 31.85956 21.23971 30.16447 20.10965 +ve 34.22056 22.81371 32.83024 21.88682

-ve 35.18944 23.45962 32.57393 21.71595 Slab -ve 32.02545 21.3503 29.81243 19.87496

Slab F2 -ve 35.18944 23.45962 16.68421 11.1228 G2 -ve 16.21822 10.81215 15.26978 10.17986

+ve 26.49729 17.66486 24.62907 16.41938 +ve 24.12183 16.08122 22.54111 15.02741

-ve 27.38576 18.25717 18.48182 12.32121 Slab -ve 24.98684 16.6579 16.915 11.27667

Slab F3 -ve 27.38576 18.25717 9.466296 6.310864 G3 -ve 24.98684 16.6579 8.66378 5.775853

+ve 20.70445 13.80297 13.97406 9.316037 +ve 18.88299 12.58866 12.78939 8.52626

-ve 31.85408 21.23605 24.66257 16.44171 Slab -ve 29.03452 19.35635 22.57177 15.04785

Slab F4 -ve 31.85408 21.23605 12.63205 8.421364 G4 -ve 29.03452 19.35635 11.56115 7.707433

+ve 23.7841 15.85607 18.64731 12.43154 +ve 21.68271 14.45514 17.06646 11.37764

-ve 34.55231 23.03487 30.49307 20.32872 Slab -ve 31.45938 20.97292 27.90799 18.60533

Slab F5 -ve 34.55231 23.03487 15.6184 10.41227 G5 -ve 31.45938 20.97292 14.29434 9.529557

+ve 25.95519 17.30346 23.05574 15.37049 +ve 23.63787 15.75858 21.10116 14.06744

-ve 28.96927 19.31285 19.50266 13.00177 Slab -ve 26.44928 17.63285 17.8493 11.89953

Slab F6 -ve 14.63291 9.755271 9.950338 6.633558 G6 -ve 13.36492 8.909944 9.106787 6.071191

+ve 22.0001 14.66673 14.7265 9.817666 +ve 20.08923 13.39282 13.47804 8.985363

-ve 26.82702 17.88468 18.80184 12.53456 Slab -ve 24.26656 16.17771 17.20789 11.47193

Slab F7 -ve 26.82702 17.88468 9.630212 6.420141 G7 -ve 24.26656 16.17771 8.8138 5.875866

+ve 20.17759 13.45172 14.21603 9.477351 +ve 18.22173 12.14782 13.01085 8.673898

-ve 23.30428 15.53619 15.13319 10.08879 Slab -ve 13.86134 9.240895 13.61451 9.076341

Slab F8 -ve 0 0 0 0 G8 -ve 0 0 0 0

+ve 17.43205 11.62137 11.46454 7.643025 +ve 10.49033 6.993555 10.31402 6.876016

Slab F9 -ve 18.48182 12.32121 14.87561 9.917072 Slab -ve 17.69024 11.79349 13.85026 9.233504

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

-ve 0 0 0 0 G9 -ve 0 0 0 0

+ve 13.97406 9.316037 11.2694 7.512933 +ve 13.26768 8.845121 10.49262 6.995079

Slab -ve 19.32887 12.88591 15.13319 10.08879 Slab -ve 20.57962 13.71974 13.85026 9.233504

F10 -ve 0 0 0 0 G10 -ve 0 0 0 0

+ve 14.49665 9.664434 11.46454 7.643025 +ve 15.41922 10.27948 10.49262 6.995079

Slab -ve 22.48588 14.99059 15.13319 10.08879 Slab -ve 16.67865 11.1191 14.93513 9.956753

F11 -ve 0 0 0 0 G11 -ve 8.396924 5.597949 14.93513 9.956753

+ve 16.84748 11.23166 11.46454 7.643025 +ve 12.53779 8.358525 11.29242 7.528277

Slab -ve 18.22358 12.14905 16.31855 10.87904 Slab -ve 22.38425 14.92284 43.27622 28.85081

F12 -ve 9.174721 6.116481 16.31855 10.87904 G12 -ve 22.38425 14.92284 21.63811 14.42541

+ve 13.69915 9.132766 12.33842 8.225612 +ve 33.94945 22.63297 32.83024 21.88682

Slab -ve 41.57806 27.7187 39.94754 26.6317 Slab -ve 31.72116 21.14744 29.81243 19.87496

F13 -ve 20.99284 13.99523 20.3814 13.5876 G13 -ve 31.72116 21.14744 15.26978 10.17986

+ve 31.38736 20.9249 30.16447 20.10965 +ve 23.90448 15.93632 22.54111 15.02741

Slab -ve 34.65945 23.1063 32.57393 21.71595 Slab -ve 24.8568 16.5712 16.915 11.27667

F14 -ve 34.65945 23.1063 16.68421 11.1228 G14 -ve 24.8568 16.5712 8.66378 5.775853

+ve 26.11873 17.41248 24.62907 16.41938 +ve 18.77152 12.51435 12.78939 8.52626

Slab -ve 27.15925 18.10617 18.48182 12.32121 Slab -ve 28.83406 19.22271 22.57177 15.04785

F15 -ve 27.15925 18.10617 9.466296 6.310864 G15 -ve 28.83406 19.22271 11.56115 7.707433

+ve 20.51031 13.67354 13.97406 9.316037 +ve 21.53952 14.35968 17.06646 11.37764

Slab -ve 31.50492 21.00328 24.66257 16.44171 Slab -ve 31.18377 20.78918 27.90799 18.60533

F16 -ve 31.50492 21.00328 12.63205 8.421364 G16 -ve 31.18377 20.78918 14.29434 9.529557

+ve 23.5347 15.6898 18.64731 12.43154 +ve 23.44101 15.62734 21.10116 14.06744

Slab -ve 34.07229 22.71486 30.49307 20.32872 Slab -ve 42.0346 28.02307 39.94754 26.6317

F17 -ve 34.07229 22.71486 15.6184 10.41227 G17 -ve 21.16405 14.10936 20.3814 13.5876

+ve 25.61232 17.07488 23.05574 15.37049 +ve 31.72976 21.15318 30.16447 20.10965

Slab -ve 28.78135 19.18757 19.50266 13.00177

F18 -ve 14.55237 9.701579 9.950338 6.633558

+ve 21.86587 14.57724 14.7265 9.817666

Table (3-12) Summery of reinforcement detailed calculated for all slabs.

No.of Spacing Spacin No.of Spacing Spacing

Slabs Direction Direction

Bars mm g mm Bars mm c/c mm

M con 6φ12 161.3866 150 M con 6 φ12 158.1555 150

Slab F1 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 5 φ12 215.9392 200 M+ 5 φ12 211.7531 200

M con 5 φ12 194.8882 200 M con 5 φ12 195.569 200

Slab F2 Short M con 5 φ12 194.8882 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 4 φ12 260.948 250 M+ 4 φ12 260.9136 250

M con 4 φ12 252.2731 250 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab F3 Short M con 4 φ12 252.2731 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 5 φ12 215.9775 200 M con 4 φ12 260.5498 250

Slab F4 Short M con 5 φ12 215.9775 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 291.448 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 5 φ12 198.6024 200 M con 5 φ12 209.3954 200

Slab F5 Short M con 5 φ12 198.6024 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 4 φ12 266.5324 250 M+ 4 φ12 279.191 300

M con 4 φ12 238.1305 250 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab F6 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 4 φ12 257.6615 250 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab F7 Short M con 4 φ12 257.6615 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 297.5805 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab F8 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab F9 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

Slab M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Short Long

F10 M dis 3 φ12 314 300 M dis 3 φ12 314 300

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

F11

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M con 3 φ12 314 300

F12

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 6 φ12 163.9309 150 M con 6 φ12 158.1555 150

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

F13

M+ 5 φ12 219.2856 200 M+ 5 φ12 211.7531 200

M con 5 φ12 197.9683 200 M con 5 φ12 195.569 200

Slab

Short M con 5 φ12 197.9683 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

F14

M+ 4 φ12 264.8233 250 M+ 4 φ12 260.9136 250

M con 4 φ12 254.4308 250 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab

Short M con 4 φ12 254.4308 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

F15

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 5 φ12 218.4431 200 M con 4 φ12 260.5498

Slab

Short M con 5 φ12 218.4431 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

F16

M+ 3 φ12 294.6043 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 5 φ12 201.4924 200 M con 5 φ12 209.3954

Slab

Short M con 5 φ12 201.4924 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

F17

M+ 4 φ12 270.1865 250 M+ 4 φ12 279.191

M con 4 φ12 239.7276 250 M con 3 φ12 308.4608 300

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

F18

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M dis 3 φ12 297.9345 300

Slab G1 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 297.9345 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 5 φ12 193.987 200

M con 5 φ12 214.787 200 M con 5 φ12 214.3364 200

Slab G2 Short M con 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 287.2777 300 M+ 3 φ12 285.7229 300

M con 4 φ12 277.1106 250 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab G3 Short M con 4 φ12 277.1106 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 4 φ12 237.5808 250 M con 4 φ12 285.3254 300

Slab G4 Short M con 4 φ12 237.5808 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 5 φ12 218.7688 200 M con 4 φ12 229.4407 200

Slab G5 Short M con 5 φ12 218.7688 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 293.2906 300 M+ 3 φ12 305.6911 300

M con 4 φ12 261.4333 250 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab G6 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 4 φ12 285.5261 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab G7 Short M con 4 φ12 285.5261 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab G8 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab G9 Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

G10

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 3 φ12 314 300 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M con 3 φ12 314 300

G11

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M dis 3 φ12 314 300 M con 7 φ12 145.4357 150

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 297.9345 300

G12

M+ 5 φ12 202.2451 200 M+ 5 φ12 193.987 200

M con 5 φ12 216.9097 200 M con 5 φ12 214.3364 200

Slab

Short M con 5 φ12 216.9097 200 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

G13

M+ 3 φ12 289.948 300 M+ 3 φ12 285.7229 300

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

M con 4 φ12 278.594 250 M con 3 φ12 314 300

Slab

Short M con 4 φ12 278.594 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

G14

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 4 φ12 239.2775 250 M con 4 φ12 285.3254 300

Slab

Short M con 4 φ12 239.2775 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

G15

M+ 3 φ12 314 300 M+ 3 φ12 314 300

M con 5 φ12 220.7596 250 M con 4 φ12 229.4407 200

Slab

Short M con 5 φ12 220.7596 250 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

G16

M+ 3 φ12 295.8074 300 M+ 3 φ12 305.6911 300

M con 6 φ12 162.0784 150 M con 6 φ12 158.1555 150

Slab

Short M dis 3 φ12 314 300 Long M dis 3 φ12 314 300

G17

M+ 5 φ12 216.8491 200 M+ 5 φ12 211.7531 200

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Chapter Three Design of Slabs

Chapter

Four

Chapter Four Design of Beams

Chapter Four

Design of Beams

4-1Introduction:

From previous chapter we can obtain factored uniform load on first floor =13.4

kN/m2 . Factored uniform load on ground floor = 12.254 kN/m2

4-2 Loading on Beams (calculation of moments in Y-Direction):

Loads transfer from slabs to beam to the column finally to foundation. There is a

different between one way slab loading and two way slabs loading.

Chapter Four Design of Beams

For short beam One way slab: 𝑤. 𝑠

𝑤.𝑆

For short beam Two way slab:

3

𝑤.𝑆 3−𝑚2 𝑆

For long beam Two way slab: ( 2 ) Where 𝑚 =

3 𝐿

4-3Beams Design of Ground Floor and First Floor:

Chapter Four Design of Beams

Wall = 0.25*(4.65-0.6)*19*1.2 =23.085 kN/m

Wu (Ground)=12.3 kN/m2

Wu (First)= 13.4 kN/m2

Chapter Four Design of Beams

4-4 Ground Floor Loading on beam:

4-4-1 Beam C1D1:

Slab 1

La = 6.4

Lb = 7.75

m = 0.82580645

Slab 2

La = 5.5

Lb = 7.75

m = 0.70967742

6.4 2 5.5 2

12.3∗6.4 3−( ) 12.3∗5.5 3−( )

7.75 7.75

Total load = ∗ + ∗ +5.184+23.085 = 86.82 kN/m.

3 2 3 2

Slab 3

La = 5.55

Lb = 6.4

m = 0.867188

Slab 4

La = 5.5

Lb = 5.55

Chapter Four Design of Beams

m = 0.990991

12.3∗5.55 12.3∗5.5

Total load = + +5.184= 50.69 kN/m.

3 3

Slab 5

La = 6.4

Lb = 7.7

m = 0.831169

Slab 6

La = 5.5

Lb = 7.7

m = 0.714286

6.4 2 5.5 2

12.3∗6.4 3−( ) 12.3∗5.5 3−( )

7.7 7.7

Total load = ∗ + ∗ +5.184+23.085 = 86.63 kN/m.

3 2 3 2

4-5-1 Beam CD:

Slab 1

La = 6.4

Lb = 7.75

m = 0.82580645

Slab 2

La = 5.5

Lb = 7.75

m = 0.70967742

6.4 2 5.5 2

13.4∗6.4 3−( ) 13.4∗5.5 3−( )

7.75 7.75

Total load = ∗ + ∗ +5.184= 68.98 kN/m.

3 2 3 2

Slab 3

La = 5.55

Lb = 6.4

m = 0.867188

Slab 4

La = 5.5

Lb = 5.55

m = 0.990991

13.4∗5.55 13.4∗5.5

Total load = + +5.184 =54.68 kN/m.

3 3

Slab 5

La = 6.4

Chapter Four Design of Beams

Lb = 7.7

m = 0.831169

Slab 6

La = 5.5

Lb = 7.7

m = 0.714286

6.4 2 5.5 2

13.4∗6.4 3−( ) 13.4∗5.5 3−( )

7.7 7.7

Total load = ∗ + ∗ +5.184=68.77 kN/m.

3 2 3 2

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building 44

Chapter Four Design of Beams

4-6 Solving Moments by Moment Distribution Method:

4-6-1 Calculation of moment of inertia (I):

(40)4

I for column 1 (40*40) = =213333.33 𝑐𝑚4

12

30∗(60)3

I for column 2 (30*60) = = 540000 𝑐𝑚4

12

30∗(50)3

I for column 3 (30*50) = = 312500 𝑐𝑚4

12

(30)4

I for column 4 (30*30) = = 67500 𝑐𝑚4

12

30∗(60)3

I for beam (30*60) = = 540000 𝑐𝑚4

12

𝟒𝑬𝑰

The stiffness of each member (K) =

𝑳

For columns

540000

KAA1=KA1A2=KDD1=KD1D2= = 1161.3 K rel.=1.73

465

312500

KBB1=KB1B2=KCC1=KC1C2 = = 672 K rel.=1

465

For beams

540000

KAB=KBA=KA1B1=KB1A1= =675 K rel.=1.01

800

540000

KBC=KCB=KB1C1=KC1B1 = = 923 K rel.=1.376

585

540000

KCD=KDC=KC1D1=KD1C1 = =670.8 K rel.=1

805

𝟔𝟖.𝟕𝟕∗(8)2

F.E.M (AB)=-(BA)= = 366.7733 kN.m

12

𝟓𝟒.𝟔𝟖 ∗(5.85)2

F.E.M (BC)=-(CB) = = 155.9405 kN.m

12

𝟔𝟖.𝟗𝟖 ∗(8.05)2

F.E.M (CD)=-(DC) = = 372.5064 kN.m

12

𝟖𝟔.𝟔𝟑 ∗(8)2

F.E.M (A1B1)=-(B1A1) = = 462.0267 kN.m

12

𝟓𝟎.𝟔𝟗∗(5.85)2

F.E.M (B1C1)=-(C1B1)= = 144.5615 kN.m

12

Chapter Four Design of Beams

𝟖𝟔.𝟖𝟐∗(8.05)2

F.E.M (C1D1)=-(D1C1) = = 468.8461kN.m

12

𝟒𝑬𝑰

The stiffness of each member (K) = for Fixed End

𝑳

𝟑𝑬𝑰

The stiffness of each member (K) = For Hinge or Roller (Free End)

𝑳

DF=K/ΣK

+KBC) A+KBC) +KCD) +KCD)

The negative moment of beam ABCD at the ends are taken from Table ( ). We can

use the following equations to calculate V1, V2, location of max positive moment where

shear equal zero at (x) from left end and 𝑀+ :-

Chapter Four Design of Beams

290.9 kN.m 214.9 kN.m 339.4 kN.m 285.8 kN.m

17.57 kN.m

204.8 kN.m

421 kN.m 424.2 kN.m 417.7 kN.m 414.37 kN.m

201.89 kN.m

21.98 kN.m

4-7 Design of beams ABCD & A1B1C1D1 for flexural and shear using hand

calculation:

𝑀2−𝑀1 𝑊∗𝐿

V1= +

𝐿 2

V2= W*L-V1

𝑉1∗𝐿

X=

𝑉1+𝑉2

+

𝑋2

𝑀 = −𝑀1 − 𝑊 ∗ + 𝑉1 ∗ 𝑋

2

(M1=moment at left end, M2= moment at right end)

4-7-1 Design of beam ABCD (First Floor):

The neg. moments at the ends taken from Table (4-1):

68.77 kN/m 285.8 kN.m

4-7-1-1 For AB -339.4kN.m

VAB=248.97 kN

VBA VAB

VBA=263.36 kN 7.45 m

X=3.83 m

𝑀+ =164.89 kN.m

Chapter Four Design of Beams

𝑀− =-339.4 kN.m

4-7-1-2 For BC

-214.8kN.m

VCB=146.87 kN

X=2.69 m VCB VBC

5.35 m

𝑀 − = 17.56 and 214.8 kN.m

Chapter Four Design of Beams

4-7-1-3 For CD

VCD= 265.88 kN

VDC= 251.48 kN

68.98 kN/m 344.9 kN.m

X= 3.65 m -290.9kN.m

𝑀 + =167.49 kN.m

VDC VCD

𝑀 − = 344.9 kN.m 7.5 m

Chapter Four Design of Beams

We must design every beam according its pos. & neg. moments and shear, but for easily

we will choose the max. 𝑀 + & max. 𝑀− and max. Shear for the continuous beam:

Max.𝑴+ =167.49 kN.m

Max. 𝑴− = 344.9 kN.m

Max. shear = 265.88 kN

The dimension of beam which will be used is 300 mm width and 600 mm depth

For For 𝑴+ = 167.49 kN.m

Chapter Four Design of Beams

We must check the beam is rectangular or T-section. From ACI-code:

2- 16hf+bf= 16*200+300= 3500 mm

3- (8050+5850)/2+300= 7250 mm

Use b = 2012.5 mm

d= 600-40-10 =550 mm

Let∅ =0.9 → Mnf=0.85∅ fc' *b*hf(d-hf/2) = 3464 kN.m≫ 167.49 kN.m, then use

rectangle section.

𝑀𝑢

𝑅𝑢 = = 0.012228

∅∗𝑏∗𝑓𝑐 ′ ∗𝑑 2

1−√1−2.36∗𝑅

𝜔= = 0.012317

1,18

𝑓𝑐 ′

𝜌=𝜔∗ = 0.00077

𝑓𝑦

Use 3 ∅ 22 (total area = 1139 mm2 > 852.1014 mm2 o.k

Check spacing between longitudinal bars:

300−2∗40−2∗10−3∗22

S= = 67 mm> 25mm o.k, then use one layer (ACI-code 2005)

3−1

344.9∗106

Ru= = 0.168913

0.9∗25∗300∗5502

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building 51

Chapter Four Design of Beams

Use 2∅22 + 3∅25 total area= 2232 𝑚𝑚2

300−2∗40−2∗10−2∗22−3∗25

S= =20.25mm < 25 mm use two layers

5−1

Design of shear

Vu = V-W*d = 265.88 – 68.98 * 0.55 = 227.941kN

Vn = 303.9213>Vc ; need shear reinforcement

Vud ≤ ØVu = Ø(Vc+Vs)

227.941= 0.75 (140.25 + Vs) → Vs = 163.6 kN< 4Vc = 561 kN o.k.

Av = 2* 𝜋/4 *102 =157 mm2

𝑑 550

=

= 275𝑚𝑚

2 2

600𝑚𝑚

S max. = min. 3𝐴𝑣 𝑓𝑦 3∗157.08∗400

= = 628𝑚𝑚 use Smax. =275mm

𝑏𝑤 300

16 𝐴𝑣 𝑓𝑦

= 670𝑚𝑚

{ √𝑓𝑐′∗𝑏𝑤 }

𝐴𝑣∗𝑓𝑦∗𝑑 (157.08∗400∗550)

S@d= = = 211.2323 mm< S max. o.k.

𝑉𝑠 163.6∗1000

The neg. moments at the ends taken from Table (4-1) :

4-7-2-1 For A1B1:

VAB=322.25 kN

VBA=323.14 kN -417.7 N.m 86.63 kN/m2 414.37 kN.m

X= 3.73 m

𝑀 + = 184.99 kN.m VBA VAB

7.45 m

M-=- 417.7kN.m

Chapter Four Design of Beams

-204.8 50.69 kN/m2 201.89 kN.m

VBC=135.05 KN

kN.m

VCB= 136.14 KN

VCB VBC

X= 2.69 m 5.35 m

𝑀 − = 21.98, 204.8KN.m

Chapter Four Design of Beams

VCD=326 kN

-421 kN.m 86.82 kN/m2 424.2 kN.m

VDC=325.15 kN

VDC VCD

X= 3.75 m 7.5 m

𝑀 + = 187.85 kN.m

𝑀 − = 424.2 kN.m

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building 54

Chapter Four Design of Beams

Max. shear=326 kN

b=2012.5mm , d=550mm

Chapter Four Design of Beams

Let Ø=0.9 → Muf= 3464 kN.m > 187.85 kN.m rectangle section

Ru= 0.013716

ω =0.013829

300−2∗40−2∗10−3∗22

S= =67 mm > 25mm o.k use one layer

3−1

300−2∗40−2∗10−2∗22−3∗26

S= = 19.5 mm < 25mm not o.k. Use two layers

5−1

Design of shear

S @d= 149.7 mm

Use Ø10@150

Chapter Four Design of Beams

4-8 Loading on Beams (Calculation of moments in X-Direction):

4-8-1Beams Design of Ground Floor and First Floor:

13.4∗5.15 13.4∗5.55

Total load = + +5.184 = 52.97733 kN/m.

3 3

5.55 2

13.4∗7.15 13.4∗5.55 3−( )

7.15

Total load = + ∗ +5.184 = 66.83739 kN/m.

3 3 2

Chapter Four Design of Beams

5.55 2

13.4∗6.4 13.4∗5.55 3−( )

6.4

Total load = + ∗ +5.184 = 61.63445 kN/m.

3 3 2

13.4∗5.5 13.4∗5.5

Total load = + +5.184 = 54.31733 kN/m.

3 3

5.55 2

13.4∗7.4 13.4∗5.55 3−( )

7.4

Total load = + ∗ +5.184 = 68.45015 kN/m.

3 3 2

5.55 2

13.4∗7.5 13.4∗5.55 3−( )

7.5

Total load = + ∗ +5.184 = 69.0815 kN/m.

3 3 2

12.3∗5.15 12.3∗5.55

Total load = + +5.184+23.085 = 73.989 kN/m.

3 3

5.55 2

12.3∗7.15 12.3∗5.55 3−( )

7.15

Total load = + ∗ +5.184++23.085 = 84.86129 kN/m.

3 3 2

5.55 2

12.3∗6.4 12.3∗5.55 3−( )

6.4

Total load = + ∗ +5.184+23.085 = 80.08546 kN/m.

3 3 2

12.3∗5.5 12.3∗5.5

Total load = + +5.184++23.085 = 73.369 kN/m.

3 3

5.55 2

12.3∗7.4 12.3∗5.55 3−( )

7.4

Total load = + ∗ +5.184+23.085 = 86.34166 kN/m.

3 3 2

12.3∗7.5

Total load = +5.184+23.085 = 59.019 kN/m.

3

69.08 kN/m 68.45 kN/m 54.33 kN/m 61.63 kN/m 66.83 kN/m 52.97 kN/m

59.01 kN/m 86.34 kN/m 73.369 kN/m 80.08kN/m 84.86kN/m 73.989 kN/m

Chapter Four Design of Beams

4-8-4 Staad Pro Analysis and Design:

Analysis and design of multi-story building using very popular designing software

STAAD Pro. We have chosen STAAD Pro because of its following advantaged:

1-Easy to use interface

2- Conformation with the ACI code

3- Versatile nature of solving any type of problem

4- Accuracy of the solution

STAAD Pro features a state-of the-art user interface, visualization tools, powerful

analysis and design engines with advanced finite element and dynamic analysis

capabilities. From model generation, analysis and design to visualization and result

verification, Staad pro is the professional's choice for steel, concrete, timber, aluminum

and cold-formed steel design of low and high-rise building, culverts, petrochemical

plants, tunnels, bridges, piles and much more.

4-9 STAAB PRO consists of the following:

The STAAD Pro graphical user interface:- Its use generate the model, which can then

be analyzes using the STTAD engine. After analysis and design is completed, the GUI can

also be use to view the result graphically.

The STAAD analysis and design engine:- Its general-purpose calculation engine for

structure analysis and integrated steel, concrete, timber and aluminum design.

To start with we have solved some sample problem using STAAD Pro and checked

the accuracy of the result with manual calculation. The results were satisfaction and were

accurate in the initial phase of our project we have done conclusions regarding loadings on

buildings and also considered seismic a wind load.

Structure analysis comprises the set of physical laws mathematics required to study

and predicts the behavior of structure analysis can be viewed more abstractly as a method to

drive the engineering design process or prove the soundness of the design with out a

dependence on directly testing. To perform an accurate analysis structure engineer most

determine such information as structural loads, geometry, supports condition and materials

Chapter Four Design of Beams

properties the result of such an analysis typical include support reactions, stresses and

displacement the design of the building is depended up on STAAD ProV8i.

To perform an accurate design of the structure we take the resultant of analysis

from Staad pro V8i:

Wu = 1.2 * WD + 1.6 * WL

Wall = 0.25*(4.65-0.6)*19*1.2 =23.085 kN/m2

Wu (Ground)=12.3 kN/m2 Wu (First)= 13.4 kN/m2

Chapter Four Design of Beams

4-10 Analysis And Design of Beams in Ground And First Floor Using Staad.Pro 2008

Analysis.

Chapter Four Design of Beams

The details and reinforcement of beams in ground and first floor obtained from

Staad.pro 2008 results are shown in Table (4-2).

Table (4-2) Details of Reinforcement of beams for the two floors.

Ground Floor First Floor

Reinf. @

Reinf. @ supports Shear reinf. Shear reinf.

supports

Beam designation no.

Reinf. @ mid span

No. of stirrups

No. of stirrups

(mm)

Right

Right

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

Left

Left

300 4 Ø20 4 Ø25 5 Ø20 14 Ø10@271 400 4 Ø16 4 Ø20 3 Ø20 14 Ø10@272

301 2 Ø16 3 Ø20 3 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 401 2 Ø16 3 Ø16 3 Ø16 10 Ø10@272

302 4 Ø20 2 Ø32 4 Ø25 15 Ø10@263 402 4 Ø16 3 Ø20 4 Ø20 14 Ø10@272

303 5 Ø16 4 Ø25 3 Ø25 14 Ø10@272 403 4 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø16 14 Ø10@272

304 5 Ø20 3 Ø32 3 Ø32 404 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 5 Ø20 14 Ø10@221

305 5 Ø20 3 Ø32 405 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 5 Ø20 R=17 RØ10@221

L=17

LØ10@272

306 5 Ø16 4 Ø25 3 Ø25 14 Ø10 @272 406 4 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø16 14 Ø10@272

307 4 Ø25 407 5 Ø20 3Ø32 4 Ø25 R=18 RØ10@208

L=17

LØ10@227

308 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@300 408 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

309 4 Ø25 409 2 Ø32 4 Ø25 3 Ø32 R=17 RØ10@218

L=11

LØ10@200

310 3 Ø20 3 Ø25 4 Ø25 14 Ø10@271 410 3Ø16 4 Ø16 2 Ø25 14 Ø10@272

311 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 411 4 Ø20 4 Ø25 3 Ø32 R=17 RØ10@271

L=11

LØ10@241

312 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 412 4 Ø20 4 Ø25 3 Ø32 R=14 RØ10@271

L=15

LØ10@241

313 3 Ø20 3 Ø25 4 Ø25 14 Ø10@271 413 2 Ø20 3 Ø20 4 Ø20 14 Ø10@271

314 4 Ø25 414 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 4 Ø25 R=17 RØ10@224

L=16

LØ10@241

315 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 415 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

316 4 Ø25 416 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 4 Ø25 R=17 RØ10@219

L=16

LØ10@237

317 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 3 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 417 2Ø16 3 Ø16 3 Ø16 10 Ø10@272

318 3 Ø16 4 Ø20 3 Ø25 10 Ø10@272 418 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

319 3 Ø16 4 Ø20 3 Ø25 10 Ø10@272 419 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 5 Ø16 10 Ø10@272

320 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 3 Ø20 420 2 Ø16 3 Ø16 3 Ø16 10 Ø10@272

321 4 Ø25 421 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 4 Ø25 R=16 RØ10@234

L=15

LØ10@252

322 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 422 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

323 4 Ø25 423 3 Ø25 4 Ø25 3 Ø32 R=16 RØ10@243

L=17

LØ10@228

324 3Ø16 3 Ø25 3 Ø20 12 Ø10@271 424 3 Ø16 4 Ø16 3 Ø16 12 Ø10@272

325 3 Ø20 4Ø25 3 Ø25 15 Ø10@314 425 4 Ø16 3 Ø25 4 Ø20 12 Ø10@272

326 3 Ø20 4 Ø25 3 Ø25 R=15 RØ10@213 426 4 Ø16 3 Ø24 4 Ø20 12 Ø10@272

L=12

LØ10@260

327 3 Ø16 3 Ø25 3 Ø20 12 Ø10@272 427 3 Ø16 4 Ø16 3 Ø16 12 Ø10@272

Chapter Four Design of Beams

328 4 Ø25 428 5 Ø20 4 Ø25 3 Ø32 R=16 RØ10@263

L=17

LØ10@217

329 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 429 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

330 4 Ø25 430 5 Ø20 3 Ø32 4 Ø25 R=18 RØ10@212

L=16

LØ10@232

331 3 Ø20 3 Ø25 3 Ø25 13 Ø10@271 431 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 3 Ø20 13 Ø10@272

332 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 3 Ø32 20 Ø10@170 432 4 Ø20 2 Ø32 4 Ø25 13 Ø10@271

333 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 3 Ø32 20 Ø10@171 433 4 Ø20 2 Ø32 4 Ø25 13 Ø10@271

334 3 Ø20 3 Ø25 3 Ø25 13 Ø10@271 434 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 3 Ø20 13 Ø10@272

335 4 Ø20 4 Ø25 4 Ø25 15 Ø10@263 435 3 Ø25 4 Ø25 4 Ø25 R=17 RØ10@227

L=15

LØ10@250

336 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 3 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 436 2 Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

337 4 Ø25 437 3 Ø25 4 Ø25 3 Ø32 R=16 RØ10@243

L=17

LØ10@224

338 3 Ø16 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 14 Ø10@182 438 2 Ø16 2 Ø16 3 Ø16 10 Ø10@272

339 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 439 3 Ø16 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

340 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 440 3 Ø16 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 10 Ø10@272

341 3 Ø16 3 Ø16 3 Ø20 14 Ø10@182 441 2 Ø16 2 Ø16 3 Ø16 10 Ø10@272

342 4 Ø20 5 Ø10@182 442 4 Ø16 4 Ø20 3 Ø16 14 Ø10@272

343 2 Ø25 3 Ø32 443 4 Ø16 4 Ø16 10 Ø10@272

344 2Ø16 4 Ø20 4 Ø20 10 Ø10@272 444 3Ø20 3 Ø16 4 Ø20 14 Ø10@271

345 4 Ø25 3 Ø32

346 4 Ø20 3 Ø20 15 Ø10@182

347 2 Ø16

348 2 Ø16

349 4 Ø16 18 Ø10@272

4-11 Comparison Between Hand Calculation and Staad.Pro 2008 Results of Beams:

The difference in the analysis between hand calculation and staad.pro is shown in

table (4-3) below.

Table (4-3) Comparison between the reinforcement obtained from hand calculation and staad.pro

2008 analysis.

Cal. Beam Reinf. @ Reinf. @ supports Shear reinf.

type designation mid span

name (mm) Right (mm) Left(mm) No. of Diameter &

stirrups spacing (mm)

Hand AB 3Ø22 2 Ø22 + 2 Ø22 + 12 Ø10 @200

3 Ø25 3 Ø25

Staad 421 3 Ø25 3 Ø32 4 Ø25 15 Ø10 @260

Chapter

Five

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

Chapter Five

Design of Columns and Footings

5-1 Column B-B1: (assume non side sway for the building)

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

Pu(Top)=(1/4 slab )+(1/4 slab )+ (1/4 slab )+ (1/4 slab )+(1/2 beam)+ (1/2 beam)+ (1/2

beam)+ (1/2 beam)+column self weight.

kN/m2 +(6.7*5.8/4)*13.4 kN/m2 +5.184 kN/m*6.7/2+5.184 kN/m*8/2+5.184

kN/m*5.8/2+5.184 kN/m*5.85/2+24 kN/m3*0.5*0.3*4.05=661.73 kN

Pu(Top)=(1/4 slab )+(1/4 slab )+ (1/4 slab )+ (1/4 slab )+(1/2 beam)+ (1/2 beam)+ (1/2

beam)+ (1/2 beam)+column self weight+(1/2 wall)+ (1/2 wall)+ (1/2 wall)+Weight of

Tope column.

kN/m2 +(6.7*5.8/4)* 12.3 kN/m2 +5.184 kN/m*6.7/2+5.184 kN/m*8/2+5.184

kN/m*5.8/2+5.184 kN/m*5.85/2+24 kN/m3*0.5*0.3*4.05+(23.05*8/2)+ (23.05*5.8/2)+

(23.05*6.7/2)+661.73=1512.23 kN

Fig. (4-1) Tributary area of column B-B1 (Shaded area).

Y-direction

I

∑ (E ∗ ) col

L

φ= I

∑ (E ∗ L) beam

(30)3

Ig 50 ∗

12

( ) col. = = 2903.23 cm3

l 465

(60)3 (60)3

Ig 30 ∗ 30 ∗

12 12

( ) beam = + = 1598.08 cm3

l 800 585

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building 65

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

0.7 ∗ 2903.23

φy top = = 3.63

0.35 ∗ 1598.08

2 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 2903.23

φy bot = = 7.3

0.35 ∗ 1598.08

Ky = 0.93

y-y

KL 0.93 ∗ 4.05

( )y = = 25.11

r 0.3 ∗ 0.5

34 – 12 (M1 / M2) = 34–12 (-127.9 / 129) =45.897 > 25.11

Then neglect slenderness (short column) 500

x-x

X-direction

(50)3

Ig 30∗

( l ) col = 12

= 672.04 cm3

465

Ig (60)3 1 1 300

( l ) beam = (30 ∗ 12

) ∗ (580 + 770) = 1632.33 cm3

0.7∗672.04

φx top = 30(60)3

= 1.44

0.35∗( 12 )

580

2∗0.7∗672.04

φx bot = = 1.65

0.35∗1632.33

Kx =0.83

KL 0.83∗4.05

( )x = = 22.41

r 0.3∗0.5

Short column

Pu = 661.73 kN

Mux = 5.5 kN.m

Muy = 129 kN.m

pu 661.73

Pn = = = 945.28 kN

∅ 0.7

Muy 127

Mny = = = 181.42 kN.m

∅ 0.7

Mux 5.5

Mnx = = =7.85 kN.m

∅ 0.7

Mny 181.42

= = 23.11 > b / h = 30/50 = 0.6

Mnx 7.85

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

b 1−B 3 1 − 0.65

∴ Mnyo = Mny + Mnx ∗ ( ) = 181.4 + 7.85 ∗ ( )

h B 5 0.65

= 183.936 kN.m

Design for reinforcement:

Pn = 945.28 kN Mnyo = 183.936 kN.m

e = Mn / Pn = 183.936 / 945.28 = 0.19 m

assume Ø16 mm bars and Ø10 mm ties :-

16

h−2d′ 500−2(40+10+ )

2

γ= = = 0.77 e / h=0.19/0.5=0.38

h 500

Pn 945.28 ∗103

Kn = = = 0.252

fc′ ∗Ag 25∗500∗300

From graphs:

For γ = 0.8 → ρg = 0.01

For γ = 0.7 → ρg = 0.011; for γ = 0.77 → ρg = 0.0103

As = 0.0103 * 500 *300 = 1545 mm2

1.5 dp = 24𝑚𝑚

Use Ø16 mm @ S = max.{ } = 40mm

40𝑚𝑚

Spacing between ties :-

16dp = 256mm

S = min { 48d tie = 480mm }

least dimention = 300mm

use tie Ø10 mm @256mm

5-2 Column B1-B2:

Y-direction

2 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 2903.23

φy top = = 7.27

0.35 ∗ 1598.08

φy bot = 1 (assumed fixed base)

Ky = 0.85

kl 0.85 ∗ 4.05

( )y = = 22.95

r 0.3 ∗ 0.5

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

34 – 12 (-44.4 / 86.74) = 40.1424 > kl/r =22.95 short column

X-direction

2 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 672.04

φx top = = 1.65

0.35 ∗ 1632.33

φy bot = 1 (assumed fixed base)

Kx = 0.8

kl 0.8 ∗ 4.05

( )x = = 21.6

r 0.3 ∗ 0.5

34 – 12 (0.373/4.72) = 33.05 > kl/r =21.6 ∴ short column

Pu= 1512.23 kN

Mux = 4.72 kN.m

Muy = 86.74 kN.m

Pn = 1512.23 / 0.7 = 2160.32 kN

Mnx = 4.72 / 0.7 = 6.74 kN.m

Mny = 86.74 / 0.7 = 123.91 kN.m

Mny 123.91 b 3

= = 18.38 > = = 0.6

Mnx 6.74 h 5

1−0.65

Mnyo = 123.91 + 6.74 ∗ 0.6 ( )= 126.087 kN.m

0.65

Pn = 2160.32 kN, Mnyo = 126.087 kN.m

e = 126.087 / 2160.32 = 0.05836 m

assume Ø16 mm bars and Ø10 mm ties :-

16

500−2(40+10+ )

2

γ= = 0.77

500

Pn 2160.32 ∗103

Kn = = = 0.576

fc′ ∗Ag 25∗500∗300

ρg = 0.01 (from graphs)

As = 0.01 * 500 * 300 =1500 mm2

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

use 8 Ø16mm @ 40mm

for ties :

use Ø10mm @ 250mm

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

5-3 Analysis and design of columns in ground and first floor using staad program

analysis.

The details and reinforcement of columns in ground and first floor obtained from

staad pro analysis is shown in Table (5-1).

Table(5-1) Reinforcement details of column.

Ground Floor(G) First Floor(F)

No Dimensions Reinforcement No Dimensions Reinforcement

(cm) (cm)

1 50*50 8 Ø20 1 50*50 12 Ø20

2 30*60 4 Ø 25 2 30*60 12 Ø20

3 30*60 4 Ø 25 3 30*60 12 Ø20

4 30*60 4 Ø 25 4 30*60 4 Ø 32

5 30*60 4 Ø 25 5 30*60 4 Ø 32

6 30*60 4 Ø 25 6 30*60 12 Ø20

7 30*30 4 Ø 20 7 30*30 8 Ø 16

8 50*50 8 Ø 20 8 50*50 4 Ø 32

9 30*50 8 Ø 16 9 30*50 8 Ø 16

10 30*50 8 Ø 16 10 30*50 8 Ø 16

11 30*50 8 Ø 16 11 30*50 8 Ø 16

12 30*50 8 Ø 16 12 30*50 8 Ø 16

13 30*50 8 Ø 16 13 30*50 8 Ø 16

14 40*40 8 Ø 16 14 40*40 8 Ø 16

15 50*50 8 Ø 20 15 50*50 4 Ø 32

16 30*50 8 Ø 16 16 30*50 8 Ø 16

17 30*50 8 Ø 16 17 30*50 8 Ø 16

18 30*50 8 Ø 16 18 30*50 8 Ø 16

19 30*50 8 Ø 16 19 30*50 8 Ø 16

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

20 30*50 8 Ø 16 20 30*50 8 Ø 16

21 40*40 8 Ø 16 21 40*40 8 Ø 16

22 50*50 8 Ø 20 22 50*50 12 Ø 20

23 30*60 4 Ø 25 23 30*60 12 Ø 20

24 30*60 4 Ø 25 24 30*60 12 Ø 20

25 30*60 4 Ø 25 25 30*60 4 Ø 32

26 30*60 4 Ø 25 26 30*60 4Ø 32

27 30*60 4 Ø 25 27 30*60 12 Ø 20

28 30*30 4 Ø 20 28 30*30 8 Ø 16

5-4 Comparison between hand calculation and staad.pro 2008 results of columns.

The difference in the analysis between hand calculation and staad.pro 2008 is

shown in table (5-2) below.

Table (5-2) shows a comparison between the reinforcement obtained from hand calculation and

staad.pro 2008 analysis.

No. Column Column Reinforcement

designation dimensions (cm)

1 B-B1 30 * 50 8 Ø16mm/m

2 C11 F 30 * 50 8 Ø16mm/m

5-5-1 Design of exterior strip footing.

The structural design of raft foundations can be carried out by two methods; the

conventional rigid method and the approximate flexible method. In this section, only the

rigid method will be covered. Design of raft footings is detailed in the following steps.

Select a trial footing depth:

According to ACI Code 15.7, depth of footing above reinforcement is not to be less

than 15 cm for footings on soil. Noting that 7.5 cm of clear concrete cover is required if

concrete is cast against soil, a practical minimum depth is taken as 25 cm.

Determine the allowable pressure q on the soil below the raft:

Determine the allowable soil pressure below the raft at its corner points and check

whether the pressure values are less than the net allowable soil pressure using the

following equation

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

Ix, Iy=LB3 /12 = moment of inertia about the x-axis and y-axis

Mx= P ey = moment of the column loads about the x-axis

My= P ex = moment of the column loads about the y-axis

ex and ey are the load eccentricities in the directions of x and y. These load eccentricities

can be determined using X, Y coordinates

where Xg and Yg are coordinates of center of gravity of raft measured with respect to X

and Y coordinates, X R and Y R are coordinates of resultant of loads, c.g is center of

gravity, and c.l. is center of loads.

Compute the net factored soil pressure under the raft.

Check footing depth for punching shear around columns.

Divide the raft into individual strips between column lines in x and y directions.

Draw S.F.D and B.M.D for each individual strip

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

For example for the vertical strip in the y-direction, whichb width is equal to B1 , the

total soil reaction is equal to , where q min is the average pressure value

at one edge of the strip, and q max is the average pressure value at the other edge of the

strip. The total column load on this strip P1+P2+P3. The sum of the column loads on the

strip will not be equal to the total soil reaction due to presence of shear stresses between

every neighboring strip. Therefore, the soil reaction and the column loads need to be

modified on an average load basis. The average load is the sum of the total column loads

and total soil reaction divided by 2.0. Modified minimum soil pressure qmin, m at one

edge of the strip is given by:

load is given as

If the loads and the spans are symmetrical, the soil pressure under the strip is taken

uniform by considering the average of the soil pressure at two ends of the strip.

At this time, the shear and moment diagrams for this strip, using modified loads can be

drawn. This process is to be repeated for all strips in the x and y directions.

Check footing depth for beam shear for each of the individual strips.

Determine the required amount of reinforcement for each of the strips.

Check bearing strength under the columns.

Check reinforcing bars for anchorage lengths.

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided

reinforcement.

Fig (5-8) sequence of load transfer between elements of a structure and the chosen strip.

Table (5-3) Column Load of Exterior Strip (First floor and Ground floor).

Column kN

First floor

C1 F =(8*7.8/4)*13.4+5.184 *7.8/2+5.184 *8/2+24 *0.5*0.5*4.05 274.2936

C2 F =(8*7.8/4)*13.4+(8*7.7/4)*13.4+5.184 *7.8/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

493.808

*7.7/2+24 *0.6*0.3*4.05

C3 F =(8*7.7/4)*13.4+(8*5.8/4)*13.4+5.184 *7.7/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

435.024

*5.8/2+24 *0.6*0.3*4.05

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building 74

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

C4 F =(8*5.8/4)*13.4+(8*6.7/4)*13.4+5.184 *5.8/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

405.632

*6.7/2+24 *0.6*0.3*4.05

C5 F =(8*6.7/4)*13.4+(8*7.45/4)*13.4+5.184 *6.7/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

454.1288

*7.45/2+24 *0.6*0.3*4.05

C6 F =(8*7.45/4)*13.4+(8*5.45/4)*13.4+5.184 *7.45/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

417.3888

*5.45/2+24 *0.6*0.3*4.05

C7 F =(8*7.8/4)*13.4+5.184 *7.8/2+5.184 *8/2+24 *0.3*0.3*4.05 258.7416

Ground floor

C1 G =(8*7.8/4)*12.3+5.184 *7.8/2+5.184 *8/2+24

713.5222

*0.5*0.5*4.05+23.05*7.8/2+23.05*8/2+C1F

C2 G =(8*7.8/4)*12.3+(8*7.7/4)*12.3+5.184 *7.8/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

1224.3535

*7.7/2+24 *0.6*0.3*4.05+23.05 *7.8/2+23.05 *8/2+23.05 *7.7/2+C2F

C3 G =(8*7.7/4)*12.3+(8*5.8/4)*12.3+5.184 *7.7/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

1088.1355

*5.8/2+23.05 *7.7/2+23.05 *8/2+23.05 *5.8/2+24 *0.6*0.3*4.05+C3F

C4 G =(8*5.8/4)*12.3+(8*6.7/4)*12.3+5.184 *5.8/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

*6.7/2+23.05 *5.8/2+23.05 *8/2+23.05 *6.7/2+24 1020.0265

*0.6*0.3*4.05+C4F

C5 G =(8*6.7/4)*12.3+(8*7.45/4)*12.3+5.184 *6.7/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

*7.45/2+23.05 *6.7/2+23.05 *8/2+23.05 *7.45/2+24 1132.4064

*0.6*0.3*4.05+C5F

C6 G =(8*7.45/4)* 12.3+(8*5.45/4)* 12.3+5.184 *7.45/2+5.184 *8/2+5.184

*5.45/2+23.05*7.45/2+23.05 *8/2+23.05 *5.45/2+24 1047.2701

*0.6*0.3*4.05+C6F

C7 G =(8*7.8/4)*12.3+5.184 *7.8/2+5.184 *8/2+23.05 *7.8/2+23.05

682.4182

*8/2+24 *0.3*0.3*4.05+C7F

Assume allowable bearing capacity of soil = 60 kN/ m2 , 𝑓𝑐 ′ = 30 MPa.

The axial load for exterior strip footing is shown below Fig. (5-1) (from hand

calculation).

Find the resultant force:

R= ∑p = 6908.132 kN

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

∑M @ left edge = 0

R * X =713.52 * 0.5 + 1224.35 * 8.3 + 1088.13 * 16 +1020.02 * 21.8 +1132.4 * 28.5 +

1047.27 * 35.95 + 682.41 * 41.4

→X= 21.4732294 m

e = X − L/2 = 21.4732294 – 41.9/2 = 0.52323 m

M = R * e = 6908.132 * 0.52323 = 3614.54 KN.m

R M.c L3

qmax = ± , c = L/2 = 20.95, I=B . = 6130.005*B m4

min A I 12

6908.132 3614.54∗20.95

60 = +

𝐵∗41.9 6130.005∗𝐵

kN/ m2 kN/ m2

Use footing width = 3 m

qu =54.9573 kN/m2

qu *Wide= qu *3 =164.8719 kN/m

Total column load on the strip =6908.1324 kN

Total Soil Reaction (Wu*wide*L) =6908.13261 kN

Average load =6908.132505 kN

Column modification factor =1.000000015

Soil pressure modification factor =0.999999985

Modified soil pressure =164.8718975 kN/m

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

Figure (5-10) shear force diagram for exterior strip footing (hand calculation and Staad Pro).

5-5-2 Design of shear:

Maximum shear = 748.7007 kN

Beam shear @ the critical section for one-way shear @ distance d from face of

columns:

Vu = 748.7007– 164.8718975*d

√𝑓𝑐 ′ √30

ØVc = 0.85* * b * d = 0.85 * *3 * d * 103 = 2327.8208 d

6 6

748.7007= 2492.69 d

Punching shear:

Check punching shear for max. Column load (where P= 1898.92 kN)

bo = (0.3 + 0.4) * 2 + (0.5 + 0.4) * 2 = 3.2 m

√𝑓𝑐 ′ √30

ØVc = 0.85* * bo * d = ØVc = 0.85* * 3.2 * 0.4 *103 = 1986.405 kN

3 3

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

Vu < ØVc ……… 1864.2969 kN <1986.405 kN ∴O.K

Use d = 500 mm

5-5-3 Design for flexural reinforcement.

We can use the ACI-code coefficients for beams to calculate the max. positive and

1

negative moments in the strip and we can considered this coefficients equal to for

10

164.87 ∗5.452

Max. M = = 489.70511 kN.m

10

𝑀𝑢 489.70511∗106

Ru = = = 0.037785

∅∗𝑏∗𝑓𝑐 ′ ∗𝑑 2 0.9∗3000∗30∗4002

1−√1−2.36∗𝑅

𝜔= = 0.038669 < 𝜔 max. = 0.3094 o.k

1.18

𝑓𝑐 ′

𝜌=𝜔∗ = 0.03866 ∗ 30/400=0.002899 <𝜌min=1.4/fy=1.4/400=0.0035 ..use𝜌 min.

𝑓𝑦

Use 12 Ø25mm (As = 5887.5 mm2 ) o.k

Design for short direction under max. load P = 1898.92 kN

Width of beam = a+d = 300 + 400 = 700 mm

Upward factored load on this beam = 1898.92 / 3 = 632.9733 kN/m

632.9733 ∗l2 632.9733∗((3−0.6)/2)2

Moment @ face of col.= = = 455.74077 kN.m

2 2

455.74077 ∗106

Ru = = 0.17147

0.9∗700∗30∗3752

1−√1−2.36∗𝑅

𝜔= = 0.193582< 𝜔 max. = 0.3094 o.k

1.18

𝑓𝑐 ′

𝜌=𝜔∗ = 0.19358 ∗ 30/400=0.0145 >𝜌min=1.4/fy=1.4/400=0.0035.

𝑓𝑦

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

= 400 + 1.5 * 25 + 75 = 512.5 m Use footing thickness=520mm

The axial load for exterior strip footing is shown below Fig. (5-1) (according to

Staad.pro calculation).

Chapter Five Design of Columns and Footings

Table (5-12) Column Load of Exterior Strip and all columns (First floor and Ground floor).

Comparison between hand calculation and Staad pro results for footing load.

Table (5-4) Footing load of hand calculation and staad pro.

Support Load kN Load kN

Name From hand calculation From Staad Pro

C1 G 713.5222 619.287

C2 G 1224.3535 1229.435

C3 G 1088.1355 1032.949

C4 G 1020.0265 938.594

C5 G 1132.4064 1113.535

C6 G 1047.2701 950.788

C7 G 682.4182 409.296

Chapter

Six

Chapter Six Stairs Analysis

Chapter Six

Design of Stairs

6-1 Introduction:

This type of stairs is designed as one-way slab supported at the top and bottom of

the flight, while the steps themselves are treated as nonstructural elements.

6-2 Calculation of thickness:

Minimum stair thickness required to satisfy deflection requirements is given by:

Min thickness of stair = L/20 = 4.19/20 = 0.209 m (use 25cm)

6-3 Calculation of loading:

Weight of stair=weight of slab +weight of steps

=24*0.25*1.5*1/cos36+24*(0.3*0.22*1.5/2)*11/3.3=15.02 kN/m

Assume additional dead load = 6 kN/m

Total dead load = 21.02 kN/m

Assume live load= 10kN/m

Wu=1.2*21.02+1.6*10=41.28 kN/m

6-4 Calculation of shear and moment:

41.28 ∗ 3.32

Mu = = 56.15 kN. m

8

Chapter Six Stairs Analysis

Check for shear

Vu=[41.28*3.3/2]-[41.28*0.21*cos36]=61.09 kN

Vu 1 Vu

= ∗ √fc ∗ bw ∗ d = 262.5 kN > o. k

∅ 6 ∅

56.15 ∗ 106

Ru = = 0.0377

0.9 ∗ 25 ∗ 1500 ∗ 2102

1 − √1 − 2.36𝑅𝑢

𝜔= = 0.0385

1.18

𝑓𝑐 25

𝜌 = 𝜔 ∗ = 0.0385 ∗ = 0.00024 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.002

𝑓𝑦 400

As min = 0.002*b*t=0.002*1500*250=750 mm2

Use ∅ 12 @ 200 𝑚𝑚 (𝐴𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒 = 791 mm2)

Also use ∅ 12 @ 200 𝑚𝑚 for other direction (temperature and shrinkage)

Chapter

Seven

Chapter Seven Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter Seven

Conclusions & Recommendations

7-1 Conclusions:

In the present study building of two story is designed and analysis with its (Slabs,

Beams, Columns and Footings and staircase) using software like (Auto CAD, MD solid,

Excel, and Staad Pro). The loads are calculated namely the dead loads which depend on

the unit weight of the materials used (concrete, brick) and the live loads using the code.

The safety of reinforced concrete building will depend upon the initial architectural and

structural configuration of the total building, the quality of the structural analysis, design

and reinforcement detailing of the building frame to achieve stability of elements and

their ductile performance. Proper quality of construction and stability of the infill walls

and partitions are additional safety requirements of the structure as a whole.

The advantages of using computer program is faster to analysis the structural

element and time consuming.

In this project we design and analysis of Multi story building using the equations

to design and analysis and solving. So that this project take along time for solving

the equation of design. But to save time by using a computer software programs,

which takes the inputs of design and carried out the calculations easily and quickly

so that we saved time and ensure that the design was correct.

From compare the results between hands calculate and the program we find that:

The programs very fast so that the results show according a minute while the hand

calculating take a long time.

The degree of agreement of the results with the program is good.

Accuracy of the results depends upon the inputs accuracy.

It's very easy for user while the hand calculate should be have more information

for slab design and be more accrue in calculate .

Chapter Seven Conclusions and Recommendations

7-2 Recommendations:

1- Design and analysis of different type of Multi story building (concrete and steel).

2- Design and analysis of multi story building with other codes not just ACI codes.

3- Design and analysis of multi story building with different type like, Agricultural,

Commercial, Residential, Educational, Government, Industrial, Military, Parking

structures and storage, Religious, Transport, Infrastructure and Power stations/plants.

References

1. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI318-14) and

structures",13th edition.

structures",10th edition.

http://www. Bentley.com.

Appendix

APPENDIX A

A-1

Moments and reinforcement details calculations of chapter 3 are are represented

here for first floor and ground floor.

Table (A-1) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F2).

Appendix

Table (A-2) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F3).

Table (A-3) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F4).

Appendix

Table (A-4) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F5).

Table (A-5) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F6).

Appendix

Table (A-6) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F7).

Table (A-7) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F8).

Appendix

Table (A-8) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F9).

Table (A-9) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F10).

Appendix

Table (A-10) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F11).

Table (A-11) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F12).

Appendix

Table (A-12) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F13).

Table (A-13) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F14).

Appendix

Table (A-14) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F15).

Table (A1-5) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F16).

Appendix

Table (A-16) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F17).

Table (A-17) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (F18).

Appendix

Table (A-18) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G2).

Table (A-19) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G3).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A10

Appendix

Table (A-20) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G4).

Table (A-21) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G5).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A11

Appendix

Table (A-22) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G6).

Table (A-23) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G7).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A12

Appendix

Table (A-24) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G8).

Table (A-25) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G9).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A13

Appendix

Table (A-26) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G10).

Table (A-27) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G11).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A14

Appendix

Table (A-28) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G12).

Table (A-29) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G13).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A15

Appendix

Table (A-30) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G14).

Table (A-31) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G15).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A16

Appendix

Table (A-32) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G16).

Table (A-33) Represents Moments and reinforcement of Slab (G17).

Full hand calculation, analysis and design of multi story building A17

خالصة البحث

الهدف الرئيسي من هذا المشروع هو تحليل وتصميم مبنى متعدد الطوابق ،حيث تم التصميم والتحليل لمختلف

التراكيب االنشائية الخرسانية المسلحة ( من بالطات ,العتبات ,واألعمدة واالسس والدرج) بواسطة اوال الحسابات

اليدوية اعتمادا ووفقا لمدونة ( )ACI Codeوثانيا مقارنة النتائج باستخدام برنامج ( .)STAAD PROمن أجل

التصميم ،فمن المهم الحصول شكل ومخطط للبناية المراد تصميمها وتحليلها ،وتحديد مواقع الغرف مثل (غرفة

المعيشة وغرفة النوم والمطبخ والحمامات الخ) بحيث أنها تخدم كل منهما الغرض الخاص بها وتناسب أيضا متطلبات

الراحة للسكان.

في هذا المشروع تم تصميم وتحليل مبنى خرساني مسلح (مكتبي) يتكون من طابقين حيث ان المساحة الكلية

للطابق (21.9*40.9م .)2يتكون كل طابق من اثني عشر مكتب .تم استخدام برامج األوتوكاد الستكمال التصميم

المعماري،و ( )STAAD Pro v8iلتحليل وتصميم هيكل المبنى .في النهاية تم اعداد لنتائج وخرائط الهيكلية لهذا

المبنى.

برنامج ( )STAAD PROيحتوي على واجهة مستخدم تفاعلية جدا التي تسمح للمستخدم لرسم المنشأ وإدخال

االحمال واالبعاد وخصائص المادة .ثم وفقا لمعايير محددة يتم تحليل وتصميم التراكيب االنشائية للمنشأ حيث يحلل

ويصمم ويعطي تفاصيل التسليح للمقاطع الخرسانية المسلحة.

عملية التصميم والتخطيط الهيكلي تتطلب ليس فقط الخيال والتفكير النظري ولكن أيضا المعرفة السليمة للعلم

(علم الهندسة اإلنشائية) إلى جانب معرفة الجوانب العملية ،مثل متابعة المدونات الحديثة (الكودات) ورموز التصميم

األخيرة ،والقوانين ،والتي تكون مدعومة بخبرة وافرة ،والحدس والحكم .والغرض من المعايير هو ضمان وتعزيز

السالمة ،والحفاظ على التوازن الدقيق بين االقتصاد والسالمة.

لتصميم األعمدة والعتبات ,من الضروري معرفة العزوم التي يتعرضون لها .يعتمد تصميم البالطات الخرسانية

المسلحة على ما إذا كانت ذات اتجاه واحد أو اتجاهين ،ونوع المساند ونوع االحمال .انتقال االحمال يكون كالتالي تنتقل

االحمال من البالطات إلى العتبات ,بعد ذلك ،يتم تنقل االحمال من العتبات بشكل قوى قص الى االعمدة وأخيرا ،تنتقل

االحمال من االعمدة الى االسس .في النهاية ال بد من التحقق من جميع المقاطع لجميع القوى األربعة (القوى العامودية,

قوى القص ,العزوم واللي) فيما يتعلق بالمقاومة وقابليتهة التشغيلية .تحليل المنشاءات المتعددة الطوابق ينطوي على

الكثير من التعقيدات والحسابات المملة بالطرق التقليدية عن طريق اليد .ان تنفيذ هكذا نوع من التحليل يستغرق وقتا

طويال.

في هذا المشروع تم التعامل مع العديد من برامج الكمبيوتر لمساعدتنا إلتمام العمل .حيث استخدم برنامج اكسل

وصمم لحساب العزوم وكمية حديد التسليح للبالطات باستخدام طريقة المعامالت ( )Method IIمع برنامج لحساب

الفرق بين المعامالت وبرنامج لحساب االحمال على العتبات وطريقة حسابات توزيع العزوم .حيث ان تصميم برنامج

على االكسل اثبت فعاليته بزيادة سرعة الحل لتحليل البالطات ذات االتجاهين بواسطة ادخال معلومات ومتغيرات التي

لها عالقة بنوع البالطة وابعادها والعتبات واالحمال .تقسم حسابات البالطات الى قسمين واحدة عمودية واخرى افقية

(باتجاه االبعاد الطويلة واالبعاد القصيرة) ثم تحسب العزوم لكل اتجاه وبعد ذلك يتم حساب المساحة المطلوبة لحديد

التسليح والمسافة بين قضبان التسليح .

تنقسم هذه الدراسة إلى سبعة فصول:

يتضمن الفصل األول مقدمة عن المباني المتعددة األدوار واهم تراكيب المنشأ ,البالطات ،العتبات ،واألعمدة،

واالسس الخ..

يتضمن الفصل الثاني أنواع االحمال على المنشأ.

يتضمن الفصل الثالث الحسابات التصميمة للبالطات ورسم البناية.

يتضمن الفصل الرابع الحسابات التصميمة للعتبات.

يتضمن الفصل الخامس الحسابات التصميمة لألعمدة واالسس.

يتضمن الفصل السادس الحسابات التصميمة للدرج.

يتضمن الفصل السابع االستنتاجات والتوصيات لهذه الدراسة.

كلية المنصور الجامعة

اليدوية

مشروع مقدم لقسم الهندسة المدنية في كلية المنصور الجامعة كجزء من متطلبات نيل شهادة

بكلوريوس هندسة في الهندسة المدنية.

اعداد

.1سيف الدين سعد

.2خالد محسن

.3جعفر صالح

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