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The Poverty Causation and the Perception on the Poverty

Reduction Capacity of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino


Program (4Ps) of the 4Ps Grantees in Allen
and San Vicente, Northern Samar

A THESIS

Submitted to the Faculty of the


College of Arts and Communications
University of Eastern Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the degree
Bachelor of Arts major in Political Science

LAURENCE BRIAN MORALDE HAGUTIN

Academic Year 2014-2015


Chapter IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETAION OF DATA

In this chapter, the data gathered were presented,

analyzed, and interpreted in order to arrive at the credible and

valid conclusion.

Profile of the Respondents

Age

Table 1a presents the age distribution of the

respondents. The oldest respondent was 81 years old, whereas,

the youngest was 16. As shown in Table 1a, 30 or 12 percent were

aged 16 to 29; 101 or 40.4 percent belonged to the age bracket

of 30-42; 93 or 37.2 percent fell under 43 to 55; 19 or 7.6

percent were aged 56 to 68; and 7 or 2.8 percent fell under the

aged bracket of 69 to 81.

The data indicate that most of the respondents belonged to

the 30 to 42 years of age. Considering their ages from 16 to 42,

it means that majority of the respondents were young and that it

can be inferred that their capacity in complying the

conditionalities of the 4Ps is responsive. Even Birren

contended that if a problem emphasizes perceptual capacity or

retention of instructions, the young will probably perform more

effectively.
Table 1a
Distribution of the Respondents According to Age

Age Frequency Percentage


16-29 30 12
30-42 101 40.4
43-55 93 37.2
56-68 19 7.6
69-81 7 2.8
Total 250 100

Sex

Table 1b shows the distribution of respondents according to

civil status. Of the 250 respondents, 21 or 8.4 percent were

males while there were 229 or 91.6 percent of females. The data

indicate that majority of the respondents are females.

It can be implied that women are indeed the “light of every

home.” They presumed that with 4Ps, their family, most

especially their children, will be aided by the government. It

can also be deduced that women are most likely into the capacity

4Ps in alleviating poverty.

According to Lizárraga, women are more concerned with

uncertainty, doubts, and the dynamism that are involved in the

decision. They place more value on time and money; they are more

concerned about the consequences that may derive from the

decision, no matter whether these affect them or other people.

This theory suggests that in terms of decision-making process,


women are sensitive and more responsible in handling problems,

effort and time for their families.

Table 1b
Distribution of the Respondents According to Sex

Sex Frequency Percentage


Male 21 8.4
Female 229 91.6
Total 250 100

Civil Status

Table 1c presents the distribution of the respondents

according to civil status. Among 250 respondents, 187 or 74.8

percent were married, 10 or 4 percent belonged to the single, 9

or 3.6 percent were separated, 15 or 5.6 percent fall under the

widow, and 20 or 12 were live-in.

It can be inferred that majority have families to look up

to the needs of every member, especially the children. With the

family that caters support to every member, the head of the

family will be motivated to perform well on the conditionalities

of 4Ps. According to Doblhammer et al., marriage is said to have

a protection effect due to greater financial and material

resources, greater social support, and better health related

behavior.

Table 1c
Distribution of the Respondents According to Civil Status
Civil Status Frequency Percentage
Married 187 74.8
Single 10 4
Separated 9 3.6
Widow 14 5.6
Live-In 30 12
Total 250 100

Occupation

Table 1d shows the distribution of the respondents

according to occupation. Of the 250 respondents, 180 or 72

percent have the occupation of housekeeping, 17 or 6.8 percent

were vendors, 12 or 4.8 percent belonged to fishing, 13 or 5.2

percent fell under farming as their occupation, 6 or 2.4 were

government employees, 6 or 2.4 were yaya (maid), 7 or 2.8

percent were carpenters, 1 or .4 percent was a therapist, 1 or

.4 percent was a lady guard, 2 or .8 percent were janitors, 4 or

1.6 percent were laundry women, and 1 or .4 was a chainsaw

operator.

The data indicate that the majority of the respondents have

the occupation of housekeeping. This also presumed that these

housekeepers will be more effective in handling their

responsibilities at their dwellings as well as in complying 4Ps’

conditionalities.

Table 1d
Distribution of the Respondents According to Occupation

Occupation Frequency Percentage


Housekeeping 180 72
Vendors 17 6.8
Fishing 12 4.8
Farming 13 5.2
Government Employee 6 2.4
Yaya (Maid) 6 2.4
Carpenters 7 2.8
Therapist 1 .4
Lady Guard 1 .4
Janitor/tress 2 .8
Laundry Women 4 1.6
Chainsaw Operator 1 .4
Total 250 100

Religion

Table 1e presents the distribution of the respondents’

religion. Among the 250 respondents, the vast majority belonged

to Roman Catholic with 198 or 79.2 percent, 23 or 9.2 percent

were made up of Protestant, 13 or 5.2 percent belonged to Born

Again, 6 or 2.4 percent were Jehovah’s Witnesses, 4 or 1.6

percent fell under the Latter’s Day Saints, 3 or 1.2 percent

practiced Iglesia ni Cristo, 1 or .4 percent belonged to Mormon,

1 or .4 percent fell under End Time Message, and another 1 or .4

percent was an Apostolic Christian.

The data clearly show that the respondents’ preferred

religion is Roman Catholic. According to Miranda, it implies

that they have positive work ethics, a trait which is shaped by

the Christian religion they embraced.


Table 1e
Distribution of the Respondents According to Religion

Religion Frequency Percentage


Roman Catholic 198 79.2
Protestant 23 9.2
Born Again 13 5.2
Jehovah’s Witnesses 6 2.4
Latter’s Day Saints 4 1.6
Iglesia ni Cristo 3 1.2
Mormon 1 .4
End Time Message 1 .4
Apostolic Christian 1 .4
Total 250 100

Educational Attainment

Table 1f shows the distribution of the respondents

according to educational attainment. Of the 250 respondents, 37

or 14.8 percent reached the elementary level, 43 or 12.2 percent

were elementary graduate, 58 or 23.2 percent were able to reach

high school level, 65 or 25 percent were high school graduate,

25 or 10 percent reached college level, 15 or 6 percent were

college graduate, and 7 or 2.8 percent fell under the vocational

courses.

It can be inferred from the data that the majority of the

respondents were high school graduates. It implies that the

respondents have an average level of education. And so, they are

presumed to have a limited idea of family whereabouts. Their

incomes were not also as big as to those who attained higher

level of education. According to Elo and Preston 1996, Freedman


and Martin 1999, Minicuci and Noale 2005, it is generally agreed

that people with lower levels of education tend to have a higher

probability of becoming functionally disabled, and face a higher

mortality risk, than people with higher educational levels.

Table 1f
Distribution of the Respondents According to Educational
Attainment

Educational Frequency Percentage


Attainment
Elementary Level 37 14.8
Elementary Graduate 43 17.2
High School Level 58 23.2
High School Graduate 65 26
College Level 25 10
College Graduate 15 6
Vocational Courses 7 2.8
Total 250 100

Household Size

Table 1g presents the distribution of the respondents

according to household size. The respondents are equally divided

between “big” and “small”, using the mean of 7 as the cut-off

point between the said categories. As shown in table 1g, the

vast majority belonged to the household size bracket of 1 to 6

with 164 or 65.6 percent, while 86 or 34.4 percent fell under

the size bracket of 7 to 13.

The data indicated that the majority belonged to 1 to 6

household size categories. Considering the data below, it can be

deduced that the families at large not merely find difficulties


in sustaining the needs of the family members, especially on the

children. It is also presumed that the incentives that the head

receives from 4Ps are not that big as that of the heads belonged

to the big-sized households.

Table 1g
Distribution of the Respondents According to Household Size

Household Size Frequency Percentage


1-6 164 65.6
7-13 86 34.4
Total 250 100

The Poverty Causation of the Respondents

Table 2a shows the distribution of the respondents’ poverty

causation based on Bradshaw’s five core theories on the causes

of poverty.

Fifteen statements, three for each cause of poverty were

part in five separate columns. The first and second columns

contained causes which are internal to the individual while the

third, fourth and fifth columns contained causes external to the

individual.

If a respondent chooses more reasons in the first and the

second columns, he is categorized as “more of an internal

causation.” If more reasons are chosen from the third, fourth,

and fifth columns, the respondent is categorized as “more of

external causation.” However, if the internal and external


reasons chosen by the respondents are equal in number, the

respondent is classified as having “mixed internal and external

causation.”

Table 2a shows that majority of the respondents, 155 or 62

percent believed that the cause of their poverty is “more of

external causation,” these factors include poverty caused by

economic, political, and social distortions and discriminations,

poverty caused by geographical disparities and poverty caused by

cumulative and cyclical interdependencies. Seventy-five (75) or

30 percent were “more of internal causation,” such factors

include poverty caused by individual deficiencies and poverty

caused by cultural belief systems that support sub-cultures of

poverty. And 20 or 8 percent belonged to “mixed internal and

external causation.

Table 2a

The Poverty Causation of the Respondents

Poverty Causation Frequency Percentage


More of internal 75 30
causation
More of external 155 62
causation
Mixed internal and 20 8
external causation
Total 250 100

Responses of the Respondents of each Indicator of Perception on

the Poverty Reduction Capacity of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino

Program (4Ps)

To determine the responses of every indicator of

perception, the respondents were asked to indicate whether they

“strongly agree”, “agree”, “neutral”, “disagree”, and “strongly

disagree.” A “strongly agree” response was given 5 points on

positive statements and 1 point if negative, “agree” was given 4

points on positive and 2 in negative, “neutral” was given 3

points for both negative and positive statements, “disagree was

given 2 points for positive statements and 4 on negative, and

“strongly disagree”, 1 point for positive statements and 5

points if negative. The weighted mean was computed for each

indicator

Table 3a presents the responses on each indicator of

perception. Of the 4 responses, only the 3 made it up on the

interpretation. These are “agree”, “neutral”, and “disagree”

responses. The positive statements which the respondents agreed

were, “With cash grants of 4Ps, we are able to eat properly”


with a weighted mean of 3.6; “With 4Ps’ cash grants, we are able

to buy our clothes” with a weighted mean of 3.6; “The 4Ps

expands our knowledge about family planning” with a weighted

mean of 4.1; “The 4Ps paves way to the growth of some other

welfare programs of the government” with weighted a mean of 4.1;

“With 4Ps, I have better chance of supporting the education of

my children until I find a better job” with a weighted mean of

3.9; “With 4Ps, I develop a positive outlook towards economic

improvement of my family” with a weighted mean of 3.8; “With

4Ps, my financial worries have lessened due to 4Ps cash grants”

with a weighted mean of 3.5; “The 4Ps cash grants motivate me in

encouraging my family to help our community in maintaining

cleanliness and orderliness” with a weighted mean of 3.8; and

“In general, 4Ps has greatly/substantially reduced poverty” with

a weighted mean of 4.3.

The positive statements which the respondents were neutral

were, “With 4Ps, we are able to sustainably meet our basic

needs” with a weighted mean of 3.3; “For me, 4Ps helps me to

look for a stable job” with a weighted mean of 3.4; and “With

4Ps, I become important to my family, especially to my

husband/wife” with a weighted mean of 3.2.

The positive statement which the respondents disagreed was

“With 4Ps we are able to buy things beyond our daily needs, such
as television set, electric fan, stove, and other appliances”

with a weighted mean of 1.9.

The negative statements which the respondents agreed were,

“With 4Ps, I become lazy to find a job” with a weighted mean of

3.9; “Due to cash grants of 4Ps, I am not motivated to look for

a better and more stable job” with a weighted mean of 3.8; and

“With 4Ps’ cash grants, I have a better chance of maintaining my

vices such as drinking liquor, smoking, gambling, etc.” with a

weighted mean of 4.0.

The negative statements which the respondents were neutral

were, “The 4Ps makes me dependent on the government that I no

longer find a stable job for my family” with a weighted mean of

3.1; “I find the 4Ps conditionalities difficult to comply, as

part of the program’s cash incentive” with a weighted mean of

2.9; and “The 4Ps’ cash grants are not enough to sustain our

basic needs” with a weighted mean of 2.7.

The negative statement which the respondents disagreed was,

“The 4Ps’ cash grant is so small that it cannot be enough to

assist the health and educational needs of the children” with a

weighted mean of 2.3.

Table 3a

Perception of the Respondents towards the Poverty Reduction

Capacity of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)


Total Weighted Inter
ndicators SA A N D SD point mean preta
value tion

. With 67 (5) 91 (4) 56 (3) 26 (2) 10 (1) 903 3.6 A


cash
grants
of 4Ps,
we are
able to
eat
properly
.
. The 4Ps’ 63 (1) 94 (2) 62 (3) 20 (4) 11 (5) 572 2.3 D
cash
grant is
so small
that it
cannot
be
enough
to
assist
the
health
and
educatio
nal
needs of
the
children
. With 56 (5) 98 (4) 48 (3) 39 (2) 8 (1) 902 3.6 A
4Ps’
cash
grants,
we are
able to
buy our
clothes.
. With 4Ps 21 (5) 28 (4) 33 (3) 97 (2) 71 (1) 484 1.9 D
we are
able to
buy
things
beyond
our
daily
needs,
such as
televisi
on set,
electric
fan,
stove,
and
other
applianc
es.
. The 4Ps 48 (1) 40 (2) 36 (3) 86 (4) 40 (5) 780 3.1 N
makes me
dependen
t on the
governme
nt that
I no
longer
find a
stable
job for
my
family.
. With 53 (5) 72 (4) 55 (3) 55 (2) 15 (1) 835 3.3 N
4Ps, we
are able
to
sustaina
bly meet
our
basic
needs.
. The 4Ps 10 (5) 94 (4) 28 (3) 17 (2) 4 (1) 1033 4.1 A
expands 7
our
knowledg
e about
family
planning
.
. The 4Ps 10 (5) 100 (4) 22 (3) 17 (2) 5 (1) 1035 4.1 A
paves 6
way to
the
growth
of some
other
welfare
programs
of the
governme
nt.
. With 18 (1) 16 (2) 23 (3) 90 (4) 103 (5) 994 3.9 A
4Ps, I
become
lazy to
find a
job.
0. With 88 (5) 100 (4) 40 (3) 13 (2) 9 (1) 995 3.9 A
4Ps, I
have
better
chance
of
supporti
ng the
educatio
n of my
children
until I
find a
better
job.
1. For 51 (5) 82 (4) 56 (3) 39 (2) 21 (1) 854 3.4 N
me, 4Ps
helps me
to look
for a
stable
job.
2. With 78 (5) 90 (4) 51 (3) 18 (2) 13 (1) 952 3.8 A
4Ps, I
develop
a
positive
outlook
towards
economic
improvem
ent of
my
family.
3. Due 19 (1) 20 (2) 27 (3) 87 (4) 97 (5) 973 3.8 A
to cash
grants
of 4Ps,
I am not
motivate
d to
look for
a better
and more
stable
job.
4. With 22 (1) 12 (2) 23 (3) 65 (4) 128 (5) 1015 4.0 A
4Ps’
cash
grants,
I have a
better
chance
of
maintain
ing my
vices
such as
drinking
liquor,
smoking,
gambling
, etc.
5. With 50 (5) 76 (4) 48 (3) 37 (2) 39 (1) 811 3.2 N
4Ps, I
become
importan
t to my
family,
especial
ly to my
husband/
wife.
6. I 40 (1) 57 (2) 47 (3) 76 (4) 30 (5) 749 2.9 N
find the
4Ps
conditio
nalities
difficul
t to
comply,
as part
of the
program’
s cash
incentiv
e.
7. With 64 (5) 81 (4) 47 (3) 37 (4) 21 (5) 880 3.5 A
4Ps, my
financia
l
worries
have
lessened
due to
4Ps cash
grants.
8. The 45 (1) 74 (2) 71 (3) 40 (4) 20 (5) 666 2.7 N
4Ps’
cash
grants
are not
enough
to
sustain
our
basic
needs.
9. The 76 (5) 94 (4) 50 (3) 20 (2) 10 (1) 956 3.8 A
4Ps cash
grants
motivate
me in
encourag
ing my
family
to help
our
communit
y in
maintain
ing
cleanlin
ess and
orderlin
ess.
0. In 13 (5) 73 (4) 30 (3) 8 (2) 5 (1) 1073 4.3 A
general, 4
4Ps has
greatly/
substant
ially
reduced
poverty.

Legend:

Weighted Value Weighted Mean Positive Negative


Statement Statement
5 4.5-5.0 SA SD
4 3.5-4.4 A D
3 2.5-3.4 N N
2 1.4-2.4 D A
1 1.0-1.3 SD SA
Perception of the Respondents on the Poverty Reduction Capacity

of 4Ps

To determine the perception of the respondents on the

Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps, 20 statements were

formulated. It consisted of 13 positive and 7 negative

statements. They are asked to indicate whether they “strongly

agree”, “agree”, “neutral”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree.”

A “strongly agree” response was given 5 points on positive

statements and 1 point if negative, “agree” was given 4 points

on positive and 2 in negative, “neutral” was given 3 points for

both negative and positive statements, “disagree was given 2

points for positive statements and 4 on negative, and “strongly

disagree”, 1 point for positive statements and 5 points if

negative.

The weighted mean per respondent was computed, and then the

grand mean was used as a cut-off between favorable and

unfavorable. Those with weighted mean of 3.5 and above were

considered as having favorable perception while those with

weighted mean of 3.4 and below have unfavorable perception.

Table 3b reveals that majority of the respondents, 133 or

53.2 percent have favorable perception, and 117 or 46.8 have

unfavorable perception.

This finding implies that the respondents do not have the

same view as regards to Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program.


Some have viewed it as an effective program in reducing poverty

while some do not.

According to Panopio et al., perception is the process

through which people translate their observation into

internalized, meaningful experiences. Lippman also contended

that what the individual perceives about a certain phenomena may

not reflect the realness of those phenomena. This is because

individuals are constantly bombarded by impressions or stimuli

from the phenomena of the environment like ideas, events,

personalities, and objects.

Table 3b
Perception of the Respondents on the Poverty Reduction Capacity
of 4Ps

Perception Frequency Percentage


Favorable 133 53.2
Unfavorable 117 46.8
Total 250 100

Responses of the Respondents towards the Effectiveness of the

4Ps in Reducing Poverty

To determine the respondents’ response on the 4Ps

effectiveness, they were asked to rate the program in a scale of

1 to 10. The responses were divided between the “least


effective” and the “most effective”. Those with a response of 1

to 6 were considered as least effective and 6 to 10 response as

most effective.

Table 3c reveals that minority, 109 or 43.6 percent of the

respondents rated the program as least effective. On the other

hand, majority, 141 or 56.4 percent rated it as most effective

in reducing poverty.

Table 3c
Responses of the Respondents towards 4Ps Effectiveness in
Reducing Poverty

Response Frequency Percentage


Least Effective 109 43.6
Most Effective 141 56.4
Total 250 100

Test of Relationship

Relationship between Age and the Perception of the Respondents

on the Poverty Reduction Capacity (4Ps)

Table 4a presents the relationship between age and the

perception of the respondents on the poverty reduction capacity

of 4Ps.

The computed chi-square value of 6.43 is greater than the

tabular value of 3.841 with 1 degree of freedom at the 0.5 level

of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no


significant relationship between age and the perception of the

respondents is rejected. This means that the perception of the

respondents depends on their age.

It can be inferred that age does influence the respondents’

perception towards the capacity of the program to alleviate

poverty. According to Birren, one of the most distinguishing

features of aging persons is their tendency to behave

lethargically. Whereas young adults behave quickly or slowly in

accord with the demands of the situation, older adults exhibit a

generally slower rate of behavior.

Table 4a

Relationship between Age and the Perception of the Respondent on

the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Level of Perception
Age Favorable Unfavorable Total
(O) (E) (O) (E)
Young 65 (64.9) 57 (57.1) 122
Old 68 (68.1) 60 (59.9) 128
Total 133 117
x²c = 6.43 x²t = 3.841 df = 1 LS = 0.5
Relationship between Sex and the Perception of the Respondent on

the Poverty Reduction Capacity 4Ps

Table 4b shows the relationship between sex and the

perception of the respondent on the poverty reduction capacity

4Ps.

The computed chi-square value of 2.13 is lesser than the

tabular value of 3.841 with 1 degree of freedom at the 0.5 level

of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no

significant relationship between sex and the perception of the

respondents is accepted. This means that the perception of the

respondents is not dependent on their age.

The data imply that all of the indicators related to

perception can be seen in both sexes. However, there are a

smaller number of male respondents with an unfavorable

perception on the poverty-reduction capacity of 4Ps. In

contrary, majority of the female respondents favored on the said

program. Moreover, Bandura states that one should not look for a

specific cause of behavior of both sexes but instead, he

concludes that these three factors (cognitive, behavioral, and

environmental) affect behavior in a conjoint but differentiated

way, depending on each situation and on the individual.

Table 4b
Relationship between Sex and the Perception of the Respondent on

the Poverty Reduction Capacity 4Ps

Level of Perception
Sex Favorable Unfavorable Total
(O) (E) (O) (E)
Male 8 (11.2) 13 (9.8) 21
Female 125 (121.8) 104 (107.2) 229
Total 133 117 250
x²c = 2.13 x²t = 3.841 df = 1 LS = 0.5

Relationship between Civil Status and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Table 4c presents relationship between civil status and the

perception of the respondent on the poverty reduction capacity

of 4Ps.

Since the computed chi-square value of 4.86 is greater than

the tabular value of 3.841 with 1 degree of freedom at the 0.5

level of significance, so the null hypothesis is rejected. This

means that there is a significant relationship between civil

status and the perception of the respondents. This also implies

that married respondents viewed 4Ps as one of the strategies of

the government to alleviate poverty, as well as one of the


welfare programs that support the education and health of their

children.

Table 4c

Relationship between Civil Status and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Level of Perception
Civil Favorable Unfavorable Total
Status (O) (E) (O) (E)
Married 110 (102.7) 83 (90.3) 193
Single 23 (30.3) 34 (26.7) 57
Total 133 117 250
x²c = 4.86 x²t = 3.841 df = 1 LS = 0.5

Relationship between Occupation and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Table 4d shows relationship between occupation and the

perception of the respondent on the poverty reduction capacity

of 4Ps.

The computed chi-square value of 0.98 is lesser than the

tabular value of 3.841 with 1 degree of freedom at the 0.5 level

of significance, thus the null hypothesis is accepted. It can de

deduced that respondents’ occupation does not influence their

perception with regard to the poverty-reduction capacity of 4Ps.

Table 4d
Relationship between Occupation and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Level of Perception
Occupation Favorable Unfavorable Total
(O) (E) (O) (E)
GO 2 (3.2) 4 (2.8) 6
NGO 131 (129.8) 113 (114.2) 244
Total 133 117 250
x²c = 0.98 x²t = 3.841 df = 1 LS = 0.5

Relationship between Religion and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Table 4e presents relationship between religion and the

perception of the respondent on the poverty reduction capacity

of 4Ps.

Since the computed chi-square value of 2.75 is lesser than

the tabular value of 3.841 with 1 degree of freedom at the 0.5

level of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is

no significant relationship between age and the perception of

the respondents is accepted. This means that the perception of

the respondents is not dependent on the religion that they have.

Table 4e

Relationship between Religion and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps


Level of Perception
Religion Favorable Unfavorable Total
(O) (E) (O) (E)
Roman 100 (105.3) 98 (92.6) 198
Catholic
Non Roman 33 (27.7) 19 (24.3) 52
Catholic
Total 133 117 250
x²c = 2.75 x²t = 3.841 df = 1 LS = 0.5

Relationship between Educational Attainment and the Perception

of the Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Table 4f shows relationship between educational attainment

and the perception of the respondent on the poverty reduction

capacity of 4Ps.

The computed chi-square value of 44.49 is greater than the

tabular value of 5.991 with 1 degree of freedom at the 0.5 level

of significance, thus the null hypothesis is rejected. This

means the there is a significant relationship between the

educational attainment and the perception of the respondents

towards the poverty-reduction capacity of 4Ps.

This is affirmed by Hoffmann who stressed that the level of

education also influences health behavior, providing better

knowledge and access to information about health risks and

healthy behaviors, as well as the cognitive ability to deal with

such information. Thus, the educational level provides material

resources and facilitates the implementation of health-promoting


behaviors. Likewise, Menchik and Hoffmann believed that

education is chronologically and causally prior to occupation

and income. Therefore, the attained educational level

anticipates future occupational chances and income.

Table 4f

Relationship between Educational Attainment and the Perception

of the Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Level of Perception
Educational Favorable Unfavorable Total
Attainment (O) (E) (O) (E)
High 15 (21.3) 25 (18.7) 40
Average 17 (69.2) 53 (60.8) 130
Low 41 (42.6) 39 (37.4) 80
Total 133 117 250
x²c = 44.49 x²t = 5.991 df = 1 LS = 0.5

Relationship between Household Size and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Table 4g presents relationship between household size and

the perception of the respondent on the poverty reduction

capacity of 4Ps.

Since the computed chi-square value of 0.56 is lesser than

the tabular value of 3.841 with 1 degree of freedom at the 0.5

level of significance, means the null hypothesis that there is

no significant relationship between household size and the

perception of the respondents is accepted. Respondents with


“favorable” and “unfavorable” perception are seen in both big

and small household size. According to Ellision, Bartowski and

Segal (1996) homes vary markedly in socioeconomic status, not in

amounts of wealth but in the ways in which the family income is

obtained.

Table 4g

Relationship between Household Size and the Perception of the

Respondent on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of 4Ps

Level of Perception
Household Favorable Unfavorable Total
Size (O) (E) (O) (E)
Big 43 (45.8) 43 (40.2) 86
Small 90 (87.2) 74 (76.8) 164
Total 133 117 250
x²c = 0.56 x²t = 3.841 df = 1 LS = 0.5

Relationship between the Poverty Causation and the Perception on

the Poverty Reduction Capacity of the 4Ps Grantees

Table 4h presents the relationship between the poverty

causation and the perception on the poverty reduction capacity

of the 4Ps grantees.

The computed chi-square value of 11.88 is greater than the

tabular value of 5.99 with 2 as a degree of freedom at the 0.5

level of significance. This means that there is a significant

relationship between the poverty causation and the perception of


the respondents towards the poverty reduction capacity of the

Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program.

Table 4h

Relationship between the Poverty Causation and the Perception on

the Poverty Reduction Capacity of the 4Ps Grantees

Level of Perception
Poverty Favorable Unfavorable Total
Causation (O) (E) (O) (E)
More of (39.9) 35 (35.1) 75
internal 40
causation
More of 82 (82.5) 72 (72.5) 155
external
causation
Mixed 11 (10.6) 9 (9.4) 20
internal
and
external
causation
Total 133 117 250
x²c = 11.88 x²t = 5.99 df = 2 LS = 0.5

Summary of Relationship between the Independent Variables and

the Perception on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of the 4Ps

Grantees

Table 4h shows the summary of relationship between the

independent variables and the perception on the poverty

reduction capacity of the 4Ps grantees.


Results of the study revealed that out of seven (7)

independent variables tested, age, civil status, educational

attainment, and poverty causation were significantly related to

the perception of the respondents as regards to 4Ps’ poverty-

reduction capacity while variables such as sex, occupation,

religion, and household size were not significantly related to

the perception of the respondents.

Table 4i

Summary of Relationship between the Independent Variables and

the Perception on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of the 4Ps

Grantees

Indepen Perception on the Poverty Reduction Capacity of


dent the 4Ps Grantees
Variables x²c x²t df Level
of Decision Interpreta
Significa tion
nce
Age 6.43 3.841 1 .05 Rejected S
Sex 2.13 3.841 1 .05 Accepted NS
Civil 4.86 3.841 1 .05 Rejected S
Status
Occupation 0.98 3.841 1 .05 Accepted NS
Religion 2.75 3.841 1 .05 Accepted NS
Educationa 44.49 5.991 2 .05 Rejected S
l
Attainment
Household 0.56 3.841 1 .05 Accepted NS
Size
Poverty 11.88 5.99 2 0.5 Rejected S
Causation
Problems of the Respondents towards Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino

Program (4Ps) System

Table 5a presents respondents’ problems on the Pantawid

Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) system.

The data clearly shows that majority of the respondents’

problem on the 4Ps system, 30 or 11.7 percent was “Insufficiency

of the cash grants.” Other problems include “Inequality of the

grants” 15 or 4.62 percent, “The lists are not well updated” 11

or 9.73 percent, “Lacks unity between and among grantees” 10 or

9.23 percent, “The payout is insufficient and is always delayed”

7 or 6.19 percent and also “Insufficiency of incentives even if

the conditionalities are complied”, “Delay in releasing the

incentive” 5 or 4.42, “Some are no longer find a job, hence

depending on 4Ps” 5 or 4.42 percent, “Incentives used to satisfy

head’s needs” 4 or 3.54 percent, “Inexact date in releasing cash

grants” 4 or 3.54 percent, “Incentives are not given even if

there is an authorization letter 3 or 2.65 percent, “Deduction

of the cash grants” 2 or 1.77 percent, “Cash grants used in


vices” 2 or 1.77 percent, “Children were not religiously went

to school” 2 or 1.77 percent, “Delay in processing ATMs” 1 or

0.88 percent, “Funds that were not given” 1 or 0.88 percent,

“Some were grantees even if they are economically stable” 1 or

0.88 percent, ”Mistakes in the entry of names” 1 or 0.88

percent, and “Some do not follow rules and regulations of 4Ps” 1

or 0.88 percent.

Table 5a

Problems of the Respondents towards Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino

Program (4Ps) System

Problems Frequency Percentage Rank

The lists are 11 9.73 3


not well updated
Insufficiency of 30 26.55 1
the cash grants
Delay in 5 4.42 6
releasing the
incentive
The payout is 7 6.19 5
insufficient and
is always
delayed
Deduction of the 2 1.77 9
cash grants
ATMs are empty 1 0.88 10
on the supposed-
to-be payout day
Insufficiency of 7 6.19 5
incentives even
if the
conditonalities
are complied
Delay in 1 0.88 10
processing ATMs
Some are no 5 4.42 6
longer find a
job, hence
depending on 4Ps
Funds that were 1 0.88 10
not given
Inequality of 15 4.62 2
the grants
Cash grants used 2 1.77 9
in vices
Some were 1 0.88 10
grantees even if
they are
economically
stable
Lacks unity 10 9.23 4
between and
among grantees
Incentives used 4 3.54 7
to satisfy
head’s needs
Children were 2 1.77 9
not religiously
went to school
Mistakes in the 1 0.88 10
entry of names
Inexact date in 4 3.54 7
releasing cash
grants
Incentives are 3 2.65 8
not given even
if there is an
authorization
letter
Some do not 1 1.54 10
follow rules and
regulations of
4Ps
Responses whether the Respondents Tried to Resolve/Overcome the

Problems

Table 5b shows whether the respondents tried to resolve or

overcome the problems. Of the 100 respondents, 63 or 63 percent

have tried to resolve or overcome the problems encountered in

the system of 4ps while 37 have not.

Table 5b

Responses whether the Respondents Tried to Resolve/Overcome the

Problems

Responses Frequency Percentage

Yes 63 63

No 37 37

Total 100 100

The Suggestions of the Respondents for the Improvement of the 4Ps

as a Strategy to Reduce Poverty

Table 5c presents the suggestions of the respondents for the

improvement of 4Ps.

The data show that majority, 27 or 17.88 percent suggested that

the “the 4Ps length of services to the grantees should be

extended”, 20 or 13.25 percent were on “the grantees themselves

should not be dependent on 4Ps”, 13 or 8.61 percent believed on

the “compliance of the conditionalities”, 12 or 7.95 percent


suggested that “aside from 4Ps, the government should implement

other programs for the poor”, 11 or 7.28 percent were on “unity

between and among the grantees”, 10 or 6.62 percent believed

that “the 4Ps should also provide jobs for the parent-head”, 9

or 5.96 percent suggested for the “additional cash grants for

the children’s basic needs”, 8 or 5.30 percent were on the

“observance of the rules and regulations of the program”, 6 or

3.97 suggested that “the 4Ps should widen its scope” and the

conduct of “seminars for livelihood programs”, 5 or 3.31 percent

believed on “the inclusion of other siblings regardless of

qualifications”, 4 or 2.65 suggested that “grantees should ask

help from the program” and the “proper use of grants”, 3 or 1.99

percent suggested that “the prevention of the illegal use of

money” “the lists of the grantees must be updated” and there

should be “proper monitoring of the program”, 2 or 1.32

suggested “it should not delay the grants” and there should be

an “intended ATMs for the grantees”, and 1 or 0.66 percent of

the respondents suggested that “meetings should be focused by

the 4Ps” “the 4Ps should not be strict” and “the ML/PL must not

be politically inclined.”

Table 5c

The Suggestions of the Respondents for the Improvement of the 4Ps

as a Strategy to Reduce Poverty


Suggestions Frequency Percentage Rank

Additional cash 9 5.96 7


grants for the
children’s basic
needs.
The 4Ps length of 27 17.88 1
services to the
grantees should
be extended.
Aside from 4Ps, 12 7.95 4
the government
should implement
other programs
for the poor.
The prevention of 3 1.99 12
the illegal use
of money.
The inclusion of 5 3.31 10
other siblings
regardless of
qualifications.
The 4Ps should 6 3.97 9
widen its scope.
The grantees 20 13.25 2
themselves should
not be dependent
on 4Ps.
Unity between and 11 7.28 5
among the
grantees.
Meetings should 1 0.66 14
be focused by the
4Ps.
Grantees should 4 2.65 11
ask help from the
program.
The 4Ps should 10 6.62 66
also provide jobs
for the parent-
head.
The lists of the 3 1.99 12
grantees must be
updated.
The 4Ps should 1 0.66 14
not be strict.
It should not 2 1.32 13
delay the grants.
Observance of the 8 5.30 8
rules and
regulations of
the program.
The ML/PL must 1 0.66 14
not be
politically
inclined.
Seminars for 6 3.97 9
livelihood
programs.
Proper monitoring 3 1.99 12
of the program.
Compliance of the 13 8.61 3
conditionalities.
Intended ATMs for 2 1.32 13
the grantees.
Proper use of 4 2.65 11
grants.