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Result: After 12 weeks training, Both group improved on UI severity status in HR-QoL(p<.05) and bladder diary(p<.

01) and incontinence severity index(p<.001).


There were significant higher SUI cure rate (no urine leakage episode or less than once in month) of PD than FD (88%vs. 57%) subjects obtained adequate
urinary control. FD SUI subjects with light, moderate and severe UI symptoms after 12 FD exercise intervention had significant different cure rate (100%, 46%,
33% respectively).
CONCLUSION: The small-group based, both 12-weeks PD and FD exercise training could improve UI and HR-QoL for SUI women. PD has better treatment
effect than fitness group may be due to it is task-specific pelvic floor control training. For FD, subjects with higher UI severity tended to have lower percentage of
cure rate. Women with severe UI should start Pilates exercise to improve UI first, and followed with fitness exercise.

2190 Board #67 June 2 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM


Pilates May Have Better Fitness Promotion Effect Than Fitness Exercise For Stress Urinary Incontinence Women
Wen Hui Huang, Wen Yu Kuo, Jin Jong Chen, Hsuei Chen Lee. Yang-Ming Exercise Health Science Institute, Taipei,Taiwan, Taiwan.
(No relationships reported)
BACKGROUND: The incidence of urinary incontinence in Taiwan is 19~40% with 50% stress urinary incontinence (SUI). These SUI women are afraid of doing
exercise due to UI embarrassment and make them become inactive, unfit and overweight. Previous studies had reported that Pilates may improve their UI
symptoms. Nevertheless, only a few studies have reported the effects of group-based Pilates or functional fitness training on SUI in community-dwelling
women.
PURPOSE: This research aimed at comparing the effects on body composition and physical fitness between Pilates-dominated group (PD) and fitness-
dominated group (FD) for women with SUI.
METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental study with two treatment groups: PD and FD. Thirty seven community-dwelling women who suffered from SUI were recruited
as volunteers and assigned into two groups: PD (N=16) and FD (N=21) randomly. Following measurements were performed before and after the exercise intervention:
1) personal characteristics: occupation, past history and exercise habits; 2) physical fitness: muscle endurance and flexibility; 3) body composition: BMI, waist girth and
BIA parameters. PD intervention program focused on training core muscle groups including abdominal, back and pelvic muscles, and FD intervention combined
progressive low impact aerobic exercise with 6 hydraulic resistance stations to be a circuit training program. Both programs lasted for 12 weeks, once to twice per week
with 65 minutes pre section. Each training section had 15 minutes education and 50 minutes exercise duration.
RESULTS: After 12 weeks exercise training, both PD and FD had significant improvements on following physical fitness items, such as upper and lower
extremity muscle endurance, sit up and flexibility (P<0.01). FD seemed to have greater improvement on muscle endurance but not significant. However, PD had
significant greater improvement on body composition parameters including waist girth (P=0.001), left/right lower extremity muscle ratio (P=0.018) than FD.
Discussion and CONCLUSION: The small-group based, gymnasium-like exercise model made SUI subjects more active and improved their physical fitness
significantly. The body composition parameters improvement of PD may due to the specific core and symmetric training effect of Pilates.

2191 Board #68 June 2 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM


Summary of CDC Workshop on Physical Activity Guidelines and Air Pollution Exposure
Tegan K. Boehmer. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Email: tboehmer@cdc.gov
(No relationships reported)
The US Department of Health and Human Service’s 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans provide limited information on health risks associated with
air pollution exposure while being active. Although the guidelines provide suggestions for modifying the location or time of exercise to reduce air pollution
exposure, they subsequently state that “the benefits of being active, even in polluted air, outweigh the risk of being inactive.” The Air Pollution and Respiratory
Health Branch and the Physical Activity and Health Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened an expert workshop to assess
the appropriateness of the guidelines.
PURPOSE: The objectives of the workshop were to summarize existing knowledge on health effects of air pollution exposure while being active, review existing
public health guidance, and produce recommendations to CDC regarding future public health guidance.
METHODS: In April 2010, 25 US and international subject matter experts and stakeholders from air pollution exposure and epidemiology, physical activity,
exercise physiology, and medical fields participated in a two-day meeting. The workshop included a combination of plenary presentations, small-group
discussion, and large-group deliberation.
RESULTS: Few studies have directly examined the inter-relationship between physical activity and air pollution exposure and the resulting impact on
respiratory and cardiovascular health outcomes. Health risk from air pollution exposure is determined by a combination of time and location of activity, duration
and intensity of activity, and individual susceptibility and differs for short- and long-term exposure. Workshop participants agreed that future guidance related to
air pollution exposure should not discourage physical activity, and that there should be synchronization between the Physical Activity Guidelines and the US Air
Quality Index, particularly in regard to susceptible populations.
CONCLUSIONS: In order to provide science-based recommendations, more cross-disciplinary research on air pollution exposure and physical activity is
needed, including an integrated health impact assessment of risks and benefits. CDC will weigh the recommendations of workshop participants in the
development of future physical activity guidelines.

2192 Board #69 June 2 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM


Effect of Bhastrika Pranayama and Exercise on Lung Function Capacity of Athlete: A Pilot Study
Budhi Bal Rana, FACSM1, Puskar Raj Pant, FACSM2, Kapil Dev Pant, FACSM2, Acharya Balkrishna3, Sandeep Paygan3. 1Yoga
Research Dept., Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, India. 2SPON, Kathmandu, Nepal. 3Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, India.
Email: sponnepal@gmail.com
(No relationships reported)
In previous comparative study on athletes it was found that subjects who practiced pranayama could achieve higher work rates with reduced oxygen
consumption per unit work and without increase in blood lactate levels.
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to observe the effect of Bhastrika pranayama (i.e., inhalation and exhalation of long and deep breathe.) and
exercise on lung function capacity of athlete. METHOD: The study was parallel-groups design. There were 30 healthy individuals, 15 in Yoga Group (YG) and
15 in Physical Exercise Group (PEG), their ages ranged between 18 and 30 (Group Mean ± SD, 22.5 ± 1.9 years). Yoga group practiced Bhastrika pranayama
15 min. while PEG practiced running 15 min. 6 days a week for one month. The participants were assessed Maximum ventilation volume (MVV), Forced vital
capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec. (FEV1), and Peak expiration flow rate (PEFR) of lungs by using RMS MEDSPIROR (Recorder and Medicare
Systems, Chandigarh, India) spirometer. RESULT: There was significant difference in the post mean value of all variables in YG (i.e., MVV (157.7 ± 7.2 vs
114.0 ± 7.9 L/min., p<0.001), FVC (3.5 ± 0.3 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 L, p<0.001), FEV1 (3.0 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.2 L/sec., p<0.001), PEFR(5.8 ± 0.4 vs 5.1 ± 0.4 L/min., p<0.01)
as compared to PEG where there was no significant difference in post mean value except MVV (135 ± 7.2 vs 116.2 ± 7.9 L/min., p<0.01).

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Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that incorporating yoga in sports can enhance the efficiency of athletes by enhancing the lung function capacity.
This suggests that the practice of yoga should be incorporated with sports and explored in enhancing the efficiency of sports personnel. Exercises with yogic
breath or practice of some pranayama before any sports exercises; is best medicine ever founded in world. Such yogic exercises are not only beneficial for
physical health of athlete but also helpful for increasing work efficiency as well as mental toughness of athlete and every individual.
Keywords: Bhastrika pranayama, Lung capacity, Running

2193 Board #70 June 2 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM


Physical Activity, Academic Performance, and Health Status in College Females
Malcolm T. Whitehead1, Chad A. Leath2, Clarence J. Davis2, Shawn M. Drake1. 1Arkansas State University, State University, AR.
2
Northwestern State University, Natchitoches, LA. (Sponsor: Michael J. Webster, FACSM)
Email: twhitehead@astate.edu
(No relationships reported)
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to examine differences in academic performance between college-aged females who participated in the
recommended level of weekly physical activity and those who did not and to detect differences between the groups in health status as defined by the ACSM risk
stratification criteria.
METHODS: Thirty female college students (age 22.7 ± 3.9 years, height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm, and weight 69.1 ± 12.1 kg) volunteered to participate in this
investigation. No extra-credit enticement was used in participant recruitment and volunteers were unaware of the nature of the investigation. Participants were
grouped according to those who were physically active a minimum of 150 minutes per week (ACT) and those who were considered sedentary (SED). Academic
records were obtained from all participants and overall grade point average (GPA) was used as the criterion measure of academic performance. Each
participant completed self-reported physical activity questionnaire for grouping and medical health history questionnaire in order to determine risk stratification.
Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between the groups with a value of p ≤ 0.05 considered to be statistically significant.
RESULTS: Individuals in the ACT group spent more time participating in physical activity per week than those in the SED group (275.3 ± 130.0 vs. 91.7 ± 42.4
min, p = 0.002). Results of analysis of variance indicated that ACT had a significantly higher GPA as compared to SED (3.4 ± 0.5 vs. 3.0 ± 0.6, p = 0.05).
Individuals in the SED group had a higher overall health-risk status as evaluated by total risk factors compared to the ACT group (9.0 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.4 total
risk factors, p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who spent a minimum of 150 minutes per week engaged in physical activity had a higher GPA than those who were considered
sedentary. These data indicate that the individuals in ACT group are considered Low-Risk while those in the SED group are Moderate-Risk, according to ACSM
criteria. Moreover, individuals in the SED group are recommended to obtain medical approval prior to undertaking vigorous exercise and medical supervision for
maximal exercise testing. Specific programming needs to address the higher health-risks of the SED group including smoking cessation, obesity, and an active
lifestyle.

2194 Board #71 June 2 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM


Quantifying Patterns of Change Between Multiple Biomarkers in Athletes Using Factor Analysis
James M. Smoliga1, Sarah J. Wherry1, Michelle Z. Fisk1, Michelle D. Steigerwald1, Kenneth W. Rundell, FACSM2. 1Marywood University,
Scranton, PA. 2Pharmaxis, Inc., Exton, PA.
Email: jsmoliga@marywood.edu
(No relationships reported)
Biomarkers associated with muscle damage, inflammation, and metabolism are commonly measured and evaluated together. Various types of exercise training
are known to change plasma concentrations of specific biomarkers. However, little research has been performed to quantify the patterns in which specific
biomarkers change in relationship to one another.
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the magnitude of various plasma biomarkers change independently or in a distinct pattern in relationship to one another.
METHODS: 30 healthy male athletes performing their normal training underwent fasting venipuncture on two occasions approximately 8 weeks apart. Plasma
biomarkers generally associated with antioxidant status [Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Coenzyme Q10, ORAC, and SuperOxide Dismutase (SOD)], Inflammation [C-
Reactive Protein, Interleukin 1Β (IL-1Β), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα)], Metabolism (Insulin), and Muscle Damage [Creatine Kinase (CK) and Lactate
Dehydrogenase (LDH)] were measured. Data were log10 transformed to achieve a normal distribution and between-test differences were computed. Principal
axis factoring using direct oblimin rotation was then performed in attempt to identify latent variables.
RESULTS: Two factors were identified. The first factor had high loadings for LDH (0.938), CK (0.671), and TNFα (0.554). The second factor had high loadings
for SOD (-0.702), Vitamin E (0.657), and IL-1Β (0.528). The correlation between the two factors was -0.084.
CONCLUSIONS: CK, LDH, and TNFα appear to vary together in the same direction. Likewise, SOD, Vitamin E, and IL-1Β also change in relation to one
another, with SOD varying inversely with the other two markers. As a whole, these two groups, of three biomarkers each, varied independently of one another.
The remaining measured biomarkers exhibited independent activity, though small sample size may have precluded identification of subtle patterns in these
variables. This study indicates factor analysis may be used to identify patterns in biomarker fluctuation, however, these results are currently limited to athletes.
Further research using larger samples sizes is needed to investigate such patterns in different populations.

2195 Board #72 June 2 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM


Associations Of Diet And Cardiorespiratory Fitness With C-Reactive Protein Change
Deborah R. Young, FACSM1, Sarah M. Camhi2, Tongtong Wu1, James Hagberg, FACSM1, Marcia Stefanick, FACSM3. 1University of
Maryland, College Park, MD. 2University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA. 3Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Email: dryoung@umd.edu
(No relationships reported)
Regular physical activity and a low-fat diet provide numerous health benefits. In addition to their well-known effects on traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD)
risk factors, there is emerging evidence that changes in these lifestyles may also be associated with improved inflammatory markers, specifically C-reactive
protein (CRP). Most previous studies have been cross-sectional, however, with fewer investigations evaluating change.
PURPOSE: To examine how change in dietary and physical activity factors over a one-year period is associated with change in CRP among men (n=141, age
48.0±9.0) and postmenopausal women (n=127, age 56.5±5.0) at increased CVD risk due to dyslipidemia at baseline.
METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to control or a one-year diet, physical activity, or diet + physical activity intervention. At baseline and one
year, VO2max was determined during a maximal exercise test and macronutrient intake (% daily kcal from protein, carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat,
monosaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and daily mg of cholesterol intake) were assessed from five unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls. Improved fitness

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Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.