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Thermal and Nuclear Power Plant (R17D2116)

Assignment Questions
Unit – I

1. Name the different types of coal-pulverising mills. Describe Ball-Mill.


2. What are the advantages of using large capacity boilers ? Describe the operation of:
(i) Velox Boiler (ii) Benson Boiler (iii) Loeffler Boiler.
3. Write short notes on the following: (a) Cyclone and collector (b) Industrial steam
turbines (c) Hydraulic test of boiler (d) Draught fans (e) Steam separator (f )
Economiser (g) Cyclone fired boilers (h) Pressure Filter. (i) Air preheater (j) Pipe
fittings (k) Heat flow in steam plant.
4. Explain the methods used to increase thermal efficiency of a steam power plant.
5. a. What is Fluidised Bed Combustion system? Sketch and describe a Fluidised Bed
Combustion (FBC) system. State the advantages of FBC system.
b. Explain the principle of fire tube and water tube boilers.
6. What is the future planning for power generation?
7. Sketch and describe the working of a Locomotive boiler. Show the positions of
fusible plug, blow off cock, feed check valve and super heater. Mention the function
of each. Describe the method of obtaining draught in this boiler.
8. Explain why the super heater tubes are flooded with water at the starting of the
boilers?
9. Give the brief introduction of various types of power plants.
10. Briefly explain about the gravimetric analysis.

Unit – II

1. Given the advantages and limitations of gas turbine power plant


2. What is regeneration? Flow it improves the thermal efficiency of a simple open cycle
gas turbine plant.
3. A simple, constant pressure gas turbine is designed for a pressure ratio of 5 to 1, and a
turbine inlet temperature of 550°C. The adiabatic efficiency of compressing is 80%
and that of expansion 85%, and there is a pressure loss of 0.0343bar through the
combustion chamber. Calculate (a) the power per kg of air per sec. (b) the overall
efficiency. Assuming the air to enter at 15°C and 1.01 bar. Take k = 1.4 and Cn =
1.047 for both air and combustion gases. Neglect the additional mass flow due to the
fuel
4. How “reheating” improves the thermal efficiency of a simple open cycle gas turbine
plant ?
5. a. Define “effectiveness” of regeneration, Air-rate and work-ratio.
b. Given the application of gas turbine power plants
6. Name the major components of a gas turbine plant.
7. Discuss combined steam and gas turbine power plants
8. The gas turbine has an overall pressure ratio of 5:1 and a maximum cycle temperature
of 550°C. The turbine drives the compressor and an electric generator, the mechanical
efficiency of the drive being 97%. The ambient temperature is 20°C and the isentropic
efficiencies of the compressor and turbine are 0.8 and 0.83 respectively. Calculate the
power output in kilowatts for an air flow of 15 kg/s. Calculate also the thermal
efficiency and the work ratio. Neglect changes are kinetic energy, and the loss of
pressure in combustion chamber.
9. At the design speed the following data apply to a gas turbine set employing the heat
exchanger: Isentropic efficiency of compressor = 75%, isentropic efficiency of the
turbine = 85%, mechanical transmission efficiency = 99%, combustion efficiency =
98%, mass flow = 22.7 kg/s, pressure ratio = 6:1, heat exchanger effectiveness = 75%,
maximum cycle temperature = 1000 K. The ambient air temperature and pressure are
15°C and 1.013 bar respectively. Calculate: (i) The net power output (ii) Specific fuel
consumption (iii) Thermal efficiency of the cycle. Take the lower calorific value of
fuel as 43125 kJ/kg and assume no pressure-loss in heat exchanger and combustion
chamber. [Ans. (i) 2019 kW (ii) 0.4999 kg/kWh (iii) 16.7%]
10. A gas turbine has a pressure ratio of 6/1 and a maximum cycle temperature of 600°C.
The isentropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine are 0.82 and 0.85
respectively. Calculate the power output in kilowatts of an electric generator geared to
the turbine when the air enters the compressor at 15°C at the rate of 15 kg/s. Take: cp
= 1.005 kJ/kg K and y = 1.4 for the compression process, and take cp = 1.11 kJ/kg K
and y = 1.333 for the expansion process.
Unit- III
1. Discuss the various factors to be considered while selecting the site for nuclear power
station. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.
2. What is meant by uranium enrichment? Describe some methods of Uranium
enrichment. Compare the economic (cost) of nuclear power plant with steam power
plant. Explain the terms ‘Breeding’ and ‘Burn up’.
3. Explain the properties of moderator used in a nuclear reactor. Explain the principle of
operation of a sodium graphite reactor
4. What are different types of reactors commonly used in nuclear power stations ?
Describe the fast breeder reactor ?
5. What are the different components of a nuclear power plant ? Explain the working of
a nuclear power plant. What are the different fuels used in such a power plant ?
6. What is a Homogeneous Reactor ? Describe a Homogeneous Aqueous Reactor
(H.A.R.).
7. Explain the properties of moderator used in a nuclear reactor. Explain the principle of
operation of a sodium graphite reactor.
8. Discuss the factors which go in favour of nuclear power plant as compared to other
types of power plants.
9. Write short notes on the following: (a) Boiling water reactor (B.W.R.) (b) Pressurised
water reactor (P.W.R.) (c) Multiplication factor. (d) Fertile and fissionable material.
10. What is the byproduct of nuclear power generation? Explain briefly.
Unit – IV

1. What are the performance & operation characteristics of power plant.


2. Explain the coordination between load frequency control and economic dispatch.
3. How ‘load duration curve’ is obtained from ‘load’ curve ?
4. Define: load factor, utility factor, plant operating factor, capacity factor, demand
factor and diversity factor
5. What is the difference between demand factor and diversity factor?
6. Explain the sinking fund method of calculating the depreciation.
7. The following data is available for a steam power station: Maximum demand =
25,000 kW; Load factor = 0.4; Coal consumption = 0.86 kg/kWh; Boiler efficiency =
85%; Turbine efficiency = 90%; Price of coal = Rs. 55 per tonne. Determine the
following: (i) Thermal efficiency of the station. (ii) Coal bill of the plant for one year
8. Estimate the generating cost per unit. supplied from a power plant having data :
Output per year = 4 × 108 kWh Load factor = 50% Annual fixed charges = Rs. 40 per
kW Annual running charges = 4 paise per kWh
9. a. Define ‘depreciation’ and explain its significance
b. Prove that the load factor of a power system is improved by an increase in diversity
of load.
10. What is meant by load curve? Explain its importance in power generation.

Unit – V

1. Explain environment pollution due to industrial emissions.


2. a. Write short notes on stratospheric ozone depletion, Acid Fog.
b. What is acid rain, explain ?
3. What do you understand by thermal pollution, explain the bad effects of thermal
pollution?
4. Explain the pollution due to nuclear power plant.
5. Give the classification of instruments in power plant and explain them.
6. What is the objective of instrumentation control system in the power plant.
7. Explain the importance of protection & control system in the power plant.
8. Briefly explain the flow measurement instruments.
9. What are the methods used for the analysis of combustion gases? Explain
10. a. Explain the method to reduce the pollution.
b. Briefly explain fossil fuel pollution.