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MARINE SURVEY & INSPEKSI

Disusun Oleh :

Nama: Suciyanti Ikhlasul Pratiwi

Nim : 2016310008

Teknik Perkapalan

Fakultas Teknologi Kelautan

Universitas Darma Persada

2018
SUCIYANTI IKHLASUL P (2016310008)

DAFTAR ISI

DAFTAR ISI i
BAB I PEMBAHASAN.....................................................................................................1
1. Hull & Machinery Items At Bottom Survey................................................................1
2. Hull Item At Spesial Survey........................................................................................2
3. Special Survey – Machinery........................................................................................6
4. Document Load Line Survey......................................................................................10
5. Annual Survey Of Safety Construction......................................................................11
DAFTAR LITERATURE.......................................................................................................13

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BAB I
PEMBAHASAN

1. Hull & Machinery Items At Bottom Survey


a. Ketika kapal berada diatas Dry-dock atau Slipway, kapal itu harus ditempatkan di
Block cukup tinggi dan aman dan dengan perlu Staging untuk dapat memeriksa
elemen-elemen seperti Shell Plating, termasuk Bottom dan Bow Plating, Stern
Frame dan Rudder, Sea Chest dan Valve, Propeller, Shaft Bracket dan pelengkapan
buritan lainnya jika dipasang.
b. Shell Plating harus diperiksa terhadap Excessive Corrosion atau kerusakan akibat
gesekan atau kontak dengan tanah dan untuk setiap perubahan bentuk yang tidak
semestinya atau Buckling. Perhatian khusus harus diutamakan terhadap Bilge Keel.
untuk keels lambung kapal. Perubahan bentuk pelat penting atau kerusakan lainnya
yang tidak memerlukan perbaikan segera harus di-Record.

c. Sea Chest dan Grating, Overboard Discharge Valve, Cock dan dan pengikatan
mereka ke Hull atau Sea Chest harus diperiksa. Valve dan Cock perlu dibuka dan
diperiksa selama setiap Special Class Survey. Jika dipandang perlu oleh Surveyor,
Valve dan Cock dapat dibuka dan diperiksa pada interval pendek.
d. Bagian terlihat dari Rudder, Rudder Pintle, Rudder Shaft dan Coupling, dan Stern
Frame harus diperiksa.
e. Ketika dianggap perlu oleh Surveyor, kemudi harus diangkat atau pelat inspeksi
dilepas untuk pemeriksaan pintles. Pembersihan di bantalan kemudi harus
dipastikan dan dicatat.The steering gear is to be subjected to an operational trial.
f. Bagian baling-baling yang terlihat dan buritan yang keras harus diperiksa.
Pembersihan di buritan buritan dan efisiensi kelenjar minyak, jika dipasang, harus
dipastikan dan dicatat.
g. Untuk controllable pitch propeller, Surveyor harus puas dengan pengencangan dan
kekencangan hub dan blade sealing. Pembongkaran tidak perlu dilakukan kecuali
dianggap perlu oleh Surveyor.
h. Bagian yang terlihat dari side thruster harus diperiksa.
i. Pada Docking Survey yang dilakukan sebagai bagian dari Survey Kelas Khusus,
area cross sectional dari kabel rantai jangkar harus ditentukan dengan mengukur
sekitar 3 tautan khas per panjang (27,5 m) di ujung tautan dengan cara maksimum
memakai. Panjang rantai yang usang (lebih dari 12% dari diameter nominalnya)
harus diperbarui.
j. Bower jangkar, jika sangat usang, harus ditimbang. Jika berat badan mereka
ditemukan berkurang 20% atau lebih dari aslinya, mereka harus diganti.

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2. Hull Items At Special Survey


 Special survey - Hull (SSH-I/Age of ship up to 5 years):

a. External examinations
(a). Semua item Annual Survey (1.1), ditambah dengan :
(b) Decks are to be examined and particular attention being given to the areas where
stress concentration or increased corrosion are likely to be developed, such as hatch
corners and other discontinuities of structure.
(c) Deck erections such as hatch coamings, deckhouses and superstructures are to
be examined.
(d) Worn out, worm-eaten or rotten parts of wooden decks are to be renewed to the
Surveyor’s satisfaction. The same applies to wood-sheathed steel decks, the
sheathing of which may be removed in places to ascertain the condition of plating
underneath.
(e) Masts and standing rigging are to be examined.
(f) Anchors chain cables and windlasses are to be examined and checked. Lengths
of chain cables worn out more than 12% from their nominal diameter are to be
renewed.
(g) The engine room structure is to be examined. Particular attention is to be given
to tank tops, brackets connecting side, shell frames, tank tops and engine room
bulkheads in way of tank top and bilge wells. Where wastage is evident or
suspected, thickness measurements are to be carried out.
b. Examination of tanks
(a) The seawater ballast tanks are to be examined at the Surveyor’s discretion.
(b) For seawater ballast spaces other than double bottom tanks, where a protective
coating is found in poor condition and is not renewed, where soft coating has been
applied or where a protective coating was not applied from the time of construction,
maintenance of class is to be subject to the tanks in question being internally
examined and thickness measurement carried out as deemed necessary at annual
intervals.
(c) For seawater ballast double bottom tanks, where breakdown of coating is found,
where a soft coating has been applied or where a coating has not been applied from
the time of construction, maintenance of class may be subject to the tanks in
question being internally examined at annual intervals.
(d) Fuel oil, lubricating oil and feed water tanks need not be emptied if their
tightness can be verified by an external examination while they are completely filled
and there is no reason for doubt as to their proper condition.
c. Tightness tests
(a) Each compartment of the double bottom and all tanks, the boundary bulkheads
of which form part of the main structure of the ship, are to be subjected to a pressure
test. Fuel, lubricating oil and feed water tanks may be tested by filling with the
respective liquid.

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(b) The applied test pressure is to correspond to a head of water up to the top of the
hatch for cargo tanks or up to the top of the overflow/air pipe of the tank, whichever
is higher.
(c) The tightness of pipe tunnels outside the inner bottom and of void spaces can be
tested by air pressure. Testing of other spaces by air pressure is to be agreed with
the Surveyor in each particular case.
d. Holds and other spaces
(a) Holds, tweendecks, void spaces, cofferdams and other spaces which are integral
to the ships structure are to be internally examined.
(b) Plating under bilge wells in holds and engine room is to be examined.
e. Hatch covers and coamings
(a) A thorough inspection of the items listed in Annual Surveys is to be carried out.
(b) Checking of the satisfactory operation of all mechanically operated hatch covers
is to be made, including:
- (i) Stowage and securing in open condition
- (ii) Operational testing of hydraulic and power components, wires, chains, and
link drives
f. (c) The effectiveness of sealing arrangements of all hatch covers by hose testing or
equivalent is to be checked.
g. Thickness measurements
• Main structural parts, plates and stiffeners showing signs of tear and wear.

 Special survey - Hull (SSH-II/Age of ship up to 5-10 years):


a. Examination and testing of tanks
(a) All seawater ballast tanks are to be internally examined.
(b) Ship’s tanks (excluding peak tanks) used exclusively for oil fuel or fresh
water need not all be internally examined provided that, from an external
examination and testing and from an internal examination of the aft end of
one forward double bottom tank and of one selected deep tank, the
Surveyor is satisfied as to the condition observed.
(c) At least one integral fresh water tank is to be examined internally. The
remaining fresh water tanks may be examined externally from all
accessible boundaries.

b. Thickness measurements
(a) Main structural parts, plates and stiffeners showing signs of tear and wear.
(b) Within the cargo length area or 0.5L amidships:
- (i) Selected deck plates

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- (ii) 1 transverse section


- (iii) Selected tank top plates
- (iv) Selected bottom plates
- (v) Selected wind and water strakes
(c) Outside the cargo length area or 0.5L amidships:
- (i) Selected deck plates
- (ii) Selected wind and water strakes
- (iii) Selected bottom plates
(d) The two first cargo hold hatch covers and coamings (plates and stiffeners).
(e) Collision bulkhead, forward machinery space bulkhead, aft peak
bulkhead.

 Special survey - Hull (SSH-III/Age of ship up to 10 - 15 years):


a. Examination and testing of tanks
(a) Integral tanks which are used exclusively for fresh water are to be
examined internally.
(b) Independent tanks in the engine room containing fuel or lubricating oil are
to be filled to the top of the tank for testing.

b. Thickness measurements
(a) Main structural parts, plates and stiffeners showing signs of tear and wear.
(b) Within the cargo length area or 0.5L amidships:
- (i) Each deck plate
- (ii) 2 transverse sections
- (iii) Selected tank top plates
- (iv) Selected bottom plates
- (v) All wind and water strakes
(c) Outside the cargo length area or 0.5L amidships:
- (i) Selected deck plates
- (ii) Selected wind and water strakes
- (iii) Selected bottom plates
(d) All cargo hold hatch covers and coamings (plates and stiffeners).

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(e) Collision bulkhead, forward machinery space bulkhead, aft peak


bulkhead, selected cargo hold transverse and longitudinal bulkheads
(plates and stiffeners).
(f) Selected internal structural members such as floors and longitudinals,
transverse frames, web frames, deck beams, tweendecks, girders, etc.

 Special survey - Hull (SSH-IV/Age of ship up to over 15 years):


a. Examination and testing of tanks
(a) A minimum of two selected integral oil fuel tanks are to be examined
internally. The remaining tanks may be examined externally from all
accessible boundaries.
(b) Integral tanks which are used for lubricating oil need not be examined
internally subject to external examination of all accessible boundaries.
(c) Independent tanks which are used for fresh water, oil fuel or
lubricating oil need not be examined internally subject to external
examination of all accessible boundaries.

b. Thickness measurements
(a) Main structural parts, plates and stiffeners showing signs of tear and wear.
(b) Within the cargo length area or 0.5L amidships:
- (i) Each deck plate
- (ii) 3 transverse sections
- (iii) Each tank top plate
- (iv) Each bottom plate
- (v) All wind and water strakes
(c) Outside the cargo length area or 0.5L amidships:
- (i) Each deck plate
- (ii) All wind and water strakes
- (iii) Each bottom plate
(d) All cargo hold hatch covers and coamings (plates and stiffeners).
(e) All transverse and longitudinal bulkheads (plates and stiffeners).
(f) As for Special Survey III. Number of measurements may be increased as
deemed necessary by the Surveyor.

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3. Spesial Survey - Machinery


Special Survey of machinery is to be carried out at the same time and intervals
as required for hull and equipment with respect to the type of machinery.
1) Survey of main and auxiliary engines
(a) Where deemed necessary by the Surveyor, control, governing and safety
devices are to be tested.
(b) For oil engines the following is to be performed:
- (i) Cylinders, cylinder covers, pistons, piston rods and connecting
rods, cross-heads (including pins, bearings and guides) are to be
opened out and examined.
- (ii) Crank shafts and all bearings, cam shafts and their driving gears
are to be opened out and examined.
- (iii) Essential valves and valve arrangements, fuel oil pumps and
fittings, scavenging pumps, scavenging blowers, superchargers,
intercoolers, filters or oil separators and safety devices are to be
opened out and examined.
- (iv) Clutches and reverse gear are to be opened out and examined.
- (v) Crank cases and explosion relief devices are to be opened out
and examined.
- (vi) Deflections of crank arms are to be measured.
- (vii) Vibration dampers or balancers are to be examined.

(c) For steam turbines the following is to be accomplished:


- (i) Turbine blades, rotors, stop valves, shafts, glands, thrust
adjusting bearings, oil drains, and sealing pipes are to be opened out
and examined.
- (ii) At Special Survey No. 1 only, for vessels having more than 1
main propulsion ahead turbine with emergency steam crossover
arrangement, the turbine casings need not be opened provided that
approved vibration indicators and rotor position indicators are fitted
and that the operating records are considered satisfactory by the
Surveyor.
- (iii) An operational test of the turbines may be required when
deemed necessary by the Surveyor.

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(d) For the main electric propelling machinery, windings, commutators and
slip-rings, all air ducts in stator coils and ventilating holes in rotors are to
be examined.
(e) For auxiliary engines, the requirements corresponding to those of the
main engine are to be complied with.

2) Survey of machinery other than main and auxiliary engines


(a) All shafts (except the propeller and stern tube shafts), thrust blocks and
line shaft bearings are to be examined. The lower halves of bearings need
not be exposed, if alignment and wear are found satisfactory.
(b) Reduction gear is to be examined. Where deemed necessary by the
Surveyor, reduction gear is to be opened out and the gear wheels, pinions,
gear shafts and bearings are to be examined.
(c) The foundation bolts and chocks of main and auxiliary engines, gear
casings, thrust blocks and line shaft bearings are to be examined.
(d) An examination of machinery driven by the main engine and the engine
fittings is to be carried out.
(e) All air receivers and other pressure vessels for essential services together
with their mountings and safety devices are to be opened out and
examined internally and externally. Where internal examination is not
practicable, they are to be tested hydraulically to 1.5 times the working
pressure and, if deemed necessary by the Surveyor, a performance test of
safety valves for the above mentioned devices is to be carried out.
(f) Air compressors with their inter-coolers, filters and/or oil separators and
safety devices, and all pumps and components used for essential services
are to be opened out as deemed necessary by the Surveyor and examined.
(g) Operational conditions of steering gear are to be examined. Where deemed
necessary by the Surveyor, main parts are to be opened out and examined.
(h) Remote control systems of main engines and controllable pitch propellers
are also to be tested in operation (special attention is to be given to the
reverse mechanism).
(i) Operating conditions of windlass, mooring winches and cargo winches are
to be examined. Where deemed necessary by the Surveyor, main parts of
them are to be opened out and examined.

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(j) Evaporators are to be opened out and examined. Their safety valves are to
be checked under working conditions.
(k) During the Special Survey of heat exchangers the following is to be
performed:
- (i) An internal examination is to be carried out,
- (ii) A hydraulic test will be required depending on the result of the
examination and after repairs of the heat exchanger.
(l) For pumping and piping arrangements the following is to be carried
out:
- (i) Valves, cocks and strainers of the bilge system including the
emergency bilge suction valve are to be examined and, where
deemed necessary by the Surveyor, they are to be opened out.
- (ii) Fuel oil, feed and lubricating oil systems, ballast connections
and blanking arrangement to deep tanks which may carry liquid or
dry cargoes, together with all filters, heaters, coolers and condensers
for essential services are to be opened out and examined. Pressure
tests may be carried out, including safety devices, where deemed
necessary by the Surveyor.

(m) Where essential machinery is fitted with automatic and remote controls
these are to be tested to demonstrate that they are in good working order.
Special attention must be given to the proper operation of remote stopping
systems of transfer pumps, fuel oil heating pumps, forced draught fans and
engine room ventilation fans.
(n) Operation tests of engine room alarm system, including alarm system in
the engineer’s accommodation, are to be carried out.
(o) An examination of ventilation ducts passing through watertight bulkheads
and firere-sisting bulkheads is to be carried out.
(p) An examination of cables and cable penetrations in watertight and fire-
resistant bulkheads is to be carried out.

3) Survey of electrical equipment


(a) Main and emergency switchboards, section panels, and distribution fuse
panels are to be examined and overcurrent protective devices and fuses

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(b) inspected to verify that they provide suitable protection for their respective
circuits.
(c) Generators are to be tested under load conditions, either separately or in
parallel and the performance of speed governors, switches and circuit
breakers is to be checked.
(d) Emergency sources of electrical power are to be tested, including:
- (i) Operation test of emergency generating set.
- (ii) Test of emergency accumulators.
(d) Battery chargers are to be tested.
(e) Mechanical ventilation of battery rooms / lockers is to be examined.
(f) The insulation resistance of generators, switchboards, motors, cables and
other electrical equipment is to be tested and adjusted if it is found not to
comply with the requirements given below:
- (i) For main and emergency switchboard, feeder circuit breakers
being open, busbar circuit closed, measuring and monitoring
instruments disconnected, the insulation resistance measured across
each insulated busbar and hull, and across insulated busbars is not
to be less than 1 MO.
- (ii) For generators, the equipment and circuits normally connected
between the generator and the first circuit breaker being connected,
the resistance of insulation (preferably at working temperature
whenever possible), in ohms, is to be greater than 1000 times the
rated voltage, in volts. When appropriate, the Surveyor will check
also that the insulation resistance of generator independent exciters
is not less than 0.25 MO.
- (iii) The insulation resistance of the entire electrical system is to be
checked with all circuit breakers and protective devices closed,
except for generators. In general, the resistance is not to be less than
0.1 MO.
(g) The lighting arrangements, internal communication and signalling
systems, mechanical ventilation systems, and other electrical equipment
are to be tested for effectiveness.
(h) The electrical supply of navigation lights and associated alarm and signal
devices is to be tested.

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4. Document Load Line Survey


Surveyor dalam melaksanakan Load Line Survey akan mengeluarkan atau
menerbitkan beberapa dokumen, a.l. :
a. Load Line Record
b. Load Line Report
c. Load Line Certificate

a. Load Line Record


Load Line Record ini dibuat atau dilengkapi datanya sewaktu Initial Survey
dilakukan. Kemudian setelah survey selesai dan sebelum certificate diterbitkan,
record tersebut sudah harus ada, dimana merupakan record minimal dalam bentuk
draft sudah bisa diserahkan bersamaan dengan penyerahan certificate.
b. Load Line Report
Load Line Report ini di-draft sewaktu survey dilakukan. Kemudian setelah
survey selesai report tersebut sudah harus dikeluarkan dan dikirim ke Kantor Pusat
atau Negara Bendera dari kapal tersebut paling lambat 2 (dua) minggu dihitung
dari tanggal terakhir survey selesai.
c. Load Line Certificate
Load Line Certificate ini di-draft sewaktu Initial Survey atau Renewal Survey
dilakukan. Kemudian setelah survey selesai certificate tersebut sudah harus
diterbitkan sebagai bentuk pengesahan bahwa Load Line di kapal sudah sesuai
dengan Regulations yang berlaku.
Ada dua macam Load Line Certificate, yaitu :
a. Interim Load Line Certificate
b. Fullterm Load Line Certificate
a. Interim Load Line Certificate atau Sertifikat Sementara yang dikeluarkan oleh
surveyor yang melakukan survey atas nama Negara Bendera dari kapal tersebut.
Berlaku maksimum 5 bulan, dimana setelah survey report diterima dan disetujui
oleh Kantor Pusat atau Negara Bendera kapal tersebut, maka Fullterm Certificate
akan diterbitkan oleh mereka.

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b. Fullterm Load Line Certificate atau Sertifikat Permanen yang dikeluarkan oleh
Kantor Pusat atau Negara Bendera kapal tersebut, setelah survey report diterima
dan disetujui. Setifikat berlaku maksimum 5 tahun.
5. Annual survey of Safety Construction
1. Survey consists of:
 Examining, in general and as far as can be seen, the hull and its closing
appliances;
 Examining the anchoring and mooring equipment as far as can be seen;
 Examining the collision and the other watertight bulkheads as far as can be seen;
 Examining and testing (locally and remotely) all the watertight doors in
watertight bulkheads;
 Examining each bilge pump and confirming that the bilge pumping system for
each watertight compartment is satisfactory;
 Confirming that the drainage from enclosed cargo spaces situated on the
freeboard deck is satisfactory;
 Confirming that the machinery, boilers and other pressure vessels, associated
piping systems and fittings are installed and protected as to reduce to a minimum
any danger to persons on board, due regard being given to moving parts, hot
surfaces and other hazards;
 Confirming that the normal operation of the propulsion machinery can be
sustained or restored even though one of the essential auxiliaries becomes
inoperative;
 Confirming that means are provided so that the machinery can be brought into
operation from the dead ship condition without external aid;
 Carrying out a general examination of the machinery, the boilers, all steam,
hydraulic, pneumatic and other systems and their associated fittings to see
whether they are being properly maintained and with particular attention to the
fire and explosion hazards;
 Examining and testing the operation of main an auxiliary steering arrangements,
including their associated equipment and control systems;
 Confirming that the means of communication between the navigation bridge
and steering gear compartment and the means of indicating the angular position
of the rudder are operating satisfactorily;
 Confirming that with ships having emergency steering positions there are means
of relaying heading information and, when appropriate, supply visual compass
readings to the emergency steering position;
 Confirming that the various alarms required for hydraulic poweroperated,
electric and electro-hydraulic steering gears are operating satisfactorily and that
the recharging arrangements for hydraulic poweroperated steering gears are
being maintained;
 Examining the means for the operation fo the main an auxiliary machinery
essential for propulsion and the safety of the ship, including, when applicable,
the means of remotely controlling the propulsion machinery from the navigating

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bridge and the arrangements to operate the main and other machinery from a
machinery control room;
 Confirming the operation of the ventilation for the machinery spaces;
 Confirming that the measures to prevent noise in machinery spaces are
effective;
 Confirming that the engine room telegraph, the second means of
communication between the navigation bridge and the machinery space and the
means of communication with any other positions from which the engines are
controlled are operating satisfactorily;
 Confirming that the engineer’s alarm is clearly audible in the engineer’s
accommodation;
 Examining, as far as practicable, visually and in operation, the electrical
installations, including the main source of power and the lighting systems;
 Confirming, as far as practicable, the operation of the emergency source(s) of
electrical power including their starting arrangements, the systems supplied and,
when appropriate, their automatic operation;
 Examining, in general, that the precautions provided against shock, fire and
other hazards of electrical origin are being maintained;
 Examining the arrangements for periodically unattended machinery spaces and,
in particular, the random testing of alarm, automatic and shutdown functions;
 Confirming, as far as practicable, that no changes have been made in the
structural fire protection, examining any manual and automatic fire doors and
proving their operation, testing the means of closing the main inlets and outlets
of all ventilation systems and testing the means of stopping power ventilation
systems from outside the space served;
 Confirming that the means of escape from accommodation, machinery and
other spaces are satisfactory;
 Examining the arrangements for gaseous fuel for domestic purposes;
 Examining visually the condition of any expansion joints in sea water systems.

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DAFTAR LITERATURE

Buku diktat perkuliahan Surver, Inspeksi kapal, dan bangunan lepas pantai, Ir. Doniarsal
Nurdin

1.2 SIK-ISI-A-ClassSvy
1.2 SIK-ISI-P1-P119

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