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Ch.

15 Kinematics of Rigid Bodies


• Kinematics of rigid bodies: relations between
time and the positions, velocities, and
accelerations of the particles forming a rigid
body.
• Classification of rigid body motions:
- translation:
• rectilinear translation
• curvilinear translation
- rotation about a fixed axis
- general plane motion
- motion about a fixed point
- general motion

Translation
• Consider rigid body in translation:
- direction of any straight line inside the
body is constant,
- all particles forming the body move in
parallel lines.
• For any two particles in the body,
  
rB  rA  rB A

• Differentiating with respect to time,


   
rB  rA  rB A  rA
 
vB  v A
All particles have the same velocity.
• Differentiating with respect to time again,
rB  rA  rB A  rA
 
aB  a A
All particles have the same acceleration.

1
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Velocity
• Consider rotation of rigid body about a
fixed axis AA’

 
• Velocity vector v  dr dt of the particle P is
tangent to the path with magnitude v  ds dt
s   BP   r sin  
ds 
v  lim r sin    r sin 
dt t 0 t

• The same result is obtained from



 dr  
v  r
dt
  
   k  k  angular velocity

Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Acceleration


• Differentiating to determine the acceleration,

 dv d  
a    r 
dt dt
 
d   dr
 r  
dt dt

d   
 r  v
dt

d 
•    angular acceleration
dt
  
  k   k  k

• Acceleration of P is combination of two


vectors,
     
a    r     r
 
  r  tangential acceleration component
  
    r  radial acceleration component

2
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Representative Slab
• Consider the motion of a representative slab in
a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

• Velocity of any point P of the slab,


    
v    r  k  r
v  r

• Acceleration of any point P of the slab,


     
a    r     r
  
  k  r   2r

• Resolving the acceleration into tangential and


normal components,
  
at  k  r a t  r
 2
an   r a n  r 2

Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis

• Motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis is


often specified by the type of angular acceleration.

d d
• Recall   or dt 
dt 
d d  d
2
  2 
dt dt d

• Uniform Rotation,  = 0:
   0  t

• Uniformly Accelerated Rotation,  = constant:


  0  t
   0   0t  12  t 2
 2   02  2    0 

3
Sample Problem 5.1
SOLUTION:
• Due to the action of the cable, the
tangential velocity and acceleration of
D are equal to the velocity and
acceleration of C. Calculate the initial
angular velocity and acceleration.
• Apply the relations for uniformly
accelerated rotation to determine the
velocity and angular position of the
Cable C has a constant acceleration of 9
pulley after 2 s.
in/s2 and an initial velocity of 12 in/s,
both directed to the right. • Evaluate the initial tangential and
normal acceleration components of D.
Determine (a) the number of revolutions
of the pulley in 2 s, (b) the velocity and
change in position of the load B after 2 s,
and (c) the acceleration of the point D on
the rim of the inner pulley at t = 0.

Sample Problem 5.1


SOLUTION:
• The tangential velocity and acceleration of D are equal to the
velocity and acceleration of C.
v   v   12 in. s 
D 0 C 0
aD t  aC  9 in. s 
vD 0  r0 aD t  r
vD 0 aD t 9
0  
12
 4 rad s    3 rad s 2
r 3 r 3
• Apply the relations for uniformly accelerated rotation to
determine velocity and angular position of pulley after 2 s.
 
   0  t  4 rad s  3 rad s 2 2 s   10 rad s
   0 t  12 t 2  
 4 rad s 2 s   12 3 rad s 2 2 s 2
 14 rad
 1 rev 
N  14 rad    number of revs N  2.23 rev
 2 rad 

vB  r  5 in.10 rad s  vB  50 in. s 
yB  r  5 in.14 rad  yB  70 in.

4
Sample Problem 5.1
• Evaluate the initial tangential and normal acceleration
components of D.
aD t  aC  9 in. s 
aD n  rD02  3 in.4 rad s 2  48 in s2

aD t  9 in. s2  aD n  48 in. s2 

Magnitude and direction of the total acceleration,

aD  aD t2  aD 2n


 92  482 aD  48.8 in. s 2

aD n
tan  
aD t
48

9   79.4

Example Problem
• Evaluate the initial tangential and normal
acceleration components of D.
aD t  aC  9 in. s 
aD n  rD02  3 in.4 rad s 2  48 in s2

aD t  9 in. s2  aD n  48 in. s2 

Magnitude and direction of the total acceleration,


aD  aD t2  aD 2n
 92  482 aD  48.8 in. s 2

aD n
tan  
aD t
48

9   79.4

5
Example Problem

SOLUTION:
• Using the linear velocity and
accelerations, calculate the angular
velocity and acceleration.

• Using the angular velocity,


determine the normal acceleration.
A series of small machine components
being moved by a conveyor belt pass over • Determine the total acceleration
a 6-in.-radius idler pulley. At the instant using the tangential and normal
shown, the velocity of point A is 15 in./s to acceleration components of B.
the left and its acceleration is 9 in./s2 to the
right. Determine (a) the angular velocity
and angular acceleration of the idler pulley,
(b) the total acceleration of the machine
component at B.

Example Problem
Find the angular velocity of the idler v= 15 in/s B at= 9 in/s2
pulley using the linear velocity at B.
v  r
15 in./s  (6 in.)   2.50 rad/s

Find the angular velocity of the idler


pulley using the linear velocity at B.
a  r
  1.500 rad/s 2
9 in./s 2  (6 in.)

Find the normal acceleration of point B. What is the direction of


the normal acceleration
an  r 2 of point B?
a n  37.5 in./s 2
 (6 in.)(2.5 rad/s) 2 Downwards, towards
the center

6
Example Problem
B at= 9 in/s2 Find the total acceleration of the
machine component at point B.

an= 37.5 in./s2 at  9.0 in./s2 a n  37.5 in./s 2

Calculate the magnitude

a  9.02  37.52  38.6 in./s 2

at= 9 in/s2 Calculate the angle from


the horizontal
 37.5 
  arctan    76.5o
 9.0 
Combine for a final answer
aB
a B  38.6 in./s 2 76.5
an= 37.5 in/s2

General Plane Motion

• General plane motion is neither a translation nor


a rotation.
• General plane motion can be considered as the
sum of a translation and rotation.
• Displacement of particles A and B to A2 and B2
can be divided into two parts:
- translation to A2 and B1
- rotation of B1 about A2 to B2

7
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

• Any plane motion can be replaced by a translation of an


arbitrary reference point A and a simultaneous rotation
about A.   
vB  v A  vB A
  
vB A   k  rB A vB A  r
   
v B  v A   k  rB A

Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

• Assuming that the velocity vA of end A is known, wish to determine the


velocity vB of end B and the angular velocity  in terms of vA, l, and .
• The direction of vB and vB/A are known. Complete the velocity diagram.

vB vA v
 tan   A  cos
vA v B A l
v B  v A tan  vA

l cos

8
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

• Selecting point B as the reference point and solving for the velocity vA of end A
and the angular velocity  leads to an equivalent velocity triangle.
• vA/B has the same magnitude but opposite sense of vB/A. The sense of the
relative velocity is dependent on the choice of reference point.
• Angular velocity  of the rod in its rotation about B is the same as its rotation
about A. Angular velocity is not dependent on the choice of reference point.

Sample Problem 15.2

SOLUTION:
• The displacement of the gear center in one
revolution is equal to the outer circumference.
For xA > 0 (moves to right),  < 0 (rotates
clockwise).

xA 
 xA  r1
2 r 2
The double gear rolls on the
stationary lower rack: the velocity of Differentiate to relate the translational and
its center is 1.2 m/s. angular velocities.
  
Determine (a) the angular velocity of   k  8 rad s k
the gear, and (b) the velocities of the v A   r1
upper rack R and point D of the gear.
vA 1 .2 m s
y   
r1 0.150 m
x

9
Sample Problem 15.2
     
• For any point P on the gear, vP  v A  vP A  v A  k  rP A

Velocity of the upper rack is equal to Velocity of the point D:


velocity of point B:
        
vR  vB  v A  k  rB A vD  v A  k  rD A
     
 1.2 m s i  8 rad s k  0.10 m  j  1.2 m s i  8 rad s k   0.150 m i
 
 1.2 m s i  0.8 m s i
    
vR  2 m s i vD  1.2 m s i  1.2 m s  j
vD  1.697 m s

Sample Problem 15.3


SOLUTION:
• Will determine the absolute velocity of
point D with
  
vD  vB  vD B

• The velocity v B is obtained from the
given crank rotation data.

The crank AB has a constant clockwise • The directions of the absolute

velocity v D
angular velocity of 2000 rpm. and the relative velocity v D B are
determined from the problem geometry.
For the crank position indicated,
determine (a) the angular velocity of • The unknowns in the vector expression
the connecting rod BD, and (b) the are the velocity magnitudes v D and v D B
velocity of the piston P. which may be determined from the
corresponding vector triangle.
• The angular velocity of the connecting
rod is calculated from v D B .

10
Sample Problem 15.3
SOLUTION:
• Will determine the absolute velocity of point D with
  
vD  vB  vD B

• The velocity vB is obtained from the crank rotation data.
rev  min  2 rad 
 AB   2000     209.4 rad s
 min  60 s  rev 
vB   AB  AB  3 in.209.4 rad s 
The velocity direction is as shown.

• The direction of the absolute velocity vD is horizontal.

The direction of the relative velocity vD B is
perpendicular to BD. Compute the angle between the
horizontal and the connecting rod from the law of sines.
sin 40 sin 
   13.95
8 in. 3 in.

Sample Problem 15.3

• Determine the velocity magnitudes vD and vD B


from the vector triangle.
vD vD B 628.3 in. s
 
sin 53.95 sin 50 sin76.05

vD  523.4 in. s  43.6 ft s vP  vD  43.6 ft s


vD B  495.9 in. s

   vD B  l BD
vD  vB  vD B vD 495.9 in. s
 BD 
B

l 8 in. 

 62.0 rad s  BD  62.0 rad s k

11
Example Problem
Determine vB with respect to A, then work
your way along the linkage to point E.

Write vB in terms of point A, calculate vB.


vB  v A   AB  rB /A

 AB  (4 rad/s)k

rB/A  (7 in.)i vB   AB  rB/A  (4k )  (7i )


vB  (28 in./s)j

In the position shown, bar AB


has an angular velocity of 4 rad/s
clockwise. Determine the angular
velocity of bars BD and DE.

vD ,

Example Problem
y Determine vD with respect to B.
x
 BD  BD k rD/B  (8 in.)j
vD  vB   BD  rD/B  28 j  (BD k )  (8 j)
AB= 4 rad/s vD  28 j  8BD i
Determine vD with respect to E, then
equate it to equation above.

 DE  DE k rD /E  (11 in.)i  (3 in.)j


vD   DE  rD /E  (DE k )  (11i  3j)
vD  11DE j  3DE i

Equating components of the two expressions for vD

j: 28  11 DE  DE  2.5455 rad/s  DE  2.55 rad/s


3
i : 8 BD  3 DE BD   BD  BD  0.955 rad/s
8

12
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
• Plane motion of all particles in a slab can always be
replaced by the translation of an arbitrary point A and a
rotation about A with an angular velocity that is
independent of the choice of A.

• The same translational and rotational velocities at A are


obtained by allowing the slab to rotate with the same
angular velocity about the point C on a perpendicular to
the velocity at A.

• The velocity of all other particles in the slab are the same
as originally defined since the angular velocity and
translational velocity at A are equivalent.

• As far as the velocities are concerned, the slab seems to


rotate about the instantaneous center of rotation C.

Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion


• If the velocity at two points A and B are known, the
instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection
of the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A
and B .

• If the velocity vectors are parallel, the instantaneous


center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity
is zero.

• If the velocity vectors at A and B are perpendicular to


the line AB, the instantaneous center of rotation lies at
the intersection of the line AB with the line joining the
extremities of the velocity vectors at A and B.

• If the velocity magnitudes are equal, the instantaneous


center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity
is zero.

13
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
• The instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection of
the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A and B .
v v v
 A  A v B   BC   l sin   A
AC l cos l cos 
 v A tan 

• The velocities of all particles on the rod are as if they were


rotated about C.
• The particle at the center of rotation has zero velocity.
• The particle coinciding with the center of rotation changes
with time and the acceleration of the particle at the
instantaneous center of rotation is not zero.
• The trace of the locus of the center of rotation on the body
is the body centrode and in space is the space centrode.

Sample Problem 15.4


SOLUTION:
• The point C is in contact with the stationary
lower rack and, instantaneously, has zero
velocity. It must be the location of the
instantaneous center of rotation.
The double gear rolls on the v A 1.2 m s
v A  rA    8 rad s
stationary lower rack: the velocity rA 0.15 m
of its center is 1.2 m/s.
vR  vB  rB  0.25 m 8 rad s 
Determine (a) the angular velocity
 
of the gear, and (b) the velocities of vR  2 m s i
the upper rack R and point D of the
gear.
rD  0.15 m  2  0.2121 m
vD  rD  0.2121 m 8 rad s 

vD  1.697 m s
  
vD  1.2i  1.2 j m s 

14
Sample Problem 15.5
SOLUTION:
• Determine the velocity at B from the
given crank rotation data.
• The direction of the velocity vectors at B
and D are known. The instantaneous
center of rotation is at the intersection of
the perpendiculars to the velocities
The crank AB has a constant clockwise through B and D.
angular velocity of 2000 rpm. • Determine the angular velocity about the
For the crank position indicated, center of rotation based on the velocity
determine (a) the angular velocity of at B.
the connecting rod BD, and (b) the • Calculate the velocity at D based on its
velocity of the piston P. rotation about the instantaneous center
of rotation.

Sample Problem 15.5


SOLUTION:
• From Sample Problem 15.3,
  
vB  403.9i  481.3 j in. s  vB  628.3 in. s
  13.95
• The instantaneous center of rotation is at the intersection
of the perpendiculars to the velocities through B and D.

• Determine the angular velocity about the center of


rotation based on the velocity at B.
 B  40    53.95
 D  90    76.05 vB  BC  BD
vB 628.3 in. s
 BD    BD  62.0 rad s
BC CD 8 in. BC 10.14 in.
 
sin 76.05 sin 53.95 sin50
• Calculate the velocity at D based on its rotation about
the instantaneous center of rotation.
BC  10.14 in. CD  8.44 in.
vD  CD  BD  8.44 in.62.0 rad s 

vP  vD  523 in. s  43.6 ft s

15
Instantaneous Center of Zero Velocity

What happens to the location of the instantaneous center of


velocity if the crankshaft angular velocity increases from
2000 rpm in the previous problem to 3000 rpm?

What happens to the location of the instantaneous center of


velocity if the angle  is 0?

Example Problem

In the position shown, bar AB has an angular velocity of 4


rad/s clockwise. Determine the angular velocity of bars BD
and DE.

16
Example Problem
What is the velocity of B? vB  ( AB ) AB  (0.25 m)(4 rad/s)  1 m/s

What direction is the velocity of B?


What direction is the velocity of D?

AB= 4 rad/s
vB

Find  

  tan 1
0.06 m
 21.8
vD
0.15 m

Example Problem
Locate instantaneous center C at intersection of lines drawn
perpendicular to vB and vD.
Find distances BC and DC
B 0.1 m 0.1 m
C BC    0.25 m
 tan tan 21.8?
0.25 m 0.25 m
vB DC    0.2693 m
100 mm cos cos21.8?

Calculate BD
D vB  ( BC )BD
1 m/s  (0.25 m) BD
vD  BD  4 rad/s
Find DE
0.25 m 1 m/s 0.15 m
vD  ( DC )BD  (4 rad/s) vD  ( DE )DE ;  DE ;  DE  6.67 rad/s
cos cos cos

17
Problem 15.40

Collar B moves upward with a constant


velocity of 1.5 m/s. At the instant when
=50o, determine (a) the angular velocity of
rod AB, (b) the velocity of end A of the rod.

Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

• Absolute acceleration of a particle of the slab,


  
aB  a A  aB A

• Relative acceleration a B A associated with rotation about A includes
tangential and normal components,

aB A    k  rB A a B A   r

t t



aB 
A n 

 2 rB A a B A n  r 2

18
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

 
• Given a A and v A ,
 
determine a B and  .
  
aB  a A  aB A
 a A  a B A   a B 
  
n A t


• Vector result depends on sense of a A and the
relative magnitudes of a A and a B A 
n

• Must also know angular velocity .

Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

  
• Write a B  a A  a B A in terms of the two component equations,

 x components: 0  a A  l 2 sin   l cos 

  y components:  a B  l 2 cos   l sin 

• Solve for aB and .

19
Analysis of Plane Motion in Terms of a Parameter
• In some cases, it is advantageous to determine the
absolute velocity and acceleration of a mechanism
directly.
x A  l sin  y B  l cos

v A  x A v B  y B
 l cos   l sin 
 l cos   l sin 

a A  xA a B  yB
 l sin   l cos
2  l 2 cos  lsin 
 l 2 sin   l cos  l 2 cos  l sin 

Sample Problem 15.6


SOLUTION:
• The expression of the gear position as a
function of  is differentiated twice to define
the relationship between the translational and
angular accelerations.

x A   r1
v A   r1   r1

vA 1.2 m s
The center of the double gear has a     8 rad s
velocity and acceleration to the right of r1 0.150 m
1.2 m/s and 3 m/s2, respectively. The
lower rack is stationary. a A   r1   r1
Determine (a) the angular acceleration
aA 3 m s2
of the gear, and (b) the acceleration of   
r1 0.150 m
points B, C, and D.
 
 

   k   20 rad s 2 k

20
Sample Problem 15.6
• The acceleration of each point
is obtained by adding the
acceleration of the gear center
and the relative accelerations
with respect to the center.
The latter includes normal and
tangential acceleration
components.

   

 

a B  a A  aB A  a A  a B A  aB A
t n

   2
 a A   k  rB A   rB A
  


  
 3 m s 2 i  20 rad s 2 k  0.100 m  j  8 rad s 2  0.100 m  j
  
 
 
 3 m s 2 i  2 m s 2 i  6.40 m s 2 j



 
  
aB  5 m s 2 i  6.40 m s 2 j  aB  8.12 m s 2

Sample Problem 15.6

      
aC  a A  aC  a A   k  rC A   2 rC A
A

 
  
  
 3 m s 2 i  20 rad s 2 k   0.150 m  j  8 rad s 2  0.150 m  j
 
  
 
 3 m s 2 i  3 m s 2 i  9.60 m s 2 j




ac  9.60 m s 2 j


      
aD  a A  aD A  a A   k  rD A   2 rD A
 
  
  
 3 m s 2 i  20 rad s 2 k   0.150 m  i  8 rad s 2  0.150m  i
 
  
 
 3 m s 2 i  3 m s 2 j  9.60 m s 2 i



 
 
aD  12.6 m s 2 i  3 m s 2 j

 aD  12.95 m s 2

21
Sample Problem 15.7
SOLUTION:
• The angular acceleration of the
connecting rod BD and the acceleration
of point D will be determined from
    

aD  aB  aD B  aB  aD B  aD B

t  n
• The acceleration of B is determined from
the given rotation speed of AB.

Crank AG of the engine system has a • The directions of the accelerations


constant clockwise angular velocity of 

 

a D , a D B , and a D B are
t n

2000 rpm. determined from the geometry.
For the crank position shown,
• Component equations for acceleration
determine the angular acceleration of
of point D are solved simultaneously for
the connecting rod BD and the
acceleration of D and angular
acceleration of point D.
acceleration of the connecting rod.

Sample Problem 15.7


SOLUTION:
• The angular acceleration of the connecting rod BD and
the acceleration of point D will be determined from
    
 t 
a D  a B  aD B  aB  aD B  aD B

n
• The acceleration of B is determined from the given rotation
speed of AB.

 AB  2000 rpm  209.4 rad s  constant


 AB  0
aB  r AB
2
 123 ft 209.4 rad s2  10,962 ft s2

   
aB  10,962 ft s 2  cos 40i  sin 40 j 

22
Sample Problem 15.7

• The directions of the accelerations aD , aD  


B t , and aD B n are
determined from the geometry.
 
aD   aDi
From Sample Problem 15.3, BD = 62.0 rad/s,  = 13.95o.
aD B n  BD  BD
2
 12
8 ft 62.0 rad s 2  2563 ft s 2

aD B n  2563 ft s2  cos13.95i  sin13.95 j 


aD B t  BD  BD  128 ft  BD  0.667 BD
The direction of (aD/B)t is known but the sense is not known,
 


t
aD B  0.667 BD  sin 76.05i  cos 76.05 j 

Sample Problem 15.7

• Component equations for acceleration of point D are solved


simultaneously.
    
 
t 
a D  a B  aD B  aB  aD B  aD B n
x components:
 aD  10,962 cos 40  2563 cos13.95  0.667 BD sin 13.95

y components:
0  10,962 sin 40  2563 sin 13.95  0.667 BD cos13.95



 BD  9940 rad s 2 k 
aD  9290 ft s 2  i
 

23
Example
SOLUTION:
• The angular velocities were determined
in a previous problem by simultaneously
solving the component equations for
  
vD  vB  vD B

• The angular accelerations are now


determined by simultaneously solving
the component equations for the relative
Knowing that at the instant acceleration equation.
shown bar AB has a constant
angular velocity of 4 rad/s
clockwise, determine the
angular acceleration of bars
BD and DE.

Example
From our previous problem, we used the relative
velocity equations to find that:

AB= 4 rad/s  DE  2.55 rad/s  BD  0.955 rad/s

We can now apply the relative acceleration


equation with  AB  0

Analyze a B  a A   AB  rB /A   AB
2
rB /A
Bar AB
a B   AB
2
rB/A  (4)2 (7i )  112 in./s 2 i

Analyze Bar BD
a D  a B   BD  rD /B  BD
2
rD /B  112i   BD k  (8 j)  (0.95455) 2 (8 j)
a D  (112  8  BD )i  7.289 j

24
Example
Analyze Bar DE
a D   DE  rD /E  DE
2
rD /E
  DE k  (11i  3j)  (2.5455) 2 (11i  3j)
AB= 4 rad/s
 11 DE j  3 DE i  71.275i  19.439 j

a D  (3 DE  71.275)i  (11 DE  19.439) j

From previous page, we had: a D  (112  8  BD )i  7.289 j

Equate like components of aD

j: 7.289  (11 DE  19.439)  DE  2.4298 rad/s 2

i: 112  8 BD  [ (3)( 2.4298)  71.275]  BD  4.1795 rad/s 2

Problem 15.124

Arm AB has a constant angular velocity of 16 rad/s


counterclockwise. At the instant when =90o, determine the
acceleration (a) of collar D, (b) of the midpoint G of bar BD.

25
Rate of Change With Respect to a Rotating Frame
• With respect to the rotating Oxyz frame,
   
Q  Qx i  Q y j  Qz k

   
Q Oxyz  Q x i  Q y j  Q z k

• With respect to the fixed OXYZ frame,



      
Q OXYZ  Q x i  Q y j  Q z k  Qx i  Q y j  Q z k

• Frame OXYZ is fixed.


  


• Q x i  Q y j  Q z k  Q Oxyz  rate of change
with respect to rotating frame.
• Frame Oxyz rotates about
fixed axis OA with angular

• If Q were fixed within Oxyz then Q OXYZ is


equivalent to velocity of a point in a rigid  body
velocity   
 attached to Oxyz and Qx i  Q y j  Qz k    Q
• Vector function Qt  varies
in direction and magnitude. • With respect to the fixed OXYZ frame,


Q OXYZ

 Q   
 Q
Oxyz

Coriolis Acceleration
• Frame OXY is fixed and frame Oxy rotates with angular
velocity  .

• Position vector rP for the particle P is the same in both
frames but the rate of change depends on the choice of
frame.
• The absolute velocity of the particle P is
   
v P  r OXY    r  r Oxy

• Imagine a rigid slab attached to the rotating frame Oxy


or F for short. Let P’ be a point on the slab which
corresponds instantaneously to position of particle P.
 
v P F  r Oxy  velocity of P along its path on the slab

v P '  absolute velocity of point P’ on the slab
• Absolute velocity for the particle P may be written as
  
v P  v P  v P F

26
Coriolis Acceleration
• Absolute acceleration for the particle P is
    
aP  
d 

 r    r OXY  r Oxy 
   dt
but, r OXY    r  r Oxy
d 
dt
  
r Oxy  rOxy    r Oxy
      
 r      r   2  r Oxy  rOxy
    
v P    r  r Oxy aP  
 
 v P  v P F • Utilizing the conceptual point P’ on the slab,
    
 r      r 

a P  
 
a P F  r 

Oxy

• Absolute acceleration  for the particle P becomes


  
a P  a P  a P F  2  r Oxy
  
 a P  a P F  ac
    
ac  2  r Oxy  2  v P F  Coriolis acceleration

Motion About a Fixed Point


• The most general displacement of a rigid body with a
fixed point O is equivalent to a rotation of the body
about an axis through O.
• With the instantaneous axis of rotation and angular

velocity  , the velocity of a particle P of the body is

 dr  
v r
dt
and the acceleration of the particle P is

       d
a    r      r   .
dt

• The angular acceleration  represents the velocity of
the tip of  .

• As the vector  moves within the body and in space,
it generates a body cone and space cone which are
tangent along the instantaneous axis of rotation.
• Angular velocities have magnitude and direction and
obey parallelogram law of addition. They are vectors.

27
General Motion
• For particles A and B of a rigid body,
  
vB  v A  vB A

• Particle A is fixed within the body and motion of


the body relative to AX’Y’Z’ is the motion of a
body with a fixed point
   
v B  v A    rB A

• Similarly, the acceleration of the particle P is


  
aB  a A  aB A
 a A    rB A      rB A 
     

• Most general motion of a rigid body is equivalent to:


- a translation in which all particles have the same
velocity and acceleration of a reference particle A, and
- of a motion in which particle A is assumed fixed.

Three-Dimensional Motion. Coriolis Acceleration


• With respect to the fixed frame OXYZ and rotating
frame Oxyz,

QOXYZ 

 Q Oxyz
 
 Q

• Consider motion of particle P relative to a rotating


frame Oxyz or F for short. The absolute velocity can
be expressed as
   
v P    r  r Oxyz
 
 v P  v P F
• The absolute acceleration can be expressed as
      
 r      r   2  r Oxyz  rOxyz
 
aP  
  
 a p  a P F  ac
    
ac  2  r Oxyz  2  v P F  Coriolis acceleration

28
Frame of Reference in General Motion
• With respect to OXYZ and AX’Y’Z’,
  
rP  rA  rP A
  
vP  v A  vP A
  
aP  a A  aP A

• The velocity and acceleration of P relative to


AX’Y’Z’ can be found in terms of the velocity
and acceleration of P relative to Axyz.
 
v P  v A    rP A  rP A 
  
Axyz
 
 v P  v P F
    
 rP A      rP A 
Consider:  
aP  a A  
- fixed frame OXYZ,  
 2  rP A   rP A 

- translating frame AX’Y’Z’, and
Axyz Axyz
- translating and rotating frame Axyz   
or F.  a P  a PF  a c

29