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Q-System

(Norwegian Geotechnical Institute


Q Classification System)

Arafah Patahuddin
Klasifikasi massa batuan yang dikenal dengan “Q
- System” yang dikembangkan oleh Barton, Lien
dan Lunde, all (1974).
Nilai dari Q-System merupakan nilai logaritma
dengan rentang 0,001 – 1.000 (barton et al,
1974).
𝑅𝑄𝐷 𝐽𝑟 𝐽𝑤
𝑄= 𝑥 𝑥
𝐽𝑛 𝐽𝑎 𝑆𝑅𝐹
• RQD
RQD merupakan pengukuran persentase dari
potongan core utuh dengan panjang yang lebih
dari 10 cm dari total panjang keseluruhan dari
core (Deere et al, 1967). Nilai yang digunakan
merupakan nilai actual RQD (%).
nilai RQD juga bisa ditentukan berdasarkan
pendekatan Joint Volumetric (Jv) yang diusulkan
palmstrom dengan persamaan :
RQD = 110-2,5Jv
• Number of jont set (Jn)
Nilai dari jumlah set kekar merupakan rating dari
jumlah set kekar dari terowongan. Kekar akan
mempengruhi bagaimana stabilitas dari
terowongan sehingga parameter ini sangat
penting.
Joint set number Jn value
No or few joint 0,75
1 joint set 2
1 joint set + random joint 3
2 joint set 4
2 joint set + random joint 6
3 joint set 9
3 joint set + random joint 12
4 joint set or more, heavily jointed 15
Crushed, earth like 20
• Roughness (Jr)
Jr atau kekasaran kekar ditentukan berdasarkan
kehalusan permukaan (Js) dan undulasinya (Jw).
Persamaan antara lain (Barton,2002) :

Jr = Js x Jw

Catatan: Jr = Js x Jw = 1 untuk joint yang terisi


Joint smoothness Js (value) Joint waveness Jw
Very rough 2 (value)

Rough or irregular 1,5 Discontinuous joint 4

Slightly rough 1,25 Strongly 2.5


Smooth 1
undulation
Polished 0,75
Moderately 2
slickensided 0,5
undulating

Slightly undulating 1.4

planar 1
• Joint alteration or filling (Ja)
Weathering/ joint alteration Ja Value
Healed or welded joint 0,75
Unweathered, fresh joint 1
Slightly weathered joint walls (coloured 2
or stained)

Altered joint wall (no loose material) 4


Coating of friction material 3
Coating of cohesive material 4

Filled joint Ja value


Wall contact No wall contact
No filling
Friction material (silt, sand, etc) 4 8
Hard, cohesive material (clay, talc, 6 8
chlorite)

Soft, cohesive material (soft clay) 8 12


Swelling clay material 10 18
• Water inflow (Jw)

Aliran air atau air tanah mempengaruhi


penggalian bawah tanah dengan 3 cara yaitu
(palmstrong, 2005) :
• Menambah tegangan pada dinding batuan
sehingga mengurangi stabilitas.
• melunakan lempung, talc atau isian kekar
lainnya atau menghilangkan isian kekar.
• Sebagai aliran air yang mempengaruhi kondisi
pekerjaan.
Description Water pressure (kg/cm2) Jw

Dry or minor inflow, < 5 litres/min locally <1 1,0

Medium inflow or pressure accasional outwash 1-2,5 0,66


of joint filling

Large inflow or high pressure in competent rock 2,5 -10 0,5


with unfilling joint

Large inflow or high pressure, considerable 2,5 – 10 0,33


outwashof joint fillings

Exceptionally high inflow or water pressure at 0,2-0,1


blasting, decaying with time

Exceptionally high inflow or water pressure > 10 0,1-0,05


continuing without noticeable decay
• SRF = Stress Reduction Factor
Nilai dari SRF adalah nilai deskripsi dari
perbandingan tegangan tangensial terhadap
kekuatan massa batuan (UCS) (barton, 1994).
Weakness zone, intersection excavation SRF

Multiple weakness zone Any Depth 10

Single weakness zone Depth <50 m 5

Single weakness zone Depth >50 m 2,5

Multiple shear zone Any depth 7,5

Single shear zone Depth <50 m 5

Single shear zone Depth >50 m 2,5

Loose, open joint Any depth 5

Heavily jointed Any depth 5


Rock stress problems, competent rock 𝜎𝑐 𝜎𝜃 Stress
𝜎1 𝜎𝑐
Reduction
Factor
(SRF)

Low stress, near surface, open joints > 200 <0,01 2,5

Medium stress, usually favourable stress 200-10 0,01-0,3 1


condition

High stress, very tight structure, usually 10-5 0,3-0,4 0.5 – 2


favourable to stability, maybr except for walls

Moderate slabbing after > 1 hour in massive 5-3 0.5-0,65 5 – 50


rock

Slabbing and rock burst after a few minutes in 3-2 0,65-1 50 – 200
massive rock

Heavy rock burst (strain burst) and immediate <2 >1 200 - 400
dynamic deformation in massive rock

(II) For strongly anisotropic stress field (if measured): when 5 < σ1 /σ3 <10, reduce σcto 0.75 σc. When σ1/σ3 >
10, reduce σcto 0.5σc
(iii) Few case records available where depth of crown below surface is less than span width.
Suggest SRF increase from 2.5 to 5 for low stress cases
EQUIVALENT DIMENTION
nilai indeks Q untuk fungsi stabilitas dan
penyanggaan pada penggalian bawah tanah,
Barton et al (1974) mendefenisikan parameter
yang disebut Equivalent Dimention (De)

𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛,𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑡ℎ (𝑚)


• De =
𝐸𝑆𝑅
ESR (EXCAVATION SUPPORT RATIO)
ESR berhubungan tujuan pengguannan
penggalian dan derajat keamanan. Nilai ESR
berbeda bergantung fungsi penggalian
Excavation Category ESR
A Temporary mine opening 3–5
Vertical shaft :
Circular section 2,5
B Rectangular/square section 2,0
Permanent mine opening, water tunnels for hydropower (Excluding
high pressure penstock), pilot tunnel, drifts, and heading for large
C excavations 1.6
Storege rooms, water treatment plants, minor road railway tunnel,
D surge chamber, accas tunnels 1.3
Power station, major road and railway tunnel, civil defence chamber,
E portal intersections 1
Underground nuclear power station, railway station, sports and
F public facilities, factories 0.8
SUPPORT ANALISYS

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