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PEMODELAN SPASIAL

GD-312

PROGRAM STUDI GEOMATIKA

JURUSAN TEKNIK GEODESI

FTSP-ITENAS BANDUNG

SEMESTER GENAP 2016/2017

DIAN N HANDIANI dhandiani@gmail.com


SILABUS STUDI
Pemahaman Konsep Model,
dan integrasi dengan SIG:
Teori pemodelan, tipe-tipe
model, model spasial, jenis-
jenis data, data dalam
model spasial: DTM, DEM,
dan DSM.
PEMODELAN SPASIAL
Pendahuluan
• Apakah itu? (What is it?)
• Mengapa melakukannya? (Why do it?)
• Pemodelan spasial dan analisis spasial
- Beberapa contoh
• Tipe-tipe model
• Implikasinya
DEFINISI
What is it?
• Model
-representasi keadaan real (alam/lingkungan)
-menggambarkan proses real di bumi
‣fisik dan sosial
-mendesain proses akibat kegiatan manusia
‣untuk mencari alternatif solusi yang terbaik
DEFINISI
What is it?

• Representasi secara digital


-semuanya data diperkecil menjadi bentuk digital
-dalam bentuk software dan data
-dieksekusi menggunakan komputer
‣model komputasi
MODEL SPASIAL
What is it?

• Model dari suatu proses, yang bekerja secara


spasial (space) dan waktu
-variasi antar space (x,y) terhadap waktu
-lokasi itu penting
‣hasil model berubah jika lokasi berubah
‣lokasi harus diketahui
MODEL SPASIAL
model dapat berbentuk fisik (analog)

• Dieksekusi secara fisik


• Dibuat dalam skala real
• Expensive (costly)
Model Fisik Laut (NASA)
MODEL SPASIAL
mengapa melakukannya? (why is it?)

• Lebih efisien ketimbang eksperimen secara real


(cost eficiency)
-mahasiswa kedokteran dengan cadaver
(dalam hal ini kadaver digital)
-simulasi kemacetan jalan raya
-prediksi cuaca dan global CO2
-epidemik penyakit
• evaluasi skenario what if
• masyarakat lebih tertarik dan mudah menerima
MODEL SPASIAL
Analisis atau Model Spasial
• Analisis:
– umumnya statik,
– mencari pola, atau anomaly
– membuat ide dan hipotesis
– evaluasi
• Modeling:
– bisa dinamik,
– mengimplementasi ide dan hipotesis
• membandingkan dengan dunia nyata (real)
– bereksperimen menggunakan skenario
ANALISIS SPASIAL
The Broad Street Pump
The Broad Street Pump
• Cholera outbreak in Soho / London, England 1854
• Dr. Snow and his theory of contaminated water in
wells
• Monitored the epidemic by interviews
• Leads to the pump at Broad Street
• Removal of the handle saved an
unknown number of live
• Find more at:
http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html
Or in:
Tufte, E.R. 1997. Visual Explanations
Snow’s
Snow’s Map Map
• Snow mapped the
monitored cases and could
determine the location of the
well closest to these cases
• This was genius-like!
• Snow as the pioneer of
modern epidemiology which
uses spatial analysis to a
high degree
Peta Jalan ~ Jumlah Penduduk
Peta Jalan ~ Jumlah Penduduk
ANALISIS SPASIAL
Defining Spatial Analysis?
Definisi
• Goodchild, 1988: “The true value of GIS lies in their
ability to analyze spatial data using the techniques of
spatial analysis. Spatial analysis provides the value-
added products from existing datasets”
• Perspective: ‘Gaining’ valuable products from
spatial data?
ANALISIS SPASIAL
Defining
Definisi
Spatial Analysis?
• Goodchild (et al.) 1987/1992: (SDA) is a set of techniques
devised to support a spatial perspective on data. To
distinguish it from other forms of analysis, it might be
defined as a set of techniques whose results are
dependent on the locations of the objects or events being
analyzed, requiring access to both the locations and the
attributes of objects.

• Perspective:
Techniques using
Locational and
attribute information
Defining Spatial Analysis?
ANALISIS SPASIAL
• We stop here! You will find many other definitions in
Definisi
different contexts - but how much do they help?
• Altogether we might say: Spatial analysis has
something to do with deriving information from
data using the spatial context of the problem and
the data (e.g. their distributions or patterns)
• It is exactly this - space - which makes it different
• Maybe we understand more if we look at some
taxonomies of operators for spatial analysis such
as…
ANALISIS SPASIAL
Example 1: Exploring &
Describing
• Fire scares in forests
• Total portion of burned area, classes
• Mean and median size of patches &
std. deviation of patch size
• Shape (compactness) of patches
(circularity: M = 4 *area / perim2)
• Comparing burned with non-burnt
areas
• Comparison with properties of other
gaps/patches (harvested or blow-down)
• Distance to other burnt patches
University of Freiburg
ANALISIS SPASIAL
Example 2: Explaining the
Occurrence
• Trying to explain the occurrence of
forest fires by analyzing and
exploring the available data
• Formulating Hypotheses (fuel,
climatic condidtions, land use, traffic)
and data needed…
• Sampling (autocorrelation)
• Significant variables for regression
analysis? wildfire.com

• Evaluation of ‘predictions’
MODEL SPASIAL
Tujuan mempelajarinya adalah untuk mempelajari
objek spasial atau fenomena spasial yg terjadi di
alam (real world)
What do Spatial Models Do?
What do Spatial Model Do?
• Using spatial data
• Making use of combined functional
capabilities such as analytical tools for
spatial and non-spatial computation, GIS and
programming languages
• The focus is on the meaning of the model -
MODEL SPASIAL
• Using spatial data
• Making use of combined functional
capabilities such as analytical tools for
spatial and non-spatial computation, GIS and
What do Spatial Model
programming languages Do?
• The focus is on the meaning of the model -
modeling is more than just applying analytical
tools
• Representing meaningful features, events
and processes in geographical space
Modeling Process and its
MODEL SPASIAL
Components
Prior to carrying out the modeling process it is helpful to find
Prosestodan
answers Komponen
four questions dalam
(DeMers 1,5): Model
• What is the model to tell us (explaining, predicting
relationships or consequences / evaluating situations for
resource uses,…)? Or simply: Do we understand what the
problem is?
• What type of data do I need?
• How to create a design to put the model together?
• How to apply existing tools, carefully and appropriately to
derive meaningful models?
• Validation and verification as important steps are touched later
MODEL SPASIAL Cartographic Models
SpatialModel
Tipe-tipe and GIS Models I • Ranking and Weighting of criteria

(Bolstad)
• Cartographic models: Spatio-temporal Models
temporally static, combined spatial
datasets, operations and functions for
problem-solving
• Spatio-temporal models
dynamics in space and time, time-driven
processes
• Network models:
modeling of resources (flow,
accumulation) as limited to networks
MODEL SPASIAL
Tipe-tipe
Spatial Model
and GIS Models II
(Goodchild 2003)
• Data models:
Entities and fields as conceptual models
• Static modeling:
taking inputs to transform them into outputs
using sets of tools and functions
• Dynamic modeling:
iterative, sets of initial conditions, apply
transformations to obtain a series of
predictions at time intervals
Social, physical, or integrated?
• Social:
– a model of some process operating among
humans
• or animals
• Physical:
– a model of some natural process operating in the
environment
• Integrated:
– a model of the interaction of social and physical
processes
• land cover change, driven by humans, impacting the
environment
Implikasi terhadap Kebijakan
-lebih memahami permasalahan,
-solusi yang diambil tepat sasaran,
-bisa melakukan prediksi terhadap masalah,
pengaruh, dan solusinya (making options)
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DATA RASTER
[Data model]: mendefinisikan space
(spasial), berbentuk array (ukuran dan
bentuk sama), bentuk baris dan kolom, dan
bisa terdiri dari satu atau banyak bands.
cell
Setiap sel memiliki nilai atribut dan
koordinat. Koordinat raster berbentuk
matriks (berupa cell atau pixel), satu grup
sel bisa memiliki nilai atribut yang sama dan
koordinat geografis yang sama. Masing-
masing sel memiliki nilai yang memberikan
suatu informasi, contoh: temperatur.
Data raster bisa berasal dari foto udara
digital, gambar satelit, foto digital, atau
bahkan peta yang discan.
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DATA RASTER

Raster Elements
– Grid cell (pixel)
– Resolution

Source: ESRI
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DATA RASTER

Raster Elements
– Coordinate system
– Coordinates
– Origin
– # rows
– # columns
Source: ESRI
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DATA RASTER

Raster Elements
– # rows
– # columns

Source: ESRI
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DATA VEKTOR

[Data model]: data yang merepresentasikan


suatu informasi geografis berdasarkan
koordinat (independent): digambarkan dalam
bentuk titik, garis, dan poligon.

Satu titik merepresentasikan sebagai satu


pasang koordinat (x,y), untuk garis dan
poligon gabungan dari beberapa titik.

Umumnya untuk merepresentasikan


bagian dari peta topografi seperti: jalan,
sungai, vegetasi, lokasi ikan, etc.
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DATA RASTER VS VEKTOR
Data vektor dibuat bentuk jalur. Hasilnya
berbentuk grafis yang estetik dan memiliki
akurasi geografis tinggi, karena tidak
bergantung ukuran grid.
Data kontinu tersimpan dan tergambarkan
kurang baik, dibutuhkan generalisasi untuk
membuat data vektor yang kontinu

Raster format adalah keluaran yang umum


dari data satelit, posisinya sederhana,
ukuran dan letak koordinat bisa mudah
diduga, analysis spasial juga umumnya
lebih cepat dan mudah.
Grafik keluaran berbentuk cell dan feature
linear akan sulit digambarkan, data raster
berpotensi memakan banyak tempat utk
menyimpan.
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DEM (Digital Elevation Model)

• Digital representation of
topography.

• Cell based with a single


elevation representing the
entire cell.
Data Pemodelan Spasial
DEM (Digital Elevation Model)
• DEM is a matrix of elevations with a uniform cell size
Data Pemodelan Spasial
◦ Digital Surface Models/DSM (includes buildings and vegetation)

◦ Digital Terrain Models/DTM (without buildings and vegetation)


Data Pemodelan Spasial
DSM of New York
• Spatial analysis and spatial modeling are two
important terms for GIScience
Summary
Kesimpulan
• We tried to explore what stands behind them by
looking at definitions, taxonomies and examples
•• However, an understanding
Spatial analysis of the
and spatial methods
modeling arewe use
two
(exploring / explaining)
important terms and of the problem we face
for GIScience
(modeling) are central
• We tried to explore what stands behind them by
• The aimat
looking of definitions,
spatial modeling is to derive
taxonomies andaexamples
meaningful representation of events, occurrences or
• processes
However, an by understanding of the
making use of the methods
power we use
of spatial
(exploring / explaining) and of the problem we face
analysis
(modeling) are central
•• Data
The aim of spatial
Spasial: modeling
Vektor is to and
(point, lines, derive a
polygon) dan
meaningful
Raster (pixel representation
atau cell) of events, occurrences or
processes by making use of the power of spatial
analysis
• DEM: digital representation of topography; DSM
and DTM (with and without buildings also
vegetation)
Referensi

• DeMers, M.N., Fundamentals of Geographic Information System,


John Wiley and Sons., Inc., New York , 1997.
• Peuqeut, Donna J., A Conceptual framework and comparison of
spatial data models in Introductory Readings in Geographic
Information Systems, edited by Donna J. Peuqeut and Duane
F.Marble, Taylor & Francis, London-New York-Philadelphia, 1990.
• Meijerink, A.M.J, Brouwer, H.A.M, Mannaerts, C.M, and Valenzuela,
C.R., Introduction to the use of geographic information systems for
practical hydrology, ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands, 1994
• Fisher, M., Scholten H.J., Unwin D., Spatial analytical perspective
on GIS, Taylor and Francis, London, 1996.
• Bahan-bahan dari berbagai sumber Jurusan Teknik Geodesi Itenas.
dan internet
Referensi
References
• Longley P.A., M. F. Goodchild, D. J. Maguire and D. W. Rhind. 2005.
Geographic Information Systems and Science. Second Edition. John Wiley,
Chichester, 2005.
• Goodchild, M.F. 2003. Geographic Information Science and Systems for
Environmental Management. Annual Review of Environment and
Resources. Vol. 28: 493-519.
• Burrough, P.A. and McDonnell, R.A. 1998. Principles of Geographical
Information Systems. London: Oxford.
• Goodchild, M F. 1988. Modeling error in objects and fields. Accuracy of
Spatial Databases Meeting; Montecito, CA; (USA); Dec. 1988. pp. 107-113.
1990
• Tomlin, C.D. 1991 Cartographic Modeling. In Maguire, D., Goodchild,
M.F., and Rhind, D. (Eds.) Geographic Information Systems: Principles
and Applications. London: Longman: 361 - 374.
• Goodchild, M. F., 1987, Towards an enumeration and classification of GIS
functions. Proceedings, /CIS 87: the Research Agenda, edited by R. T.
Aangeenbrug and Y. M. Schiffman (Washington, DC: NASA), 11, 67-77.