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Tulip facts Tulip facts, cont.

• Origin- central Asia, Siberia, Mongolia, • Plants are generally found in hilly country
and China with extremely cold winters and hot dry
• Breeding- 12th and 13th century in summers
Persia • Bulbs are biocomputers and are never
• 1500’s- brought to Europe dormant. They continuously monitor their
• Conrad Gesner- printed the first illustration
from an Austrailian garden in 1561 • Major marketing periods are Valentine’s
(gesneriana) day and Easter

Tulip facts, cont. Tulip Propagation

• Daughter bulb offsets from vegetative

• 1000’s cultivars over 400+ years axillary buds in the axils of the tunicated
• Presently, 100’s of cultivars scales
• Red is primary color • Two to three new bulblets are produced
• Cultivars are available for forcing
from mid-December to early May • It takes 2 to 3 years to produce a
commercial size bulb capable of

Flowering Control and Fall Summer

Dormancy Bulbs planted,
roots develop
Shoots senesce,
daughter bulb
complete, old bulb
• Bulb circumference or weight is the dissicates, harvest
primary flowering control factor
• Common bulb size for potted flowering
plants is 4.75 - 5.5 inch (12 - 14 cm)

Rooting, floral
and leaf Shoot elongation,
meristems flowering, daughter
present bulb growth

Flower Induction Flower Induction
Requirements Requirements
• When bulbs are harvested, the • All forcers should check bulbs of all
apical meristem is vegetative cultivars to be certain they have
• Flower initiation and subsequent reached “G stage” prior to planting
development are controlled by • If they have not, they should be
post-harvest warm temperatures held at 63 0F until they do

Schedule and Timing

Growers must decide:
Cold storage
• Correct cultivar • This period is from planting until bulbs
• Desired flowering date are placed in the greenhouse
• Potted vs. cut • The cold period varies from 15 to 23.5
• Calculate backwards weeks depending on cultivars and
– Flowering to force to plant date forcing date
• Weeks of cold • Bulbs are potted at different times for
• Which rooting room different flowering dates (from Jan.1 -
May 8
• Pre-cooled vs. non pre-cooled

Cold storage Temperature Sequences

• Bulbs receive a cold treatment so that Temperature Rooting room Rooting room
rapid plant development occurs when
placed in the greenhouse 48 0 F Plant until Plant until Dec.
Nov. 5-10 5-10
• Two rooting rooms are used, A and B
41 0 F Nov. 5-10 until Dec. 5-10 until
• The Holland Bulb Forcer’s Guide should Jan. 1-5 Jan 1-5
be used to determine which bulbs are 0 Jan. 1-5 to Jan. 1-5 to
32-35 F
placed in each room finish finish

Potted flowering tulip culture Tulip culture, cont.

• Light- 1000-2500 fc (low). Shade or light • Arest drench within 24 hours of being
exclusion are sometimes used for etiolation to
increase stem length on early crops
moved to greenhouse
• Water- medium should always be kept evenly • Plant 6 -7 bulbs in a 6-inch pot
moist (in rooting room and greenhouse) • Space pot to pot in the cooler and
• CO2 is not used greenhouse
• Nutrition- low requirement, but CaNO 3 can be
used to prevent stem topple
• Media- do not overfill the pots

Tulip Diseases Tulip Physiological Disorders

• Fusarium
– white to tan mold growing on outer • Stem topple
tunic of bulb – Stem collapses a few centimeters
– soft bulbs below the base of the flower
– light weight bulbs – Related to Ca deficiency
– or excessive cooling
– or high forcing temperatures

Scape Elongation Narcissus

Cause is auxin,
low light, and
Cause is warm • Pseudonarcissus • Tazetta
endogenous GA temperatures • trumpet • paperwhites
induced by cold
2 acropetal • requires cold • no cold
nodes • one flower/scape • many flowers/scape
• European • Mediterranean
2 basipetal No commercial
• <150 commercial • < 10 commercial
nodes means to
prevent during cultivars cultivars
Arest prevents
during forcing postharvest

Daffodil Culture
Flowering Control and Dormancy
(differences compared to tulips)
• Requires warm temperatures for floral • Nutrition- no application needed during
initiation and differentiation which occur forcing
prior to harvest and continue afterward. • Height control- Florel (ethephon) at
• Requires an absolute cold treatment for 1000-2000 ppm
further floral differentiation, • Plant 3 standard bulbs in a 6-inch pot
development and rapid emergence. • Bull-nosing is a physiological disorder
where the flower fails to expand, is
caused by high forcing temperatures.

Hyacinth uses Hyacinth facts

• Potted flowering plant • Origin is Mediterranean region, Asia and

• Garden plants Europe
• 95% of bulbs are produced in The
• Bulbs to force in special vases
• Cut flowers • 50 commercial cultivars
• Individual florets in corsages • Bulbs are scored and scooped to produce
• Perfumery bulblets

Hyacinth culture
Flowering Control and
(differences compared to tulips)
• Temperature- take care to slowly increase
temperature when going from cooler to
• The meristem is vegetative when greenhouse to prevent “spitting”
the bulbs are harvested • Nutrition- CaNO3 at 250 ppm
• PGR- Florel at 1000-2000 ppm
• Flower formation requires warm
• Planting- one bulb/4-inch or
temperatures 3 bulbs/6-inch
• Regular or prepared bulbs

Hyacinth schedule and timing

• When bulbs arrive, store at 630F until

• Only rooting room B is used
• December & January- forcing takes 21
• March & April- forcing takes 4-12 days
• Market when lower florets show color