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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

through shunt active power compensation

H.A. Ramos-Carranza a, A. Medina-Ríos b,⇑, J. Segundo c, M. Madrigal d

a

TRACSA S.A.P.I. de C. V. Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico

b

Facultad de Ingeniería Eléctrica, División de Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mich., Mexico

c

Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, CIEP-FI, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., Mexico

d

Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia, Morelia, Mich., Mexico

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this contribution a solution to the parallel resonance problem that can be present in practical applica-

Received 2 November 2014 tions of shunt Active Power Filter (APF) compensation is proposed. The proposed solution involves turn-

Received in revised form 6 August 2015 ing the shunt APF scheme of compensation into a Shunt Hybrid Filter (SHF) configuration. A Linear

Accepted 7 August 2015

Quadratic Regulator (LQR)-based switching controller was specifically designed for this hybrid scheme

of compensation, maintaining stringent performance requirements on the tracking of filtering currents

and the draining of the harmonic ripple currents. Results obtained with Matlab/SimulinkÒ illustrate an

Keywords:

effective and sound system of compensation which also reduces the necessary KVA rating of the APF.

Parallel resonance

Harmonic distortion

Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Shunt active power compensation

Active power filter

Shunt hybrid filter

this switching technique maintains a variable modulation fre-

With the continuous increase in the incorporation of nonlinear quency [11,12]. A relevant characteristic, due to the nonlinear nat-

loads in the power network, the harmonic distortion of voltage and ure of the inverter and the PWM modulation techniques, is that the

current waveforms, among other power quality problems, has current injected by the APF into the electric network includes an

become a great concern. This paper focuses on the use of shunt fil- undesired ripple current, i.e., a high frequency current with rela-

tering techniques such as shunt Active Power Filter (APF) and tively low amplitude. For the case of the hysteresis band current

shunt hybrid filter (SHF), to mitigate harmonic distortion and to controller, there is a presence of variable high frequency modula-

compensate reactive power. In particular, the shunt APF has been tion harmonics [11,12]. In some cases this ripple current could lead

demonstrated to be an appropriated tool for the mitigation of har- to some undesirable effects in the electric system, such as har-

monic currents and reactive power compensation [1–10]. monic ripple contamination to the load voltages, due to the feeder

The shunt APF can be modeled as a controlled current source impedance voltage drop at the point of common coupling (PCC),

that supplies a compensation current in parallel with the nonlinear and/or even more, eventually, this ripple current could trigger pos-

load. The main components of a shunt APF are: a reference current sible resonances, being parallel resonances of particular considera-

generator, a switching current controller based on a pulse-width tion due to their severity. These phenomena are described with

modulation (PWM) technique, a power electronic converter (usu- detail in Section ‘Shunt filtering performance in non-stiff systems’.

ally a voltage-source-type PWM inverter), and a dc voltage con- It is known that a path should be provided to drain this high fre-

troller (PI controller). These components make possible the quency ripple current; this goal could be achieved with a LC

injection of the desired filtering currents into the electric system. ripple-filter [14] or a compensator-passive filter structure designed

Usually, the modulation technique used when modeling the shunt for this particular purpose [15]. The necessity of adequate develop-

APF is the hysteresis-band current controller, due to its fast ment an application of techniques to solve potential problems of

resonance and harmonic distortion in diverse electrical networks

has been stressed in more recent contributions [16–18]. In [16]

⇑ Corresponding author.

application of techniques for harmonic mitigation in networks

E-mail addresses: hramos@tracsa.com.mx (H.A. Ramos-Carranza), amedinr@

gmail.com (A. Medina-Ríos), j2ramirez@gmail.com (J. Segundo), manuelmadrigalmtz@ with integration of wind power plants are analyzed through simu-

hotmail.com (M. Madrigal). lation for certain types of wind turbines; considering resonance

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2015.08.008

0142-0615/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 153

and non-resonance operation conditions. Details of the techniques affected, sometimes leading to miss functioning or even failure,

applied are however not given. In [17] frequency scan and modal when these shunt filtering techniques are applied for compensa-

analysis methods are applied for harmonic distortion and system tion of non-stiff electric systems where the source impedance is

resonances identification in wave power plant applications, so that considered, in some literature also referred as weak systems.

appropriate correction measures can be timely undertaken. A dis- Through Matlab/SimulinkÒ simulations the shunt APF and the

tributed series/hybrid-shunt compensation technique is proposed SHF compensation performance and their non-desirable associated

in [18] for harmonic mitigation in industrial/commercial facilities. effects are observed and analyzed. First; the shunt APF compensa-

The main aim of this paper is to provide a strong and high qual- tion scheme is applied and the propagation of the harmonic ripple

ity scheme of compensation, e.g., shunt filtering, when applied to current to the load voltages will be shown. Second; the SHF com-

non-stiff systems. The proposed control is good enough to provide pensation scheme is applied using the same test system, and the

the following goals: (1) To provide a sound solution to the parallel associated parallel resonance phenomenon which can be poten-

resonance problem that can be present in shunt APF compensation, tially present will be shown. In both cases it is important to notice

(2) To allow the correct shunt filtering compensation, (3) To avoid that the wrong compensation performance does not depend on the

the propagation of the harmonic ripple current into the electric reference current generator used by the shunt APF. In fact, these

network, (4) To reduce, as much as possible, the KVA rating of problems will be triggered by the high frequency ripple current

the APF. inherent to the injected shunt APF currents.

During the development of the proposed control methodology

it is necessary to transform the shunt APF scheme of compensation Shunt active power filter – harmonic ripple contamination of load

into a SHF compensation scheme; this is achieved by incorporating voltages

a shunt capacitor bank. Due to the inclusion of the shunt capacitor

bank, which compensates the reactive power, the proposed solu- The shunt APF scheme of compensation in a three-phase four-

tion has the advantage of significantly reducing the KVA rating of wire electric system is illustrated in Fig. 1. In this system an unbal-

the shunt APF converter. Under this new SHF configuration; the anced linear load in parallel with a nonlinear load are supplied by a

shunt APF (active element) performs harmonic current mitigation, balanced voltage source.

and the shunt capacitor (passive element) is placed to compensate The nonlinear load is a 9.41 KVA, 6-pulse diode rectifier and the

reactive power and to provide the path for draining out the har- linear load is a series resistance–inductance branch per phase.

monic ripple current. In order to properly achieve these goals with Table 1 gives the system parameters. The reference current gener-

the SHF; a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) switching current con- ator to be used by the APF is implemented according with [5], and

troller, based on that proposed in [15], is specifically designed for is given by,

this SHF configuration.

2ðPT þ P loss Þ

sinðxt þ /a1 Þ

This contribution is organized as follows: in Section ‘Shunt fil- ifa ðtÞ ¼ ila ðtÞ ð1Þ

tering performance in non-stiff systems’ the performance of the UT

shunt filtering techniques, shunt APF and shunt SHF, are tested

2ðPT þ P loss Þ

sinðxt þ /a1 2p=3Þ

in a non-stiff three-phase four-wire electric system and the

ifb ðtÞ ¼ ilb ðtÞ ð2Þ

obtained results are observed and analyzed. The electric system UT

for the test is the same used throughout the paper. Section ‘Shunt

2ðPT þ P loss Þ

sinðxt þ /a1 þ 2p=3Þ

hybrid filter control’ details the development of the control design

ifc ðtÞ ¼ ilc ðtÞ ð3Þ

for the proposed SHF compensation scheme; simulation results UT

obtained with Matlab/SimulinkÒ are compared against those

where ifk ðtÞ is the reference filtering current of phase k, ilk ðtÞ is the

obtained in Section ‘Shunt filtering performance in non-stiff sys-

line current of phase k, e.g. in this example it corresponds to the

tems’; the main conclusions drawn from this investigation are

load current drawn by the combination of the linear unbalanced

given in Section ‘Conclusions’.

load current and the rectifier load current; the subscript k repre-

sents the phases a, b or c, respectively. P T is the total active power

Shunt filtering performance in non-stiff systems delivered to the load, U T is the sum of the peak value of the source

voltages uk , /a1 is the phase angle of the fundamental component of

This section details how the performance of the shunt APF and the load voltage at phase a, and x is the angular speed at funda-

the SHF compensation schemes are widely and potentially mental frequency f of 60 Hz.

154 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

Table 1

Circuit parameters.

Ls Source inductance 0.1 mH

Rs Source resistance 0.0015 X

Lf Energy link inductance 2 mH

Rf Energy link resistance 0.1 X

RL Rectifier load resistance 100 X

Ra Load resistance at phase a 15.4 X

Rb Load resistance at phase b 15.4 X

Rc Load resistance at phase c 7X

La Load inductance at phase a 11.5 mH

Lb Load inductance at phase b 15.4 mH

Lc Load inductance at phase c 23.5 mH Fig. 3. Power flow with shunt APF compensation.

C1 ; C2 DC side converter capacitors 500 lF

U dc DC voltage converter 1000 V

Once the reference currents are generated they are supplied to a

Fig. 2(c). It can be noticed that those are balanced as soon as the

hysteresis-band current controller [5] to generate the control sig-

APF goes into operation. It is evident, by observing the currents

nals of the voltage source inverter (VSI) and to reproduce the actual

waveform of Fig. 2(c), the low order harmonic current cancelation

filtering current to be injected into the electric system by the APF.

by the APF. The total harmonic distortion THDis of the source cur-

The capacitors C 1 and C 2 are used for energy storage and even

rents, before the shunt APF compensation is on average 8.8%

though the capacitors instantaneous voltage slightly fluctuates

(due to low order harmonics); and after the compensation the

due to harmonics, a constant dc voltage U dc at the inverter termi-

value of THDis has been reduced to 6.5% (due to high order harmon-

nals must be kept. Since the losses produced by switching and

ics) just below the recommended limit, even though the reference

capacitor voltage variations must be supplied by the source, a

current generator is calculating the reference filtering currents to

power loss signal P loss (controlled via a PI controller) is added to

achieve 0% of harmonic distortion [5], i.e. the shunt APF is injecting

PT in (1)–(3).

all the low order harmonics in order to be able to mitigate the total

The system of Fig. 1 was implemented in Matlab/SimulinkÒ and

distortion of the source currents. The resulting THDis after the

the results obtained from the simulation are illustrated in Fig. 2.

shunt APF compensation is only due the ripple current. For obser-

The load voltages uk are shown in Fig. 2(a); it can be noticed that

vation purposes, the shunt APF filtering current injected at phase c

the voltages are harmonic ripple contaminated as soon as the

is illustrated in Fig. 2(d). Please observe the ripple current inherent

APF goes into operation at one cycle of simulation; the total har-

to the filtering current.

monic distortion THDu of the load voltages after the shunt APF

On the other hand, Fig. 3 shows the power flows during the

compensation is on average 10%, beyond the recommended limit

shunt APF compensation. When the APF is placed to perform reac-

in [19]. In addition, this harmonic contamination of the load volt-

tive power compensation, in addition to the well identified har-

ages will cause current distortion in any other load that may be

monic mitigation, the shunt APF has the capability to inject a

connected at its terminal bus, as it can be observed from Fig. 2

controlled three-phase reactive current component at fundamental

(b). Currents ilk , are distorted/unbalanced (low order harmonics

frequency in order to deliver the reactive power required by the

due to the current drawn from the load) and harmonic ripple con-

load. And as observed from Fig. 2(a) and (c), during compensation,

taminated (high order harmonics due to the harmonic ripple prop-

the source currents are placed in phase with the load voltages at

agation to the voltages supplying the load), see Figs. 1 and 2

fundamental frequency. This injection of reactive current compo-

(a) and (b).

Fig. 2. Results of the shunt APF compensation. (a) Load voltages, (b) load currents, (c) source currents and (d) shunt APF current at phase c.

H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 155

nent at fundamental frequency is usually the mayor contribution different structures of hybrid filter have evolved as a cost-

to the total rms filtering current. Therefore, the reactive current effective solution for the compensation of nonlinear loads [20–

injection is the mayor contribution to the necessary KVA rating 25]. The hybrid filter topology presented in this paper consists of

of the shunt APF when it is placed to compensate both; harmonic a shunt APF, and a shunt capacitor bank acting as a reactive power

currents and reactive power. compensator, see Fig. 4. For this compensation scheme, the shunt

The three-phase rms filtering current was observed to be APF placed to perform harmonic cancelation and reactive power

14.49 A giving a rating of 4.43 KVA, which for practical applications compensation is not included in its compensation mechanism. This

can be an expensive solution, mainly due to the KVA size of the assumption does not imply any changes in the control algorithm of

converter used in the shunt APF structure. Then, it is obvious that the shunt APF or the current generator reference. This is because

if we decide to compensate reactive power in a conventional way the shunt APF sees the capacitor bank as an added load component,

with a passive element, e.g., placing a shunt capacitor bank, it i.e. another load, when sensing the load currents ilk just before the

may turn out to be useful for the reduction of the necessary APF shunt capacitor bank is placed. It is easy to see this analogy from

KVA rating. Thus, the compensation scheme is a SHF, where the Figs. 1 and 4 for the shunt APF compensation scheme and the

shunt APF would be aimed to mitigate the harmonic currents, SHF compensation scheme, respectively. Therefore, as a result of

and the shunt capacitor bank would be aimed for the compensa- this basic assumption, there is no need for a modification on the

tion of reactive power. current generator reference in Eqs. (1)–(3), and the shunt APF is

directly implemented as in the previous subsection. Then, contin-

uing with the compensation process, the capacitor bank shown

Shunt hybrid filter – parallel resonance phenomenon in Fig. 4, is placed to supply the three-phase reactive power

Q 3/ ¼ 3:479 KVAr, which is the reactive power demanded by the

A major drawback of active power filters is their high rating, e.g. load, see Fig. 3.

up to 80% of the nonlinear load in some practical applications [20]. The capacitor reactance and capacitance are calculated as [25],

The problems emerge when the APF becomes a costly solution for

harmonic current mitigation and reactive power compensation.

V 2LL

Due to economic concerns and problems associated with insula- X Cf ¼ ð4Þ

Q 3/

tion, as well as series or parallel connection of switches [20],

1

Cf ¼ ð5Þ

xX C f

tage, and C f is the capacitance per phase. To achieve reactive power

compensation, the capacitance per phase of the capacitor bank was

found to be C f ¼ 99:30 lF.

The test system of Fig. 4 was implemented in Matlab/SimulinkÒ

and the simulation results are shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 5(a) illustrates

the load voltages; once the shunt APF is switched on after one per-

iod. Discordant waveforms appear, and this behavior may be

caused by a resonance condition produced by the harmonic inter-

action of the APF, the capacitor bank and the load. Consequently,

the same situation is presented in the source current waveforms

Fig. 4. Shunt hybrid filter compensation circuit.

of Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 5. Parallel resonance phenomenon. (a) Load voltages, (b) source currents.

156 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

To identify the possible resonance problem, an analysis using ator reference is used for the calculation of the reference filtering

the equivalent circuit of the electric system for phase a, as shown currents.

in Fig. 6, is performed. The linear load impedance is also included Even though there are many approaches for the calculation fil-

in the analysis. tering currents reference in the literature, usually, for theoretical

The source impedance and load data are the same given in purposes, they are presented without including a high-pass filter

Table 1. The equivalent impedance of the circuit at any harmonic or any other control structure for draining out the harmonic ripple

order h is given by, current.

So far, in this section it has been stated that the path for drain-

ing the high frequency ripple current, as required for practical

1 applications [14], has to be included as an important part of the

Za ¼ ð6Þ control strategy and in the compensation structure. The motivation

ð1=ðRs þ jhxLs ÞÞ þ ð1=ðRa þ jhxLa ÞÞ þ 1= j hx1C

f relies on avoiding miss functioning or even failure during compen-

The response of the equivalent impedance Z a at different har- sation as observed above. In the section to follow, a Linear Quadra-

monic frequencies is illustrated in Fig. 7(a); similar results were tic Regulator (LQR)-based switching controller is designed to

obtained for phases b and c. It can be observed that there is a strong generate the inverter control signals. The main purpose is to

parallel resonant frequency taking place at the 27th harmonic, i.e. restrict the ripple current propagation into the electric system to

at 1, 620 Hz. a given path, i.e. a path for draining the ripple current in a planned

This resonance peak occurs mainly by the addition of the capac- manner, thus allowing the correct performance of the hybrid filter-

itor bank, and it is excited by the ripple current inherent to the APF ing process.

currents. Consistent information with the above observation is

obtained from the harmonic spectrum of the load voltage for phase Shunt hybrid filter control

a illustrated in Fig. 7(b). It can be observed that the harmonic mag-

nitudes for any frequency component increase as they approach Solving the resonance problems and the harmonic ripple

the parallel resonance shown in Fig. 7(a). contamination to the load voltages

The unexpected and/or undesirable results, observed in Figs. 2

and 5, due to the parallel resonance phenomenon, and previously The LQR method [26] is a powerful technique for designing con-

due to the harmonic ripple contamination of the load voltages, trollers for complex systems that have stringent performance

make necessary to extent the analysis and/or the control design requirements. The LQR method seeks to find the optimal controller

for these compensation schemes. Please notice that both outcomes, that minimizes a given cost function. This cost function is param-

the harmonic ripple contamination originated from the shunt APF eterized by two matrices, Q and R, that weight the state vector

to the load voltages and later to the load currents, as well as the and the system input, respectively. In the next section, a LQR-

parallel resonance, are triggered by the high frequency harmonic switching controller is designed to be able to generate the control

ripple current inherent to the injection currents, see Fig. 2(d), signals of the voltage source inverter of the shunt APF under the

and these problems can be present no matter what current gener- SHF compensation scheme. This LQR-switching controller is

designed to put strong performance requirements on the harmonic

ripple current, allowing the SHF compensation process to work

successfully.

LQR-switching controller

control of the system is based on minimizing the performance

index of the form [12],

Fig. 6. Equivalent circuit for parallel resonance analysis.

Fig. 7. Parallel resonance at phase a. (a) Driving point impedance, (b) harmonic content of load voltage.

H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 157

Z 1

Then, the state equation (12) can be transformed into a new

J¼ fðw wref ÞT Qðw wref Þ þ uT Rugdt ð7Þ

0 state equation as

where w is the state vector and wref is a desired reference state vec-

tor, Q is a Hermitian matrix or a symmetric positive semi-definite

matrix, R is a symmetric positive definite matrix. For this particular _ ¼ VAV 1 w þ VB1 us þ VB2 m ¼ Kw þ 1 us þ 2 m

w ð14Þ

case, R is scalar and sets a penalty on the maximum control action, Matrices K, 1 and 2 can be obtained by,

m is the optimal control law and T is the transpose operator. The

minimization of the cost function results in a feedback control of

the form 2 3

R 2U 3

Lf 0 L1 0 2 3

6 7

dc

f f 0

m ¼ Kðw wref Þ ð8Þ 6 R Rf

6 s R 7

7 617

6 Lf 7

6 Udc 7

6L Lf

RLss L1s L1 L1eq RLss þ L f 7 6 Ls 7 6 7

K¼6 s f f

7; 1 ¼ 6 7; 2 ¼ 6 Lf 7

where the gain matrix K is obtained by the solution of the steady- 6 0 1

0 0 7 405 6 7

6 Cf 7 4 0 5

state Riccati equation [7]. Once a suitable gain matrix K is selected, 4 5 0

0 0 1 R

Leqeq 0

the switching control is obtained from [12,15]: Leq

ð15Þ

m ¼ hysðKðw wref ÞÞ ð9Þ

For the control law represented by (8), it is assumed that we

where the hys function is defined by

have full control over m and the switching control is based on a lin-

if Kðw wref Þ > Di =2 then hysðKðw wref ÞÞ ¼ 1 ear combination of multiple states [15]. For most realistic applica-

ð10Þ tions, the LQR problem is solved via a computational package, such

else if Kðw wref Þ < Di =2 then hysðKðw wref ÞÞ ¼ 1

as MatlabÒ. The MatlabÒ command lqrðK; ; Q ; RÞ, with

This technique is called switching band tracking control in [12], ¼ 1 þ 2 , solves the LQR problem and the associated Riccati

and the selection of Di determines the switching frequency while equation. This command calculates the matrix of optimum feed-

tracking the reference. back control K, so that the control feedback law (8) minimizes

The equivalent circuit of the hybrid filter compensation scheme the performance index (7) subject to (14).

is shown in Fig. 8, where the combination of both linear and non- Fig. 9 illustrates the control diagram of the shunt active power

linear loads is represented by a series RL equivalent load. The state filter. It can be observed how the reference current generator and

vector x and the state-space equation are obtained from the anal- the LQR-based switching current controller are incorporated

ysis of Fig. 8 as, together to complete the proposed control strategy for the SHF

T compensation scheme. The low complexity in the implementation

x ¼ ½ i1 i2 i3 uc ð11Þ

of the LQR switching current control, to generate the switching

2 3 commands of the inverter, is similar to the hysteresis band current

RLss 0 0 L1s 213 2 3

6 7 0 controller [12], which is widely used in shunt active power filter

Ls

6 0 R

Lf 0 L1 7 607 6 V dc 7 applications [1–5], see Fig. 9.

6 7 6 Lf 7

x_ ¼ 6

f f

7x þ 6 7

6 7us þ 6 7 ð12Þ

6 R 1 7 4 5 6 7m Fig. 10 shows the flow chart of the LQR calculations to obtain

6 0 0 Leqeq Leq 7

0 4 05 the feedback gain matrix K. Given a set of weighting matrices, Q

4 5

1 1

C1 0 0 0 and R, the process in the calculation of matrix K becomes simple.

Cf Cf f

However, the challenge lies, precisely, on how the weighting

For convenience, the estate vector x can be transformed into a matrices Q and R are chosen. Most of the times, the weighting

new state vector w, which is expressed in terms of the local vari- matrix Q reflects the importance of the states to be controlled

ables of compensation and/or the control variables, e.g., the filter- and the selection of an appropriate value of R has to be chosen to

ing current if , the current trough the capacitor ic , the terminal provide the control effort of the system and to obtain a finite time

voltage of the capacitor uc and the load current il . From Fig. 8 the convergence of the regulator [12]. An alternative for the tuning

relationship between the state vector x in (11) and the new state decision of the weighting matrices is to analyze the step response

vector w is observed. The state transformation is finally made by of the system in order to jump-start the learning curve necessary

using the transformation matrix V as shown in (13), to select Q and R and be able to apply the LQR design method to

2 332 2 3 a practical problem. Once the LQR algorithm is solved, and the

0 1 0 0

if i1

6 i 7 6 1 1 1 0 76 i 7 feedback matrices are obtained, the implementation would pro-

6 c7 6 76 2 7 ceed with no further calculations of the LQR algorithm, unless

w¼6 7¼6 76 7 ¼ Vx ð13Þ

4 uc 5 4 0 0 0 1 54 i3 5 the circuit and/or load conditions are changed.

il 0 0 1 0 uc On the computation of the sate vector of references wref ; the ref-

erence filtering current is computed using the reference current

generator as given in Eqs. (1)–(3). The references for the terminal

capacitor voltage and the current through the capacitor are formed

from the determination of the positive sequence component of the

source voltages, as presented in [15]. Despite the consistency of the

state references, as an important part of the proof of control con-

vergence given in [12], the unconsidered disturbances such as

lighting strikes, faults, or large load changes might saturate the

control leading to imperfect tracking [12], therefore, those condi-

tions and perturbations are left out of the experimental simula-

tions. In addition, in order to avoid the complexity of forming a

reference for the load current, the gain matrix K is reduced to

K ¼ ½ K 1 K 2 K 3 0 . It is necessary to verify that this reduction

of the state feedback results in shifting the closed-loop eigenvalues

Fig. 8. Equivalent circuit of the shunt hybrid filter. to the left of s, in order to maintain the system stable [15,26].

158 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

Fig. 9. Control diagram of the shunt APF under the SHF compensation scheme.

Fig. 10. Flow chart of the calculation of the LQR feedback gain matrix.

Simulation results matrices for each phase a, b, c, according the flow chart of

Fig. 10. The resulting feedback matrices for each phase are given as,

The test system used is that of Fig. 4. For this case, the LQR-

based switching current controller, developed in the previous sec- K a ¼ ½ 49:9468 9:3787 34:5637

tion for the shunt APF, is used. For instance, the weighting matrix K b ¼ ½ 49:9460 9:3795 34:7046 ð16Þ

to minimize the performance index of the LQR problem is selected

K c ¼ ½ 49:9450 9:3805 34:7665

as Q ¼ diagð½ 25 10 3 0 Þ, where diag stands for diagonal

matrix, and R ¼ 0:01. Although the LQR switching band current The switching commands are then to be generated according to

controller is claimed to be robust [15], and sometimes, only the Eqs. (9) and (10) and the control implementation for the shunt APF

calculation of the feedback matrix of a single-phase is performed is to be implemented as illustrated in Fig. 9.

and the results used for the other two phases [12,15], for this case The results obtained from the simulation with Matlab/

study, we have decided to calculate the reduced feedback gain SimulinkÒ are shown in Fig. 11. It can be observed that now, both,

H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 159

the load voltages shown in Fig. 11(a), and the source currents by the shunt APF. It can be also noticed that the ripple current is

shown in Fig. 11(b), become balanced and free of harmonics once now smaller in amplitude.

the shunt APF goes into operation at one cycle of simulation. The For this case, the three-phase rms filtering current was 8.54 A,

THD index for load voltages and source currents is null. In addition, giving a KVA rating of the APF of 2.6 KVA. It becomes clear that

the source currents are placed in phase with the load voltages, thus the reactive power compensation using the capacitor bank has

compensating the reactive power and achieving a unity load power reduced the necessary KVA rating of the APF. The reduction was

factor. In similar way, please observe from Fig. 11(a) –(c), that approximately 1.8 KVA, from 4.4 KVA to 2.6 KVA, which represents

there is not harmonic ripple contamination into the electric net- a remarkable 41% size reduction of the power electronic converter

work. The high-frequency ripple current has been drained-out needed for the shunt APF. It is as well important to remark that for

directly through the capacitor branch avoiding its propagation into each particular case, the reduction of the necessary KVA rating in

the electric network. Most importantly, the parallel-resonance the shunt APF converter will depend on the amount of reactive

problem, shown in Fig. 5, has been eliminated. This goal has been power compensation to be achieved with the capacitor bank dur-

achieved despite that the frequency response of the electric system ing the process of transforming the shunt APF compensation

is the same as for the previous simulation experiment results of scheme into the SHF compensation scheme.

Fig. 5. The proposed solution will work, no matter the frequency The power flows during the shunt hybrid filter compensation

response of the system under study, or in other words, it ensures are shown in Fig. 12. Now the capacitor bank is supplying the reac-

that the parallel romance problem will not be excited by the har- tive power consumed by the load. As a consequence of a better

monic ripple current. In this sense, the harmonic ripple propaga- tracking control over the filtering currents, see Fig. 11(d), the losses

tion and the parallel resonance problem, associated and triggered have been significantly reduced. The power losses in the shunt APF

by the harmonic ripple current, have been conveniently sup- were reduced by 62%, i.e. from 184 W to 70 W.

pressed as in function of the control signals of the power electronic Fig. 13(a) shows the dc voltage across the inverter input capac-

converter. itors U dc , where the dc capacitors are assumed to be pre-charged

The shunt APF current injected at phase c is illustrated in Fig. 11 and for observation purposes the instantaneous switching power

(d). From this illustration, it can be easily noticed that there has loss signal Ploss is shown in Fig. 13(b).

been a reduction in the amount of the necessary total rms current Under this SHF compensation scheme, the sinusoidal load volt-

injection. As a comparison exercise please observe the current ages observed in Fig. 11(a) are the terminal voltages across the

injection in phase c of Fig. 11 (d) and compare it to the current capacitor, i.e. the voltages at the point of common coupling. There-

injection shown in Fig. 2(d), which is the current injected when fore, a good quality on the load voltages supplying the nonlinear

the compensation of reactive power was planned to be achieved load is ensured, see Fig. 11(a), maintaining the terminal voltages

Fig. 11. Results of the shunt hybrid filter compensation. (a) Load voltages, (b) source currents,(c) load currents and (d) shunt APF injection current at phase c.

Fig. 12. Power flow during the shunt hybrid filter compensation.

160 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

Fig. 13. Electric conditions during compensation, (a) dc voltage V dc at the converter terminals, and power loss P loss observed in the shunt APF.

of the capacitor free of low and high order harmonics. Finally, to Conclusions

complete the analysis of results, the currents through the capacitor

are shown in Fig. 14, where it can be observed that the high- An integrated control for a shunt hybrid filter compensation

frequency ripple current has been drained-out thorough the capac- scheme has been proposed. This integrated control is based on

itor as it was expected and specified in the control design. The total the design of a LQR-based current controller, for a shunt hybrid fil-

harmonic distortion of the capacitor current was found to be ter, which has been specifically designed and proposed in this con-

THDic ¼ 3:1%, barely increasing the rms current, due to the har- tribution for this SHF scheme of compensation in particular. At the

monic ripple current. The ripple current drained through the end of the process, the structure of the SHF is composed by a shunt

capacitor contains high frequency harmonics with relatively low Active Power Filter and a shunt capacitor bank.

amplitude, so that, similar results on the increment of the rms cur- Obtained results have shown a remarkable performance on the

rent through the capacitor will be expected for any other particular elimination of harmonic distortion (null THD index achieved by the

case of study, regardless the current generator reference used for shunt APF) and the compensation of reactive power achieved with

the shunt APF. Therefore, since the capacitor terminal voltage a conventional shunt capacitor bank, is also companied by using

(i.e. the load voltages) and the current through the capacitor were the shunt capacitor bank as a high-pass ripple filter.

included in the state vector control w, the rms voltage and rms The proposed control configuration puts stringent performance

current restrictions and recommendations for the shunt power requirements over the harmonic ripple current inherent to the

capacitor are planned to always meet those imposed by IEEE-18 shunt filtering current. Therefore, the harmonic ripple current

[27]. As the reactive power compensation is planned to be achieved propagation into the electric system has been restricted to a given

by the shunt capacitor, which causes the amplitude of the current path, e.g., to be drained out through the shunt capacitor. This con-

trough the capacitor at fundamental component to be relatively trol action has a very important signification because it provides a

high, the limits imposed by IEEE-18 will always meet, no matter sound solution to the potential presence of parallel-resonance

the circuit parameters of the case of study and the selected current associated to the shunt active filtering process, as well as it avoids

calculator reference for the shunt APF.

H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 161

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Tecnología of México (CONACYT) for financial support to this

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