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Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Electrical Power and Energy Systems


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

Suppression of parallel resonance and mitigation of harmonic distortion


through shunt active power compensation
H.A. Ramos-Carranza a, A. Medina-Ríos b,⇑, J. Segundo c, M. Madrigal d
a
TRACSA S.A.P.I. de C. V. Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico
b
Facultad de Ingeniería Eléctrica, División de Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mich., Mexico
c
Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, CIEP-FI, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., Mexico
d
Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia, Morelia, Mich., Mexico

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this contribution a solution to the parallel resonance problem that can be present in practical applica-
Received 2 November 2014 tions of shunt Active Power Filter (APF) compensation is proposed. The proposed solution involves turn-
Received in revised form 6 August 2015 ing the shunt APF scheme of compensation into a Shunt Hybrid Filter (SHF) configuration. A Linear
Accepted 7 August 2015
Quadratic Regulator (LQR)-based switching controller was specifically designed for this hybrid scheme
of compensation, maintaining stringent performance requirements on the tracking of filtering currents
and the draining of the harmonic ripple currents. Results obtained with Matlab/SimulinkÒ illustrate an
Keywords:
effective and sound system of compensation which also reduces the necessary KVA rating of the APF.
Parallel resonance
Harmonic distortion
Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shunt active power compensation
Active power filter
Shunt hybrid filter

Introduction dynamic response and its easy implementation [5,11–13], whereas


this switching technique maintains a variable modulation fre-
With the continuous increase in the incorporation of nonlinear quency [11,12]. A relevant characteristic, due to the nonlinear nat-
loads in the power network, the harmonic distortion of voltage and ure of the inverter and the PWM modulation techniques, is that the
current waveforms, among other power quality problems, has current injected by the APF into the electric network includes an
become a great concern. This paper focuses on the use of shunt fil- undesired ripple current, i.e., a high frequency current with rela-
tering techniques such as shunt Active Power Filter (APF) and tively low amplitude. For the case of the hysteresis band current
shunt hybrid filter (SHF), to mitigate harmonic distortion and to controller, there is a presence of variable high frequency modula-
compensate reactive power. In particular, the shunt APF has been tion harmonics [11,12]. In some cases this ripple current could lead
demonstrated to be an appropriated tool for the mitigation of har- to some undesirable effects in the electric system, such as har-
monic currents and reactive power compensation [1–10]. monic ripple contamination to the load voltages, due to the feeder
The shunt APF can be modeled as a controlled current source impedance voltage drop at the point of common coupling (PCC),
that supplies a compensation current in parallel with the nonlinear and/or even more, eventually, this ripple current could trigger pos-
load. The main components of a shunt APF are: a reference current sible resonances, being parallel resonances of particular considera-
generator, a switching current controller based on a pulse-width tion due to their severity. These phenomena are described with
modulation (PWM) technique, a power electronic converter (usu- detail in Section ‘Shunt filtering performance in non-stiff systems’.
ally a voltage-source-type PWM inverter), and a dc voltage con- It is known that a path should be provided to drain this high fre-
troller (PI controller). These components make possible the quency ripple current; this goal could be achieved with a LC
injection of the desired filtering currents into the electric system. ripple-filter [14] or a compensator-passive filter structure designed
Usually, the modulation technique used when modeling the shunt for this particular purpose [15]. The necessity of adequate develop-
APF is the hysteresis-band current controller, due to its fast ment an application of techniques to solve potential problems of
resonance and harmonic distortion in diverse electrical networks
has been stressed in more recent contributions [16–18]. In [16]
⇑ Corresponding author.
application of techniques for harmonic mitigation in networks
E-mail addresses: hramos@tracsa.com.mx (H.A. Ramos-Carranza), amedinr@
gmail.com (A. Medina-Ríos), j2ramirez@gmail.com (J. Segundo), manuelmadrigalmtz@ with integration of wind power plants are analyzed through simu-
hotmail.com (M. Madrigal). lation for certain types of wind turbines; considering resonance

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2015.08.008
0142-0615/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 153

and non-resonance operation conditions. Details of the techniques affected, sometimes leading to miss functioning or even failure,
applied are however not given. In [17] frequency scan and modal when these shunt filtering techniques are applied for compensa-
analysis methods are applied for harmonic distortion and system tion of non-stiff electric systems where the source impedance is
resonances identification in wave power plant applications, so that considered, in some literature also referred as weak systems.
appropriate correction measures can be timely undertaken. A dis- Through Matlab/SimulinkÒ simulations the shunt APF and the
tributed series/hybrid-shunt compensation technique is proposed SHF compensation performance and their non-desirable associated
in [18] for harmonic mitigation in industrial/commercial facilities. effects are observed and analyzed. First; the shunt APF compensa-
The main aim of this paper is to provide a strong and high qual- tion scheme is applied and the propagation of the harmonic ripple
ity scheme of compensation, e.g., shunt filtering, when applied to current to the load voltages will be shown. Second; the SHF com-
non-stiff systems. The proposed control is good enough to provide pensation scheme is applied using the same test system, and the
the following goals: (1) To provide a sound solution to the parallel associated parallel resonance phenomenon which can be poten-
resonance problem that can be present in shunt APF compensation, tially present will be shown. In both cases it is important to notice
(2) To allow the correct shunt filtering compensation, (3) To avoid that the wrong compensation performance does not depend on the
the propagation of the harmonic ripple current into the electric reference current generator used by the shunt APF. In fact, these
network, (4) To reduce, as much as possible, the KVA rating of problems will be triggered by the high frequency ripple current
the APF. inherent to the injected shunt APF currents.
During the development of the proposed control methodology
it is necessary to transform the shunt APF scheme of compensation Shunt active power filter – harmonic ripple contamination of load
into a SHF compensation scheme; this is achieved by incorporating voltages
a shunt capacitor bank. Due to the inclusion of the shunt capacitor
bank, which compensates the reactive power, the proposed solu- The shunt APF scheme of compensation in a three-phase four-
tion has the advantage of significantly reducing the KVA rating of wire electric system is illustrated in Fig. 1. In this system an unbal-
the shunt APF converter. Under this new SHF configuration; the anced linear load in parallel with a nonlinear load are supplied by a
shunt APF (active element) performs harmonic current mitigation, balanced voltage source.
and the shunt capacitor (passive element) is placed to compensate The nonlinear load is a 9.41 KVA, 6-pulse diode rectifier and the
reactive power and to provide the path for draining out the har- linear load is a series resistance–inductance branch per phase.
monic ripple current. In order to properly achieve these goals with Table 1 gives the system parameters. The reference current gener-
the SHF; a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) switching current con- ator to be used by the APF is implemented according with [5], and
troller, based on that proposed in [15], is specifically designed for is given by,
this SHF configuration.
2ðPT þ P loss Þ
sinðxt þ /a1 Þ

This contribution is organized as follows: in Section ‘Shunt fil- ifa ðtÞ ¼ ila ðtÞ  ð1Þ
tering performance in non-stiff systems’ the performance of the UT
shunt filtering techniques, shunt APF and shunt SHF, are tested
2ðPT þ P loss Þ
sinðxt þ /a1  2p=3Þ
in a non-stiff three-phase four-wire electric system and the 
ifb ðtÞ ¼ ilb ðtÞ  ð2Þ
obtained results are observed and analyzed. The electric system UT
for the test is the same used throughout the paper. Section ‘Shunt
2ðPT þ P loss Þ
sinðxt þ /a1 þ 2p=3Þ
hybrid filter control’ details the development of the control design 
ifc ðtÞ ¼ ilc ðtÞ  ð3Þ
for the proposed SHF compensation scheme; simulation results UT
obtained with Matlab/SimulinkÒ are compared against those 
where ifk ðtÞ is the reference filtering current of phase k, ilk ðtÞ is the
obtained in Section ‘Shunt filtering performance in non-stiff sys-
line current of phase k, e.g. in this example it corresponds to the
tems’; the main conclusions drawn from this investigation are
load current drawn by the combination of the linear unbalanced
given in Section ‘Conclusions’.
load current and the rectifier load current; the subscript k repre-
sents the phases a, b or c, respectively. P T is the total active power
Shunt filtering performance in non-stiff systems delivered to the load, U T is the sum of the peak value of the source
voltages uk , /a1 is the phase angle of the fundamental component of
This section details how the performance of the shunt APF and the load voltage at phase a, and x is the angular speed at funda-
the SHF compensation schemes are widely and potentially mental frequency f of 60 Hz.

Fig. 1. Shunt active power filter compensation scheme in a 3F4W system.


154 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

Table 1
Circuit parameters.

uk Supply phase voltage 176.7 V rms


Ls Source inductance 0.1 mH
Rs Source resistance 0.0015 X
Lf Energy link inductance 2 mH
Rf Energy link resistance 0.1 X
RL Rectifier load resistance 100 X
Ra Load resistance at phase a 15.4 X
Rb Load resistance at phase b 15.4 X
Rc Load resistance at phase c 7X
La Load inductance at phase a 11.5 mH
Lb Load inductance at phase b 15.4 mH
Lc Load inductance at phase c 23.5 mH Fig. 3. Power flow with shunt APF compensation.
C1 ; C2 DC side converter capacitors 500 lF
U dc DC voltage converter 1000 V

Source currents isk , before and after compensation, are shown in


Once the reference currents are generated they are supplied to a
Fig. 2(c). It can be noticed that those are balanced as soon as the
hysteresis-band current controller [5] to generate the control sig-
APF goes into operation. It is evident, by observing the currents
nals of the voltage source inverter (VSI) and to reproduce the actual
waveform of Fig. 2(c), the low order harmonic current cancelation
filtering current to be injected into the electric system by the APF.
by the APF. The total harmonic distortion THDis of the source cur-
The capacitors C 1 and C 2 are used for energy storage and even
rents, before the shunt APF compensation is on average 8.8%
though the capacitors instantaneous voltage slightly fluctuates
(due to low order harmonics); and after the compensation the
due to harmonics, a constant dc voltage U dc at the inverter termi-
value of THDis has been reduced to 6.5% (due to high order harmon-
nals must be kept. Since the losses produced by switching and
ics) just below the recommended limit, even though the reference
capacitor voltage variations must be supplied by the source, a
current generator is calculating the reference filtering currents to
power loss signal P loss (controlled via a PI controller) is added to
achieve 0% of harmonic distortion [5], i.e. the shunt APF is injecting
PT in (1)–(3).
all the low order harmonics in order to be able to mitigate the total
The system of Fig. 1 was implemented in Matlab/SimulinkÒ and
distortion of the source currents. The resulting THDis after the
the results obtained from the simulation are illustrated in Fig. 2.
shunt APF compensation is only due the ripple current. For obser-
The load voltages uk are shown in Fig. 2(a); it can be noticed that
vation purposes, the shunt APF filtering current injected at phase c
the voltages are harmonic ripple contaminated as soon as the
is illustrated in Fig. 2(d). Please observe the ripple current inherent
APF goes into operation at one cycle of simulation; the total har-
to the filtering current.
monic distortion THDu of the load voltages after the shunt APF
On the other hand, Fig. 3 shows the power flows during the
compensation is on average 10%, beyond the recommended limit
shunt APF compensation. When the APF is placed to perform reac-
in [19]. In addition, this harmonic contamination of the load volt-
tive power compensation, in addition to the well identified har-
ages will cause current distortion in any other load that may be
monic mitigation, the shunt APF has the capability to inject a
connected at its terminal bus, as it can be observed from Fig. 2
controlled three-phase reactive current component at fundamental
(b). Currents ilk , are distorted/unbalanced (low order harmonics
frequency in order to deliver the reactive power required by the
due to the current drawn from the load) and harmonic ripple con-
load. And as observed from Fig. 2(a) and (c), during compensation,
taminated (high order harmonics due to the harmonic ripple prop-
the source currents are placed in phase with the load voltages at
agation to the voltages supplying the load), see Figs. 1 and 2
fundamental frequency. This injection of reactive current compo-
(a) and (b).

Fig. 2. Results of the shunt APF compensation. (a) Load voltages, (b) load currents, (c) source currents and (d) shunt APF current at phase c.
H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 155

nent at fundamental frequency is usually the mayor contribution different structures of hybrid filter have evolved as a cost-
to the total rms filtering current. Therefore, the reactive current effective solution for the compensation of nonlinear loads [20–
injection is the mayor contribution to the necessary KVA rating 25]. The hybrid filter topology presented in this paper consists of
of the shunt APF when it is placed to compensate both; harmonic a shunt APF, and a shunt capacitor bank acting as a reactive power
currents and reactive power. compensator, see Fig. 4. For this compensation scheme, the shunt
The three-phase rms filtering current was observed to be APF placed to perform harmonic cancelation and reactive power
14.49 A giving a rating of 4.43 KVA, which for practical applications compensation is not included in its compensation mechanism. This
can be an expensive solution, mainly due to the KVA size of the assumption does not imply any changes in the control algorithm of
converter used in the shunt APF structure. Then, it is obvious that the shunt APF or the current generator reference. This is because
if we decide to compensate reactive power in a conventional way the shunt APF sees the capacitor bank as an added load component,
with a passive element, e.g., placing a shunt capacitor bank, it i.e. another load, when sensing the load currents ilk just before the
may turn out to be useful for the reduction of the necessary APF shunt capacitor bank is placed. It is easy to see this analogy from
KVA rating. Thus, the compensation scheme is a SHF, where the Figs. 1 and 4 for the shunt APF compensation scheme and the
shunt APF would be aimed to mitigate the harmonic currents, SHF compensation scheme, respectively. Therefore, as a result of
and the shunt capacitor bank would be aimed for the compensa- this basic assumption, there is no need for a modification on the
tion of reactive power. current generator reference in Eqs. (1)–(3), and the shunt APF is
directly implemented as in the previous subsection. Then, contin-
uing with the compensation process, the capacitor bank shown
Shunt hybrid filter – parallel resonance phenomenon in Fig. 4, is placed to supply the three-phase reactive power
Q 3/ ¼ 3:479 KVAr, which is the reactive power demanded by the
A major drawback of active power filters is their high rating, e.g. load, see Fig. 3.
up to 80% of the nonlinear load in some practical applications [20]. The capacitor reactance and capacitance are calculated as [25],
The problems emerge when the APF becomes a costly solution for
harmonic current mitigation and reactive power compensation.
V 2LL
Due to economic concerns and problems associated with insula- X Cf ¼ ð4Þ
Q 3/
tion, as well as series or parallel connection of switches [20],

1
Cf ¼ ð5Þ
xX C f

where X C f is the capacitive reactance, V LL is the line-to-line rms vol-


tage, and C f is the capacitance per phase. To achieve reactive power
compensation, the capacitance per phase of the capacitor bank was
found to be C f ¼ 99:30 lF.
The test system of Fig. 4 was implemented in Matlab/SimulinkÒ
and the simulation results are shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 5(a) illustrates
the load voltages; once the shunt APF is switched on after one per-
iod. Discordant waveforms appear, and this behavior may be
caused by a resonance condition produced by the harmonic inter-
action of the APF, the capacitor bank and the load. Consequently,
the same situation is presented in the source current waveforms
Fig. 4. Shunt hybrid filter compensation circuit.
of Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 5. Parallel resonance phenomenon. (a) Load voltages, (b) source currents.
156 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

To identify the possible resonance problem, an analysis using ator reference is used for the calculation of the reference filtering
the equivalent circuit of the electric system for phase a, as shown currents.
in Fig. 6, is performed. The linear load impedance is also included Even though there are many approaches for the calculation fil-
in the analysis. tering currents reference in the literature, usually, for theoretical
The source impedance and load data are the same given in purposes, they are presented without including a high-pass filter
Table 1. The equivalent impedance of the circuit at any harmonic or any other control structure for draining out the harmonic ripple
order h is given by, current.
So far, in this section it has been stated that the path for drain-
ing the high frequency ripple current, as required for practical
1 applications [14], has to be included as an important part of the
Za ¼    ð6Þ control strategy and in the compensation structure. The motivation
ð1=ðRs þ jhxLs ÞÞ þ ð1=ðRa þ jhxLa ÞÞ þ 1= j hx1C
f relies on avoiding miss functioning or even failure during compen-
The response of the equivalent impedance Z a at different har- sation as observed above. In the section to follow, a Linear Quadra-
monic frequencies is illustrated in Fig. 7(a); similar results were tic Regulator (LQR)-based switching controller is designed to
obtained for phases b and c. It can be observed that there is a strong generate the inverter control signals. The main purpose is to
parallel resonant frequency taking place at the 27th harmonic, i.e. restrict the ripple current propagation into the electric system to
at 1, 620 Hz. a given path, i.e. a path for draining the ripple current in a planned
This resonance peak occurs mainly by the addition of the capac- manner, thus allowing the correct performance of the hybrid filter-
itor bank, and it is excited by the ripple current inherent to the APF ing process.
currents. Consistent information with the above observation is
obtained from the harmonic spectrum of the load voltage for phase Shunt hybrid filter control
a illustrated in Fig. 7(b). It can be observed that the harmonic mag-
nitudes for any frequency component increase as they approach Solving the resonance problems and the harmonic ripple
the parallel resonance shown in Fig. 7(a). contamination to the load voltages
The unexpected and/or undesirable results, observed in Figs. 2
and 5, due to the parallel resonance phenomenon, and previously The LQR method [26] is a powerful technique for designing con-
due to the harmonic ripple contamination of the load voltages, trollers for complex systems that have stringent performance
make necessary to extent the analysis and/or the control design requirements. The LQR method seeks to find the optimal controller
for these compensation schemes. Please notice that both outcomes, that minimizes a given cost function. This cost function is param-
the harmonic ripple contamination originated from the shunt APF eterized by two matrices, Q and R, that weight the state vector
to the load voltages and later to the load currents, as well as the and the system input, respectively. In the next section, a LQR-
parallel resonance, are triggered by the high frequency harmonic switching controller is designed to be able to generate the control
ripple current inherent to the injection currents, see Fig. 2(d), signals of the voltage source inverter of the shunt APF under the
and these problems can be present no matter what current gener- SHF compensation scheme. This LQR-switching controller is
designed to put strong performance requirements on the harmonic
ripple current, allowing the SHF compensation process to work
successfully.

LQR-switching controller

For the designed LQR-based switching controller the optimum


control of the system is based on minimizing the performance
index of the form [12],
Fig. 6. Equivalent circuit for parallel resonance analysis.

Fig. 7. Parallel resonance at phase a. (a) Driving point impedance, (b) harmonic content of load voltage.
H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 157

Z 1
Then, the state equation (12) can be transformed into a new
J¼ fðw  wref ÞT Qðw  wref Þ þ uT Rugdt ð7Þ
0 state equation as
where w is the state vector and wref is a desired reference state vec-
tor, Q is a Hermitian matrix or a symmetric positive semi-definite
matrix, R is a symmetric positive definite matrix. For this particular _ ¼ VAV 1 w þ VB1 us þ VB2 m ¼ Kw þ  1 us þ  2 m
w ð14Þ
case, R is scalar and sets a penalty on the maximum control action, Matrices K,  1 and  2 can be obtained by,
m is the optimal control law and T is the transpose operator. The
minimization of the cost function results in a feedback control of
the form 2 3
R 2U 3
 Lf 0  L1 0 2 3
6 7
dc
f f 0
m ¼ Kðw  wref Þ ð8Þ 6 R Rf
6 s R 7
7 617
6 Lf 7
6 Udc 7
6L Lf
 RLss  L1s  L1  L1eq  RLss þ L f 7 6 Ls 7 6 7
K¼6 s f f
7;  1 ¼ 6 7;  2 ¼ 6 Lf 7
where the gain matrix K is obtained by the solution of the steady- 6 0 1
0 0 7 405 6 7
6 Cf 7 4 0 5
state Riccati equation [7]. Once a suitable gain matrix K is selected, 4 5 0
0 0 1 R
 Leqeq 0
the switching control is obtained from [12,15]: Leq

ð15Þ
m ¼ hysðKðw  wref ÞÞ ð9Þ
For the control law represented by (8), it is assumed that we
where the hys function is defined by
have full control over m and the switching control is based on a lin-
if Kðw  wref Þ > Di =2 then hysðKðw  wref ÞÞ ¼ 1 ear combination of multiple states [15]. For most realistic applica-
ð10Þ tions, the LQR problem is solved via a computational package, such
else if Kðw  wref Þ < Di =2 then hysðKðw  wref ÞÞ ¼ 1
as MatlabÒ. The MatlabÒ command lqrðK;  ; Q ; RÞ, with
This technique is called switching band tracking control in [12],  ¼  1 þ  2 , solves the LQR problem and the associated Riccati
and the selection of Di determines the switching frequency while equation. This command calculates the matrix of optimum feed-
tracking the reference. back control K, so that the control feedback law (8) minimizes
The equivalent circuit of the hybrid filter compensation scheme the performance index (7) subject to (14).
is shown in Fig. 8, where the combination of both linear and non- Fig. 9 illustrates the control diagram of the shunt active power
linear loads is represented by a series RL equivalent load. The state filter. It can be observed how the reference current generator and
vector x and the state-space equation are obtained from the anal- the LQR-based switching current controller are incorporated
ysis of Fig. 8 as, together to complete the proposed control strategy for the SHF
T compensation scheme. The low complexity in the implementation
x ¼ ½ i1 i2 i3 uc  ð11Þ
of the LQR switching current control, to generate the switching
2 3 commands of the inverter, is similar to the hysteresis band current
 RLss 0 0  L1s 213 2 3
6 7 0 controller [12], which is widely used in shunt active power filter
Ls
6 0 R
 Lf 0  L1 7 607 6 V dc 7 applications [1–5], see Fig. 9.
6 7 6 Lf 7
x_ ¼ 6
f f
7x þ 6 7
6 7us þ 6 7 ð12Þ
6 R 1 7 4 5 6 7m Fig. 10 shows the flow chart of the LQR calculations to obtain
6 0 0  Leqeq Leq 7
0 4 05 the feedback gain matrix K. Given a set of weighting matrices, Q
4 5
1 1
 C1 0 0 0 and R, the process in the calculation of matrix K becomes simple.
Cf Cf f
However, the challenge lies, precisely, on how the weighting
For convenience, the estate vector x can be transformed into a matrices Q and R are chosen. Most of the times, the weighting
new state vector w, which is expressed in terms of the local vari- matrix Q reflects the importance of the states to be controlled
ables of compensation and/or the control variables, e.g., the filter- and the selection of an appropriate value of R has to be chosen to
ing current if , the current trough the capacitor ic , the terminal provide the control effort of the system and to obtain a finite time
voltage of the capacitor uc and the load current il . From Fig. 8 the convergence of the regulator [12]. An alternative for the tuning
relationship between the state vector x in (11) and the new state decision of the weighting matrices is to analyze the step response
vector w is observed. The state transformation is finally made by of the system in order to jump-start the learning curve necessary
using the transformation matrix V as shown in (13), to select Q and R and be able to apply the LQR design method to
2 332 2 3 a practical problem. Once the LQR algorithm is solved, and the
0 1 0 0
if i1
6 i 7 6 1 1 1 0 76 i 7 feedback matrices are obtained, the implementation would pro-
6 c7 6 76 2 7 ceed with no further calculations of the LQR algorithm, unless
w¼6 7¼6 76 7 ¼ Vx ð13Þ
4 uc 5 4 0 0 0 1 54 i3 5 the circuit and/or load conditions are changed.
il 0 0 1 0 uc On the computation of the sate vector of references wref ; the ref-
erence filtering current is computed using the reference current
generator as given in Eqs. (1)–(3). The references for the terminal
capacitor voltage and the current through the capacitor are formed
from the determination of the positive sequence component of the
source voltages, as presented in [15]. Despite the consistency of the
state references, as an important part of the proof of control con-
vergence given in [12], the unconsidered disturbances such as
lighting strikes, faults, or large load changes might saturate the
control leading to imperfect tracking [12], therefore, those condi-
tions and perturbations are left out of the experimental simula-
tions. In addition, in order to avoid the complexity of forming a
reference for the load current, the gain matrix K is reduced to
K ¼ ½ K 1 K 2 K 3 0 . It is necessary to verify that this reduction
of the state feedback results in shifting the closed-loop eigenvalues
Fig. 8. Equivalent circuit of the shunt hybrid filter. to the left of s, in order to maintain the system stable [15,26].
158 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

Fig. 9. Control diagram of the shunt APF under the SHF compensation scheme.

Fig. 10. Flow chart of the calculation of the LQR feedback gain matrix.

Simulation results matrices for each phase a, b, c, according the flow chart of
Fig. 10. The resulting feedback matrices for each phase are given as,
The test system used is that of Fig. 4. For this case, the LQR-
based switching current controller, developed in the previous sec- K a ¼ ½ 49:9468 9:3787 34:5637 
tion for the shunt APF, is used. For instance, the weighting matrix K b ¼ ½ 49:9460 9:3795 34:7046  ð16Þ
to minimize the performance index of the LQR problem is selected
K c ¼ ½ 49:9450 9:3805 34:7665 
as Q ¼ diagð½ 25 10 3 0 Þ, where diag stands for diagonal
matrix, and R ¼ 0:01. Although the LQR switching band current The switching commands are then to be generated according to
controller is claimed to be robust [15], and sometimes, only the Eqs. (9) and (10) and the control implementation for the shunt APF
calculation of the feedback matrix of a single-phase is performed is to be implemented as illustrated in Fig. 9.
and the results used for the other two phases [12,15], for this case The results obtained from the simulation with Matlab/
study, we have decided to calculate the reduced feedback gain SimulinkÒ are shown in Fig. 11. It can be observed that now, both,
H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 159

the load voltages shown in Fig. 11(a), and the source currents by the shunt APF. It can be also noticed that the ripple current is
shown in Fig. 11(b), become balanced and free of harmonics once now smaller in amplitude.
the shunt APF goes into operation at one cycle of simulation. The For this case, the three-phase rms filtering current was 8.54 A,
THD index for load voltages and source currents is null. In addition, giving a KVA rating of the APF of 2.6 KVA. It becomes clear that
the source currents are placed in phase with the load voltages, thus the reactive power compensation using the capacitor bank has
compensating the reactive power and achieving a unity load power reduced the necessary KVA rating of the APF. The reduction was
factor. In similar way, please observe from Fig. 11(a) –(c), that approximately 1.8 KVA, from 4.4 KVA to 2.6 KVA, which represents
there is not harmonic ripple contamination into the electric net- a remarkable 41% size reduction of the power electronic converter
work. The high-frequency ripple current has been drained-out needed for the shunt APF. It is as well important to remark that for
directly through the capacitor branch avoiding its propagation into each particular case, the reduction of the necessary KVA rating in
the electric network. Most importantly, the parallel-resonance the shunt APF converter will depend on the amount of reactive
problem, shown in Fig. 5, has been eliminated. This goal has been power compensation to be achieved with the capacitor bank dur-
achieved despite that the frequency response of the electric system ing the process of transforming the shunt APF compensation
is the same as for the previous simulation experiment results of scheme into the SHF compensation scheme.
Fig. 5. The proposed solution will work, no matter the frequency The power flows during the shunt hybrid filter compensation
response of the system under study, or in other words, it ensures are shown in Fig. 12. Now the capacitor bank is supplying the reac-
that the parallel romance problem will not be excited by the har- tive power consumed by the load. As a consequence of a better
monic ripple current. In this sense, the harmonic ripple propaga- tracking control over the filtering currents, see Fig. 11(d), the losses
tion and the parallel resonance problem, associated and triggered have been significantly reduced. The power losses in the shunt APF
by the harmonic ripple current, have been conveniently sup- were reduced by 62%, i.e. from 184 W to 70 W.
pressed as in function of the control signals of the power electronic Fig. 13(a) shows the dc voltage across the inverter input capac-
converter. itors U dc , where the dc capacitors are assumed to be pre-charged
The shunt APF current injected at phase c is illustrated in Fig. 11 and for observation purposes the instantaneous switching power
(d). From this illustration, it can be easily noticed that there has loss signal Ploss is shown in Fig. 13(b).
been a reduction in the amount of the necessary total rms current Under this SHF compensation scheme, the sinusoidal load volt-
injection. As a comparison exercise please observe the current ages observed in Fig. 11(a) are the terminal voltages across the
injection in phase c of Fig. 11 (d) and compare it to the current capacitor, i.e. the voltages at the point of common coupling. There-
injection shown in Fig. 2(d), which is the current injected when fore, a good quality on the load voltages supplying the nonlinear
the compensation of reactive power was planned to be achieved load is ensured, see Fig. 11(a), maintaining the terminal voltages

Fig. 11. Results of the shunt hybrid filter compensation. (a) Load voltages, (b) source currents,(c) load currents and (d) shunt APF injection current at phase c.

Fig. 12. Power flow during the shunt hybrid filter compensation.
160 H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161

Fig. 13. Electric conditions during compensation, (a) dc voltage V dc at the converter terminals, and power loss P loss observed in the shunt APF.

Fig. 14. Capacitor current during shunt hybrid filter compensation.

of the capacitor free of low and high order harmonics. Finally, to Conclusions
complete the analysis of results, the currents through the capacitor
are shown in Fig. 14, where it can be observed that the high- An integrated control for a shunt hybrid filter compensation
frequency ripple current has been drained-out thorough the capac- scheme has been proposed. This integrated control is based on
itor as it was expected and specified in the control design. The total the design of a LQR-based current controller, for a shunt hybrid fil-
harmonic distortion of the capacitor current was found to be ter, which has been specifically designed and proposed in this con-
THDic ¼ 3:1%, barely increasing the rms current, due to the har- tribution for this SHF scheme of compensation in particular. At the
monic ripple current. The ripple current drained through the end of the process, the structure of the SHF is composed by a shunt
capacitor contains high frequency harmonics with relatively low Active Power Filter and a shunt capacitor bank.
amplitude, so that, similar results on the increment of the rms cur- Obtained results have shown a remarkable performance on the
rent through the capacitor will be expected for any other particular elimination of harmonic distortion (null THD index achieved by the
case of study, regardless the current generator reference used for shunt APF) and the compensation of reactive power achieved with
the shunt APF. Therefore, since the capacitor terminal voltage a conventional shunt capacitor bank, is also companied by using
(i.e. the load voltages) and the current through the capacitor were the shunt capacitor bank as a high-pass ripple filter.
included in the state vector control w, the rms voltage and rms The proposed control configuration puts stringent performance
current restrictions and recommendations for the shunt power requirements over the harmonic ripple current inherent to the
capacitor are planned to always meet those imposed by IEEE-18 shunt filtering current. Therefore, the harmonic ripple current
[27]. As the reactive power compensation is planned to be achieved propagation into the electric system has been restricted to a given
by the shunt capacitor, which causes the amplitude of the current path, e.g., to be drained out through the shunt capacitor. This con-
trough the capacitor at fundamental component to be relatively trol action has a very important signification because it provides a
high, the limits imposed by IEEE-18 will always meet, no matter sound solution to the potential presence of parallel-resonance
the circuit parameters of the case of study and the selected current associated to the shunt active filtering process, as well as it avoids
calculator reference for the shunt APF.
H.A. Ramos-Carranza et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 75 (2016) 152–161 161

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