1 tayangan

Judul Asli: What is Math

Diunggah oleh Exekiel Albert Yee Tulio

- Chapter 3 Trigonometry
- A rial Generalization of the Rogers-Ramanujan Identities
- Introducing Trigonometry (1)
- Trigonometry Questions 1
- Chapter 18 Presentation
- UT Dallas Syllabus for se2370.501 05s taught by Weichen Wong (wew021000)
- 01553624
- 2014-2015 advanced geometry 9 weeks calendar
- Isometrik Drawing
- Outline of discrete mathematics.doc
- Fabrication Calculation[1]
- Trig No Me Try 5
- ued400 wissmannhannah ubdstage3 1
- Trigonometry Worksheet
- X Math Ch8 Introduction to Trigonometry Chapter Notes Nov
- Solving Right Triangles
- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs5333.001 06f taught by Nancy Van Ness (nancyvn)
- Summative Test Trigonometry
- finial unit 4 sum- difference double angle
- Chapter 1 - Analytic Trigonometry

Anda di halaman 1dari 6

It might seem obvious: We hope we know what we're teaching -- and that our

students know what they're learning! But responses to that question can be surprisingly diverse.

Before you read on, please take a few minutes to reflect and record your own thoughts on "What

is math?"

a math Web site, and I write about topics in math

education. Yet I cannot easily express what math is. I'm

in good company. Bertrand Russell has quipped,

"Mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we

never know what we are talking about, nor whether what

we are saying is true." Math teacher Sanderson M. Smith

observes that "students can gain a tremendous

appreciation for mathematics if they understand that the

question 'What is mathematics?' has been analyzed and

debated since the time of the Pythagoreans, around 550

B.C. "

and scope of mathematics so that we might provide our

students with a richer learning experience and help them

more fully appreciate the beauty and power of

mathematics.

"WHAT IS MATH?"

In my math classes, no matter how much attention we pay to the five content standards and five

process standards, many of my students seem to focus on number and operation when they share

their thoughts and feelings about math. One of my students had an "aha!" moment the morning

after a student-led math night: "I look at math a different way now. I've usually thought of math

as something we need to do, to know how much money we need to pay, things like that. But this

morning I woke up and said, 'Wow! Math is everywhere!'"

A 2005 Math Cats writing contest on "What is math?" produced these reflections:

From an elementary school volunteer: "Math is more than a subject we learn in school. Math

is every breath we take and every second of the day. From the moment we wake up in the

morning, math is the core of everything we do..."

From a first-grade teacher:

"Math is you.

Math is me.

Math is everything we see!

Infinity and beyond our wildest dreams

Math encompasses all extremes!"

From a 13-year-old: "Math is the entire world simplified on a piece of paper... Math is

ingeniousness morphed into a tiny simple formula so we can harness its fantastic powers."

From a 12-year-old: "Math is the universal language of the world."

From an 11-year-old: "No one can live without math; it means different things to different

people. But to me it means love, liberty, learning. I could keep going but to sum it up, math is

my life."

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines mathematics as "the science of numbers and their

operations, interrelations, combinations, generalizations, and abstractions and of space

configurations and their structure, measurement, transformations, and generalizations."

Professor Robert H. Lewis writes: "Mathematics is not about answers, it's about processes." He

observes that, far too often, the way in which students learn math is equivalent to building a

scaffold without ever constructing the building that the scaffolding is intended to support. "The

real 'building' in the mathematics sense is the true mathematical understanding, the true ability to

think, perceive, and analyze mathematically."

Professor Dave Moursund suggests that mathematics can be divided into three overlapping

categories:

measurement, dance, music, and so on.

"mathematics as an academic discipline" to be studied

"mathematics as an interdisciplinary language and a tool"

He notes that most school mathematics focuses on the third category, but that we need to

embrace all three. "Relatively few K-12 teachers study enough mathematics so that they

understand and appreciate the breadth, depth, complexity, and beauty of the discipline."

Ask Dr. Math at the Math Forum has answered the question What is math? in various thought-

provoking ways over the years. Here are a few snippets.

"Stripped to its barest essence, mathematics is the derivation of theorems from axioms. ...

Mathematics is a collection of extended, collaborative games of 'what if', played by

mathematicians who make up sets of rules (axioms) and then explore the consequences

(theorems) of following those rules."

"To me, mathematics is a discipline that seeks understanding of the patterns and structures of

constructs of the human mind. Understanding has no end to its depth, and mathematics seeks

the highest standards of understanding by demanding rigor in its foundations and in its

development..."

"If you asked a dozen mathematicians... what math is, you would probably get a dozen

answers...My own favorite definition is that math is the study of abstractions. That is, we

isolate one or a few features of some kind of object for study, and see what we can learn

about the behavior of those features while ignoring everything else about them: features like

number, shape, or direction."

"I would say math is both an art (a system of skills used to do calculations, devise proofs, and

so on) and a science (a system of knowledge about numbers, shapes, and other abstract

entities, and a way of gaining that knowledge). That is, it's both a way of doing (an art) and a

way of learning (a science)."

In Mathematics: The Science of Pattern, Keith Devlin describes Egyptian and Babylonian

mathematics up to 500 B.C. as "the study of number," and the era of Greek mathematics from

500 B.C. to 300 A.D. as "the study of number and shape." In the mid-1600's, with the invention

of calculus by Newton and Leibniz, mathematics became "the study of number, shape, motion,

change, and space." As interest grew in mathematics itself, "by the end of the nineteenth century,

mathematics had become the study of number, shape, motion, change, and space, and of the

mathematical tools that are used in this study." In the past century, mathematical activity and

knowledge has increased more than a thousand fold. Devlin describes mathematics as the

"science of patterns... patterns of counting, patterns of reasoning and communicating, patterns of

motion and change, patterns of shape, patterns of symmetry and regularity, and patterns of

position."

What does mathematics mean to you and your students? How do they respond to the experts'

characterizations of mathematics? The discussion is sure to give you new insights into your

students' thinking and to give them new insights into the meaning of mathematics.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Mathematics: The Science of Patterns: The Search for Order in Life, Mind, and the Universe, by

Keith Devlin, Scientific American Library, 1997.

The Math Process Standards Series, edited by Susan O'Connell. Heinemann, 2007-2008.

In each grade band, five books promote mathematical thinking through a focus on one of the five

process standards (problem-solving, communication, reasoning and proof, representation, and

connections); each book comes with a CD of editable resource materials.

Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. Math is

all around us, in everything we do. It is the building block for everything in our daily lives,

including mobile devices, architecture (ancient and modern), art, money, engineering, and even

sports.

Since the beginning of recorded history, mathematic discovery has been at the forefront of every

civilized society, and in use in even the most primitive of cultures. The needs of math arose

based on the wants of society. The more complex a society, the more complex the mathematical

needs. Primitive tribes needed little more than the ability to count, but also relied on math to

calculate the position of the sun and the physics of hunting

contributed to mathematics as we know it today. The Sumerians were the first people to develop

a counting system. Mathematicians developed arithmetic, which includes basic operations,

multiplication, fractions and square roots. The Sumerians’ system passed through the Akkadian

Empire to the Babylonians around 300 B.C. Six hundred years later, in America, the Mayans

developed elaborate calendar systems and were skilled astronomers. About this time, the concept

of zero was developed.

As civilizations developed, mathematicians began to work with geometry, which computes areas

and volumes to make angular measurements and has many practical applications. Geometry is

used in everything from home construction to fashion and interior design.

Geometry went hand in hand with algebra, invented in the ninth century by a Persian

mathematician, Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi. He also developed quick methods for

multiplying and diving numbers, which are known as algorithms — a corruption of his name.

Algebra offered civilizations a way to divide inheritances and allocate resources. The study of

algebra meant mathematicians were solving linear equations and systems, as well as quadratics,

and delving into positive and negative solutions. Mathematicians in ancient times also began to

look at number theory. With origins in the construction of shape, number theory looks at figurate

numbers, the characterization of numbers, and theorems.

The study of math within early civilizations was the building blocks for the math of the Greeks,

who developed the model of abstract mathematics through geometry. Greece, with its incredible

architecture and complex system of government, was the model of mathematic achievement until

modern times. Greek mathematicians were divided into several schools:

The Ionian School, founded by Thales, who is often credited for having given the first

deductive proofs and developing five basic theorems in plane geometry.

The Pythagorean School, founded by Pythagoras, who studied proportion, plane and solid

geometry, and number theory.

The Eleatic School, which included Zeno of Elea, famous for his four paradoxes.

The Sophist School, which is credited for offering higher education in the advanced Greek

cities. Sophists provided instruction on public debate using abstract reasoning.

The Platonic School, founded by Plato, who encouraged research in mathematics in a

setting much like a modern university.

The School of Eudoxus, founded by Eudoxus, who developed the theory of proportion and

magnitude and produced many theorems in plane geometry

The School of Aristotle, also known as the Lyceum, was founded by Aristotle and followed

the Platonic school.

In addition to the Greek mathematicians listed above, a number of Greeks made an indelible

mark on the history of mathematics. Archimedes, Apollonius, Diophantus, Pappus, and Euclid

all came from this era. To better understand the sequence and how these mathematicians

influenced each other, visit this timeline.

During this time, mathematicians began working with trigonometry. Computational in nature,

trigonometry requires the measurement of angles and the computation of trigonometric

functions, which include sine, cosine, tangent, and their reciprocals. Trigonometry relies on the

synthetic geometry developed by Greek mathematicians like Euclid. For example, Ptolemy's

theorem gives rules for the chords of the sum and difference of angles, which correspond to the

sum and difference formulas for sines and cosines. In past cultures, trigonometry was applied to

astronomy and the computation of angles in the celestial sphere.

After the fall of Rome, the development of mathematics was taken on by the Arabs, then the

Europeans. Fibonacci was one of the first European mathematicians, and was famous for his

theories on arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. The Renaissance led to advances that included

decimal fractions, logarithms, and projective geometry. Number theory was greatly expanded

upon, and theories like probability and analytic geometry ushered in a new age of mathematics,

with calculus at the forefront.

Development of calculus

In the 17th century, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz independently developed the

foundations for calculus. Calculus development went through three periods: anticipation,

development and rigorization. In the anticipation stage, mathematicians were attempting to use

techniques that involved infinite processes to find areas under curves or maximize certain

qualities. In the development stage, Newton and Leibniz brought these techniques together

through the derivative and integral. Though their methods were not always logically sound,

mathematicians in the 18th century took on the rigorization stage, and were able to justify them

and create the final stage of calculus. Today, we define the derivative and integral in terms of

limits.

taken a more theoretical approach. Discrete mathematics is the branch of math that deals with

objects that can assume only distinct, separated value. Discrete objects can be characterized by

integers, whereas continuous objects require real numbers. Discrete mathematics is the

mathematical language of computer science, as it includes the study of algorithms. Fields of

discrete mathematics include combinatorics, graph theory, and the theory of computation.

People often wonder what relevance mathematicians serve today. In a modern world, math such

as applied mathematics is not only relevant, it's crucial. Applied mathematics is the branches of

mathematics that are involved in the study of the physical, biological, or sociological world. The

idea of applied math is to create a group of methods that solve problems in science. Modern

areas of applied math include mathematical physics, mathematical biology, control theory,

aerospace engineering, and math finance. Not only does applied math solve problems, but it also

discovers new problems or develops new engineering disciplines. Applied mathematicians

require expertise in many areas of math and science, physical intuition, common sense, and

collaboration. The common approach in applied math is to build a mathematical model of a

phenomenon, solve the model, and develop recommendations for performance improvement.

While not necessarily an opposite to applied mathematics, pure mathematics is driven by abstract

problems, rather than real world problems. Much of what's pursued by pure mathematicians can

have their roots in concrete physical problems, but a deeper understanding of these phenomena

brings about problems and technicalities. These abstract problems and technicalities are what

pure mathematics attempts to solve, and these attempts have led to major discoveries for

mankind, including the Universal Turing Machine, theorized by Alan Turing in 1937. The

Universal Turing Machine, which began as an abstract idea, later laid the groundwork for the

development of the modern computer. Pure mathematics is abstract and based in theory, and is

thus not constrained by the limitations of the physical world.

According to one pure mathematician, pure mathematicians prove theorems, and applied

mathematicians construct theories. Pure and applied are not mutually exclusive, but they are

rooted in different areas of math and problem solving. Though the complex math involved in

pure and applied mathematics is beyond the understanding of most average Americans, the

solutions developed from the processes have affected and improved the lives of all.

- Chapter 3 TrigonometryDiunggah olehMohammad Fiqry
- A rial Generalization of the Rogers-Ramanujan IdentitiesDiunggah olehapi-26401608
- Introducing Trigonometry (1)Diunggah olehShreya
- Trigonometry Questions 1Diunggah olehKevin Small
- Chapter 18 PresentationDiunggah olehpepe
- UT Dallas Syllabus for se2370.501 05s taught by Weichen Wong (wew021000)Diunggah olehUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- 01553624Diunggah olehPeter Kong
- 2014-2015 advanced geometry 9 weeks calendarDiunggah olehapi-234403565
- Isometrik DrawingDiunggah olehgembulflow
- Outline of discrete mathematics.docDiunggah olehMenard J. Cole
- Fabrication Calculation[1]Diunggah olehsiva242245
- Trig No Me Try 5Diunggah olehSiddhesh
- ued400 wissmannhannah ubdstage3 1Diunggah olehapi-344164706
- Trigonometry WorksheetDiunggah olehtutorciecle123
- X Math Ch8 Introduction to Trigonometry Chapter Notes NovDiunggah olehgraciousparul
- Solving Right TrianglesDiunggah olehjohn
- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs5333.001 06f taught by Nancy Van Ness (nancyvn)Diunggah olehUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Summative Test TrigonometryDiunggah olehAnabel Sta Cruz
- finial unit 4 sum- difference double angleDiunggah olehapi-276566085
- Chapter 1 - Analytic TrigonometryDiunggah olehsimsonisna
- Solving Problems TrigDiunggah olehLaura Lowery
- Trig Review NoproblemsDiunggah olehqwertyuiopvbv
- Cis515 15 Spectral Clust Chap6Diunggah olehmaxxagain
- Maths for Computer ScienceDiunggah olehvasant
- Final Demo NagidDiunggah olehJay R Mando
- calg t7 2Diunggah olehapi-261379705
- Trigonometry Part 1Diunggah olehOO O OO
- 301Diunggah olehhagostadesse
- Classificacoes Publicadas Ciencia Da Computacao 2010 2012Diunggah olehYuri Tomaz
- 1 Trigonometry 1Diunggah olehajeelah

- Final Final Final Feasibility StudyDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- STS WARN.docxDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- ACKNOWLEDGEMENT RECEIPT OF CASH PAYMENT FOR SPACE RENTAL.docDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS AND INNOVATIONS.docxDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- CURRICULUM VITAE.docxDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Pag Sasa LinDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- In a Café Near Rivera Medical Hospital on Where Several People Used to Meet and Talk About BusinessDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- To the Flowers of HeidelbergDiunggah olehLemery
- Bronze Age MinisiriesDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Activity Design 2Diunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Mi Último AdiósDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Garbage Case StudyDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- WALANG PANGINOONDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Arts in AsiaDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Mario Luchavez BacenasDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Final Tape RecorderDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- PAGSUSURI-NG-TULANG-PILIPINO (1)Diunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- CURRICULUM VITAE.docxDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- SapatosDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Mabangis Na Lungsod Ni Efren R. Abueg Markjan (1)Diunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Pag Sasa LinDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- References in case study sts.txtDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Hi Tuls Gwapa Si Kayla FinalDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- References in Case Study StsDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- ETHICS INTRO.docxDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Final Exam NanayDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- 3 Mga Salalayang Kaalaman Sa PagsulatDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- UNO AT TRES.docxDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- E-tICKET _Mila YeeDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio
- Acknowledgement Receipt of Cash Payment for Space RentalDiunggah olehExekiel Albert Yee Tulio

- 84. 264-Compliance Modelintg and Identification of 5-Axis Vertical Articulated Robot for Machining ApplicationsDiunggah olehSuresh Yadav
- Topic 3 (Stress and Strain)Diunggah olehPeter Adam
- Regula Falsi MethodDiunggah olehHassaan Shah
- 03. IPR Oil (Future)Diunggah olehDeDen Un Gran
- SIMATICDiunggah olehazli8073
- Electrodos de PH y RedoxDiunggah olehjohn
- CH2 shallowfoundation (SEM2 200910)Diunggah olehHannan Ismail
- Methanol to Formaldehyde Reaction in Fluidized Bed ReactorDiunggah olehAmAyAX
- WinchDiunggah olehSehran Amjad
- An It Fouling ActivityDiunggah olehArvin Dimaano
- articulo abinitioCSiDiunggah olehMiguel J. Gomez
- The Planet EarthDiunggah olehErica De Guzman
- Sliding Mode Control for Multivariable SystemDiunggah olehSiti Insyirah
- Atomo Neutro 1Diunggah olehJuanCarlosPeñaAyala
- 1-Mechanical Engineering PhD 2002Diunggah olehpanos2011
- twinningDiunggah olehapi-19643403
- D1783.6267 Compuesto FenolicosDiunggah olehAndres Falmacel
- Second Semester ME SYLLABUSDiunggah olehabcd
- ASME Sec VIII Div 1Diunggah olehuvarajmecheri
- Polymer Lab 12Diunggah olehleaf5
- Variability of the Cell Potential of a Given Chemical ReactionDiunggah olehJosé Urpez
- solid state physicsDiunggah olehsoumendra ghorai
- Determination of the Solubility Product Constant of Calcium Hydroxide Chem 17Diunggah olehFrances Abegail Quezon
- ATOMTHDiunggah olehania1701
- 非饱和原状和重塑Q3黄土渗水特性研究Diunggah olehRiGo Navita
- Separation and Purification Technology 118 (2013) 179–187Diunggah olehIlyes Jedidi
- Cmb ReportDiunggah olehJanine Villaflor
- Steel Truss DesignDiunggah olehsibalon.markryan
- Damped UndampedDiunggah olehbabu1434
- Normas drilling NorwayDiunggah olehAdolfo Angulo