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Strategies and Problems Encountered by Teachers in Implementing Mother

Tongue - Based Instruction in a Multilingual Classroom

A research

Presented to the Faculty of

, Laguna

In Partial Fulfilment

of the Requirements for the

Masteral Education Applied Research Course

Name nyo po

2018

1
CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

This chapter presents the problem of the researchers sought after the

foundation for which to base the study.

Introduction

"Language is not everything in education, but without language,

everything is nothing in education." (Wolff, 2016).

The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. The failure

of education represents the inability of society to properly perpetuate itself

through succeeding generations.

Many years ago Filipinos dwell on the notion that the best way to learn

reading and writing fast is through the use of a foreign language. This may be

one of the reasons why the country adopted English as medium of instruction

an all levels of the education ladder. In 1987, Policy on Bilingual Education

was first introduced by then Department of Education, Culture and Sports.

This was followed by the implementation of the Lingua Franca Education

Project which gave then 16 regions to choose from the three widely spoken

languages – Tagalog, Ilocano and Cebuano (Morada, 2012).

The Philippines is lagging behind Asian countries in terms of

education. This is due to same factors, which include lack of instructional

materials and devices which greatly affect the quality of education. It has

been the objective of the government particularly the Department of

2
Education (DepEd) to improve the quality of education in the Philippines. It is

understood that the quality of educational system, the educational program,

and effectiveness of any teaching is gauged by the input, the way the teacher

performs, the process of teaching, the output and the quality of pupils

achievement.

The role of language as a medium of instruction in promoting an

effective teaching and learning is an issue that has occupied many scholars

all over the world for many years (Orr 1987a, 1997 as cited by Deyi, ,

2013). This role of language as a medium of instruction has been a

concern mostly in countries where immigrant children are in the minority

such as United States and Canada (Krashen, 1981 as cited by Deyi, et al.,

2013). It is in these countries where research has been widely

conducted and a number of legislations have been passed and amended

throughout the years. Despite such developments, debates on the use of

language persist.

One of the latest developments in the Philippine educational

system is the Mother Tongue – Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE).

MTB-MLE refers to the use of students’ mother tongue and two or more

additional languages as Languages of Instruction (LoI) in school. In

other contexts, the term is used to describe bilingual education across

multiple language communities—each community using its own mother

tongue aside from the official school language of instruction.

3
In South Asia, multilingual education usually follows the first definition,

learning and using multiple languages in school. In some countries, MTB-

MLE includes four languages—the students’ mother tongue or first

language, a regional language, the national language and an international

language (Malone, 2015).

According to the official language policy of the 1987 Educational

Act (revised in 2004), children in Grades 1 – 3 were to be instructed

in their first language, while those in Grade 4 onwards are set to be

instructed using a second language (L2), which is English.

Many studies have already revealed that teaching using the mother

tongue in the early grades enhances children’s ability to learn better

compared to the use of a second or foreign language (UNESCO, 2003;

Skutnabb-Kangas, 2003 as cited by Rai, et al., 2016). It has also been

reported that if children are taught in languages which are different from

their home language or mother tongue, they drop out from school, have low

academic performance, and repeat classes due to a high failure rate.

Recently, in the educational reforms in the country, the mother tongue

in the regions plays an important role especially in the educational

system. To strengthen this, the Department of Education (DepEd) has

implemented the use of mother tongue as a medium of instruction

(DepEd order No. 74, series of 2009). The IAFOR Journal of Language

4
No research has been conducted on the effective strategies

of teachers in implementing the MTB-MLE in a multilingual education.

4th district of Laguna is considered to be a home to many immigrants from

other parts of the country and other countries. A significant population of

foreigners and local people contributed to the diversity of the area .

Having different languages in the area has been a concern. The problems

include what strategies can be employed by the teachers in successfully

implementing MTB-MLE

. This study explored the strategies employed by the teachers in

implementing MTB – MLE and the problems that they have encountered. It

specifically dwelt on answering the following research questions: What are

the strategies employed by the teachers in using MTB-MLE in the

multilingual classrooms? And, what the problems encountered by the

teachers in employing the MTB-MLE?

5
Background of the Study

The idea of a mother language is purely cultural a way of making our

identity. A mother language can be powerful, which I why government

sometimes try to suppress, even eradicate, the use of minority languages,

which is often done because of the notion that the national identity depends o

the having only one language throughout the country.

The Department of Education (DepEd) will use 12 major local dialects

as medium of instruction in the coming school year to develop well-rounded

and life-long learners under K to 12 education program. These are Tagalog,

Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Hiligaynon, Cebuano, Waray,

Tausug, Maguindanao, Maranao and Chavacano.

Multilingual Education seeks to specifically address the high functional

illiteracy for Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. Based on the

2003 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS), out

of 57.59 million Filipinos aged 10 to 64 years old, there were: 5.24 million

Filipinos who could not read and write; 7.83 million Filipinos. (Maligalig and

Albert, p.33).

The mother tongue or lingua franca (the common language used by a

region) is used as the soul of instruction during the first three grades of

elementary schools. In fourth grade, students start to use Filipino to all

subjects except English, Math and Science for which English is used the

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order extends the use of the mother tongue beyond the first three years of

elementary schools

According to Education Secretary Leonor Briones (2016) the findings

of various local initiatives and international studies in basic education have

validated the superiority of these of the learners’ first language in improving

learning outcomes and promoting Education for all.

Study made by the Summer Institute of Linguistics has found that

although good teachers play an important past in good early education, the

use of the mother tongue has been proven effective in making the students’

understand the lesson better.

The above statement made the researcher decide to determine the

Effectiveness of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education in public

Elementary School at 4th district of Laguna.

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Theoretical Framework

This theory supports the evaluation process undertaken by the

researcher to gauge perception from the data gathered on Strategies and

Problems Encountered by Teachers in Implementing Mother. Tongue - Based

Instruction in a Multilingual Classroom

Cummins (1984) formulated an ‘interdependence hypothesis,’

asserting that second language competence depends upon the level of

development of L1. Cummins distinguished between two kinds of language

mastery: ‘interpersonal communication’ refers to oral communication skills

that are used in everyday situations, while ‘cognitive academic language

proficiency’ (CALP) is achieved when the speaker can use language in

decontextualized ways, including writing, permitting the use of the language

as a cognitive tool. Cummins argues that if learners have achieved CALP in

L1, this competence can be transferred to L2, permitting them to participate

successfully in academic learning in L2. If, however, learners have not

achieved CALP in L1, both academic learning and second language learning

are adversely affected.

Cummins recommends beginning general academic instruction in the

child’s mother tongue until the child has become highly competent (i.e., has

achieved CALP) in L1.

According to Noam Chomsky (1977) as cited by f. Cowie (2008), the

mechanism of language acquisition formulates from innate processes. This

8
theory is evidenced by children who live in the same linguistic community

without a plethora of different experiences who arrive at comparable

grammars. Chomsky thus proposes that "all children share the same internal

constraints which characterize narrowly the grammar they are going to

construct." (Chomsky, 1977, p.98) Since we live in a biological world, "there is

no reason for supposing the mental world to be an exception." (Chomsky,

1977, p.94) And he believes that there is a critical age for learning a language

as is true for the overall development of the human body.

9
Conceptual Framework

In this section the researcher identified and discussed the variables

related to the problem. The diagram of the paradigm is shown through the

Input-Process-Output model of evaluation. The input includes the

demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: Gender; Age; Ethnicity,

strategies employed by the teachers in using MTB-MLE in the

multilingual classrooms in terms of :Translation of Target Language to

Mother Tongue, Utilization of Multi-Lingual teaching, Improvisation of

Instructional Materials Written in Mother Tongue, Remediation of Instruction,

Utilization of Literary Piece Written in Mother Tongue as Motivation, Problems

encountered by the teachers in employing the MTB-MLE in terms of Absence

of Books Written in Mother Tongue, Absence of Books Written in Mother

Tongue, Lack of Vocabulary, Lack of Teaching-training, significant difference

between strategies employed by the teachers in using MTB-MLE in the

multilingual classrooms to their demographic profile. The process involves

the procedure on how the study was conducted. It concludes the

administration of questionnaire- checklist, gathering data and analysis and

interpretation of the gathered data. The output involves the Strategies and

Problems Encountered by Teachers in Implementing Mother Tongue - Based

Instruction in a Multilingual Classroom in public elementary school at 4th

district of Laguna.

10
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Statement of the Problem

The study aim to assess the Strategies and Problems Encountered by

Teachers in Implementing Mother Tongue - Based Instruction in a Multilingual

Classroom in public elementary school at 4th district of Laguna.

Specifically, it attempted to answer the following research programs.

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Gender;

1.2 Age;

1.3 Ethnicity?

2. What are the strategies employed by the teachers in using MTB-MLE

in the multilingual classrooms in terms of :

2.1. Translation of Target Language to Mother Tongue

2.2. Utilization of Multi-Lingual teaching

2.3. Improvisation of Instructional Materials Written in Mother Tongue

2.4. Remediation of Instruction

2.5. Utilization of Literary Piece Written in Mother Tongue as

Motivation

3. What the problems encountered by the teachers in employing the

MTB-MLE in terms of Absence of Books Written in Mother Tongue

3.1. Absence of Books Written in Mother Tongue

3.2. Lack of Vocabulary

3.3. Lack of Teaching-training

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4. Is there significant difference between strategies employed by the

teachers in using MTB-MLE in the multilingual classrooms to their

demographic profile?

Assumption

The researcher assumed that there is no significant difference between

strategies employed by the teachers in using MTB-MLE in the

multilingual classrooms to their demographic profile.

Scope and Limitations

This research will focus on the Strategies and Problems Encountered

by Teachers in Implementing Mother Tongue - Based Instruction in a

Multilingual Classroom in public elementary school at 4th district of Laguna.

The coverage of this study was only for the teachers of Public

Elementary School at 4th district of Laguna, Academic Year 2018-2019 and

their assessment on Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education.

Significance of the Study

The researcher has high hopes findings of this study will be used by

and shall benefit the different person’s included in the educational process.

Students – In this study, the result may directly benefit the students. Mother

tongue encourages a child to express himself easily and active participation

because they understand what is being discussed.

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Faculty – Mother tongue can empower the Faculty as well, the teachers can

more accurately assess what has been learned. Faculty can reflect and see if

they are using the appropriate language and technique in teaching basic

education and to maintain their ability in the art of teaching

Administrative Officials – The result of this study may help the

administrative officials in the assessment and re-evaluation of what

happening in the classroom. Especially, the administrators would be guided to

examine the existing policies and practices, identifying which of these

(policies and practices) have to be retained, improved or strengthened and to

involved reasons for such actions, furthermore, the result of this study would

enable the administration to evolve styles and approaches that can be used

to attain the desired efficient practices and vision in the development of the

high mode among the teachers.

DepEd– The result of this study may help the DepEd strengthened the

implementation of mother tongue as a medium of instruction in grade 1 to

grade 3.

Government – The result of this study may help the government as source of

recent study to pursue the mother tongue as effective medium of instruction.

Future Researchers – The result of this study will personally benefit the

researcher. The researcher will be made fully aware of the importance of

mother tongue based multilingual language as effective medium of instruction

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Definition of Terms

This section defines the key term used in order to make ease in

understanding the problem. To aid the comprehension of the study, the

following terms are defined operationally.

DepEd -- Department of Education

-- Sources of information and guide in implementing MTB-MLE.

Illiteracy -- State of not knowing how to read or write.

-- Of Filipinos and the high drop-out and non-completion rates of

students.

Implement -- Something such as a plan, you ensure that what has been

planned is done.

-- Pertains to Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Language.

Institutionalize

-- Means of establishing as part of a culture, social system or

organization.

-- Established Mother Tongue Based-Multilingual Education

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Language -- System of communication which consists of a set of sounds and

written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country or region

for talking or writing.

-- Words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of

the same community or nation

First Language -- The language that they learned first and speak best.

-- Filipino or Tagalog used to be the first language of the Philippines.

Native language -- Regional language.

-- Kapampanganas the mother tongue in Pampanga.

Second language -- Language which is not their native language but which

they use at work or at school.

-- Tagalog

Lingua Franca --Common language

-- Language or way of communicating which is used between people

who do not speak another native language.

Linguistic -- Study of human speech including the units, native, structure,

and modification of language.

-- Way in which language works

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Mother Tongue -- Native language, first language

-- Language that you learn from your parents when you are a baby.

Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education -- Program of DepEd

-- Fundamental educational policy.

Proficiency -- Master, expert

-- Well advanced in an art, occupation or branch of knowledge

Teachers -- Person who teaches, usually as a job at a school or similar

institution.

-- Pertains to the person teach in Balucuc Elementary School.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies that

give relevant information helped the researcher in establishing the justification

and additional insights to the study under consideration.

Nicholas and Lightbown (2012) explained that the pace of learning an

additional language, and effective instruction or support for children to learn

an additional language, will depend upon whether the child is has developed

literacy in L1. Literacy entails the development of metalinguistic awareness,

including the knowledge that the pronunciation of words is related to the

written form (for most languages), and that there are ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ ways

to say things.

Reviews of the country’s educational system tend to lead to painful

discussions of the downward slide of the Filipino students’ academic

performance, particularly in English, Science, and Math. In his Primer on

Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education and other Issues on Language

and Learning in the Philippines (alternately titled 21 Reasons Why Children

Learn Better While Using Their Mother Tongue),

Dr. Ricardo Ma. Duran Nolasco,(2012) a linguistics professor from UP,

cites the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos and the high drop-out and non-

completion rates of students as the problems the mother tongue-based MLE

seeks to address.

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Isagani Cruz ,a columnist of The Philippine Star hailed on August 14,

2017, that “one of the most significant and far-reaching contributions of then

The First National Conference on MTB-MLE (Mother Tongue-Based

Multilingual Education) was held on Aug. 2 to 4 in Mariveles, Bataan to

ensure the proper implementation of the Guidelines of the Implementation of

the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) or the

Department of Education (DepEd) Order No. 16, s. 2016.

The conference was held to identify the best practices of MTB-MLE

implementers in using the mother tongue in the teaching and learning

process, with the theme “Empowering Young Learners through MTB-MLE”.,”

the DepEd issued Order No. 74 series of 2009, entitled “Institutionalizing

Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MLE).”

DepEd Order No. 74, which supplants the 35-year-old BEP, takes

effect in preschool education on June 2012. Asserting that “the lessons and

findings of various local initiatives and international studies in basic education

have validated the superiority of the use of the learner’s mother tongue or first

language in improving learning outcomes and promoting Education for All,”

Order No. 74 institutionalizes Mother Tongue-Based MLE—that is, the use of

more than two languages for literacy and instruction—as a fundamental policy

and program in the whole stretch of formal education, including preschool.

Under this framework, the learner’s first language (L1) will be used as

the primary medium of instruction from preschool to at least Grade 3, and as

19
the main vehicle to teach understanding and mastery of all subject areas like

Math, Science, Makabayan, and language subjects like Filipino and English.

Moreover, the mother tongue as a subject and as a language of teaching and

learning will be introduced in Grade 1 for conceptual understanding, while

additional languages such as Filipino, English, and other local or foreign

languages are to be introduced as separate subjects no earlier than Grade 2.

In high school, although classes will be taught in Filipino and English,

the L1 will be used as an auxiliary medium of instruction; when explaining

concepts, teachers will be able to utilize the L1 to make sure students

understand.

The MLE “starts from where the learners are, and from what they

already know,” Nolasco writes in Primer. “The strategy is to develop the

cognitive skills of learners in their L1 first and transfer these skills in their L2s

later.”

According to Devi (2014), the role of language as a medium of

instruction in promoting an effective teaching and learning is an issue that has

occupied many scholars all over the world for many years. This role of

language as a medium of instruction has been a concern mostly in

countries where immigrant children are in the minority such as United States

and Canada (Krashen, 1981 as cited by Deyi, et al., 2014). It is in these

countries where research has been widely conducted and a number of

20
legislations have been passed and amended throughout the years. Despite

such developments, debates on the use of language persist.

Malone (2012) mentioned that one of the latest developments in

the Philippine educational system is the Mother Tongue – Based

Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). MTB-MLE refers to the use of students’

mother tongue and two or more additional languages as Languages of

Instruction (LoI) in school. In other contexts, the term is used to describe

bilingual education across multiple language communities—each community

using its own mother tongue aside from the official school language of

instruction. In South Asia, multilingual education usually follows the first

definition, learning and using multiple languages in school. In some

countries, MTB-MLE includes four languages—the students’ mother tongue

or first language, a regional language, the national language and an

international language.

According to the official language policy of the 1987 Educational

Act (revised in 2004), children in Grades 1 – 3 were to be instructed

in their first language, while those in Grade 4 onwards are set to be

instructed using a second language (L2), which is English. This language

policy can be identified as a possible model for bilingual education (Borch &

Tombari, 1997 as cited by Ndamba, 2013).

21
UNESCO (2013), stated that many studies have already revealed that

teaching using the mother tongue in the early grades enhances children’s

ability to learn better compared to the use of a second or foreign language .

It has also been reported that if children are taught in languages which

are different from their home language or mother tongue, they drop out from

school, have low academic performance, and repeat classes due to a high

failure rate.

Yoon, et al., (2013), there is still one critical factor that must be

addressed even if all these characteristics are met by a professional

development program. Teachers must have or acquire the attitudes, beliefs,

and motivation to apply the professional development in the classroom

context. If professional development provides the skills to influence student

achievement but teachers are not motivated to implement them in the

classroom, then the connection between professional development and

improved student learning is lost.

According to the research, examining teacher attitudes and giving

teachers the opportunity to openly reflect on these attitudes is a key

component for successful professional development programs.

Recently, in the educational reforms in the country, the mother tongue

in the regions plays an important role especially in the educational system. To

strengthen this, the Department of Education (DepEd) has implemented

22
the use of mother tongue as a medium of instruction (DepEd order No.

74, series of 2009).

As stated by Special Education Unit Supervisor, Ms.Arsenia C. Lara

(2013) some information about how they implemented the mother tongue

considering various reasons based to recent studies stated above. Inspired

with the information and experience, the researchers have conceptualized to

pursue the study about the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education to

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Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods of study used; the research utilizes

to obtain the needed data and information including its preparation, validation

and administration on the respondents, other research techniques employed

and the statistical treatment applied to the data.

Method of Research Used

In this chapter, they will see the brief explanation based on the

methods of research writing. The methods of research generally categorized

as descriptive, historical. It will also provide corresponding explanation to the

process on methods that has been used like research design, research

instrument, and the statistical treatment that has been used.

Research Design

The study adopted the descriptive method that assessed the

Strategies and Problems Encountered by Teachers in Implementing Mother

Tongue - Based Instruction in a Multilingual Classroom in public elementary

school at 4th district of Laguna. Pertaining to the demographic profile of the

respondents, Strategies employed by the teachers in using MTB-MLE in

the multilingual classrooms, Problems encountered by the teachers in

employing the MTB-MLE.

24
The study utilized the descriptive method of research as the most

appropriate method in conducting the investigation. The method was deemed

most appropriate in the light of the objective nature and scope of the study.

Description of the Respondents

The study involved Public Grade School Teachers who are currently

employed in public elementary school at 4th district of Laguna Academic Year

2018-2019.

Research Instrument

Questionnaire – A prepared set of questions design to operate data

necessary for accomplishing the objectives of the research project. It will be

the primary instrument of the researcher to have the data.

The questionnaire consisted of the following: The General Profile of the

respondents such as the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

Gender; Age; Ethnicity, strategies employed by the teachers in using MTB-

MLE in the multilingual classrooms in terms of :Translation of Target

Language to Mother Tongue, Utilization of Multi-Lingual teaching,

Improvisation of Instructional Materials Written in Mother Tongue,

Remediation of Instruction, Utilization of Literary Piece Written in Mother

Tongue as Motivation, Problems encountered by the teachers in employing

the MTB-MLE in terms of Absence of Books Written in Mother Tongue,

Absence of Books Written in Mother Tongue, Lack of Vocabulary, Lack of

Teaching-training, significant difference between strategies employed by the

25
teachers in using MTB-MLE in the multilingual classrooms to their

demographic profile?..

The weighted average had the following interpretation.

Legend Scale Description

5 4.50-5.00 Always

4 3.50-4.49 Often

3 2.50-3.49 Sometimes

2 1.50-2.49 Seldom

1 1.00-1.49 Never

Procedures in Gathering Data

A letter of request to conduct a study addressed to the school

administration was submitted after it was approved, another request letter to

the respondents were attached to the questionnaire asking for their

cooperation about the study to be undertaken. The questionnaire was

distributed during school year 2018-2019. The researchers personally

collected the data from the respondents.

The data gathered were compiled and was strictly scrutinized for

accuracy, computation and analysis for later tabulation.

26
Statistical Treatment of Data

The following descriptive and inferential statistical tools are used in the

treatment of the data for analyzing and interpretation.

Descriptive Statistics

a. Percentage – this was used to provide relative distribution of the

respondent’s according to some variables; the formula for obtaining

the percentage (p) is;

Where in:

P = percentage

F = Frequency of the respondent’s

N = total number of the respondent’s

X = fx

b. Weighted Mean – this was used to compute the average values of

the observation

Where in;

F = frequency

x = corresponding rank of the verbal interpretation

n = total number of the respondent’s

27
∑ = fx

Z-Test

To determine if there is a significant difference between proportions of

two variables, the z-test will be used.

Z= P1 – P 2

p1q1 + p2q2

n1 n2

Where:

P1 = Proportion of first sample

P2 = Proportion of second sample

q1 = 1- p1

q2 = 1- p2

n1 = number of cases in the first sample

n1 = number of cases in the second sample

28
Dear respondent,

I am currently conducting my thesis entitled “Strategies and Problems

Encountered by Teachers in Implementing MotherTongue - Based Instruction

in a Multilingual Classroom. In this connection I would like to seek for your

help by answering this questionnaire towards the attainment of the objectives

of my study. I assured that your answer will be treated with utmost

confidentiality and it will be used solely for this study.

Thank you very much for your kind help and cooperation.

___________

Teacher Researcher

PERSONAL DATA

Name: ___________________________________________ (optional)

age:____________

Gender: ______ (male) ______ (female)

Ethnicity:______________________

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PART 2. Strategies Employed by Teachers in Using Mother Tongue Based

Multi-Lingual Education

Direction: Please put check (/) on the following items based on the strategies

employed by teachers in using MTB-MLE

5-always 4-often 3-sometimes 2-seldom

1-never

A. Translation of Target Language to Mother 5 4 3 2 1

Tongue

1. Addresses the needs of the pupils who


have different languages.
2. Cater easy and better understanding to the
pupils.
3. Translates in one native language to
another native language.
4. Translates the content of the books written
in English to mother tongue
B. Utilization of Multi-Lingual teaching

1. Exlore and use all possible languages in order


for the pupils to understand the lesson.
2. Uses varied language in delivering her/his
lesson.
3. Versatile in making ways to provide the needs
of the pupils.
4. Flexible in using other language.

C. Improvization of Instructional Materials

Written in Mother Tongue

1. Instructional materials are entertaining at the

same time educational and can cater to the

30
different senses of the learners.

2. Instructional materials are written in mother

tongue to achieve consistency.

3. Instructional materials are prepared based on

the interest and needs of the learners.

4. Instructional materials written in mother tongue

to enhance pupils awareness of their own

language and lead proficiences of the

language.

D. Remediation of Instruction

1. Use of mother tongue in having remedial

classes.

2. Gives opportunity to ask the teacher about

his/her difficulties in understanding the lesson.

3. Let learners learn most from utilizing their

mother tongue.

4. Accommodate all the learners despite of their

intelligence towards mother tongue.

E. Utilization of Literary Piece Written in

Mother Tongue as Motivation

1. Literary pieces are used as a springboard to

teach concepts or ideas.

31
2. Used songs and poems that were written in

mother tongue.

3. Used as a tool to open pupils mind in

understanding the literary piece.

4. Keen in selecting the different literatures that

can show the diversities of cultures of the

pupils.

PART II. Problems Encountered by Teachers in implementing Mother Tongue

Based Multi-Lingual Education

Direction: Please put check (/) on the following items based on the problems

encountered by teachers

5-always 4-often 3-sometimes 2-seldom

1-never

A. Absence of Books Written in Mother 5 4 3 2 1

Tongue

1. Affects the teaching process especially in

translating since he/she are speakers of

different language.

2. Hindrance in the success of the implementation

of mother tongue based instruction since

32
he/she is not literate in all the different

languages.

3. Unable to access in the success of the

teaching.

4. Limited information to be acquired.

5. Less teaching can be performed due to lack of

books.

B. Lack of Vocabulary

1. Experiencing difficulties in teaching the pupils

because he/she cannot think of the right word

that is exactly equivalent of the source

language.

2. Pressure to use mother tongue as the medium

of instruction because pupils have their

individual understanding.

3. Having hard time explaining in mother tongue

during discussions because the pupils are not

that fluent in using the same mother tongue.

4. Less information that can be given to the

students.

5. Ideas about the teaching will not be

appropriate.

C. Lack of Teaching-training

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1. Difficulties in integrating the lessons to the

pupils.

2. Inappropriate usage of the instruction.

3. Poor strategies and techniques in presenting

the lesson.

4. Sequencing of the ideas is not clear.

5. Limited source of information.

34