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com

ScienceDirect

Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

Zurich, Switzerland

Similarity Conversion of Centrifugal Natural Gas

Similarity Conversion

Compressors

Similarity Basedof

Conversion ofonCentrifugal Natural

Natural Gas

Predictor-Corrector

Centrifugal Gas

Compressors

Compressors Based

Based on on Predictor-Corrector

Predictor-Corrector

Liyan Wang1*,Peng Wang2*, Zhizhu Cao3†, Bo Yu2‡, Wang Li4§

1

National Engineering 1* Laboratory for Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban4§Oil and

Liyan Wang 1*,Peng Wang2* 2*, Zhizhu Cao3† 3†, Bo Yu2‡ ,, Wang Li

GasLiyan Wang

Distribution ,Peng

Technology,Wang

China , Zhizhu

University of Cao ,

Petroleum, Yu2‡102249,

BoBeijing, Li4§

WangChina

1National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil

Oil and

1

National

2

School Engineering

of MechanicalLaboratory for Pipeline

Engineering, Safety, Beijing

Beijing Institute Key Laboratory

of Petrochemical of Urban

Technology, and

Beijing,

Gas

Gas Distribution

Distribution Technology,

Technology, China

China University

University

102617, Chinaof

of Petroleum,

Petroleum, Beijing,

Beijing, 102249,

102249, China

China

32School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing,

2

Schoolof

School ofChemical

Mechanical Engineering,

Engineering andBeijing Institute

Technology, of Petrochemical

Xi’an Technology,

Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Beijing,

710049,

102617,

102617, China

China

China

3School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an,

Xi’an, 710049,

3

PetroChina

School of Chemical

4

Southwest

Engineering Pipeline

and Company,

Technology, Xi’anChengdu,

Jiaotong 610041, China

University, 710049,

cupwly@foxmail.com, China

809962821@qq.com,

China caozhizhu@126.com,

4PetroChina Southwest Pipeline Company, Chengdu, 610041, China

4

PetroChina Southwest Pipeline Company, Chengdu, 610041, China

yubobox@vip.163.com,286964103@qq.com

cupwly@foxmail.com,

cupwly@foxmail.com, 809962821@qq.com,

809962821@qq.com, caozhizhu@126.com,

caozhizhu@126.com,

yubobox@vip.163.com,286964103@qq.com

yubobox@vip.163.com,286964103@qq.com

Abstract

Centrifugal compressors are one of the most commonly used equipments powering the long distance

Abstractgas pipeline. In this paper, a similarity conversion method of centrifugal natural gas

natural

Abstract

Centrifugal compressors

Centrifugal

compressors compressors are one

are one of

of the

based on predictor-correctorthe most

mostwascommonly

commonly

proposed. used

used equipments

In equipments

other words,powering

powering

we used theone

the longsimilarity

long distance

distance

natural gas pipeline.

natural gastopipeline.

conversion predict theIn this

In key paper,

thisparameter a

paper, aand similarity

similarity conversion

the otherconversion method

was used asmethod of centrifugal

of centrifugal

the correction. Compared natural

natural gas

with gas

the

compressors

field

compressors based

test data,based on predictor-corrector

we found

on predictor-corrector was proposed.

the error of the predicted

was proposed. In other

outlet pressure

In other words,

of the we used

compressor

words, we used one

wasone similarity

controlled at

similarity

conversion to

conversion to predict

predict the

the key

key parameter

parameter and and the

the other

other was

was used

used as

as the

the correction.

correction. Compared

Compared withwith the

the

about 2% and the outlet temperature fluctuated within 2℃, which could satisfy the engineering

field test

field test data,

data, we

we found

found the

the error

error ofof the

the predicted

predicted outlet

outlet pressure

pressure ofof the

the compressor

compressor waswas controlled

controlled at

at

application requirements.

about 2% and the outlet temperature fluctuated within 2℃, which could

about 2% and the outlet temperature fluctuated within 2℃, which could satisfy the engineeringsatisfy the engineering

© 2017 The Authors.

application Published by Elsevier B.V.

requirements.

Keywords: similarity

application requirements.

conversion, centrifugal natural gas compressors, predictor-corrector

Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Computational Science

Keywords:

Keywords: similarity

similarity conversion,

conversion, centrifugal

centrifugal natural

natural gas

gas compressors,

compressors, predictor-corrector

predictor-corrector

Nomenclature

Nomenclature

Nomenclature

D2 Diameter of the impeller Hpol Polytropic head

Mach number of peripheral

MDD2u

2

2

Diameter

Diameter

velocity of

of the

the impeller

ofimpeller

impeller H Q

Hpol

pol

Volumetric

Polytropicflowrate

Polytropic head

head

Mach number of peripheral

M

MRg2u Mach number

velocity

of peripheral

Gas constant TQ

Q Temperature

Volumetric

Volumetric flowrate

flowrate

2u velocity ofof impeller

impeller

*

R g

Proposed

Gas

Rg a new method and created

Gastheconstant

constant T

T

first stable version of this document

Temperature

Temperature

†

Realized the programming calculation

*‡Created the first draft of this document

*Proposed a new method and created the first stable version of

†§Proposed a new method and created the first stable version of this

this document

document

Collectedthe

†Realized data about centrifugal

programming natural gas compressors

calculation

‡Realized the programming calculation

‡Created the first draft of this document

Created the first draft of this document

§Collected data about centrifugal natural gas compressors

§

Collected data about centrifugal natural gas compressors

Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Computational Science

10.1016/j.procs.2017.05.119

1974 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

n Rotation speed p Pressure

u2 Circle velocity v Specific volume

Pressure ratio 2u Peripheral coefficient

hyd

2r Flow coefficient Flow efficient

Relative error of outlet

l Leakage coefficient p

pressure

Absolute error of outlet

T temperature

1 Introduction

During transportation by pipeline, the natural gas is affected by several factors, such as hydraulic

frictional resistance, and thus, its pressure drops. The task of supplying energy for natural gas is

achieved by gas transmission station, in which centrifugal compressors are generally the core

equipment. So we must grasp the characteristics of centrifugal compressors and it is of great

importance to ensure safe operation of gas pipeline and realize energy saving. In the operation of gas

pipeline network, the expected flow rate or characteristics of pipeline system often changes. And the

centrifugal compressor is operated with pipeline system, and when the inlet conditions of compressor

alter, its characteristics change. The error of relevant performance parameters of compressors found

through the performance curves directly is about 20%.Therefore, it is necessary to study on more

accurate performance conversion methods of centrifugal compressor.

So far, several methods have been adopted to transform the performance curves of centrifugal

compressors, for example the experimental test, computational fluid dynamics(CFD) simulation and

similarity conversion. The experimental test[1]-[3]obtains performance parameters by experiment, and

the result is exact. However, we cannot get performance parameters under each condition, because the

operating conditions of pipeline system change from minute to minute. CFD simulation[2]-[6] can

simulate complex viscous unsteady flow and depict the internal flow of centrifugal compressor. But

this method is more suitable for researchers due to high demands on size of the main pats of

compressors and the complicated manipulation. And as one of the most convenient method and with

certain accuracy for performance conversion, similarity conversion[2]-[4],[7]-[11] is widely used in the

fields.

Similarity conversion of centrifugal compressors is based on affinity law. That is to say, if the flow

processes of the model and prototype are similar, the ratio of performance parameters (thermal

parameters, air flowing parameters and geometric parameters) is equal, and corresponding efficiency

and loss coefficient is the same. To achieve similarity of flow processes between the experimental

model and prototype, then require the following: geometric similarity, inlet velocity triangle's

similarity, equality of Mach number and Isentropic exponent. Nevertheless, it is difficult even

impossible to satisfy all four conditions in practical situations, and they can only satisfy part. So, in

order to keep the operation process of model approximate analogous to that of prototype, we have to

find out the inner links of these conditions, and then add some additional conditions. And generally,

the similarity conversion method of centrifugal compressors can be divided into two parts according to

the value of adiabatic index ( k ) and Mach number ( M 2u ). In this paper, if adiabatic index of

Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1975

prototype has the same value as its counterparts in model while Mach number do not, we call it the

first similarity conversion method; if corresponding adiabatic index and Mach number are both not

equal, then it is called the second similarity conversion method. This paper mainly studies the similar

process of the centrifugal natural gas compressor, which belongs to the latter.

The recent research[7]-[12] trend is that more and more factors have been considered, such as seal

clearance of the impeller eye, blade thickness and relative roughness on surface of flow channel, and

the revised coefficient has been proposed and the high performance software developed when doing

similarity conversion of centrifugal compressors. To increase the further accuracy of prediction, this

paper intends to give a detailed analysis on the second similarity conversion method, find out the main

source of errors and then correct them.

2.1 Introduction of Traditional Similarity Conversion Method

The second similarity conversion method of centrifugal compressor applies to the situation when

the working medium of the model differs from that of the prototype. To achieve similarity between

design and actual conditions, it is by keeping the specific volume ratio of inlet and outlet as follows

vs vs

(1)

vd vd

The pressure ratio relation can be deduced

1 1

m

m

(2)

Due to the similarity of exit velocity triangle of the impeller, it can be obtained that

2 r 2 r (3)

Assuming that friction resistance coefficients are the same, thus the efficiency satisfies Eq.5,

pol pol (5)

From 2u 2u and pol 2uhyd , we can deduce the energy head coefficient relation

pol pol (6)

The energy head relation

H pol pol u22 u22 1 n

2

(7)

u2 2 u2 2 L 2 n

H pol pol

D2

where L

D2 .

And the energy head can be also expressed as follows,

m m1

H pol RgTs m 1 (8)

m 1

1976 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

m mm1

H pol RgTs

1 (9)

m 1

From the Eq.7-9, we can learn that

m mm1

R T 1

n m 1 g s

n (10)

L m mm1

R T 1

m 1 g s

The volumetric flow rate relation

n

Qs L 3 Qs (11)

n

The power relation

5 n

3

RgTs ps

Ntot L Ntot (12)

n Rg Tsps

Based on Predictor-Corrector

There are several performance parameters of centrifugal compressor. However, not every

parameter matters equally for practical problems on engineering. What we are concerned about,

actually, are three parameters: outlet pressure, outlet temperature and poly tropic head of centrifugal

compressors. Now, we write down the calculation process of these three performance parameters as

follows (The formula of poly tropic head please refers to Eq.8).

pd ps (13)

m 1

Td m

Ts (14)

From Eq.8, Eq.13 and Eq.14, it can be easily obtained that every equation involves the parameter

pressure ratio. That is to say, if we can improve the accuracy of pressure ratio, then the precision of

three performance parameters above will be correspondingly increased. Therefore, pressure ratio is the

key parameter to the second similarity conversion of centrifugal compressors. And in the process of

the second similarity conversion, the key parameter is given by the assumption (Eq.1) , which has its

own scope of application--adiabatic index is approximately the same. But in practice, it can't satisfy

the assumption totally. Thus, we guess this is where the main source of errors.

With the first similarity conversion, we give a detailed analysis on two similarity conversion.

Further studies on the specific process show that, there are significant differences on the solution of

key parameter between these two methods. In the first similarity conversion, the value of speed is

generally given directly, and then the pressure ratio is determined; while the solution to the second is a

completely opposite process: Define the relation of the pressure ratio, and then calculate the value of

speed. The features of two similarity conversion methods are shown in Table 1.

Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1977

conversion conversion

Applicable

condition

k k ， M 2u M 2u k k

Supplementary vs vs

condition

n is generally given

vd vd

Advantage

temperature is more accurate pressure is more accurate

From Table 1, we try to propose a new prediction method combined the advantages of two

methods. For the first similarity conversion, there are several calculation methods to gain pressure

ratio, and we can calculate it in constant volume process, isothermal process, adiabatic process and

polytropic process. Among them, the most accuracy method is calculating it in polytropic process,

which is fundamental and applied to various kinds of gas. The process of calculation is as follows.

The parameter pressure ratio can be obtained from Eq.7 - 9 that

m

mm1 m 1

1 A 1 (15)

1 n Rg Ts

2

where, A 2 .

L n RgTs

Compared with the supplementary condition of the second similarity conversion (Eq.2), it can be

found that the value of pressure ratio calculated by Eq.15 is more accurate. Now, introduce the idea of

predictor-corrector. First of all, we use Eq.2 to define the initial value of the pressure ratio. And then,

calculate the parameter speed by using Eq.10. Last, revise the pressure ratio by Eq.15. And the

concrete steps of the second similarity conversion are as follows.

Step1. Calculate the physical parameters (density, adiabatic index, etc)of gas with BWRS

equations.

Step2. Compare the value of adiabatic index of gas according to Step1. If adiabatic components of

two kinds of gas are equal, choose the first similarity conversion and if not, choose the second one.

Step3. Use Eq.2 to give the initial value of pressure ratio, and it is the predictor of pressure ratio.

Step4. Calculate the parameter speed by using Eq.10.

Step5. Revise pressure ratio by Eq.15, and it is the correction value of pressure ratio.

Step6. Gain other parameters of centrifugal compressors.

1978 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

In order to test the feasibility of similarity conversion proposed in Subsection 2.2, a large number

of cases were studied and the results compared with the working data of centrifugal compressors of

natural gas pipelines. Now, select one case and give an analysis in details.

There is a GE PCL503 centrifugal compressor in a compressor station of a long distance main gas

pipeline. The inlet temperature of the compressor is 45℃ and the inlet pressure is 8.101MPa. The

components of natural gas under design and actual conditions are shown in Table 2. The performance

curves of the GE PCL503 centrifugal compressor are shown in Fig.1-2.

Design

conditions 97.058 0.152185 0.010113 0.705685 2.02909

(%)

Actual

conditions 97.75 0.03 0 0.88 1.34

(%)

Table 2: Natural gas components in design and actual conditions

n=7127 n=7127

80 n=6788 1.50 n=6788

n=6109 1.45 n=6109

75 n=5430 n=5430

1.40

n=4751 n=4751

70 1.35

n=4412 n=4412

65 1.30

Td (℃)

1.25

60

1.20

55 1.15

1.10

50

1.05

45 1.00

4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000

Q(Nm3/h) Q(Nm3/h)

Fig.1The relation curves of Q and Td at different Fig.2 The relation curves of Q and

rotation speeds at different rotation speeds

In this case, we calculated the main performance parameters of the centrifugal compressor under

105 different inlet conditions by the second similarity conversion and the similar conversion based on

predictor-corrector. Now, we picked 30 inlet conditions at random. To verify the assumption of the

second similarity conversion (Eq.1), compare the ratio of specific volume between inlet and outlet of

compressor under design conditions and actual conditions, and it was shown in Fig.3. From Fig.3, it

could be seen that the difference of the ratio of specific volume existed between these two conditions,

which proved that the correction was reasonable.

Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1979

1.24

1.20

vs/vd

1.16

design conditions

1.12 actual conditions

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

N

Fig.3 Comparison of vs / vd

Fig.4-5 showed that the comparison of outlet pressure and temperature of centrifugal natural gas

compressor between the value calculated by these two methods and the actual working data. And the

relative error of outlet pressure and the absolute error of outlet temperature of compressors were

respectively shown in Fig.6 and Fig.7.

8

pd(MPa)

7

traditional method

present method

field data

6

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

N

Fig.4 Comparison of pd

50

40

Td(℃)

30 traditional method

present method

field data

20

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

N

Fig.5 Comparison of Td

1980 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

6

p(%)

2 traditional method

present method

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

N

Fig.6 Comparison of p

6

T(℃)

2 traditional method

present method

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

N

Fig.7 Comparison of T

From Fig.4-7, the parameter outlet pressure of centrifugal compressors calculated by the second

similarity conversion was about 0.4-0.5MPa higher than field data and the relative error was about 6%,

and outlet temperature was generally 6-7 ℃ higher, while for the second similarity conversion based

on predictor-corrector, the value of the outlet pressure was 0.2MPa higher, the relative error about 2%,

outlet temperature 2-3 ℃ higher. Therefore, the latter was more effective, which greatly improved the

accuracy of performance conversion of natural gas compressors.

4 Conclusion

In this manuscript, we have reviewed the second similarity conversion method, gave an analysis on

the process, and based on the idea of predictor-corrector, proposed a similarity conversion method of

centrifugal natural gas compressors. By using the present method, the error of parameters of the

natural gas centrifugal compressor was greatly reduced. The conclusions were stated as follows:

(1) There existed the difference of the ratio of specific volume between design conditions and

actual conditions.

(2) With the second similarity conversion based on predictor-corrector, the outlet pressure

calculated was 0.2MPa higher than field data, and the relative error was about 2%.

(3) With the second similarity conversion based on predictor-corrector, the outlet temperature was

2-3 ℃ higher than field data.

Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1981

Acknowledgments

The study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51325603).

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