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Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2017, 12-14 June 2017,


Zurich, Switzerland
Similarity Conversion of Centrifugal Natural Gas
Similarity Conversion
Compressors
Similarity Basedof
Conversion ofonCentrifugal Natural
Natural Gas
Predictor-Corrector
Centrifugal Gas
Compressors
Compressors Based
Based on on Predictor-Corrector
Predictor-Corrector
Liyan Wang1*,Peng Wang2*, Zhizhu Cao3†, Bo Yu2‡, Wang Li4§
1
National Engineering 1* Laboratory for Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban4§Oil and
Liyan Wang 1*,Peng Wang2* 2*, Zhizhu Cao3† 3†, Bo Yu2‡ ,, Wang Li
GasLiyan Wang
Distribution ,Peng
Technology,Wang
China , Zhizhu
University of Cao ,
Petroleum, Yu2‡102249,
BoBeijing, Li4§
WangChina
1National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil
Oil and
1
National
2
School Engineering
of MechanicalLaboratory for Pipeline
Engineering, Safety, Beijing
Beijing Institute Key Laboratory
of Petrochemical of Urban
Technology, and
Beijing,
Gas
Gas Distribution
Distribution Technology,
Technology, China
China University
University
102617, Chinaof
of Petroleum,
Petroleum, Beijing,
Beijing, 102249,
102249, China
China
32School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing,
2
Schoolof
School ofChemical
Mechanical Engineering,
Engineering andBeijing Institute
Technology, of Petrochemical
Xi’an Technology,
Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Beijing,
710049,
102617,
102617, China
China
China
3School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an,
Xi’an, 710049,
3
PetroChina
School of Chemical
4
Southwest
Engineering Pipeline
and Company,
Technology, Xi’anChengdu,
Jiaotong 610041, China
University, 710049,
cupwly@foxmail.com, China
809962821@qq.com,
China caozhizhu@126.com,
4PetroChina Southwest Pipeline Company, Chengdu, 610041, China
4
PetroChina Southwest Pipeline Company, Chengdu, 610041, China
yubobox@vip.163.com,286964103@qq.com
cupwly@foxmail.com,
cupwly@foxmail.com, 809962821@qq.com,
809962821@qq.com, caozhizhu@126.com,
caozhizhu@126.com,
yubobox@vip.163.com,286964103@qq.com
yubobox@vip.163.com,286964103@qq.com

Abstract
Centrifugal compressors are one of the most commonly used equipments powering the long distance
Abstractgas pipeline. In this paper, a similarity conversion method of centrifugal natural gas
natural
Abstract
Centrifugal compressors
Centrifugal
compressors compressors are one
are one of
of the
based on predictor-correctorthe most
mostwascommonly
commonly
proposed. used
used equipments
In equipments
other words,powering
powering
we used theone
the longsimilarity
long distance
distance
natural gas pipeline.
natural gastopipeline.
conversion predict theIn this
In key paper,
thisparameter a
paper, aand similarity
similarity conversion
the otherconversion method
was used asmethod of centrifugal
of centrifugal
the correction. Compared natural
natural gas
with gas
the
compressors
field
compressors based
test data,based on predictor-corrector
we found
on predictor-corrector was proposed.
the error of the predicted
was proposed. In other
outlet pressure
In other words,
of the we used
compressor
words, we used one
wasone similarity
controlled at
similarity
conversion to
conversion to predict
predict the
the key
key parameter
parameter and and the
the other
other was
was used
used as
as the
the correction.
correction. Compared
Compared withwith the
the
about 2% and the outlet temperature fluctuated within 2℃, which could satisfy the engineering
field test
field test data,
data, we
we found
found the
the error
error ofof the
the predicted
predicted outlet
outlet pressure
pressure ofof the
the compressor
compressor waswas controlled
controlled at
at
application requirements.
about 2% and the outlet temperature fluctuated within 2℃, which could
about 2% and the outlet temperature fluctuated within 2℃, which could satisfy the engineeringsatisfy the engineering
© 2017 The Authors.
application Published by Elsevier B.V.
requirements.
Keywords: similarity
application requirements.
conversion, centrifugal natural gas compressors, predictor-corrector
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Computational Science
Keywords:
Keywords: similarity
similarity conversion,
conversion, centrifugal
centrifugal natural
natural gas
gas compressors,
compressors, predictor-corrector
predictor-corrector

Nomenclature
Nomenclature
Nomenclature
D2 Diameter of the impeller Hpol Polytropic head
Mach number of peripheral
MDD2u
2
2
Diameter
Diameter
velocity of
of the
the impeller
ofimpeller
impeller H Q
Hpol
pol
Volumetric
Polytropicflowrate
Polytropic head
head
Mach number of peripheral
M
MRg2u Mach number
velocity
of peripheral
Gas constant TQ
Q Temperature
Volumetric
Volumetric flowrate
flowrate
2u velocity ofof impeller
impeller
*
R g
Proposed
Gas
Rg a new method and created
Gastheconstant
constant T
T
first stable version of this document
Temperature
Temperature

Realized the programming calculation
*‡Created the first draft of this document
*Proposed a new method and created the first stable version of
†§Proposed a new method and created the first stable version of this
this document
document
Collectedthe
†Realized data about centrifugal
programming natural gas compressors
calculation
‡Realized the programming calculation
‡Created the first draft of this document
Created the first draft of this document
§Collected data about centrifugal natural gas compressors
§
Collected data about centrifugal natural gas compressors

1877-0509 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Computational Science
10.1016/j.procs.2017.05.119
1974 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

k Adiabatic index m Polytropic exponent


n Rotation speed p Pressure
u2 Circle velocity v Specific volume
 Pressure ratio 2u Peripheral coefficient
hyd
2r Flow coefficient Flow efficient

 pol Polytropic efficient  df Disk friction coefficient


Relative error of outlet
l Leakage coefficient p
pressure
Absolute error of outlet
T temperature

1 Introduction
During transportation by pipeline, the natural gas is affected by several factors, such as hydraulic
frictional resistance, and thus, its pressure drops. The task of supplying energy for natural gas is
achieved by gas transmission station, in which centrifugal compressors are generally the core
equipment. So we must grasp the characteristics of centrifugal compressors and it is of great
importance to ensure safe operation of gas pipeline and realize energy saving. In the operation of gas
pipeline network, the expected flow rate or characteristics of pipeline system often changes. And the
centrifugal compressor is operated with pipeline system, and when the inlet conditions of compressor
alter, its characteristics change. The error of relevant performance parameters of compressors found
through the performance curves directly is about 20%.Therefore, it is necessary to study on more
accurate performance conversion methods of centrifugal compressor.
So far, several methods have been adopted to transform the performance curves of centrifugal
compressors, for example the experimental test, computational fluid dynamics(CFD) simulation and
similarity conversion. The experimental test[1]-[3]obtains performance parameters by experiment, and
the result is exact. However, we cannot get performance parameters under each condition, because the
operating conditions of pipeline system change from minute to minute. CFD simulation[2]-[6] can
simulate complex viscous unsteady flow and depict the internal flow of centrifugal compressor. But
this method is more suitable for researchers due to high demands on size of the main pats of
compressors and the complicated manipulation. And as one of the most convenient method and with
certain accuracy for performance conversion, similarity conversion[2]-[4],[7]-[11] is widely used in the
fields.
Similarity conversion of centrifugal compressors is based on affinity law. That is to say, if the flow
processes of the model and prototype are similar, the ratio of performance parameters (thermal
parameters, air flowing parameters and geometric parameters) is equal, and corresponding efficiency
and loss coefficient is the same. To achieve similarity of flow processes between the experimental
model and prototype, then require the following: geometric similarity, inlet velocity triangle's
similarity, equality of Mach number and Isentropic exponent. Nevertheless, it is difficult even
impossible to satisfy all four conditions in practical situations, and they can only satisfy part. So, in
order to keep the operation process of model approximate analogous to that of prototype, we have to
find out the inner links of these conditions, and then add some additional conditions. And generally,
the similarity conversion method of centrifugal compressors can be divided into two parts according to
the value of adiabatic index ( k ) and Mach number ( M 2u ). In this paper, if adiabatic index of
Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1975

prototype has the same value as its counterparts in model while Mach number do not, we call it the
first similarity conversion method; if corresponding adiabatic index and Mach number are both not
equal, then it is called the second similarity conversion method. This paper mainly studies the similar
process of the centrifugal natural gas compressor, which belongs to the latter.
The recent research[7]-[12] trend is that more and more factors have been considered, such as seal
clearance of the impeller eye, blade thickness and relative roughness on surface of flow channel, and
the revised coefficient has been proposed and the high performance software developed when doing
similarity conversion of centrifugal compressors. To increase the further accuracy of prediction, this
paper intends to give a detailed analysis on the second similarity conversion method, find out the main
source of errors and then correct them.

2 Similarity Conversion of Centrifugal Compressors


2.1 Introduction of Traditional Similarity Conversion Method
The second similarity conversion method of centrifugal compressor applies to the situation when
the working medium of the model differs from that of the prototype. To achieve similarity between
design and actual conditions, it is by keeping the specific volume ratio of inlet and outlet as follows
vs vs
 (1)
vd vd 
The pressure ratio relation can be deduced
1 1
 m
  m
(2)
Due to the similarity of exit velocity triangle of the impeller, it can be obtained that
2 r  2 r (3)

2u  2u (4)


Assuming that friction resistance coefficients are the same, thus the efficiency satisfies Eq.5,
 pol   pol (5)

From 2u  2u and  pol  2uhyd , we can deduce the energy head coefficient relation
 pol   pol (6)
The energy head relation
H pol  pol u22 u22 1 n
2

   (7)
 u2 2 u2 2 L 2  n 
H pol  pol
D2
where L 
D2 .
And the energy head can be also expressed as follows,
m  m1 
H pol  RgTs   m  1 (8)
m 1  
1976 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

m  mm1 
H pol  RgTs   
   1 (9)
m  1  
From the Eq.7-9, we can learn that

m  mm1 
 
R T   1
n m  1 g s  
n  (10)
L m  mm1 
R T   1
m 1 g s  
The volumetric flow rate relation
n
Qs  L 3 Qs (11)
n
The power relation

5  n 
3
RgTs ps

Ntot  L   Ntot (12)
 n  Rg Tsps

2.2 Similarity Conversion of Centrifugal Natural Gas Compressors


Based on Predictor-Corrector
There are several performance parameters of centrifugal compressor. However, not every
parameter matters equally for practical problems on engineering. What we are concerned about,
actually, are three parameters: outlet pressure, outlet temperature and poly tropic head of centrifugal
compressors. Now, we write down the calculation process of these three performance parameters as
follows (The formula of poly tropic head please refers to Eq.8).
pd   ps (13)
m 1
Td   m
Ts (14)
From Eq.8, Eq.13 and Eq.14, it can be easily obtained that every equation involves the parameter
pressure ratio. That is to say, if we can improve the accuracy of pressure ratio, then the precision of
three performance parameters above will be correspondingly increased. Therefore, pressure ratio is the
key parameter to the second similarity conversion of centrifugal compressors. And in the process of
the second similarity conversion, the key parameter is given by the assumption (Eq.1) , which has its
own scope of application--adiabatic index is approximately the same. But in practice, it can't satisfy
the assumption totally. Thus, we guess this is where the main source of errors.
With the first similarity conversion, we give a detailed analysis on two similarity conversion.
Further studies on the specific process show that, there are significant differences on the solution of
key parameter between these two methods. In the first similarity conversion, the value of speed is
generally given directly, and then the pressure ratio is determined; while the solution to the second is a
completely opposite process: Define the relation of the pressure ratio, and then calculate the value of
speed. The features of two similarity conversion methods are shown in Table 1.
Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1977

The first similarity The second similarity


conversion conversion

Applicable
condition
k  k  , M 2u  M 2u k  k

Supplementary vs vs
condition
n is generally given 
vd vd 

The value of outlet The value of outlet


Advantage
temperature is more accurate pressure is more accurate

Table1:The features of two similarity conversion methods

From Table 1, we try to propose a new prediction method combined the advantages of two
methods. For the first similarity conversion, there are several calculation methods to gain pressure
ratio, and we can calculate it in constant volume process, isothermal process, adiabatic process and
polytropic process. Among them, the most accuracy method is calculating it in polytropic process,
which is fundamental and applied to various kinds of gas. The process of calculation is as follows.
The parameter pressure ratio can be obtained from Eq.7 - 9 that
m
  mm1   m 1

  1  A    1  (15)
  
1  n  Rg Ts
2

where, A  2   .
L  n  RgTs
Compared with the supplementary condition of the second similarity conversion (Eq.2), it can be
found that the value of pressure ratio calculated by Eq.15 is more accurate. Now, introduce the idea of
predictor-corrector. First of all, we use Eq.2 to define the initial value of the pressure ratio. And then,
calculate the parameter speed by using Eq.10. Last, revise the pressure ratio by Eq.15. And the
concrete steps of the second similarity conversion are as follows.
Step1. Calculate the physical parameters (density, adiabatic index, etc)of gas with BWRS
equations.
Step2. Compare the value of adiabatic index of gas according to Step1. If adiabatic components of
two kinds of gas are equal, choose the first similarity conversion and if not, choose the second one.
Step3. Use Eq.2 to give the initial value of pressure ratio, and it is the predictor of pressure ratio.
Step4. Calculate the parameter speed by using Eq.10.
Step5. Revise pressure ratio by Eq.15, and it is the correction value of pressure ratio.
Step6. Gain other parameters of centrifugal compressors.
1978 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

3 Results and Discussions


In order to test the feasibility of similarity conversion proposed in Subsection 2.2, a large number
of cases were studied and the results compared with the working data of centrifugal compressors of
natural gas pipelines. Now, select one case and give an analysis in details.
There is a GE PCL503 centrifugal compressor in a compressor station of a long distance main gas
pipeline. The inlet temperature of the compressor is 45℃ and the inlet pressure is 8.101MPa. The
components of natural gas under design and actual conditions are shown in Table 2. The performance
curves of the GE PCL503 centrifugal compressor are shown in Fig.1-2.

Components CH4 C2H6 C3H8 N2 CO2


Design
conditions 97.058 0.152185 0.010113 0.705685 2.02909
(%)
Actual
conditions 97.75 0.03 0 0.88 1.34
(%)
Table 2: Natural gas components in design and actual conditions

n=7127 n=7127
80 n=6788 1.50 n=6788
n=6109 1.45 n=6109
75 n=5430 n=5430
1.40
n=4751 n=4751
70 1.35
n=4412 n=4412
65 1.30
Td (℃)

1.25
60

1.20
55 1.15
1.10
50
1.05
45 1.00
4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000
Q(Nm3/h) Q(Nm3/h)

Fig.1The relation curves of Q and Td at different Fig.2 The relation curves of Q and 
rotation speeds at different rotation speeds
In this case, we calculated the main performance parameters of the centrifugal compressor under
105 different inlet conditions by the second similarity conversion and the similar conversion based on
predictor-corrector. Now, we picked 30 inlet conditions at random. To verify the assumption of the
second similarity conversion (Eq.1), compare the ratio of specific volume between inlet and outlet of
compressor under design conditions and actual conditions, and it was shown in Fig.3. From Fig.3, it
could be seen that the difference of the ratio of specific volume existed between these two conditions,
which proved that the correction was reasonable.
Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1979

1.24

1.20
vs/vd

1.16

design conditions
1.12 actual conditions

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
N
Fig.3 Comparison of vs / vd
Fig.4-5 showed that the comparison of outlet pressure and temperature of centrifugal natural gas
compressor between the value calculated by these two methods and the actual working data. And the
relative error of outlet pressure and the absolute error of outlet temperature of compressors were
respectively shown in Fig.6 and Fig.7.

8
pd(MPa)

7
traditional method
present method
field data
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
N

Fig.4 Comparison of pd

50

40
Td(℃)

30 traditional method
present method
field data
20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
N

Fig.5 Comparison of Td
1980 Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981

6
p(%)

2 traditional method
present method

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
N

Fig.6 Comparison of  p

6
T(℃)

2 traditional method
present method

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
N
Fig.7 Comparison of T
From Fig.4-7, the parameter outlet pressure of centrifugal compressors calculated by the second
similarity conversion was about 0.4-0.5MPa higher than field data and the relative error was about 6%,
and outlet temperature was generally 6-7 ℃ higher, while for the second similarity conversion based
on predictor-corrector, the value of the outlet pressure was 0.2MPa higher, the relative error about 2%,
outlet temperature 2-3 ℃ higher. Therefore, the latter was more effective, which greatly improved the
accuracy of performance conversion of natural gas compressors.

4 Conclusion
In this manuscript, we have reviewed the second similarity conversion method, gave an analysis on
the process, and based on the idea of predictor-corrector, proposed a similarity conversion method of
centrifugal natural gas compressors. By using the present method, the error of parameters of the
natural gas centrifugal compressor was greatly reduced. The conclusions were stated as follows:
(1) There existed the difference of the ratio of specific volume between design conditions and
actual conditions.
(2) With the second similarity conversion based on predictor-corrector, the outlet pressure
calculated was 0.2MPa higher than field data, and the relative error was about 2%.
(3) With the second similarity conversion based on predictor-corrector, the outlet temperature was
2-3 ℃ higher than field data.
Liyan Wang et al. / Procedia Computer Science 108C (2017) 1973–1981 1981

Acknowledgments
The study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51325603).

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