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Lecture One Exam Study Guide

Human Anatomy And Physiology I (University of North Florida)

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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology – Chapter One

Anatomy: study of structure


Physiology: study of function

Necessary Life Functions


1. Maintaining boundaries
2. Movement
3. Responsiveness
4. Digestion
5. Metabolism
6. Excretion
7. Reproduction
8. Growth

Survival Needs
1. Nutrients
2. Oxygen
3. Water
4. Normal Body Temperature
5. Appropriate Atmosphere Pressure

Homeostasis: dynamic equilibrium


Maintaining a relative stable internal environment despite changes from the outside
Nervous and Endocrine System accomplish communication
 Maintains an internal environment despite external changes
 Stimulus  Response

Control Mechanisms
1. Receptor
2. Control Center
3. Efector
Negative Feedback: stop or slow the original stimulus – decrease product to
stop accumulation
 Body temperature
 Blood volume
Positive Feedback: enhance or exaggerate the original stimulus
 Labor Contractions
 Blood clot forms)
Homeostatic Imbalances: disturbance of homeostasis

Tissue: The Living Fabric – Chapter Four


Part One

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Tissues: groups of cells similar in structure that perform a related function
Histology: study of tissues

Epithelial Tissue – Covers


Connective Tissue – Supports
Muscle Tissue – Movement
Nerve Tissues – Control

Epithelial Tissue: forms boundaries


Functions
1. Protection
2. Absorption
3. Excretion
4. Secretion
5. Sensory reception

Characteristics
1. Polarity
Apical surface – microvilli / cilia/ smooth/ slick
Basal surface – non-cellular basal lamina/ adhesive sheet/ wound repair/
selective ilter (made of glycoprotein collagen ibers)
2. Specialized Contacts
Covering and lining it closely together - lateral contacts/ tight junctions and
desmosomes hold them together
3. Connective Tissue
Reticular lamina - deep to basal lamina, network of collagen ibers
Basement Membrane – resists stretch and tears, reinforces epithelial sheet,
boundary against substances
4. Avascular
No blood vessels – nourished by difusion only! Supplied by nerve ibers
5. Sensory Reception
High regenerative capacity, can replace lost cells by division

Types of Epithelial Tissue


Simple: one layer
Stratiied: two or more

Simple Squamous: cells lattened, sparse cytoplasm, rapid division in places like
the kidneys and lungs
Mesothelium in serous membranes
Simple Cuboidal: single layer, for absorption and secretion, found on kidney
tubules
Simple Columnar: single layer of tall tightly packed cells, absorption of water and
secretion, can be found on digestive tract, bronchi, and uterine tubes
Goblet cells release mucous
Pseudostratiied Columnar: cells vary in height, appear stratiied but not,
secretion and absorption, can be found in trachea
Stratiied Squamous: most widespread (skin), located for places of abrasion

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Stratiied Cuboidal: found in ducts of large glands (mammary), rare, usually two
layers thick
Stratiied Columnar: found in larynx and male urethra, protection and secretion
Transitional: found in urinary organs, can change shape and stretch (empty looks
lufy, illed looks like stratiied squamous)

Glandular Epithelia
Gland: one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous luid called secretion
Classiied by site of production release endocrine/ exocrine
Multicellular
 Composed of duct and secretory unit
 Surrounded by connective tissue
o Supplies blood and nerve ibers
o Extends and divides into gland lobes
Classiication of Multicellular
Simple Duct: does not branch
Compound Duct: branches outward
Merocrine: most secrete products by exocytosis
Holocrine: accumulate products within then rupture
Apocrine: accumulates products within but only apex ruptures – controversy
if exist in humans
Unicellular
 Produces goblet/ mucous cells
 Found in epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tract
 All produce mucin – when dissolved produces mucous)

Endocrine Gland
 Ductless gland
 Secrete, by exocytosis, hormones that travel through lymph or blood to their
target – responds in a characteristic way
Exocrine Gland
 Secretions released in to body surfaces (skin or into body cavities)
 More numerous than endocrine
 Examples: sweat, mucous, oil, and salivary glands

Part Two

Connective: most abundant and widely distributed

Functions
1. Bind and Support
2. Protecting

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3. Insulation
4. Transportation (blood)

Characteristics
1. Common Origin (mesenchyme)
2. Varying amount of blood vessels
3. Has extra cellular matrix

Ground Substance: unstructured material that ills space between cells (cell
adhesion, proteoglycans)

Fibers
Collagen: strongest/ most abundant, tough
Elastic: allow for stretch and recoil (elastin protein)
Reticular: short, ine, highly branched – ofer more give

Cells
Blast: immature form (actively mitotic)
 Fibroblast: connective tissue proper
 Chondroblast: cartilage
 Osteoblast: bone
 Hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow
Cyte: mature form
 Chondrocyte: cartilage
 Osteocyte: bone
Other Cell Types in Connective Tissue
 Fat cell: store nutrients
 White Blood Cells: tissue response to injury/ neutrophils, eosinophils, and
lymphocytes
 Mast Cell: initiate local inlammatory response
 Macrophages: phagocytes cells that eat dead cells

Connective Tissue Proper


Loose Dense
Areolar Dense Regular
Adipose Dense Irregular
Reticular Elastic

Areolar: support / bind – universal packing


 Provide reservoir of water and salts
 Defend against infection
 Store nutrients as fat
 Loose arrangement of ibers
 When inlamed, soaks up luid - edema
Adipose: 90 percent fat
 Greater nutrient storage (adipocyte)
 Less matrix
 High metabolic / highly vascularized
 Shock absorption, insulation, energy storage, brown fat (babies can't shiver)

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 Use lipid fuels to heat bloodstream not to produce ATP
Reticular
 Resembles areolar but ibers are smaller/ more delicate
 Supports free blood cells in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow

Dense Regular
 Closely packed collagen ibers
 Run in same plane, parallel to direction of pull (tendons could snap)
 White structures with great resistance to pulling
 Fibers are slightly wavy
 Poorly vascularized
 Few cells
 Fibroblasts manufacture ibers/ ground substance
Dense Irregular: dermis
 Thick packed collagen ibers
 Irregularly arranged
 Resist tension from many directions
Elastic
 Ligaments are elastic
 Larger artery walls

Cartilage
 Chondroblasts/ cytes
 Tough/ lexible
 Avascular and lacks nerves ibers
 Perichondrium
1. Hyaline (most abundant – glassy)
Support and reinforce, cushion, resist stress
Found on ends of long bones and ribs
2. Elastic (more elastic ibers in matrix)
Shape and structure/ lexible
Found on ear and epiglottis
3. Fibrocartilage
Absorb shock
Found on spine and knee

Bone (osseous tissue)


 Make blood cells
 Supports/ Protects body structures
 Osteoblast: produce matrix / Osteocyte: maintain matrix
 Richly vascularized
 Has inorganic calcium salts
 More collagen than cartilage
 Stores fat and synthesizes blood cells in cavities

Blood
 Most atypical connective tissue
 Red blood cells most common cell type
Contains white blood cells and platelets

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 Fibers are soluble proteins that precipitate during blood clotting
 Functions in transport

Muscle Tissue
 Highly vascularized
 Responsible for most movement
1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Found in skeletal muscle
Voluntary
Striations
2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Found in walls of heart
Involuntary
Striations
3. Smooth Muscle Tissue
Mainly in walls of hollow organs
Involuntary
Spindle shaped – no striations

Nervous Tissue
 Main component of nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, nerves
 Neurons
Specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses
 Neuroglia
Supporting cells that support, insulate, and protect neurons

Tissue Repair
 Necessary when barriers are penetrated
 Cells must divide and migrate
 Occurs in two major ways
1. Regeneration
Same kind of tissue replaces destroyed tissue
Original function restored
2. Fibrosis
Connective tissue replaces destroyed tissue
Original function lost

Regenerative Capacity in Diferent Tissues


 Regenerates extremely well
Epithelial tissues, bone, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular CT, blood
forming tissue
 Moderate regenerating capacity
Smooth muscle and dense regular connective tissue
 Virtually no functional regenerative capacity
Cardiac muscle and nervous tissue of brain and spinal cord
New research shows cell division does occur
Eforts underway to coax them to regenerate better

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The Integumentary System – Chapter 5

Epidermis: supericial (epithelial) – stratiied squamous


The epidermis has no vessels and receive nutrients by difusion
Dermis: deep (connective)
Hypodermis: shock absorber / insulator, not part of skin but anchors it, and
connects skin to muscle

Epidermis
Distinct Layers (Come Let’s Get Sunned Burned)
1. Stratum Corneum
2. Stratum Lucidum (only thick skin)
3. Stratum Granulosum
4. Stratum Spinosum
5. Stratum Basale
Cell Types
1. Keratinocytes

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2. Melanocytes
3. Dendritic (Langerhans)
4. Tactile (Merkel)

Keratinocytes: produce ibrous protein keratin, most cells of epidermis, tightly


connected by desmosomes
Melanocytes: 10-25 percent of cells in deepest epidermis, produce pigment
melanin – packaged into melanosomes, protect apical surface of keratinocyte
nucleus from UV damage
Dendritic (Langerhans): macrophages – key activators of immune system
Tactile (Merkel): Sensory touch receptors

Stratum Basale Deepest Attached to Single Row of Takes 25-45 days


(Base Layer) Epidermal Layer Dermis Stem Cells for full cycle
Produce Two
Daughter Cells
Stratum Several Layers Web-like Systems Abundant
Spinosum (Horny Thick melanosomes
Layer) and dendritic
cells
Stratum Thin – three to Cell appearance Glycolipids Cells before this
Granulosum ive layers thick changes prevent water layer die
(Granular Layer) loss
Stratum Lucidum 2-3 layer thick Only in thick skin Protection
(clear layer) requires more
layers
Stratum Basale 20-30 rows of Three quarters of Dead but has Protect from
lat, dead, epidermal functions environment,
keratinocytes thickness abrasion, and
barrier

Dermis: (2 layers) strong, lexible connective tissue (macrophages, white blood


cells)
Contains: sweat glands, oil glands, hair follicles, erector pili muscle (smooth)

Supericial layer – Papillary


 Dense irregular – areolar on top
 Loose tissue: phagocytes roam freely
 Dermal papillae: egg crate shape
Deep Layer – Reticular (80% of dermal thickness)
 Strength/ resilience
 Dense ibrous connective
 Collagen ibers bind water and create cleavage lines

Skin Color: melanin (made in skin), carotene, and hemoglobin


Melanin
Two forms: Yellow-tan/ Reddish brown - black [Amount and form is responsible for
color diference]

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Freckles: local accumulation of melanin
Sun exposure stimulates melanin production
Sunspots: fungal infection (tined versi color)

Carotene: yellow to orange (palms/ soles)


Accumulate in stratum corneum and hypodermis
Can be converted to vitamin A

Hemoglobin: pinkish hue of skin

Cyanosis: blue skin color – low oxygenation of hemoglobin


Erythema: redness – embarrassment, fever, hypertension, inlammation, allergy
Pallor: blanching/pale – anemia, low blood pressure, fear, and anger
Jaundice: yellow – liver disorder
Bronzing: steroid hormone in Addison’s disease
Bruises: clotted blood beneath skin

Appendages of the Epidermis


Sweat Glands (Sudoriferous) (Simple Cuboidal)
 Everywhere except nipples and some genital areas
 Two main types
o Eccrine (merocrine)
o Apocrine
 Contain myoepithelial cells: contract upon nervous system stimulation to force
sweat into ducts
Eccrine Sweat Glands
o Most numerous – palms/ soles/ forehead
o Function in thermo-regulation by sympathetic nervous
system
o Secretion is sweat – 99% water

Apocrine Sweat Glands


o Conined to armpit/ genital area
o Odorless sweat – bacteria eating protein creates stench
o Larger than eccrine
o Begin functioning at puberty “sexual scent gland”

Ceruminous: lining of external area canal – secretes earwax


Mammary: secrete milk
Sebaceous Oil Glands
 Widely distributed (not on palms or soles)
 Most develop hair follicles and secrete here
 Inactive till puberty
 Secrete sebum
o Oily holocrine secretion
o Bacterial
o Softens hair and skin

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Functions of Integumentary System
1. Protection
2. Temperature regulation
3. Cutaneous senses
4. Metabolic function
5. Blood reservoir
6. Excretion

Protection
Chemical
 Skin secretions
o Low pH retards bacterial multiplication
o Sebum and defenses kill bacteria
 Melanin
o Defense against UV damage
Physical
 Flat, dead dells of stratum corneum surrounded by lipids
 Keratin/ glycolipid block water/ soluble items
 Limited penetration of skin
o Drug agents
o Medicinal agents
Biological
 Dendritic cells of epidermis
o Present foreign agents to white blood cells
 Macrophages of dermis
o Present foreign antigens to white blood cells
 DNA
o Its electrons absorb UV radiation
o Radiation converted to heat

Body Temperature Regulation


 Normal body temperature (~500mL/ day) – routine insensible perspiration
 Sensible perspiration cools the body
 Cold external environment causes the dermal vessels to constrict (hair stands
up)
Cutaneous Senses
 Touch, pain, temperature, is detected by part of Nervous System
 Metabolic functions
o Synthesis of vitamin D
o Chemical conversions activate hormones
 Excretion – nitrogenous waste/ salt and sweat

Skin Cancer
 Most skin tumors are benign and do not spread (mastesize)
 Risk Factors
o Overexposure to UV radiation
o Frequent irritation of skin

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1. Basal Cell Carcinoma
a. Least malignant
b. Most common
c. Cured by surgery in 99% of cases
2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
a. Second most common
b. Involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
c. Usually scaly reddened papule on hands, scalp, ears, and lower lip
d. Mastesizes
e. Radiation Therapy/ removed surgically
3. Melanoma
a. Cancer of melanocytes
b. Most dangerous (highly metastic and resists chemo)
c. Surgical excision or immunotherapy
d. ABCD rule
i. Asymmetry
ii. Border irregularity
iii. Color
iv. Diameter

Burns
 Tissue damage caused by heat, electricity, radiation, and chemicals
o Denature protein/ kills cells
 Immediate Threat
o Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
 Evaluation of Burns
o Rule of Nines: estimate volume luid loss

 Anterior/ Posterior Head and Neck 9%


 Anterior/ Posterior Upper Limbs 18%
 Anterior/ Posterior Trunk 36%
 Perineum 1%
 Anterior/ posterior Lower Limbs 36%
Classiication by Severity
 Partial Thickness Burns
o First Degree
 Epidermal damage only
 Localized redness, swelling, and pain
o Second Degree
 Epidermal and dermal
 Blisters
 Full Thickness Burns
o Third Degree
 Entire thickness of skin
 Skin is gray. white, cherry, or black
 Not painful (nerves gone)
 Skin grafting necessary
Severity and Treatment
 Critical If

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o >25% second degree
o >10% third degree
 Face/ Hands/ Feet
 Treatment
o Debridement (removal) of burned skin
o Antibiotics
o Temporary covering
o Skin grafts

Bones and Skeletal Tissues – Chapter Six

Cartilage
Skeletal Cartilage (chondrocytes in lacunae and extracellular matrix)
 Water lends resiliency
 No blood vessels/ nerves
 Perichondrium surrounds
o Dense connective tissue girdle
o Resists outward expansion

Types of Cartilage
1. Hyaline
a. Provides support, lexibility, and resilience
b. Collagen ibers only most abundant
c. Articular, coastal, respiratory, nasal cartilage
2. Elastic
a. Less collagen and more elastic ibers
b. External ear and epiglottis
3. Fibrocartilage
a. Thick collagen ibers – great tensile strength
b. Menisci of knee, vertebral discs

Growth Cartilage

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 Appositional Growth
o Cells secrete matrix against external face of cartilage
 Interstitial Growth
o Chondrocytes divide and secrete
o New matrix, expanding cartilage from within
 Calciication of Cartilage
o Occurs during normal bone growth
 Youth and old age
o Hardens, but calciied cartilage is not bone

Classiication of Bones
 206 named bones in skeleton
Two Divisions
1. Axial Skeleton
a. Long axis of body
b. Skull, vertebral column, rib cage
2. Appendicular Skeleton
a. Bones of upper and lower limbs
b. Girdles attaching limbs to axial skeleton

Classiication of Bones by Shape


1. Long Bones
a. Longer than they are wide
b. Limb, not wrist or ankle
2. Short Bones
a. Cube shaped (in wrist and ankle)
b. Vary in size and number
c. Sesamoid bones (within tendons; Patella)
3. Flat Bones
a. Thin, lat, slightly curved
b. Sternum, scapulae, ribs, and most skull bones
4. Irregular Bones
a. Complicated shapes
b. Vertebrae, coxal bones

Functions of Bones
1. Support: for body and soft organs
2. Protection: for brain, spinal cord, and vital organs
3. Movement: levers for muscle action
4. Mineral and Growth Factor Storage: calcium and phosphorus, growth factor
reservoir
5. Blood Cell Formation (hematopoiesis): in red marrow cavities of certain bones
6. Triglyceride (fat) Storage in Bone Cavities: energy source
7. Hormone Production (osteocalcin): regulates bone formation, regulates
obesity, glucose intolerance, and diabetes

Bones
 Are organs
o Contain diferent types of tissue

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o Bone (osseous) tissue, nervous, cartilage, ibrous, muscle and epithelial
cells in its blood vessels
Levels of Structure
1. Gross Anatomy
a. Compact and spongy
Compact: dense outer layer; smooth and solid
Spongy (cancellous or trabecular): Honeycomb of lat pieces of
bone deep to compact called trabeculae

Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones


 Thin plates of spongy bone covered by compact bone
 Plates sandwiched between connective tissue
o Periosteum outer layer
o Endosteum inner layer
 No shaft or epiphyses
 Bone marrow throughout spongy bone; no marrow cavity
 Hyaline cartilage covers articular surfaces

Structure of Long Bones


 Diaphysis
o Tubular shaft forms along axis
o Compact bone surrounding medullary cavity
 Epiphyses
o Bone ends
o External compact bone; internal spongy bone
o Articular cartilage covers articular surfaces
o Between is epiphyseal line
 Remnant of childhood growth at epiphyseal plate

Membranes
Periosteum
 White, double layered membrane
 Covers external surfaces except joint surfaces
 Outer ibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue
o Sharpey’s Fibers secure bone to matrix
 Osteogenic Layer abuts bone
o Contains primitive stem cells – osteogenic cells
 Many nerve ibers and blood vessels
 Anchoring points for tendons and ligaments
Endosteum
 Delicate connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surface
 Covers trabeculae of spongy bone
 Lines canals that pass through compact bone
 Contains osteogenic cells that can diferentiate into other bone cells

Hematopoietic Tissue in Bones


Red Marrow

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 Found within trabecular cavities of spongy bone and diploe of lat bones
(sternum)
 In medullary cavities and spongy bone of newborns
 Adult long bones have little red marrow
o Heads of femur and humerus only
 Red marrow in diploe and some irregular bones is most active
 Yellow marrow can convert to red if necessary

Levels of Structure (cont.)


2. Microscopic of Bone Tissue
Five Major Cell Types
a. Osteogenic Cells
b. Osteoblasts
c. Osteocytes
d. Osteoclasts  not from embryonic CT
e. Bone Lining Cells
A. Osteogenic Cells (osteoprogenitor cells)
 Mitotically active stem cells in periosteum and endosteum
 When stimulated diferentiate into osteoblasts or bone lining cells but
some persist as osteogenic
B. Osteoblasts
 Bone forming cells
 Secrete un-mineralized bone matrix or osteoid
o Includes collagen and calcium – binding proteins
o Collagen = 90% of bone protein
 Actively mitotic
C. Osteocytes – branching arms
 Mature bone cells in lacunae
 Monitor and maintain bone matrix
 Act as stress or strain sensors
o Respond to and communicate mechanical stimuli to osteoblasts
and osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone) so bone remodeling can
occur
D. Osteoclasts – poofy dress
 Derived from hematopoietic stem cells that become macrophages
 Giant, multinucleate cells for bone resorptions
 When active rest in resorption bay and have ruled border
o Ruled border increases surface area for enzyme degradation of
bone and seals of area surrounding matrix

3. Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone (lamellar bone)


a. Osteon or Haversian System
i. Structural unit of compact bone
ii. Elongated cylinder parallel to long axis of bone
iii. Hollow tubes of bone matrix called lamellae
1. Collagen ibers in adjacent rings run in diferent directions
a. Withstands stress- resists twisting
b. Canals and Canaliculi
i. Central (Haversian) canal runs through core of osteon

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1. Contains blood vessels and nerve ibers
c. Perforating (Volkmann’s) Canals
i. Canals lined with endosteum at right angles to central canal
ii. Connected blood vessels and nerves of periosteum, medullary
cavity, and central canal
d. Lacunae – small cavities that contain osteocytes
e. Canaliculi – hair like canals that connect lacunae to each other and
central canal

Canaliculi Formation
 Osteoblasts secreting bone matrix maintain contact with each other and
osteocytes via cell projections with gap junctions
 When matrix hardens and cells are trapped the canaliculi form
o Allow communication
o Permit nutrients and wastes be relayed from one osteocyte to another
throughout osteon
4. Microscopic Anatomy of Spongy Bone
a) Appears poorly organized
b) Trabeculae
i. Align along lines of stress to resist it
ii. No osteons
iii. Contain irregularly arranged lamellae and osteocytes
interconnected by calcanuli
iv. Capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients

Chemical Composition of Bone


Organic
 Includes cells and osteoid
o Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone-lining cells, and
osteoclasts
o Osteoid – 1/3 of organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts
 Made of ground substance (proteoglycans and glycoproteins)
 Collagen ibers
 Contributes to structure; provides tensile strength and lexibility
 Resilience of bone due to sacriicial bonds in or between collagen molecules
o Stretch and break easily on impact to dissipate energy and prevent
fracture
o If no additional trauma, bonds re-form
Inorganic
 Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)
o 65% of bone by mass
o mainly of tiny calcium phosphate crystals in and around collagen ibers
o responsible for hardness and resistance to compression

Bone
 Half as strong as steel in resisting compression
 As strong as steel in resisting tension
 Last long after death because of mineral composition
o Reveal information about ancient people

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o Can display growth arrest line
 Horizontal lines on bones
 Proof of illness – when bones stop growing so nutrients can help
ight disease

Part Two
Bone Development
 Ossiication (osteogenesis)
o Process of bone tissue formation
o Formation of bony skeleton
 Begins in second month of development
o Postnatal bone growth
 Until early adulthood
o Bone remodeling and repair
 Lifelong
1. Enchondral Ossiication
a. Bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage
b. Bones called cartilage (enchondral) bones
c. Forms most skeleton
2. Intramembranous Ossiication
a. Bone develops from ibrous membrane
b. Bones called membrane bones
c. Forms lat bones (clavicles and cranial bones)

Enchondral Ossiication
 Forms most all bones inferior to base of skull
o Except clavicles
 Begins late in second month of development
 Uses hyaline cartilage models
 Requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossiication

 Begins at primary ossiication center in center of shaft


o Blood vessel iniltration of perichondrium converts it to periosteum 
underlying cells change to osteoblasts
 Bone collar forms around diaphysis of cartilage model
 Central cartilage in diaphysis calciies, then develops cavities
 Periosteal bud invades cavities  formation of spongy bone
 Diaphysis elongates and medullary cavity forms
 Epiphyses ossify

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Lecture Exam One – June 5th 2:30 PM


Intramembranous Ossiication
 Forms frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, bones, and clavicles
 Begins with ibrous connective tissue membranes formed by mesenchymal
cells
 Ossiication centers appear
 Osteoid is secreted
 Woven bone and periosteum form
 Lamellar bone replaces woven bone and red marrow appears

Postnatal Bone Growth


 Interstitial (longitudinal) Growth
o Increase in length of long bones
 Appositional Growth
o Increase in bone thickness
Interstitial Growth: Growth in Length of Long Bones
 Requires presence of epiphyseal cartilage
 Epiphyseal plate maintains constant thickness
o Rate of cartilage growth on one side balanced by bone replacement on
other
 Concurrent remodeling of epiphyseal ends to maintain proportion
 Resulting in ive zones within cartilage
o Resting (quiescent) zone
 Cartilage on epiphyseal side of epiphyseal plate
 Relatively inactive
o Proliferation (growth) zone
 Cartilage on diaphysis side of epiphyseal plate
 Rapidly divide pushing epiphysis away from diaphysis 
lengthening
o Hypertrophic zone
 Older chondrocytes closer to diaphysis and their lacunae enlarge
and erode  interconnecting spaces
o Calciication zone
 Surrounding cartilage matrix calciies, chondrocytes die and
deteriorate
o Ossiication (osteogenic) zone
 Chondrocyte deterioration leaves long spicules of calciied
cartilage at epiphysis- diaphysis junction
 Spicules eroded by osteoclasts
 Covered with new bone by osteoblasts
 Ultimately replaced with spongy bone
 Near end of adolescence chondroblasts divide less often
 Epiphyseal plate thins then is replaced by bone
 Epiphyseal plate closure
o Bone lengthening ceases
 Requires presence of cartilage
o Bone of epiphysis and diaphysis fuses
o Females 18 / Males 21

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Lecture Exam One – June 5th 2:30 PM


Appositional Growth: Growth in Width
 Allows lengthening bone to widen
 Occurs throughout life
 Osteoblasts beneath periosteum secrete bone matrix on external bone
 Osteoclasts remove bone on endosteal surface
 Usually more building up than breaking down
o Thicker, stronger bone but not too heavy

Hormonal Regulation of Bone Growth


Growth Hormone
 Most important in stimulating epiphyseal plate activity infancy and childhood
Thyroid Hormone
 Modulates activity of growth hormone
 Ensures proper proportions
Testosterone and Estrogen
 Promote adolescent growth spurts
 End growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure

 Excess of deicits of any cause abnormal skeletal growth

Bone Homeostasis
 Recycle 5-7% of bone mass each week
o Spongy bone replaces every 3-4 years
o Compact bone replaced every 10 years
 Older bone becomes more brittle
o Calcium salts crystalize
o Fractures more easily
 Consists of bone remodeling and bone repair
Bone Remodeling
 Consists of both bone deposit and bone resorption
 Occurs at surfaces of both periosteum and endosteum
 Remodeling units
o Adjacent osteoblasts and osteoclasts
1. Bone Deposit
a. Evidence of new matrix deposit by osteoblasts
i. Osteoid seam
a. Unmineralized band of bone matrix
ii. Calciication front
a. Abrupt transition zone between osteoid seam and older
mineralized bone
b. Trigger not conirmed
i. Mechanical signals involved
ii. Endosteal cavity concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions for
hydroxyapatite formation
iii. Matrix proteins bind and concentrate calcium
iv. Enzyme alkaline phosphate for mineralization
2. Bone Resorption
a. Is function of osteoclasts
i. Dig depressions or grooves as break down matrix

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Lecture Exam One – June 5th 2:30 PM


ii. Secrete lysosomal enzymes that digest matrix and protons (H+)
iii. Acidity converts calcium salts to soluble forms
b. Osteoclasts
i. Phagocytize demineralized matrix and dead osteocytes
a. Transcytosis allow release into interstitial luid and then into
blood
ii. Once resorption complete, osteoclasts undergo apoptosis

Control of Remodeling
 Occurs continuously but regulated by genetic factors and two control loops
o Negative feedback hormonal loop for Ca-2 homeostasis
 Controls blood Ca -2 levels; not bone integrity
o Responses to mechanical and gravitational forces

Importance of Calcium
Functions in
o Nerve impulse transmission
o Muscle contraction
o Blood coagulation
o Secretion by glands and nerve cells
o Cell division
 1200-1400 grams of calcium in body
o 99% as bone minerals
o amount in blood highly regulated (9-11mg)
o intestinal absorption requires vitamin D metabolites
o dietary intake required

Hormonal Control of Blood Ca2+


Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
 Produced by parathyroid glands
 Removes calcium from bone regardless of bone integrity
Calcitonin may be involved
 Produced by parafollicular cells of thyroid gland
 In high doses lowers blood calcium levels temporarily

Bone Homeostasis: Response to Mechanical Stress


Bones relect stresses they encounter
 Long bones thickest midway along diaphysis where bending stresses greatest
Bones stressed when weight bears on them or muscles pull on them
 Usually of center so tends to bend bones
 Bending compresses on one side; stretches on other

Results of Mechanical Stressors: Wolf’s Law


 Bones grow or remodel in response to demands placed on it
 Explains
o Handedness (left or right handed) results in thicker and stronger one of
that upper limb
o Curved bones thickest where most likely to buckle

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Lecture Exam One – June 5th 2:30 PM


o Trabeculae form trusses along lines of stress
o Large bony projections occur where heavy, active muscles attach
o Bones of fetus and beridden featureless

Bone Repair
Fractures
 Breaks
 Youth
o Most from trauma
Old age
 Most result of weakness from bone thinning

Fracture Classiication
Three “either/or” fracture classiications
 Position of bone ends after fracture
o Nondisplaced - ends retain normal position
o Displaced – ends of normal alignment
 Completeness of break
o Complete – broken all the way though
o Incomplete – not broken all the way through
 Whether skin is penetrated
o Open (compound) – skin is penetrated
o Closed (simple) – skin is not penetrated

Homeostatic Imbalances
 Osteomalacia
o Bones poorly mineralized
o Calcium salts not adequate
o Soft, weak bones
o Pain upon bearing weight
 Rickets
o Bowed legs and other bone deformities
o Bones ends enlarged and abnormally long
o Cause: Vitamin D deiciency or insuicient dietary calcium
 Osteoporosis
o Group of diseases
o Bone resorption outpaces deposit
o Spongy bone of spine and neck of femur most susceptible
 Vertebral and hip fractures common

Preventing Osteoporosis
 Plenty of calcium in diet in early adulthood
 Reduce carbonated beverage and alcohol consumption
o Leaches minerals from bone to decrease density
 Plenty of weight-bearing exercise
o Increases bone mass above normal for bufer against age related bone
loss

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Lecture Exam One – June 5th 2:30 PM


Paget’s Disease
 Excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption
o Bone made fast and poorly – called Pagetic bone
 Very high ratio of spongy to compact bone and reduced
mineralization
o Usually in spine, pelvis, femur, and skull
 Rarely occurs before age 40
 Causes unknown – possibly viral
 Treatment includes calcitonin and bisphosphates

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