Anda di halaman 1dari 113


In 1707, CASSINI, an astronomer suggested measuring

firearm’s muzzle velocity.
Ballistics (gr. ba'llein, "throw") is the science that deals with the
motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, It is the study of motion of projectiles within the gun barrel. The
rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and hurling projectiles so as time during which the projectile is influenced by Interior Ballistics is very
to achieve a desired performance. A ballistic body is a body which is free to short. From the release of the firing pin to the moment the sound of the shot
move, behave, and be modified in appearance, contour, or texture by ambient can be heard as it leaves the muzzle occupies only about 0.01 seconds, in a
conditions, substances, or forces, as by the pressure of gases in a gun, by modern rifle.
rifling in a barrel, by gravity, by temperature, or by air particles.
Interior ballistics involves:
Firearm ballistics information is used in forensic science.
Separately from ballistics information, firearm and tool mark examinations 1. Ignition of the primer.
involve analyzing firearm, ammunition, and tool mark evidence in order to 2. Flames is produced
establish whether a certain firearm or tool was used in the commission of a 3. Combustion of the gunpowder
crime. 4. Energy that is generated
5. Force/Pressure developed
Ballistics is sometimes subdivided into: 6. Velocity of the bullet (from the chamber to the muzzle)
7. Rotation of the bullet
1. Internal ballistics, the study of the processes originally 8. Engraving of the cylindrical surface of the bullet.
accelerating the projectile, for example the passage of a bullet
through the barrel of a rifle; Interior ballistics deals with the temperature, volume, and
2. Transition ballistics, the study of the projectile's behavior when it pressure of the gases resulting from combustion of the propellant charge in
leaves the barrel and the pressure behind the projectile is the gun; it also deals with the work performed by the expansion of these gases
equalized. on the gun, its carriage, and the projectile. Some of the critical elements
3. External ballistics, the study of the passage of the projectile involved in the study of interior ballistics are the relationship of the weight
through space or the air; and of charge to the weight of projectile; the length of bore; the optimum size,
4. Terminal ballistics, the study of the interaction of a projectile shape, and density of the propellant grains for different guns; and the
with its target, whether that be flesh (for a hunting bullet), steel related problems of maximum and minimum muzzle pressures.
(for an anti-tank round), or even furnace slag (for an industrial slag
disruptor). Note the following:

“Ballista” is a gigantic bow or catapult which was used to hurl The British engineer Benjamin Robins conducted many
large objects such as stones at a particular distance to deter animals or enemy experiments in interior ballistics. His findings justly entitle him to be called
forces. the father of modern gunnery.

Today, the word Ballistics is frequently used synonymously in the Late in the 18th century the Anglo-American physicist Benjamin
press and in the Police Parlance to Firearms Identification. Thompson made the first attempt to measure the pressure generated by
gunpowder. The account of his experiments was the most important
BALLISTICS contribution to interior ballistics that had been made up to that time.

It is a science in itself because it evolved from systematic About 1760 French ballisticians determined the relationship of
knowledge, research and development, training, experience and education muzzle velocity to length of barrel by measuring the velocity of a musket ball
of those who pioneered in this field. and cutting off a portion of the barrel before taking the velocity of the next
Technically speaking, it refers to the "science of firearms shot. By using the results of these experiments and advances in chemistry and
identification which involves the scientific examination of ballistics exhibits thermodynamics, ballisticians developed formulas showing the relationship
such as: fired bullets; fired shells; firearms; and allied matters, used in crime. between muzzle velocity and weight and shape of projectile; weight, type, and
grain size of powder charge; pressure and temperature in the barrel; and the
Legally speaking, ballistics is the microscopic examination of fired size of the powder chamber and the length of the barrel.
cartridge cases and bullets together with the recording and presentation by
means of photography of what is revealed by the microscope. Related Terms in Interior Ballistics

BALLISTICS THEORY 1. Action – term referring to the mechanism of a firearm.

2. Burning Rate - An arbitrary index of the quickness that burning
Ballistics is the scientific study of the propulsion and motion of propellant changes into gas. Burning rate is controlled by the
projectiles such as bullets, artillery shells, rockets and guided missiles. chemical composition, the size and shape of the propellant grains,
Also includes the study of the destructive action of such projectiles. and the pressure at which the burning takes place. IMR 5010
powder is very slow burning and Bulls eye is fast burning.
The drag of a projectile moving head on is now usually divided 3. Bulk Density - The ratio of the weight of a given volume of
into three parts: powder vs. the weight of the same volume of water.
4. Chamber Pressure – the pressure generated within the chamber
1. bow resistance - due to air pressure at the head of the projectile; erroneously called breeched pressure.
2. skin friction - caused by the friction of air moving along the 5. Charge Weight to Bullet Weight ratio - This is the ratio of the
middle portion of the body; and weight of the powder charge to the weight of the projectile.
3. base drag - due to the under-pressure and disturbance of the air 6. Detonation – Chemical rearrangement of molecules into gas
behind the base. instead of solids to cause the high explosives to exert full power of
shock. The speed of detonation varies in different explosive but in
The following are pioneers in the study of force and projectiles: some it is as high as 7000 yards in a second.
7. Energy - is measured in foot-pounds, and one foot-pound means
1. GALILEO, NEWTON, and LEIBNIZ established the principles that amount of energy, which would be capable of lifting a weight
of dynamics and the methods of calculus, studies which helped of one pound through a distance of one foot Drop-Block Action-
the rapid development of external ballistics. That type of action in which the breechblock rises and forces
2. GALILEO and NEWTON were both interested in the force vertically in cuts in the receiver side walls. Lever actuated as a
called air resistance, now usually called aerodynamic drag, which rule.
reduces the speed of a projectile.

8. Expansion Ratio - The ratio of the capacity of the powder a gun. He is and Italian scientist who a book in which he said that the
chamber plus bore (in grains of water) to the capacity of the trajectory of a bullet was really a continuous curve. He directed some firing
powder chamber (in grains of water). tests to determine this angle, and discovered that it was near 45 degrees and he
9. Foot – Pound - the amount of work required to raise one pound noted that the trajectory was continuously curve.
one foot high against the force of gravity.
10. Foot second - velocity expressed in foot per second. Galileo proved that in a vacuum a projectile describes a parabolic
11. Gas - a fluid resulting from the combustion of gun powder with a arc. The description of the law of gravitation by the British scientist Sir Isaac
relatively great expansion and spontaneous tendency. Newton made plain the cause of the curvilinear motion of projectiles. By the
12. Hangfire - Occurs when a cartridge fails to explode on time or use of calculus he determined the momentum transferred from the projectile to
delayed in firing. the particles of air at rest; this method of calculating air drag has been
13. Knocking Power - the power of the bullet which delivers a very superseded by the use of tables prepared from experimental firings.
heavy paralyzing blow that put the victim down and may then
recover if the wound inflicted upon is not fatal. Two methods have been used to determine the velocity of a
14. Loading Density - The ratio of the weight of the powder charge to projectile after it leaves the gun. One method measures the momentum of the
the capacity of the powder chamber (case). It is usually expressed projectile; the other measures the time required for the projectile to travel a
as the ratio of the charge weight to the capacity the powder given distance. The first method is the older, and in the past, when guns and
chamber in grains of water. (See below.) Generally, the more fully projectiles were small, velocities low, and ranges short, the results were
the powder charge fills the case the more consistent and accurate sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes. The ballistic pendulum and
the load will be. On the other hand if the loading density is too gun pendulum were used to measure projectile momentum, but these devices
low, (too much free space in the case) it can cause erratic ignition, have been supplanted by cheaper and more accurate machines working on the
change in the pressure curve (moving the peak towards the principles of the second method.
muzzle), or even overly rapid burning ("detonation") of the powder
charge. (One reason manuals list minimum or starting loads.) The ballistic pendulum was developed about 1743 by Robins,
15. Misfire – total failure of a cartridge to discharge. This is different who was the first to undertake a systematic series of experiments to determine
from hang fire which merely a delayed combustion, while misfire a the velocity of projectiles. The principle of the ballistic pendulum, as well as
complete failure eve to start combustion. of the gun pendulum, which was developed by Thompson, is the transfer of
16. Powder Chamber Capacity - As with most interior ballistics momentum from a projectile with a small mass and a high velocity to a large
capacity measurements it is usually expressed in grains of water. It mass with a resultant low velocity.
is determined by measuring the weight of water that a fired case
from the test firearm can contain with a bullet seated to its normal The ballistic pendulum consisted of a massive plate of iron to
depth. Note that this varies with different bullets or seating depth which was bolted a block of wood to receive the impact of the projectile; the
as well as the dimensions of the chamber, and the brand of case. pendulum was suspended freely from a horizontal axis. The block, when
17. Pressure – Outward push of gases from powder combustion struck by the projectile, recoiled through a certain arc that was easily
against cartridge case, chamber and bore. measured. Knowing the arc of recoil and the masses of the projectile and the
18. Sectional Density - The ratio of the bullet's weight (in pounds) to pendulum, the velocity of the projectile could be determined by calculation.
its diameter. The ballistic pendulum was able to withstand the impact of musket balls only;
19. PSI - Pounds per square inch. It is often seen designated as PSIA. however, by determining the relations that should exist between the caliber,
This designation is now used to signify a measurement of chamber length of barrel, and charge of power, Robins substantially advanced the
pressure taken with a piezo-electric device. Piezo-electric units science of gunnery.
operate in a similar fashion to the copper crusher units but use a
reusable crystal "crusher" that changes its electrical properties in By the second method, the velocity of a projectile is determined by
response to pressure. When connected to suitable recording measuring the time required for it to travel a known length of its path.
equipment the entire pressure pulse history can be recorded or Numerous machines have been devised for this purpose; in 1840 the British
displayed. The peak pressure recorded by a piezo-electric peak physicist Sir Charles Wheatstone suggested the use of electricity for
device usually reads about 5,000 psi higher than the figure measuring small intervals of time. This suggestion led to the development of
determined by the copper crusher method. the chronograph, a device for recording, by electrical means, the time required
20. Recoil – the equal and opposite reaction of the gun against the for a projectile to pass between two screens of fine wire.
forward movement of the bullet during the explosions.
21. Residual Pressure – the pressure remaining in the chamber after The formulas and tables for the exterior ballistics of each new type
the bullet has left the barrel. of gun or cannon are more or less empirical and must be tested by actual
experiment before the aiming devices can be accurately calibrated.
Further, exterior (external) ballistics refers to the attributes and
Exterior Ballistics deals with the motion of projectiles from the movements of the bullet after it has left the gun muzzle. It includes:
time they leave the muzzle of the firearm to the time they hit the target. The
flight of most bullet or projectile does not exceed 30 seconds at maximum 1. Muzzle blast - the noise created at the muzzle point of the gun due
range, which for almost any firearms is obtained at an elevation of about 33. to the sudden escape of the expanding gas coming in contact with
the air in the surrounding atmosphere at the muzzle point.
CONDITIONS - refers to the natural laws. 2. Muzzle energy - energy generated at the muzzle point.
a. velocity - speed per unit of time ex. M16 - 3,300 ft/sec. 3. Trajectory - the actual curved path of the bullet during its flight
b. energy - fatal equivalent of a bullet. from the gun muzzle to the target. The following are the kinds of
c. yaw - the unstable rotating motion of a bullet. trajectory: straight horizontal line - parabola-like flight - vertical
d. gyroscopic action - refers to the stillness of its rotating drop
motion and attained its highest momentum or stability in 4. Range - the straight distance between the muzzle point and the
flight and penetrating power. target.
a. Accurate (effective) range - the distance within the shooter
In exterior ballistics, elements such as shape, caliber, weight, has control of his shots, meaning he can place his shots at
initial velocities, rotation, air resistance, and gravity help determine the the desired spots.
path of a projectile from the time it leaves the gun until it reaches the target. b. Maximum range - the farthest distance that a projectile can
be propelled from a firearm.
Until the middle of the 16th century it was believed that bullets
move in straight lines from the gun to the target and that shells fired from * While the range at which the ordinary pistol and revolver
mortars describe a path made up of two straight lines joined by an arc of a are supposed to be effective in only 50-70 yards, all of them can send
circle. The Italian mathematician Niccolò Tartaglia, in a published work on their bullets much further than that and are capable of inflicting fatal
gunnery, claimed that no part of the path of a projectile could be a straight line wounds at distances up to one mile, depending on the caliber and
and that the greater the velocity of the projectile the flatter its path. Tartaglia gunpowder content.
invented the gunner's quadrant used to determine elevation of the muzzle of
5. Velocity - rate of speed of the bullet per unit of time. 7. Critical Zone - This is the area of the bullet's path where it neither
rises nor falls greater than the dimension specified. Most shooters
Long barrel rifle – up to 3,000 yards accurate range and its hinge set this as ± 3" to 4" from the line of sight, although other
muzzle velocity of 1000-4000 ft./sec. dimensions are sometimes used. The measurement is usually based
on one-half of the vital zone of the usual target. Typical vital zones
* Bullets from rifled weapons spin at 2000-3000 diameters are often given as: 3" to 4" for small game, and 6" to 8"
revolutions per second, but over the first few yards of trajectory – for big game and anti-personnel use.
distance varies with the weapon – their flight is slightly unstable; the end 8. Drift - is the curve taken by the bullet while in flight. A right hand
of the projectile wobbles before it picks up a smooth flight path. This rifling curves to the right while that of the left and rifling curves to
phenomenon is called “TAILWAG”, and is of considerable important the left.
in evaluating gunshot wounds. A bullet with “tailwag” does not strike 9. Effective Range- The maximum distance at which a bullet may
its target clearly. reasonably be expected to travel accurately and kill a particular
type of live targe
6. Air resistance - resistance encountered by the bullet while in 10. Extreme Range – The greatest distance the bullet will travel when
flight. the cartridge is fired.
7. Pull of gravity - downward reaction of the bullet while in flight. 11. Flat Trajectory - A comparative term used to indicate very little
8. Penetration - depth of entry on target. curvature in the flight in the bullet from muzzle to point of impact.
When the velocity is high, comparatively flat trajectory.
Note on the following Contributors: 12. Gallery Range - The indoor target range. National rifle association
of America, gallery rules required stance from firing point to target
1. 1707 - Cassini. Suggested measuring of firearms muzzle velocity of 50 feet or 75 feet for.22 rim fire riffle; 50 feet or 60 feet for
2. 1857 – Monsieur Noiles. Published a thesis titled ‘Les Plaies Feu .22rim-fire pistols. On properly constructed indoor ranges, firing
Courtes’. His thesis dealt with the subject of wounds made by may be conducted with center fire pistol and revolvers at ranges of
small firearms. 25 yards and 50 yards. Such installation are generally referred to as
3. 1748 - Henry Shrapnel. He invented the shrapnel, which disperse “indoor range” the term “gallery” being applied usually only to the
its load of case shot with a small bursting charge, increasing the short range .22 caliber installation.
effective range of case. 13. Gallery Range - The indoor target range. National rifle association
4. 1898 – Mr. Corin in Paris, France. Published an article titled “La of America, gallery rules required stance from firing point to target
Determination de La Distance a’Laguelle un Coup de Feu a e’te’ of 50 feet or 75 feet for.22 rim fire riffle; 50 feet or 60 feet for
Tire” (Determination of the distance at which a shot has been .22rim-fire pistols. On properly constructed indoor ranges, firing
discharged from a firearm). may be conducted with center fire pistol and revolvers at ranges of
5. 1900 – Dr. Albert Llewellyn Hal in Buffalo, New York (USA). 25 yards and 50 yards. Such installation are generally referred to as
A very significant article entitled “The Missile and the Weapon” “indoor range” the term “gallery” being applied usually only to the
was published in the June issue of the Buffalo Medical Journal. short range .22 caliber installation.
6. 1903 – Mr. E.J. Churchill in London, England (uncle of Robert 14. Initial Point - The range at which the bullet's trajectory first
Churchill of later fame as a firearms examiner for the United crosses the line of sight. This is normally occurs at a range of about
Kingdom). He provided testimony as to some experimentation that 25 yards.
he had performed involving the distance of which a shot had been 15. Instrument Velocity - the velocity of a projectile measured by the
fired into a human skull. scientific instrument called chronograph, at a specified point on its
7. 1900 - Dr. Albert Llewellyn. He wrote an article entitled “The trajectory. Always lower than the muzzle velocity.
Missile and the Weapon”, which dealt with a variety of issues to 16. Key-hole Shot – the tumbling of the bullet in its flight and hitting
include how measurement of land and groove markings are made the target sideways as a result of not spinning on its axis.
on bullets. He also discussed the examination of gunpowder 17. Maximum Point Blank Range - This is the farthest distance at
residues in barrels of firearms and the changes that take place over which the bullet's path stays within the critical zone. In other
time after the weapon is fired. words the maximum range at which you don't have to adjust your
8. 1921 - Mr. Jorge T. Filho. He published an article entitled point of aim to hit the target's vital zone. Unless there is some over
“Estimation of Distance from which a Bullet was Fired” (“Da riding reason to the contrary shots should not generally be
Diagnose da Distance nos Tiros de Projecteis Multiplos Chumbo attempted much past this distance. In the words of the Guru, "It is
de Caca”). unethical to attempt to take game beyond 300 meters." If you do,
9. Emile Monnin Chamot. He authored a 61-paged monograph you should write yourself a letter explaining why it was necessary
entitled “The Microscopy of Small Arms Primers”. to do so. An approximate rule of thumb says that the maximum
point blank range is approximately your zero range plus 40 yards.
Note on the following Terms in Exterior Ballistics: 18. Maximum Range – the farthest distance that a projectile can be
propelled from a firearm.
1. Accuracy Range – The maximum distance at which a particular 19. Maximum Ordinate - This is the maximum height of the
gun and cartridges will consistently place all shots in the standard projectile's path above the line of sight for a given point of impact
target for that distance. and occurs somewhat past the halfway point to the zero range and
2. Accurate Range – The distance within which the shooter has it is determined by your zeroing range.
control of his shots. 20. Mid-range Trajectory - This is the height of the bullets path
3. Back Curve - This is that portion of the bullets trajectory that above the line of sight at half way to the zero range. It does not
drops below the critical zone beyond the point blank range. Past occur at the same range as the maximum ordinate height which can
this point the trajectory begins to drop off very rapidly with range be greater.
and the point of impact becomes very difficult to estimate. 21. Minute of Angle (MOA) - A "minute" of angle is 1/60 of a degree
4. Ballistic Coefficient – The means that the bullet may lose its which for all practical purposes equates to 1 inch per 100 yards of
speed very rapidly during its flight the air. This is a number that range. Thus 1 MOA at 100 yards is 1 inch and at 300 yards it is 3
relates to the effect of air drag on the bullet's flight and which can inches. The term is commonly used to express the accuracy
be used to later predict a bullet's trajectory under different potential of a firearm.
circumstances through what are called "drag tables." 22. Point Blank Range – Popularly used to indicate the distance the
5. Bullet Energy – the power possessed by a moving bullet, or in bullet will travel before it drops enough to require sight
other words, its ability to keep going when it meets an obstacle and adjustment. A short fired so closed to the target that no sighting is
to do work on the obstacle is immense importance, for obviously necessary for effective aiming.
the more power a bullet has an the harder it is to stop the more 23. Ricochet – The bouncing off or deflection of a bullet from its
effective it can be as a weapon original trajectory (normal path) after striking a resistant surface.
6. Bullet Trajectory - This is the bullet's path as it travels down 24. Shocking Power – the power of the bullet that results in the
range. It is parabolic in shape and because the line of the bore is instantaneous death of the victim.
below the line of sight at the muzzle and angled upward, the 25. Stopping Power – the power of the bullet that put the victim out
bullet's path crosses the line of sight at two locations. of action instantly. So it should be understood that stopping power
is not necessarily the same thing as killing power. However, Instead, they are observed inside the hole through careful
stopping power depends very largely on the location of the sot. examination. The edges are found ragged (torn in star shape) and
26. Target – an object at which the firearm is aimed and discharged. the wound is like an exit wound.
27. True Drop – the actual distance the bullet falls during the time of 2. Scorching – caused by the flame or hot gases not by the hot
flight to the target. This is not the same as what we speak of when projectiles as is commonly believed. It is also known as burning or
we discuss drop in the ordinary sense, which is more properly charring.
termed effective or apparent drop 3. Blackening – caused by the deposition of smoke particles by all
28. Zero Range - This is the farthest distance at which the line of sight types of powders at close ranges. Being light particles, they soon
and the bullet's path intersect. lose their velocity and get deposited on any material available in
the path.
TERMINAL BALLISTICS 4. Tattooing (a.k.a. peppering) – caused by the embedding of
unburnt and semi-burnt powder particles into the surface of the
It is the study dealing with the effect of the impact of the bullet on target. These particles are slightly heavier than the smoke
the target. Penetration of the bullet is of prime interest. Penetration is particles. They retain motion to somewhat longer intervals and
important also in determining safety requirements for target backstops. They consequently cause tattooing to a distance of about one and a-half
are important to both sportsman and military. times blackening range.

TERMINAL BALLISTICS involves: Other GSW Characteristics

1. Terminal accuracy - size of the bullet grouping on the target. 1. Pink Coloration – caused by absorbed carbon monoxide in the
2. Terminal energy - energy of the projectile when it strikes the skin and flesh.
target. Also known as striking energy. 2. Dirt Ring – deposited by some projectile (which carry greases on
3. Terminal penetration - depth of entry of the bullet in the target. them) around the wound. Existence of this indicates the entrance
4. Terminal velocity - speed of the bullet upon striking the target. side of a firearm injury & does not indicate range.
3. Contusion – caused by the impact of the projectile (reddish dark to
Terminal ballistics also deals with the destructive actions and bluish black - varies somewhat with the age of the injury). It takes
effects that occur at the end of the projectile's flight as an integral and un-de- the form of a belt around the wound. It is of uniform in thickness.
formed body. The flight may end in one of two ways: 4. Foreign Materials – Their presence not only permits the
identification of the firearms injury but they also permit a fairly
1. the projectile may strike a solid obstruction, or reliable guess of firearm.
2. its metal case may be broken by the explosion of a bursting charge
Factors influencing entrance and exit gunshot wounds
SHOTS BALLISTICS - deals with the attributes and properties of shots and
pellets. 1. Kind of weapon - The higher power the weapon is the more
destructive to the tissues of the body.
CHOKE - When the diameter of a barrel of a shotgun is the same throughout 2. Caliber of the weapon - The higher the caliber of the wounding
the bore, it is called true cylinder. bullet, the greater will be the size of the wound of entrance, hence,
greater destruction to the tissues.
The bore of the gun is sometimes constricted near the muzzle end. 3. Shape and composition of the missile - The conical shape free
That is, the diameter near the muzzle end is slightly smaller than the diameter end of the bullet slug has more penetrating power but less tissue
of the bore of the rest of the barrel. The barrel is said to be choked. destruction, while bullet slug with hemispherical free end had less
penetrating but more destruction to the tissues.
Full – if reduced by one mm; half if reduced by one-half mm;
quarter if reduced by ¼ mm; and improved cylinder if reduced by about * Some bullets were made to be deformed upon
1/10 mm. heating the target like the hallow point, dum-dum and soft
point bullet. Bullets made of hard metals like the magnum 44 and
The amount of spread in the shot is controlled by the choke. If a the armor-piercing bullet are not usually deformed upon hitting
barrel will put 70 percent of its shot charge in a 30-inch (76-centimeter) circle the target. Other bullets and the fragments may cause further
at 40 yards (37 meters), it is called full choke. Modified choke will deliver injury to the body. The tracer bullet is in flame during its flight to
about 60 percent; improved cylinder about 50 percent. A full choke 12-gauge the air and may caused burn upon hitting the body and this bullet
gun will kill ducks that are about 60 to 65 yards (55 to 59 meters) away. is also used in targeting the low flying airplane.

Chilled Shot – shotgun pellets made from lead especially hardened by the 4. Range of fire - the injury is not only due to the missile but also
addition of a slight amt. of antimony. due to the pressure of the heated expanded gases, flame and
articles of gunpowder. However, in long range fire, the
WOUND BALLISTICS – It is the study of the effects of projectile to human characteristic effect of the bullet alone will produce the injury.
body. 5. Direction of fire - A right angle approach of the bullet to the body
will produce a round shape wound of entrance in short distance
Gunshot Wound (GSW). It is an open wound produced by the fire, while in acute angle of approach the bullet will produce an
penetration of bullet slug within the tissues of the body. The bullet which was oval shape wound of entrance with contusion collar widest on the
propelled from the gun as well as the flame from the heated expanded gases in side of the acute angle of approach and a tendency for the bullet to
short range fire is the one that produces injury. deflect to another direction upon hitting the target.
6. Part of the body involved - When the bullet hit the soft tissues of
Three Basic Kinds of GSW Distinguished by the Proximity of the the body; the bullet penetrates and usually without any change in
Weapon direction, however upon hitting the bones and other hard body
structures the bullet may fracture the bones causing further injury
1. Contact – gun muzzle pressed against, or within an inch or two, of or may deflect to another direction.
the body.
2. Close discharge – 6 inches to 2 ft. Description of the wound of entrance is based on the distance of the body
3. Distance Discharge – over 2 ft. or 3 ft. from the fired gun

Range of Fire - an important aspect of forensic ballistics. 1. Contact fire. This is burst due to the explosion of the powder
which produces the heated and expanded gases. There is burning
1. Muzzle Pattern – indicates contact wound and are often observed of the tissues because it is within the flame zone; singeing of the
in suicide cases. The whole charge (projectile, wads, if any, hair; and particles of gunpowder in and around the wound of
smoke, unburnt or semi-burnt powder particles and hot gases) enter entrance; skin is separated from the underlying tissues in the
into the target. No burning, blackening and tattooing are observed. affected area and the blasted tissues are cherry red in color because
of the presence of carbon monoxide; pressure of the bullet will causing burning of the skin and the tissues. There is singeing of
caused caving-in or excavation of tissues and the contusion collar the hair; presence of wads and particles of gunpowder inside the
is seen around the wound of entrance. The size of the wound is wound of entrance.
rather small. 2. Near shot up to six inches distance. There is marked laceration
2. Near contact up to six inches distance. There is bursting of of the skin and destruction of tissues due to the pressure of
tissues, burning and blackening of the skin as in contact fire but the explosion. The burning on the surface of the skin and particles of
particles of gunpowder are present inside as well as around the gunpowder are present inside and around the wound of entrance.
wound of entrance. The shape of the wound maybe lacerated or There is singeing of the hair as well as pieces of wads inside and
slit-like and the size is larger than the diameter of the missile. The outside the wound of entrance.
excavation of tissues due to the pressure of the penetrating bullet 3. Distance about one yard. The pellets penetrate the tissues as one
slug but it can be severe as in contact fire. mass making the wound with irregular edge of the wound of
3. Distance above six inches up to 24 inches. The size of the wound entrance. There will also be blackening of tissues with slight burn-
gradually approximates the size of the missile. The farther the ing, singeing of the hair or gunpowder tattooing.
target, the lesser the burning or blackening of tissues, gun powder 4. Distance about two to three yards. The wound of entrance has a
tattooing, singeing of the hair and excavation of tissues and lesser big central hole with ragged edges and a few stray wounds of
until they disappear beyond the 24 inches distance. entrance around the central hole. At this distance, there will be no
more blackening or burning of the skin, gunpowder tattooing,
Differentiation between gunshot wound of Entrance and Wound of Exit singeing of the hair and pieces of wads or near the wound of
Differential points Wound of Entrance Wound of Exit 5. Distance of four yards. A small group of pellets may penetrate
the tissues producing a central core, although plenty of pellets in a
1. Size of the wound  smaller than the  bigger than the wider dispersion may produced separate wound of entrance. The
2. Edge of the wound missile missile Everted pellets dispersed about one and a half the distance in yards in non-
3. Shape of the  Inverted  no definite choked barrel while in full-choked bore the dispersion is one half
wound  Round or oval shape less but there is a wider dispersion in short barrel shotgun.
4. Contusion collar  present in  absent
5. Gunpowder contact  absent Points to consider in the reporting of gunshot and shotgun injuries
tattooing  and near contact  maybe absent if
6. Presence or fire the slug is 1. Detailed description of the gunshot and shotgun wound
absence  always present lodged inside 2. Location of wound in the body
7. Protrusion of tissue  Absent the body 3. Measurement of the wound as to diameter and depth
8. Paraffin test  + in contact and  maybe present 4. Number of wound of entrance and exit
near fire  negative 5. Direction and length of the bullet tract
6. Organs or tissues involved
Determination whether the gunshot injury is Suicidal, Homicidal or 7. Location of the slug if lodged in the body
Accidental 8. Diagram, photograph, sketch or drawing of the gunshot or shotgun
A. Evidence to prove that gunshot wound is suicidal

1. Accessibility of the involved part to the hand of the victim

2. Usually only one gunshot wound
3. Usually the distance is short range or class range
4. Presence of suicide note
5. History of frustration or despondency of the victim
6. Presence of cadaveric spasm on the hand of the victim
7. Exclusion of other evidences to prove that it is not suicide
Effects or complications of wound
B. Evidence that the gunshot wound is homicidal
1. Hemorrhage – Bleeding. It is the loss of blood from the ruptured
1. Wound is located at any part of the body vessel secondary to trauma or existing pathology.
2. Victim usually at a certain distance from the assailant 2. Direct mechanical injury - This is the direct damage to the tissues
3. Signs of struggle (Defense wound) maybe present in the victim 3. Shock - It is disturbance of the balance of fluid in the body
4. Disturbances of the surroundings. characterized by fall in blood pressure, decreases blood flow or
5. Wounding weapon usually not found at the scene of the crime blood volume in the body.
6. Testimony from the witnesses 4. Infection. It is the appearance, growth and multiplication of the
micro-organism in the living tissues.
C. Evidence that gunshot wound is accidental 5. Embolism. It is the clogging of the blood vessel by foreign bodies
such as air or bits of fats or septic embolus causing blocking to the
1. Usually only one gunshot wound blood flow to the distal tissues supplied by the blood.
2. Wound located at any part of the body
3. Absence of personal grudge between the victim and the one Points to consider in the reporting of wound:
who fired the gun 1. Character of the wound
4. Testimony from witnesses 2. Location of wound in the body
3. Measurement of the wound - It is declared in inches, centimeters
Take note: and millimeters.
a. Length
Shotgun Wound - It is an open wound produced by the b. Width
penetration of pellets or shots within the tissues of the body. In shotgun fire, c. Depth
the pellets penetrate and usually lodged inside the body and a tendency for a 4. Number of wound
wider dispersion of pellets at a certain distance except in contact and near 5. Direction of wound
contact fires. 6. Organs involved
7. Severity of the wound
Characteristics of the Shotgun Wound of Entrance 8. Period of healing or incapacity of the victim.

1. Contact fire - irregular with bursting of the affected tissues due to Other pieces of evidence in dealing with the wound
explosion of the heated and expanded with accompanying flame
1. Evidence from the wounding weapon
a. Presence of blood stains, bits of tissues and other body fluids FORUM – It is a Latin word from which forensic was derived,
on the wounding weapon. meaning a marketplace, where people gather for "public disputation" or
2. Evidence from the victim as well as the assailant "public discussion". Thus, the title "Forensic Ballistics" aptly describes the
a. Presence of blood stains, bits of tissues and other body fluids subject under consideration - the science of investigation and identification of
on the victim or assailant firearms and ammunitions used in crimes. The terms "Ballistics", Forensic
b. Presence of wound on the victim as well as the assailant Ballistics" and "Firearms Identification", have come to mean one and the same
c. Effects or complications of wound such as found in the clini- thing in the minds of the public, and they can be used interchangeably.
cal manifestations on the victim
3. Evidence from the scene of the crime Studies concerning Forensic Ballistics
a. Presence of blood stains or drops of blood on the streets or
flouring, walls, furniture and other materials at the scene of  1835 - Henry Goddard. In one of his case in England, where a
the crime homemaker was shot and killed, he was able to identify the mold
b. Presence of bits of tissues, torn clothing and other body fluids mark – the mold is used to manufacture lead balls from molten
at the scene of the crime leads – on the field projectile. He was the bullet, which could be
traced back to the mold. He also examined the paper patch – the
Take Note: paper patch provides the seal between the ball gunpowder firearms
– was able to identify it as having been torn from a newspaper that
SIR SYDNEY SMITH – founder of the Medico-Legal Faculty at was found on the room of the guilty servant.
Cairo University and later Regis Professor of Forensic Medicine at Edinburgh,  Paul Jesrich. He took photomicrographs of two bullets to
was one of the leading exponents in studying entrance and exit wounds, compare, and subsequently individualize them through the minute
powder burns and powder “tattooing” on human skin and other medical differences.
phenomena associated with gun fire.  1905 - Mr. Kockel. He published an article entitled “The Expert
Examination of Fired Bullets”.
Studies involving Terminal and Wound Ballistics  1912 - Professor V. Baltahazard. He devised a series of
procedures to identify fired bullets to the firearms from which they
 1857 – Monsieur Noiles. He published a thesis titled ‘Les Plaies were fired. He studied the firearms by taking an elaborate series of
Feu Courtes’. His thesis dealt with the subject of wounds made by photographs of test fired bullet from the firearms as well as
small firearms. evidence bullet. He also applied these same specilalized
 1889 – Mr. A. Lacassogne of Lyon, France. He published a paper photographic techniques to the examination and identification of
tided “La Deformation Des Balles de Revolver” (Deformation of cartridge casings using firing pin, breech face, ejection and
Revolver Bullets) in Volume 5. Archives de l’Antropologie extractor marks.
Criminelle et Des Sciences Penales.  1913 - Professor Balthazard. Published the first article
 1748 - Henry Shrapnel. He invented the shrapnel, which disperse individualizing bullet markings.
its load of case shot whit a small bursting charge, increasing the  1922 - Mr. C. Williams. He wrote an article entitle “Fingerprints
effective range of case. on Bullets” which appeared in Outdoor Life magazine.
 Anomynous author. Published a thesis an article entitled  1920 - R.E. Herrick. He published an article entitled “Ballistics
“Entrance Wounds and Powder Markings”. Jurisprudence”.
 Mr. Louis B. Wilson. He published an article entitle “Dispersion  November 1924 – Dr Sydney Smith. He wrote an article
of Bullet Energy in Relation to Wound Effects”. concerning the details of the investigating that appeared in the
 P. Chavigny and E. Gelma. They authored an article entitled British Medical Journal in January 1926. He relates that he
“Fissures of the Skull by Revolver Bullets at short-range”. believes that scientific examination of firearms and projectiles in
 J. Howard Mathews. Chairman of the Department of Chemistry Great Britain had its beginning as a result of the publication of his
at the University of Wisconsin. In this first criminal case, he was report on the case.
involved on the metallographic analysis of bomb parts used to kill  1920 - COL CALVIN H. GODDARD (M.D., U.S. ARMY)
an individual. pioneered the introduction of this science in Criminology courses
in the different universities.
FORENSIC BALLISTICS  1947 - Col Goddard came to the Philippines when Gen. Castaneda
was ambushed together with his aid, Col Salgado in Kamias,
It is the study of Firearm Investigation and Identification of Quezon City, both died.
firearms by means of ammunition fired through them. This is the real branch  1924 – Captain Edward C. ‘Ned’ Crossman. A well-known
of the science which the police use as their guide in field investigations. This shooter and sports writer, examined firearms evidence for the Los
includes the following: Angeles County Sheriff in April 1925, in New York City, New
York (USA), THE Bureau of Forensic Ballistics was established
1. Field Investigations - conducted by the first officers on the by C.E. Waite, Major (later Colonel) Calvin H. Goddard, Philip O.
case in the field when they investigate a case or cases Gravelle and John H. Fisher.
wherein firearms have been used. This is a routine job of the  1934 - Major Sir Gerald Burrard. He wrote a book entitled
investigating officers, and this involves “The Identification of Firearms and Forensic Ballistics”, which
recognition, collection, marking, preservation, and transmittal discussed many early cases that occurred throughout the British
of ballistics exhibits like fired bullets, fired shells, firearms Empire.
and allied matters.  1935 Major Julian S. Hatcher. He wrote and published;
2. Technical examinations of the ballistics exhibits - This “Textbook of Firearms Investigation, Identification and Evidence”
is the job performed by the firearms examiners in the together with the “Textbook of Pistols and Revolvers.”
laboratory. It involves marking of the evidence firearms, test  1944 – John E. Davis. He joined the Police Department in
firings of evidence firearms to obtain test bullets and test Oakland, California establishing its first criminology laboratory.
shells for comparative purposes, photomicrography under the  Derechter and Mage. They wrote an article entitled
bullet comparison microscope, preparation of comparative “Communication on the Identification of Fired Bullets and Shells”.
charts, and the making of reports on the findings and  Arthur Lucas. He published an article entitled “The Examination
observations of the firearms examiners. of Firearms and Projectiles in Forensic Cases”.
3. Legal proceedings - Court Trials - wherein the ballistics  Jack D. Gunther & Professor Charles O. Gunther. They
report of the firearm examiner and the ballistics exhibits are published the entitled “The Identification of Firearms”, which
presented during the trial of the case in a court of justice. provided additional information about the principles of firearms
identification with approximately one-half of the book discussing
Take Note: in great detail the Sacco-Vanzetti case to include reprinting large
portions of the actual court transcript. They also discussed the
FORENSIC - As applied to ballistics, or to any other subject, need for the science of firearm identification to utilize the scientific
suggest a relationship to Courts of Justice and legal proceedings. methodology.

 1958 – John E. Davis. An eminent criminals and Director of the Mechanism
Oakland Police Department (CA) Criminalistics Section (Crime
Lab) wrote a book titled “An Introduction to Tool Marks, Firearms Any firearm, large or small, has four essential parts:
and the Striagraph”. In his book, Davis provided excellent
information about the examination and identification of firearms 1. Barrel – It is a long tube. It may be smooth, as in a shotgun, or
and tool mark evidence. with spiral grooves on the inner surface, as in a rifle.
 1996 – Tom A. Warlow. He published a text on firearms 2. Chamber - It is a widened hole at the breech (rear) end of the
identification titled “Firearms, the Law and Forensic Ballistics”. barrel. It holds the cartridge (explosive charge).
Warlow has written a useful text that contains excellent 3. Breech mechanism - The breech mechanism closes the rear end of
information for firearm and toolmark examiners. the barrel, holding the cartridge in the chamber.
 1997 – Brian J. Heard. He published a text on firearms 4. Every up-to-date firearm has some way by which the breech can be
identification titled “Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics opened for loading and locked for safety in firing. Artillery uses
Examining and Interpreting Forensic Evidence”. screw plugs or breechblocks. Machine guns, rifles, and other small
arms usually have a metal cylinder, or bolt, that is locked when the
SUBJECTS OF BALLISTICS STUDY gun is fired, and drawn back to eject (force out) the empty
cartridge case and to reload.
FIREARMS 5. Firing mechanism - The firing mechanism may be electric, as in
some large artillery pieces. In small arms, a spring drives a pointed
A firearm is a weapon that fires either single or multiple projectiles firing pin through the breech bolt against a sensitive primer in the
propelled at high velocity by the gases produced through rapid, confined cartridge. The firing pin is cocked (drawn back) against a hook
burning of a propellant. This process of rapid burning is technically known as called the sear. When the trigger is pulled, the sear releases the
deflagration. In older firearms, this propellant was typically black powder, but firing pin, which in turn leaps forward to strike the primer. A jet of
modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. flame from the primer ignites the rest of the powder, forming a gas.
This explosive gas propels the bullet from the barrel.
The term gun is often used as a synonym for firearm, but in
specialist use has a restricted sense—referring only to an artillery piece with a HANDGUN/SHORT ARMS
relatively high muzzle velocity and a relatively flat trajectory, such as a field
gun, a tank gun, an anti-tank gun, or a gun used in the delivery of naval 1. Pistol – a handgun that is magazine feed. It is said that pistols
gunfire. were invented in the Italian town “PISTOIA.” Hence, the name
pistol – arrived in Britain about 1515 as German import.
Firearms are sometimes referred to as small arms. Small arms are 2. Revolver – A handgun with a corresponding cylinder that revolves
weapons which can be carried by a single individual, with a barrel bore of up before the barrel which consist of different chambers.
to approximately 0.50 inch (12.7 mm). Small arms are aimed visually at their
targets by hand using optical sights. The range of accuracy for small arms is ORIGINS OF FIREARMS
generally limited to about one mile (1600 m), usually considerably less,
although the current record for a successful Sniper attack is slightly more than  13th Century – development of firearms followed the invention of
1 1/2 miles. gunpowder in Western Europe.
 BERTHOLD SCHWARTZ – a German monk, and Roger Bacon,
Firearm (Technical) is an instrument that is used for the an English monk – are both credited with gunpowder invention.
propulsion of projectile by means of the expansive force of gases of burning
gunpowder. * Most reference books credit Roger Bacon, English
monk and scientist, with the invention of gunpowder in 1248, and
Firearms or Arm (legal – Sec. 877 of the RAC and Sec. 290 of Berthold Schwartz, with the application of gun powder to the
NIRC) – includes rifles, muskets, carbines, shotguns, pistols, revolvers and all propelling of a missile in the early 1300’s. This powder was that
other weapons from which a bullet, a ball, a shot, a shell or missiles may be we now call “black powder”.
discharged by means of gunpowder or other explosives. The term also
includes air rifles, except that are in small in caliber and usually used as toys.  1118 – Moors used artillery against Zaragoza. Early
The barrel of any firearm is considered a complete firearm for purposes of manuscripts tell o fseveral Moorish campaign in which artillery
Section 877 of the Revised Administrative Code. was used all dating prior to Bacon and Scwartz.
 1245 – Gen. Batu, the Tartar leader used artillery in Liegnitz when
Take Note: he defeated the Poles, Hungarians and Russians.
* It is also often stated that gunpowder was first
 Rifle – long rifle bored firearm designed to hit targets at a greater invented by Chinese were aware of gunpowder and its use as a
or longer distance, with spiral grooves to fire only a single shot. propellant long before its advantage became recognized in
 Musket – long smooth bored firearm that is designed to prepare a Europe. It may also assume the Arabs with their advance
single shot. knowledge of chemistry at that time.
 Shotgun – long smooth bored firearm having a barrel of 25-30
inches long and designed to shot birds in flight; long smooth bored  1247 – one of the earliest recorded uses of firearms in warfare was
firearm and breech loading designed to fire a number of lead that o fan attack on Seville, Spain.
pellets or shot in one charge.  1346 – Cannons used by King Edward III of England at Crecy
 Carbine – s short barrel rifle, having a barrel not longer than 22  1453 – Mohammed II of Turkey in his famous conquest of
inches and it is designed to fire a single shot through a rifled-bore, Constantinople.
either semi-automatic or full automatic, for every press of the  1500 AD - French Artist LEONARDO DA VINCE as can be
trigger. gleaned in his sketch of steam powered cannon to
 .22 – minimum caliber - .19 - .18 – if only used as toys, could not his primitive wheel lock firearm.
be considered as firearm.
 barrel of any firearm - Possession of any part of a firearm is * First firearms were inefficient, large and heavy and
considered a violation of illegal possession of firearm (SCRA Dec. were not capable of being carried by an individual soldier hence;
11, 1992). the development of cannons preceded that of small arm weapons
by almost 50 years.
Stages of development of man’s weapon:
Firearm is any weapon that uses gunpowder to fire a bullet or
shell. Generally, the term is used for light firearms, such as rifles, shotguns, > STONES > CLUBS > KNIVES > SPEARS AND DARTS >
and pistols. They are often called small arms. Heavier firearms are generally SLINGSHOTS TO HURL OBJECTS > BOWS AND ARROWS >
referred to as artillery. CROSS-BOWS >GUNS > MISSILES

Contributors in Firearms Development lacked the smoke characteristic of black powder, but also more
 Col. Calvin H. Goddard, Md., OS, U.S. Army – Father of
 Horace Smith – Founded the great firm Smith & Wesson and
pioneered the making of breech-loading riffles. Generally, the principles involved in all firearms action are the
 Daniel B. Wesson – An associate or partners of Smith in revolver same. When the firearm is cocked and ready to fire, a pull on the trigger will
making. cause the firing pin of the hammer to hit the percussion cap of the cartridge in
 John M. Browning – Wizard of modern firearms and pioneered the firing chamber which is aligned with the rear portion of the barrel. The hit
the breech loading single shot riffle. by the firing pin on the percussion cap will cause generation of a sufficient
 John T. Thompson – Pioneered the making of Thompson Sub- heat capable of igniting the primer.
machine gun.
 David “Carbine” Williams – maker of first known carbine. The primer will in turn ignite the gunpowder or propellant which
 Alexander John Forsyth – Father of the percussion ignition. will cause evolution of gases under pressure and temperature. The marked
 Elisha King Root – Designed machinery of making Colt expansion of the gases will force the projectile forward with certain velocity.
 Eliphalet Remington – one of the first riffle makers. Owing to presence of the rifling at the inner wall of the bore, the
 John Mahlon Marlin – founder of Marlin Firearms Company. barrel offers some degree of resistance to the projectile. In as much as the
 James Wolfe Ripley – Stimulated the development of the Model riffling is arranged in a spiral manner, the projectile will produce a spinning
1855 riffled-musket. movement as it comes out in the muzzle.
 Samuel Colt (1814-1862) - of Hartford, Connecticut, produced the
first practical revolver bringing it to what most gunsmiths would Together with the bullet passing out of the barrel are high pressure
agree was its perfect form in the Colt Army 1873 model, which heated gases, unburned powder grains with flame and smoke.
became famous for its .45 caliber.
 Other manufacturers followed Colt’s lead: Remington and Smith During explosion, there is a backward kick of the firearm which in
and Wesson in the US., Adams and Scott-Webley in BRITAIN, automatic firearm cause the cocking and the cartridge cause thrown out by the
Star, Luger, Browning and Beretta on the CONTINENT, until ejector. The backward movement is called recoil of the firearm.
revolvers were in used in every part of the world.
 Henry Derringer – He gave his name to a whole class of firearms RIFLING
(Riffles and pistols)
 John C. Garand – Designed and invented the semi-automatic US Rifling refers to spiral grooves that have been formed into the
Riffle, Cal. .30 MI barrel of a firearm. It is the means by which a firearm imparts a spin to a
 Oliver F. Winchester – one of the earliest riffles and pistol projectile to gyroscopically stabilize it to improve accuracy. Most rifling is
makers. created by either cutting with a machine tool, pressed by a tool called a
 John Dreyse (1841) - Invented a breech-loading infantry rifle, the "button" or forged into the barrel over a "mandrel". The grooves are the
so called needle gun because of its long sharp firing pin. spaces that are cut out, and the resulting ridges are called 'lands'. These lands
 Maj. Cavalli of Sardina (1845) - He develop a serviceable breech and grooves can vary in number, depth, shape, direction of twist ('right' or
loading artillery rifle. 'left'), and 'twist rate' (turns per unit of barrel length). The spin imparted by
 Carl Walther (1866) - Develop a reliable small caliber automatic rifling significantly improves the stability of the projectile, improving both
Pistol. range and accuracy.
 Paul Withelm Mauser (1871) - Produced parts of the rifle which
had been adopted by the German government. It consists of the number of the helical grooves cut on the surface
 Sergei Mossin (1891) - Designed the Russian Service rifle. of the bore, it includes the lands and grooves are running parallel with one
 Kijiro Nambu (1904) - An army gun designer whose design was another concentrically.
first produced by the Kayoba factory.
 Charles Dorchester & George Sullivan (1950) - Formed the
Armalite business.


1313 – Gunpowder as a Propellant. The age of gunpowder began with

its first use as a propellant for a projectile. Such use has been
recorded as early as 1313.
1350 – Small Arms. Gunpowder was first used only in cannons. It was
in the middle of the 14th century that portable hand firearms were
introduced. These guns were ignited by a hand-held hot wire or
lighted match.
1498 – Riflings. The first reference to riffled barrels appeared. * Sporting Rifle
Although it’s important as an aid to accuracy was recognized by As a bullet is fired from a rifle, grooves in the interior of the barrel cause it to
some, it was a year after before riffling was generally used. spin. The spinning motion stabilizes the bullet and increases its distance and
1575 – Cartridge. Paper cartridge combining both powder and ball were accuracy. This illustration shows a modern hunting rifle and highlights its
developed. This greatly speeded loading and reduced the hazards main components.
of carrying loose powder.
1807 – Percussion System. The discovery of Forsyth in 1807 that Take Note:
certain compounds detonated by a blast would be used to ignite the
charge in a firearm, for the basis for all later percussion and Recent developments - The grooves most commonly used in
cartridge to come into general use. modern rifling have fairly sharp edges. More recently, polygonal rifling has
1845 - Rimfire Cartridge. In France, Flobert developed a “bullet breech become popular, as it seems to produce better accuracy due to the fact that it
cap” which was in reality the first rim fire cartridge. does not damage the bullet as badly as conventional rifling. Polygonal barrels
1858 – Center fire Cartridge. The Morse cartridge o f1858 marked the also tend to have longer service lives because the reduction of the sharp edges
beginning of the rapid development of the center fire cartridge. of the land reduces flame erosion. Higher velocities may be generated due to a
1884 – Automatic machine-gun. Hiram Maxim built the first fully reduction of friction and an improvement of the gas seal between the bullet
automatic gun, utilizing the recoil of the piece of load and fire the and barrel. A disadvantage of polygonal rifling is that if simple lead bullets
next charge. are used, lead from the bullet tends to accumulate in the barrel (called leading)
1885 – Smokeless Powder. In France, Vieille developed the first resulting in a dirty barrel, poor accuracy, and if the leading becomes severe,
satisfactory smokeless powder, a new propellant which not only excessive chamber pressure which could cause a barrel or locking failure.
Polygonal rifling is currently seen on most pistols from GLOCK and Kahr
Arms. The M16A2 is the automatic rifle used by the U.S. armed forces. It
weighs 8.9 pounds (4 kilograms) when loaded with a 30-cartridge magazine.
CALIBER OF THE FIREARM The M16A2 can fire one shot at a time, or three shots in a single burst. It uses
a 5.56-millimeter cartridge.
The caliber of the firearm is the diameter of the bore of the barrel
measured from land to land in rifled firearm. It is expressed in inches or Rifle cartridges are enclosed in a casing (metal covering) made of
fraction of an inch by the American and English manufacturers and brass or steel. Cartridges vary in size according to the caliber of the rifle. The
millimeters or in centimeters there by manufacturers in Continental Europe. names of some cartridges include the year the cartridge was put into use. The
.30-06 is a .30-caliber cartridge chosen for use by the U.S. Army in 1906. The
THE RIFLE classification of some cartridges includes the caliber and velocity (speed) of
the bullet. The bullet from a .250-3000 cartridge has a velocity of 3,000 feet
The rifle, invented about 1500, had spiral grooves in the barrel that (910 meters) per second.
made it more accurate than any previous firearm. Smokeless powder was
developed in the 1800's. Breechloading systems replaced dangerous muzzle Take Note:
loading. Many improvements since have resulted in high-powered firearms.
Modern rifles developed from the crude, muzzle-loading firearms
Rifle is a gun with spiral grooves in its long barrel that spin the of the 1400's. Rifling of barrels was invented in Europe about 1500. Smooth-
bullet as it is shot. Rifles are usually held against the shoulder when firing. bore firearms (weapons without rifling) could not be depended on to hit
Soldiers use rifles in battle. People also use rifles to hunt game and to compete targets more than 100 steps away.
in shooting matches.
The jaeger rifle of central and northern Europe was the first
The parts of a rifle - All rifles have four basic parts: accurate rifle. It was developed about 1665. German immigrants brought
(1) the barrel, jaegers to Pennsylvania in the early 1700's and gave them new features,
(2) the stock, (3) the action, and including longer barrels. The Pennsylvania-made Kentucky rifle developed
(3) the sights. from the jaeger. Some Kentucky rifles were used in the Revolutionary War in
America (1775-1783).
How a rifle works. A rifle is ready to be fired when a cartridge has been fed
into the firing chamber. Then the rifle is aimed and the trigger squeezed. The Rifles used round bullets until the 1850's, when more accurate
rifle's hammer or firing pin strikes the rear end of the cartridge and ignites the Minie bullets became popular. Minie bullets had hollow bases and pointed tips
primer. The primer in turn ignites the propellant powder in the cartridge. The and were used in the U.S. Civil War (1861-1865). Improvements of the late
powder burns rapidly, creating pressure that drives the bullet down the barrel. 1800's included repeating rifles, smokeless explosive powder, and jacketed
bullets, which have a tough metal cover over a lead or steel core.
The rifling in the barrel makes the bullet spin. Without spin, a
bullet would not stay pointed forward in flight, but would tumble over and THE HANDGUN:
over. The spinning motion increases the accuracy of a bullet.
Handgun is a firearm that can be operated with one hand. Other
Kinds of Rifles types of guns, such as rifles and machine guns, require the use of both hands,
a tripod (three-legged stand), or a shooting rest.
Rifles are classified by:
Parts of a handgun (the frame, the grip, the barrel, the sights, and the action)
 type of action: (manually operated, automatic, or
semiautomatic); The frame is the main body of the gun that connects the other
 the name of the designer or manufacturer (for example, Remington parts. The grip is the handle of the gun, and the barrel is the metal tube
or Winchester); or through which the bullet is fired. The lands and rifling (grooves) are
 caliber. Caliber may refer to the inside diameter of the barrel or the alternating raised surfaces and channels inside the barrel. They cause the
diameter of the bullet. The caliber is measured in millimeters or in bullet to spin and thus make it travel in a direct path.
decimal fractions of an inch.
The shooter uses the sights to line up the handgun with the target.
There are three kinds of repeating rifles with hand-operated Some sights can be adjusted to help aim the gun more easily. All handguns
actions-bolt-action, lever-action, and slide-action. These rifles have made for target shooting have adjustable sights.
magazines (cartridge holders) that feed cartridges into the firing chamber.
The action includes the main working parts of the handgun. It
The action on two other kinds of rifles-automatic and consists of such parts as the trigger, the hammer, and the cartridge chamber.
semiautomatic-is operated by forces caused by the burning of the propellant The type of action determines how the handgun is loaded and fired. The action
powder in the firing chamber. of every handgun includes a safety, a mechanism that prevents the gun from
being fired unintentionally. The safety ensures that the gun fires when the
1. Bolt-action rifles have an action that resembles a bolt used to lock shooter squeezes the trigger, but not, for example, when the gun is dropped to
a door. When the bolt on the rifle is pulled back, the used cartridge the ground.
is thrown out and the hammer is cocked. When the bolt is moved
forward, it pushes a new cartridge into the firing chamber. Types of handguns - There are five main types of handguns:
2. Lever-action rifles are loaded by moving a lever under the breech
down and back up. The down movement throws out the used 1. single-action revolvers,
cartridge and cocks the hammer. The up movement inserts a new 2. double-action revolvers,
cartridge into the firing chamber. 3. single-action semiautomatic pistols,
3. Slide-action rifles, also called pump-action rifles, are loaded with 4. double-action semiautomatic pistols, and
a back-and-forth movement of a rod and handle beneath the front 5. single-shot pistols.
part of the barrel. When the handle is pulled back, the breech opens
and the used cartridge is thrown out. A live cartridge is inserted Revolvers carry ammunition in chambers in a rotating cylinder.
when the handle is pushed forward. Most pistols are loaded with a magazine containing the ammunition. The
magazine is a metal holder inserted in the gun's butt (thicker end).
Automatic and semiautomatic rifles are used mainly by soldiers and
police officers. When a rifle is fired, gas is formed by the burning powder in Single-action revolvers typically hold six cartridges. An arm near
the firing chamber. The expanding gas drives the bullet out of the barrel. In the hammer rotates the cylinder one-sixth of a turn when the hammer is
most modern automatic and semiautomatic rifles, some of this gas operates cocked. This movement puts a cartridge into line with the barrel and the firing
the action. When a cartridge is fired, a fresh cartridge is moved out of the pin (part that strikes the primer to fire the cartridge). After cocking the
magazine into the firing chamber, and the firing mechanism is cocked. hammer, the shooter pulls the trigger. The hammer unlocks and falls,
exploding the cartridge. The Colt single-action Army revolver, first produced
in the 1870's, is the most famous firearm of this type. The Borchardt, the first self-loading semiautomatic pistol,
appeared in 1893. It had an eight-cartridge clip placed in the hollow of the
Double-action revolvers, like single-action revolvers, typically grip. George Luger, an Austrian-born inventor, improved the Borchardt in the
hold six cartridges. But, unlike single-action revolvers, double-action early 1900's. In 1897, John M. Browning, a U.S. inventor, patented an
revolvers do not require the user to manually cock the hammer before firing. automatic pistol that became the basis for later automatics, including the Colt
Instead, the gun is fired by only pulling the trigger. When the trigger is pulled, .45.
a lock that holds the cylinder in place is released, revolving the cylinder and
cocking the hammer. When the next chamber is lined up with the barrel, the
cylinder locking bolt is raised into the locking notch, securing the cylinder.
The hammer then falls and fires the cartridge. The cycle is repeated for the THE MACHINE GUN
next shot.
1. Machine gun is an automatic weapon that can fire from 400
The main advantage of the double-action revolver over the single- to 1,600 rounds of ammunition each minute. Machine gun barrels range in
action revolver is that it can be fired rapidly. The Smith & Wesson military size from .22 caliber to 20 millimeters. Ammunition is fed into the gun from a
and police revolver is one of the most popular double-action revolvers. This cloth or metal belt, or from a cartridge holder called a magazine. Because
firearm was introduced in 1905. machine guns fire so rapidly, they must be cooled by air. Machine guns are
heavy weapons and are usually mounted on a support.
Single-action semiautomatic pistols are fired by first pulling back
a device called a slide to cock the hammer or the firing pin, which is Operation: In all machine guns, extremely high gas pressure
sometimes called a striker mechanism. When the slide is released, it moves provides the operating energy for the firing cycle. The cycle begins when the
forward and feeds a round from the clip into the cartridge chamber. When the propellant charge in the cartridge case burns. This combustion creates the gas
shooter pulls the trigger, the hammer falls or the striker mechanism is pressure that is used in the blowback, gas, and recoil operating systems. All
released, impacting the primer and exploding the gunpowder in the cartridge. three systems fire the projectile through the bore of the barrel, eject the
The explosion causes the slide to move backward. This recoil automatically cartridge case, place a new cartridge in the firing chamber, and ready the
ejects the empty cartridge and recocks the gun. When the slide moves forward mechanism to repeat the cycle.
again, it reloads the chamber. The most famous single-action semiautomatic is
the Colt .45 automatic pistol. It served as the standard sidearm of the U.S. In the blowback system, the operating energy comes from the
armed forces from 1911 until 1985. cartridge case as the case is forced to the rear by the gas pressure. The case
moves against the bolt (a device that opens and closes the bore), driving the
Double-action semiautomatic pistols operate somewhat like bolt backward against a spring. The case is ejected, and the compressed spring
double-action revolvers. When the trigger is pulled, the hammer goes through drives the bolt forward. As the bolt moves forward, it cocks the firing
the firing cycle and fires the cartridge. After the initial shot, the pistol begins mechanism, picks up a new cartridge, carries it into the chamber, and the
to operate like a single-action semiautomatic pistol. The recoil of the first shot cycle begins again.
forces out the empty cartridge case, cocks the hammer, and inserts a new
cartridge from the clip into the cartridge chamber. Double-action In the gas system, the gas pressure drives a piston against the bolt.
semiautomatics are widely used by sports enthusiasts and police officers. In The bolt is driven to the rear, providing energy for a cycle like that of the
1985, the 9-millimeter Beretta, a double-action semiautomatic pistol, became blowback system.
the standard sidearm of the U.S. armed forces. Other popular models include
the Smith & Wesson Model 39 and the Walther PPK. In the recoil system, the bolt locks to the barrel when the gun is
fired. These parts remain locked together as they are forced to the rear by the
Single-shot pistols are used chiefly in international target-shooting gas pressure. This movement provides energy to operate the gun.
competitions. To load a single-shot pistol, the user moves the operating lever
(part that opens and closes the action) forward and down to lower the breech 2. Ground weapons. The 7.62-millimeter M60 machine gun is
block and to cock the firing pin. The breech block closes the breech of the a major infantry weapon. It is air-cooled and gas-operated, and fires about 600
gun-that is, the part behind the barrel. After the breech block has been rounds a minute. The M60 replaced the Browning machine gun, an important
lowered, the cartridge chamber is exposed. The user then inserts a cartridge weapon in World Wars I and II, and the Korean War.
into the chamber. Next, the operating lever is pulled up and back to close the
chamber and move the cartridge into the closed position. The pistol is then 3. Aircraft weapons. By the close of World War I, several
ready to fire. When the trigger is pulled, the firing pin drops, exploding the types of machine guns were mounted on airplanes. These types included the
cartridge. The procedure is then repeated to remove the cartridge and reload Vickers, Maxim, Hotchkiss, Colt-Martin, and Lewis. Some machine guns
the pistol. Famous single-shot pistols include the Hammerli Free Pistol, the were synchronized to fire in between the blades of propellers.
Walther, and the Martini.
During World War II, fighters and bombers carried machine guns
Take Note: as armament. They also carried automatic cannon up to 20 millimeters in size.
During the Vietnam War, airplanes and helicopters called gunships carried
The first gun operated with one hand was the matchlock gun, machine guns or cannon. Today, most fighter planes and gunships carry
which appeared in the 1400's. It was fired by attaching a burning cord or rockets for air-to-air and air-to-ground use. Bombers use machine guns
match to an S-shaped holder called a serpentine. In the early 1500's, the mounted in groups of two or four in power-driven turrets. The Vulcan 20-
wheel-lock gun was invented. Its metal wheel struck a spark when it revolved millimeter aircraft cannon has six rotating barrels. It can fire more than a ton
against a piece of pyrite. With the wheel lock, soldiers no longer had to carry of metal and explosives each minute.
flames to ignite the gunpowder.
4. Anti-aircraft weapons. The .50-caliber Browning machine
During the mid-1500's, snaphance pistols, which were easier to gun was used as an antiaircraft weapon during World War II. It was used
operate than the wheel lock, came into widespread use. In the 1600's and alone, or in groups of two or four. Large-caliber automatic cannon that fired
1700's, many kinds of gunlocks were developed, including the flintlock. explosive shells were also developed as antiaircraft weapons. The 20-
In 1807, Alexander Forsyth, a Scottish inventor, introduced the millimeter, Swiss-made Oerlikon gun was used on U.S. Navy ships. It was a
percussion system. Percussion-system pistols were loaded from the muzzle, self-fed, self-firing cannon that could fire 600 rounds a minute.
with a sliding can of priming powder on the breech. Small handguns called
derringers are descended from percussion-system pistols, but are breech Take Note:
loaded. They are named for Henry Deringer, Jr., a U.S. pistol maker of the
1800's. A type of machine gun appeared as early as the 1500's. It consisted
of several guns bound together in a bundle or spread out in a row. A device
Rapid-fire handguns - One of the first practical revolvers was the that was fitted to the gun barrels caused them to fire simultaneously or in
Colt Paterson, patented in England in 1835 by Samuel Colt, a U.S. inventor. series. But little success was achieved until the Civil War, when many quick-
In 1857, the U.S. inventors Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson began fire guns appeared. Practical, rapid-fire, mechanical guns were used in the
producing revolvers that used cartridges. Franco-Prussian War, when soldiers operated them with a crank or lever. The
French Montigny mitrailleuse and the American Gatling were among the more instrument used in the manufacture of any firearm or ammunition: provided,
successful of these guns. that no other crime was committed.

In 1883, Hiram Maxim, an American-born inventor, developed The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine of
the first entirely automatic machine gun to gain wide acceptance. By the time thirty thousand pesos (P30,000.00) shall be imposed in the firearm is
of World War I, many different types of machine guns had come into use. classified as high powered firearms which includes those with bore bigger in
diameter than caliber .38 and 9mm such as caliber .40, .44, .45 and also lesser
CLASSIFICASTION OF FIREARMS caliber firearms but considered powerful such as caliber .357 and caliber .22
center fire magnum and other firearms with firing capability of full automatic
A. ACCORDING TO GUN BARREL INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION and by burst of two (2) or three (3): Provided, however, that no other crime
was committed by the person arrested.
1. Rifled Bore Firearms - those that contain riflings inside the gun
barrel. Riflings refers the lands and grooves such as the following:
Rifle – Pistol - Revolver G. THREE MAIN PARTS OF FIREARMS
2. Smooth Bore Firearms – those that have no riflings inside the
gun barrel for the breech end up to the muzzle of the firearm. Such 1. Revolver 3. Rifle – Cal. .30
as the following: Shotguns - Muskets a. barrel assembly a. barrel assembly
b. cylinder assembly b. magazine assembly
SHOTGUN – it is smooth bore firearm designed to shoot a c. frame or receiver c. stock group
number of lead pellets one discharge.
GAUGE – as applied to shotgun indicates that the bore diameter is 2. Pistol 4. Shotgun
equal to the diameter of lead ball weighing in pounds. a. barrel assembly a. barrel assembly
b. slide assembly b. magazine assembly
B. MAIN TYPES OF FIREARM (according to caliber of projectile) c. frame or receiver c. stock group
1. Artillery – propelled projectile is more than one inch in diameter.
Ex. Cannons, mortars, bazookas H. DETAILED PARTS
2. Small Arms – propelled projectile is less than one inch diameter.
Ex. Machine guns, shoulder arms and handguns/arms 1. Revolver 2. Pistol
1. Barrel Assembly a. Barrel Assembly
C. TYPES OF FIREARMS ACCORDING TO MECHANICAL (1) breech end (1) breech end
CONSTRUCTION (2) muzzle en (2) muzzle end
1. Single Rifle Firearms – type of firearm designed to fire only one (3) bore (3) bore
shot for every loading. Example: Pistol, Rifle, Shotgun (4) riflings (4) riflings
2. Repeating Arms – type of firearm designed to fire several shots in (5) front sight (5) chamber
one loading. Example: Automatic pistols, Revolvers, Rifles, (6) make (6) interlocking ribsbarrel link
3. Bolt Action Type – reloading is done by manipulation of the bolt. 2. Cylinder assembly b. Slide
Examples: Rifles, Shotguns. Assembly
4. Automatic Loading Type – after the first shot is fired, automatic (1) chambers
loading or feeding of the chamber takes place. Examples: Rifles, (1) front sight
Shotguns (2) extractor
5. Slide Action Type (Trombone) – loading takes place by back and (2) top strap
forth manipulation of the under forearm of the gun. Examples: (3) extractor rod
Rifles and Shotguns. (3) ejection part
6. Lever Type (Break-type) – loading takes place by lever action on (4) racket
the firearm. Examples: Rifles, Shotguns. (4) rear sight
(5) cylinder grooves
(6) yoke
1. Military Firearms (6) breech face
a. Pistols d. Shotguns (7) cylinder locking notches (touch holes)
b. Revolvers e. Machine guns (7) extractor
c. Rifles (8)
2. Pocket and Home Defense Firearms 3. Frame or Receiver c. Frame or Receiver
a. Pistols c. Rifles (1) top strap (1) ejector
b. Revolvers d. Shotguns (2) rear sight (2) hammer
3. Target and Outdoorsman known as Sporting (3) breech face (3) spur
a. Pistols b. Revolvers (4) hammer (4) grip safety
c. Rifles (5) spur (5) disconnector
(6) thumb latch (6) thumb safety
E. UNUSUAL/MISCELLANEOUS TYPES – those that are unique in (7) side plate (7) back strap
mechanism and construction. (8) back strap (8) butt
a. Paltik pistols b. Paltik rifles c. Paltik revolvers (9) firing strap (9) lanyard loop
d. Paltik shotguns (10) butt (10) front strap
(11) front strap (11) magazine well
F. CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS ACCORDING TO ITS (12) trigger guard (12) right side stock
POWER PURSUANT TO R.A. 8294 (13) trigger (13) left side stock
(14) cylinder lock (14) trigger
Section 1. Unlawful Manufacture, Sale, Acquisition, Disposition (15) right side stock (15) trigger stock
or Possession of Firearms or Ammunition or Instruments used or intended to (16) left side stock (16) modes
be used in the Manufacture of Firearms or Ammunitions. The penalty of (17) trade mark (monogram) (17) plunger
prision correctional in its maximum period and a fine of not less than Fifteen (18) serial number (18) serial number
thousand pesos (P15,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person who shall
unlawfully manufacture, dealt in, acquire, dispose or possess any low- I. AUXILIARY PARTS (ACCESSORIES)
powered firearm, such as rimfire handgun, .380, .32 and other firearm of
similar firepower, part of firearm, ammunition or machinery, tool or The following parts must be removed first before disassembly of the
- recoil plug - recoil spring - barrel bushing - recoil spring guide - slide muskets, carbines, shotguns, revolvers and pistols from which a ball, bullet,
stop pin shot, shell or other missile may be fired by means of gunpowder or other
explosives. The term also includes ammunition for air rifles as mentioned
J. ADVANTAGES elsewhere in the Code.

1. Revolver TECHNICAL DEFINTION – Technically speaking, the term

ammunition refers to a group of cartridges or to a single unit or single
 almost everyone knows something about how to handle it. cartridge – meaning a complete unfired unit consisting of a bullet, cartridge,
 safer for inexperienced people. case, gunpowder and primer. The term may also refer to a “single round”.
 the mechanism allows the trigger pull to be better.
 a misfire does not put the revolver out of action. ORIGIN
 Can handle satisfactory old or new or partly deteriorated
ammunition which reduces velocity. The term “cartridge” evolved from about the turn of sixteenth
century. The earliest small arms ammunition or cartridge consisted of a pre-
2. Automatic pistol measured charge of powder wrapped in a paper. In Webster’s later edition, a
cartridge is defined as “A case capsule, shell or bag of metal, pasteboard, of
 has a better grip, fits the hand and points naturally the like, containing the explosive charge and in small arms and some cannon,
 more compact for the same fire power the projectile to be fired. The term cartridge is derived from the word
 easier to load, easier to clean “charta”, the Latin word for paper. Later on, it came through the French
 barrel when worn or corroded can be replaced without sending the word “cartouche”, meaning a roll of paper, which indicates that the
gun to the factory original cartridges were not the brass gilding- metal tipped units which we are
 gives greater number of shots familiar with today.
 gives greater fire power and greatest ease in firing
 no gas leakage during firing The use of paper-wrapped powder charged greatly speeds the
loading of military weapons, avoided waste of powder from spillage, and
K. DISADVANTAGES provided a uniform charge from shot to shot. In time, the bullet was either
attached faster or more convenient.
1. Revolver
Take Note:
 bulkier to carry
 grip or handle is generally not as good as that of pistol  “ammunition” means any unfired assembly of cartridge case,
 hard to clean after firing powder, primer and projectile which may be used in a firearm.
 slower to load Today, it refers to a “file of assembled cartridges” in bulks as in
 harder to replace worn out parts – it’s a factory job boxes or lots & also used to refer to the supply a person may be
 worn out or poorly made weapon is subject to variable accuracy to carrying with him.
improper lining up of cylinder  “round” refers to a single cartridge.
 shotgun cartridges are commonly referred to as “shell” or
2. Automatic Pistol “shotshell”
 rifle ammunition is referred to as “metallics” or “cartridges”.
 ammunition must be perfect – it causes jam  When an investigator uses a term “cartridge” he invariably refers
 misfire stops the functioning of gun to revolver, pistol, or rifle cartridges.
 when kept loaded for long period of time – magazine spring is  The layman uses the abovementioned terms indiscriminately,
under tension although as general rule he speaks of “cartridges” when referring
 has poorer trigger pull to a pistol, revolver, rifle ammunitions and “shells” when referring
 magazine requires jacketed bullet to shotguns.
 more dangerous to handle especially for inexperienced people  Among the uniformed, the word “bullet” as often misused, as it is
 usually not adopted for reloading commonly used to apply to any sort of any unfired cartridge.
 possible ejection of empty shell towards the face of the firer Actually, it is that solid portion of the cartridge which leaves the
causing flinching muzzle of the gun and does the “striking” or “killing”. The word
 throws out empty shell on the ground to remain as evidence can properly be used in connection with pistol, revolver or rifle
 cannot be fired from the pocket without jamming ammunition but other common designations for the bullet are
“projectile” or “ball” is a relic of old muzzle- loading days when
all rifle projectiles were round lead balls.


1. BULLET – the projectile propelled through the barrel of a firearm
Every police officer should frequently check his revolver for: by means of expansive force of gases coming from burning
1. obstruction in the barrel gunpowder.
2. bulging or swollen barrel 2. CARTRIDGE CASE – the tubular metallic container for the
3. firing pin protrusion through recoil plate when trigger is in gunpowder. Sometimes called ”shell” or “casting”.
rearward position 3. GUNPOWDER – It is the propellant which when ignited by the
4. on older revolvers, the imprint of the primer on the recoil plate in primer flash is converted to gas under high pressure and propels
relation to the firing pin hole (insures blow in the center of the bullet or shot charge through the barrel and on to the target.
primer) 4. PRIMER – the metal cap containing the highly sensitive priming
5. evidence of “splitting lead” around breech of barrel or for mixture of chemical compound, which when heat or struck by
complaints of fellow shooters firing pin would ignite. Such action is called “percussion.”
6. tightness of all side plate screw
7. tightness of ejector rod head if the weapon is S & W
8. cleanliness and protective film of oil to prevent rust

AMMUNITIONS/CARTRIDGES 1. Revolver cartridges

2. Pistol cartridges
LEGAL DEFINITION – it maybe found in Chapter VII, Sec. 290 3. Rifle cartridges
of the National Internal Revenue Code as well as in Sec. 877 of the Revised 4. Shotgun cartridges
Administrative Code. It refers to ammunition as s “loaded shell” for rifles,
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO LOCATION OF PRIMERS artillery shells taper to the rear, a shape that gives them greater range. Some
have streamlined ogives (nose shields). Others, known as base-burner shells,
1. PIN FIRE CARTRIDGE – the first cartridge of a self –exploding have a small amount of propellant burning in the tail during flight. This
type which enjoyed any real general use was the type called the reduces drag (air resistance).
“pin fire” commonly attributed to Monsier Le Facheux of Paris,
around 1896. Pin-fire cartridges were made for all types was small Some shells are high explosives, which detonate on impact and
arms in appearance to a modern shotgun shell wherein it had a damage or destroy the target. Detonating the shell's explosive filler shatters
head of the cartridge and a percussion fixed by a wad or metal cup. the shell into thousands of fragments. High explosives include TNT; RDX,
The percussion had a pin resting on its detonating compound. The also known as cyclonite or hexogen; composition B, a mixture of RDX and
end protruding of the e pin is hit by a hammer coming down TNT; PETN; and pentolite, a combination of PETN and TNT. Other shells
vertically from the side of the cartridge instead of penetrating contain mines or small shells that can be expelled at intervals over a specified
horizontally from its fear. This type of cartridge is no longer used. area or during a certain period of time.
2. CENTER FIRE – priming powder is located at the center.
3. RINGFIRE CARTRIDGE – A type of cartridge used only on Still other shells are filled with a non-explosive substance, such as
sabotage cases. The chattel cartridges of Steyr advance combat a chemical that is poisonous or that produces smoke or fire. Illuminating, or
rifle and Steyr anti-material squad machine gun. This is a special star, shells light up the battlefield or seascape. A shell with a chaff warhead
type of cartridge wherein the priming mixture is placed in a expels strips of aluminum, which produce images on a radar screen similar to
circular hollow ring about 1/3 of the base of the cartridge. those caused by aircraft. Such images confuse radar operators and thus help
4. RIM FIRE CARTRIDGE – The simplest form of modern protect aircraft from enemy attack.
cartridge is the “rim-fire cartridge”. The name “rim-fire” is
derived from the fact that this type can be fired only if the cartridge There are five main types of artillery shells
is struck by the hammer of firing pin on the rim of he case. In this
type, the priming mixture is contained or located in a cavity inside 1. Fixed ammunition fired by artillery consists of a projectile, a
and around the rim of the cartridge which is a very sensitive area. casing, a primer, and a propellant. Like small-arms cartridges,
If a rim fire cartridge is struck anywhere in the sensitive area, the fixed artillery ammunition shells are manufactured as complete
priming substance is crushed between the front and rear of the case units.
rim. This denotes or ignites the priming mixture, causing a flash of 2. Semifixed ammunition resembles fixed ammunition. However,
flame. the projectile fits loosely into the casing so that the sections can be
separated. Thus, the amount of propellant in the casing can be
Rim-fire cartridges may be identified by the smooth base of increased or decreased, depending on how far the shell is from the
the cartridge case, which may or may not have a head stamps are merely target.
letters or design found on the base of the cases that identifies the 3. Separate loading ammunition, also called bag ammunition,
manufacturer. These rim-fire cartridges are generally found in caliber consists of separate sections for the projectile, the primer, and the
.22s. They can be fired in either caliber .22 pistols, caliber 22. revolvers propellant. The propellant is packed into bags that are placed
and caliber .22 rifles. Rim-fire cartridges can be further classified into: behind the projectile. The number of bags used depends on the
distance the shell must travel. This type of ammunition is used to
a. rimmed type – used in revolvers .38 and .357 fire the heaviest artillery shells over great distances.
b. semi-rimmed – used in super .380 4. Separated ammunition consists of two sections. One section is
c. rimless - .45 pistols, Thompson, grease gun, submachine the projectile. The other includes the primer, the casing, and a
guns fixed amount of propellant.
5. Guided ammunition can correct its flight in the air after being
TYPES ACCORDING TO CALIBER fired. It often uses pop-out tail fins to steer itself. Most guided
ammunition finds its target by tracking a laser spot on the target.
1. Caliber .22 – used in revolvers, pistols, rifles This spot is usually produced by a forward observer, a person or
2. Caliber .25 – used in pistols and rifles object forward of the line of fire. Some shells known as smart
3. Caliber .30 – used in carbines and other rifles shells have small radars and computers in them. These shells can
4. Caliber .32 – used in automatic pistols and revolvers search for and find such targets as armored vehicles or trucks
5. Caliber .380 – used in pistols without help.
6. Caliber .38 – used in revolvers
7. Caliber .357 – used in .357 revolvers (Magnum) ARTILLERY-VEHICLE AMMUNITION
8. Caliber .44 – used in Magnum revolvers
9. Caliber .45 – used in Automatic pistols Armored-vehicle ammunition consists of projectiles fired by guns
10. Caliber .50 – used in caliber .50 machine guns mounted on tanks and other armored vehicles. They have diameters from 20
to 125 millimeters.
The abovementioned different classes of small arms cartridges are
generally encountered by the Police in the field of firearms investigation in A common armored-vehicle penetrator is a projectile with a nose
our jurisdiction. These are commonly used by criminals because they are used cap of tungsten or another heavy metal. The cap helps the projectile penetrate
in firearms that are easy to carry, conceal, fire and dispose of. opposing vehicles. A high explosive projectile is a hollow-charge warhead.
This warhead is hollow in the front and has an explosive charge in the back.
CLASSIFICATION OF AMMUNITIONS ACCORDING TO ITS Its explosion converts a copper cone in the warhead to a molten, high-speed
EFFECTS jet. The jet penetrates the target. Another armored vehicle projectile is a long
dart made of tungsten or depleted uranium (uranium with most of its
1. Penetrators - pierce targets using a single bullet, radioactivity removed). The dart travels on a device called a sabot, which
2. High explosives - burst before hitting their target, fragmenting breaks away after the dart leaves the gun's barrel.
into thousands of penetrating pieces or becoming a high-speed jet
of molten metal, and RIOT CONTROL AMMUNITION
3. Carrier projectiles - break open near the target to deliver leaflets,
radar-deceiving materials, or submunitions (small ammunition). This is used by law enforcement officials to subdue rioters without
causing serious injury. Most of this ammunition consists of hard rubber
ARTILLERY AMMUNITION bullets. Another type is made of soft rubber rings that look like doughnuts and
may contain tear gas. These rings cause less damage than do the rubber
Artillery includes rocket launchers and such mounted guns as bullets.
howitzers, mortars, antiaircraft guns, and naval guns. Most types of field and
naval artillery ammunition are called shells. A single shell, like a single SHOTGUN CARTRIDGE (SHELL)
cartridge, is known as a round. Field artillery projectiles range in size from 50
to 240 millimeters and can weigh over 200 pounds (90 kilograms). Most Shotgun is a shoulder gun that fires a cartridge that contains a
powder charge and a load of metal pellets, called shot. The shot spreads over
a wide area. This makes it easier to hit a moving target with a shotgun than c.) providing a primer support for primer anvils, without which
with the single bullet from a rifle or a pistol. The shotgun is chiefly a hunting the latter could not be fired.
gun. 3. VENTS ORFLASH HOLES –the “vent” or “flash holes” is the
hole in the web or bottom of the primer pocket through which the
Kinds of Shots: primer “flash” provides ignition to the powder charge. It is the
“opening” or “canal” that connects the priming mixture with the
1. bird shot - small shotgun pellets gunpowder.
2. buckshot – larger ones are used to shoot such animals as deer 4. THE HEAD AND BODY – the “head” and “body” constitute the
3. single shot – consist of single unit of projectile “cork” that plugs the breech of the barrel against the escape of the
Shotgun cartridges consist of a plastic or paper tube with a brass 5. NECK – applied to that part of the cartridge case that is occupied
or steel case at one end. They contain lead or steel shot instead of bullets. by the bullet to prevent the bullet from being push back or
The caliber of a shotgun is measured by bore, or gauge. The weight 6. CANNELURES – shell cannelures are the serrated grooves that
of the lead shot required to fit the muzzle of the gun is the standard of are sometimes found rolled into the neck and body of cases at the
measurement for the bore. If a bullet weighing 1/12 pound (38 grams) fits the location of the cases of the bullet to prevent the bullet from being
bore, the shotgun is called a 12-bore, or a 12-gauge, gun. Popular gauges are pushed back or loosened.
10, 12, 16, 20, 28, and .410. 7. CRIMP – is that part of the mouth of a case that is turned in upon
the bullet. It works two ways a) it aids in holding the bullet in
Some shotguns are named by caliber, as for example, the one that place; b) it offers resistance to the movement of the bullet out of
is called .410 gauge shotguns which actually means .41 caliber. A 12-gauge the neck which affects the burning of gunpowder.
shotgun has a caliber of .729 inch. 8. BASE - the bottom portion of the case which holds: a)the primer
which contains the priming mixture; b) the shell head which
The first shotgun, developed in 1537, was loaded with small shot contains the head stamp, caliber, and year of manufacture.
instead of one round ball. In 1831, Augustus Demondion patented a cartridge 9. SHOULDER –that portion which supports the neck.
that held small shot. Modern shotguns are single barrels, double barrels, or 10. EXTRACTING GROOVE – the circular groove near the base of
single barrels with automatic repeating magazines that hold several cartridges. the case or shell designed for the automatic withdrawal of the case
Repeating shotguns are popular in the United States with hunters as well as after each firing.
with many law enforcement officers.
SHOT WADS. At a distance of 5-8 yards or more from the place of
firing in the approximate direction of fire, one can sometimes find wads. 1. Straight – all rimmed shell and most centerfire revolver cartridges.
Ex. Cal. 38 special
CARTRIDGE LIFE 2. Tapered – very rare but being used in so-called “magnum jet” Cal.
The life of well made metallic small arms ammunitions perhaps 3. Bottleneck – ex. 5.56mm cartridge cases
10 years on the average. Some last 5-6 years, however, ammunitions may 4. Belted – ex. .30 magnum
lose some of its strength in 5 or 6 years. Some may last 25 years or more
depending on the conditions storage. Damp, and warm climates are worst.
In order to prevent the entrance of oil or moisture, it is common 1. Rimmed – diameter of base is very much bigger than of the body
practice to varnish the mouth of the case before the insertion of the bullet 2. Semi-rimmed – diameter of base is slightly bigger than of the
and to put a ring of waterproofing around the joint between the primer and body
the primer pocket. 3. Rimless – diameter of base is the same as of the body


It is a tubular metallic or non-metallic container which holds 1. RIMMED – It has a flange at the base which is larger than the
together the bullet, gunpowder and primer. diameter of the body of the cartridge case. This flange is to enable
the cartridge to be extracted from the weapon in which it is used.
It is the portion of the cartridge that is automatically ejected from 2. SEMI-RIMMED – It has a flange which is slightly larger than the
the automatic firearm during firing and this remains at the scene of the crime. diameter of the cartridge case and a groove around the case body
This is firearm evidence that can help trace a particular firearm from which it just in front of the flange.
was fired. 3. RIMLESS – The flange diameter is the same as the body and there
is, for extraction purposes, a groove around the case-body in front
4. REBATED – It has an extractor flange which is less than the
The function of cartridge case is basically the same whether it is diameter of the cartridge case.
fired in revolvers, pistols, rifles, shotguns, or machine guns. These include: 5. BELTED CASE – It has a pronounced raised belt encircling the
base of the cartridge, the belt is for additional strength in high
1. It holds the bullet, gunpowder and primer assembled into one unit. pressure cartridge.
2. It serves as a waterproof container for the gunpowder.
3. It prevents the escape of the gases to the rear as the sidewalls of the CARTRIDGE CASES ACCORDING SHAPES
cartridge case are forced against the walls of the chamber by the 1. Straight cased – where the case diameter is approximately the
pressure. It serves as a “gas seal” at the breech end of the barrel. same along its length.
2. Bottled-necked – where a wide bodied case is, just before the case
PARTS OF THE CARTRIDGE CASE mouth, reduced in diameter to that of the bullet.
3. Tapered case – where a wide based cartridge case is gradually
1. RIM – the projecting rims of rimmed and semi-rimmed cases reduced in diameter along its length.
serve the purpose of limiting the forward travel of cartridges into
their chambers and thus also limit the clearance, if any between the FUNCTIONS OF CARTRIDGE CASE
head and the supporting. 1. Serves as container for bullet, powder charge and the primer
2. PRIMER POCKET – performs three functions: 2. Prevent the escape of gases
a.) holding primers securely in certain position; 3. It serves as the waterproof container of the powder charge.
b.) providing a means to prevent the escape of gas to the rear of
the cartridge; Take Note:

 Annealing – is the process of making cartridge case by heating a
brass to become very soft and ductile and very weak: when it is * Another improvement in bullets was the boat-tail in which the
drawn or otherwise worked, it becomes hard, strong and elastic. name became .30 M1. The “M” stands for Mark but some contend
 Belted Cartridge – A cartridge, which has a raised belt before the stands for MODIFICATION.
extractor groove. The cartridge seats on this belt, most “Magnum”
cartridge case. Also called a European type primer. COMMON BULLET TYPES
 Blank Cartridge – Is a cartridge consisting of the case with its
primer, powder charge and a wad to train the powder. 1. solid lead point
 Blank Cartridge Pistol – A firearm without opening in the 2. solid hollow
muzzle, the gas may escape through the hole in the top of the 3. solid paper patch
frame. 4. metal cased
 Center Pin – serve us a locking device for the cylinder. 5. soft point
 Drawing – a machine operation in manufacturing cartridge cases. 6. metal cased hollow point
Is the process of making case by punching discs from a sheet of 7. metal point
brass and then making these discs out into tubes closed to one end. 8. rifled slug
 Guard Cartridge – one loaded with buckshot or a reduced charge 9. glycer type bullet
ball. 10. quadraximum
 Rolled Crimp – One in which the mouth of the cartridge case is
turned inward into a cannelure on the bullet all around its PURPOSES OF BULLETS
circumference to retain the bullet at the proper seating depth.
 Round – One single complete cartridge. 1. .38 – disability purposes
 Ruptured Case – Any cartridge case, which has been split in 2. .45 – knocking power – subduing a maniac or amok
firing so that the gas has escape. 3. M16 – fatal effects
 Short Cartridge – a metallic cartridge loaded with a small shot. 4. Garand and Carbine – penetration and long range shooting
 Signal Cartridge – one containing vari-colored luminous balls of
the “roman candle” variety. TYPES OF BULLETS ACCORDING TO USE

BULLETS (Projectiles) 1. Ball Bullets – have a soft cores and are used against personnel.
2. Armor Piercing Bullet – have hardened steel cores and are fired
Bullet is also knows as PROJECTILE – is a metallic or non- against vehicles, weapons and armored targets in general.
metallic body usually referred to as a bullet that is completely dependent upon 3. Tracer Bullets – contains compound usually similar to barium
an outside force for its power. nitrates which is set on fire when the bullet is projected. The flash
of this smoke from this burning permits the flight of the bullet to
Under this definition, the term may also include projectiles be seen.
propelled from shotguns although strictly speaking these projectiles designed 4. Incendiary Bullets – contains a mixture such as phosphorous or
for shotguns are called “shot”, “slug” or pellets. In a layman’s viewpoint, a other materials, that can be set on fire by impact. They are used
projectile fired from a firearms is called slug, although what be actually meant against target that will burn readily such as aircraft.
is a “bullet”. 5. Explosives Bullets – contains a high charge of high explosive and
because of their small size it is difficult to make a fuse tat will
The term “bullet” originated from the French word “boulette”, a work reliably in small arms ammunition. For this reason the use of
small ball. In common Police parlance, a bullet may be called “slug” which high explosive bullets is usually limited to 20mm and above.
is a colloquial term.
CONSTRUCTION Cartridges used in weapons other than shotguns are measured by
caliber (the diameter of the bullet). Manufacturers and users of ammunition in
Basically there are two (2) kinds of bullets: the United States have traditionally specified caliber in decimal fractions of an
inch. For example, a .30-caliber cartridge has a diameter of 30/100 inch (7.6
1. Lead Bullets – those which are made of lead or alloy of this metal millimeters). However, it is becoming customary to use millimeters instead.
such as lead, tin and antimony. The U.S. armed forces specify caliber in millimeters. Small-arms cartridges
2. Jacketed Bullets – those with a core of lead alloy covered a jacket are less than 20 millimeters or .78 caliber.
of harder metal such as guiding metal and copper zinc.

Purposes of the jacket 1. Caliber .22 about 5.56 mm

2. Caliber .25 about 6.35 mm
1. keep the bullet intact and from not breaking up when it strike the 3. Caliber .32 about 7.65 mm
target. 4. Caliber .30 about 7.63 mm (Mauser)
2. prevent damage while in the weapon 5. Caliber .30 about 7.63 mm (Luger)
3. control expansion 6. Caliber .38 about 9mm
7. Caliber .45 about 11.43 mm
Take Note:
 copper plated steel maybe used instead of gilding metal for the
jacket of caliber .45 - jacket of metal patch made of cupro nickel or Multiply
gilding metal. 1. cm to mm - 10.0
 If jscket bullets are used in revolvers, the gun barrel will be 2. mm to inch - 0.03937
loosened or destroyed. 3. inch to mm - 25.4
4. meter to yard - 1.094
TYPES OF BULLETS ACCORDING TO SHAPE 5. grain to gram - 0.06480
6. gram to grain - 15.43
1. Pointed bullet 7. gram to kg - 0.001
2. Round Nose bullet
3. Wad Cutter bullet Take Note:
4. Semi-Wad Cutter bullet
5. Hollow Point bullet  .0002 second – explosion of a bullet by means of tremendous
6. Boat Tailed bullet explosion of burning gases.
 Resistance of .38 is 15,000 to 45,000 ft./found.
 Buck-shot – it ranges 50 yards a. when ignited, it will burn by itself without aid from the
outside air
b. in burning, it gives off large amount of gas
Take Note: c. a considerable amount of heat is evolved

 Ball Bullet – Bullets have soft lead cores inside a jacket. 2. Smokeless Powder – Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerine as the
 Cannelure (bullet) – A knurled ring or serrated grooved around major ingredients, mixed with one or more minor ingredients such
the body of the bullet which contains wax for lubrication in order as centralite, Vaseline esters, inorganic salts and etc.
to minimize friction during the passage of the bullet inside the
 Dumdum Bullet – an out-moded and generally misused term –
hollow point bullets manufactured in Dumdum, India. 1. Single based (Nitrocellulose) – pure nitroglycerin gelatinized with
 Explosive (Fragmentary) Bullets – Contain a high charge nitrocellulose
explosive, because of heir small size, it is difficult to make a fuse 2. Double based - Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerine with the
that will work reliably in small arms ammunitions. For this reason following minor ingredients:
the use of high explosive bullets is usually to 20 mm. and above. a. centralite
 Hollow Point – designed to increase expansion (sometimes called b. Vaseline phthalate esters
“express bullets”) c. Inorganic salt
 Iced Bullets or solidified bullets – super cooled water made as a
projectile. Purposes of the minor ingredients:
 Lead Bullets - Actually a mixture of lead and one or more a. insure stability
hardening ingredient. b. reduce flash or flame temperature
 Metal Cased Bullet – colloquially used to indicate either a metal c. improve ignitability
patched of full patched bullet.
 Metal Patched Bullet – any metal-jacketed bullet. Technically, it Characteristics
is a bullet having a metal cup over the base and extending forward a. gray green to black in color and grains are similar in size and
over that portion of the bullet which bears against the rifling, the shape to the single-base propellants
lead core being exposed at the nose of the bullet. b. almost all have a perfectly definite shape such as: small
 Mushroom Bullet – colloquially. Any bullet designed to expand squares; discs; flakes; stripes; pellets; and perforated
on impact. Technically, a metal patched bullet with exposed round cylindrical grains
 Ogive – the curved portion of the bullet that is symmetrical and 3. Triple based – Nitrocellulose, Nitroglycerine and Nitroguanadine
forms the head of the projectile of ogival shape. - It was devised in an attempt to compromise between the low
 Plated Bullet – a bullet covered with a thin coating of a copper power single based powders and high power but excessive heat of
alloy to prevent leading on the inside of the barrel. double based powders. The percentage of nitroglycerin is small,
 Pointed Bullet – more effective ballistically because there is less but sufficient to give added power. The nitro-guanidine lowers the
surface resistance to air, thus the speed is less retarded and greater flame temperature while still adding active explosive constituent.
velocity. One of its virtues is that it is entirely flashless though it does not
 Soft or Drop Shot – shotgun pellets made of ordinary soft lead generate rather more smoke than the other types.
made into round pellets.
 Soft Point Bullet – expands on striking hence it produces more 4. High ignition temperature propellant – Its main constituent is
serious damage and have greater stopping power: from a high from RDX group of high explosives. It was moderated to the
velocity rifle, it will expand upon striking a flesh until it looks like process of gelatinozation and was then developed by Dynamite
a mushroom, hence, they are often called mushroom bullet. Such Noble of Germany in conjunction with Heckler and Koch for the
bullets are of little effect than a full-jacketed bullet in revolvers or latter’s G11K2 rifle. This is a caseless cartridge.
automatic pistols, because the velocity is too low to cause the
bullet to expand. Take Note:
 Steel Jacketed Bullet – bullet having soft steel jacket, often clad
or plated with gliding metal to prevent resting and reduce frictional  Cordite – A British propellant made by dissolving gun cotton and
resistance in the bore. nitroglycerin and adding 5% of Vaseline.
 Tracer Bullet – a bullet containing a substance inside the jacket at  Gun Cotton – A very powerful explosive, like nitroglycerin which
the base of the bullet which is ignited when fired showing a is a chemical compound and not a mixture. This is formed by the
brilliant “tail light” during its flight. It has an incendiary effect if action of nitric and sulfuric acid on cotton or any other kind of
they strike before the “tail light” base burned put. cellulose.


It is a substance or a mixture of substances which upon suitable It is an assembly which ignites the propellant. The primer
ignition releases a large amount of chemical energy at a high and controllable assembly of center fire cartridges consists of a brass or guiding-metal cup that
rate, the energy liberation is to convert the propellant into a high of gas. contains a primer composition pellet of sensitive explosive, a paper disc (foil),
and a brass anvil.
A blow from the firing pin of a small arms weapon on center of the
Generally, there are two types of powder in small arms. These are: primer cup
compresses the primer composition violently between the cup and the anvil,
1. Black Powder (Europeans) – the standard ingredients are: thus causing the composition to explode. The hole or vent in the anvil allows
Potassium nitrate 75%, Sulphur 10% and Charcoal 15%. It’s the flame to pass through the primer vent in the cartridge case, thereby
characteristics are: igniting the propellant.
a. oldest propellant powder
b. consist of irregular grains and have either a dull or shiny Rimfire ammunition, such as the caliber .22 cartridge does not
black surface contain primer assembly; the primer composition is spun into the rim of the
c. produces grayish smoke and considerable residue is left in cartridge case and the propellant is in intimate contact with the composition.
the barrel In firing, the firing pin strikes the rim of the case and thus compresses the
d. burns with reasonable great rapidity when ignited primer composition and initiates its explosion.

Qualities (typical to all explosives) Take Note:

1807 – Alexander John Forsyth conceived the percussion FORENSIC BALLISTICS (FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION)
ignition system. He was a Scotch Presbyterian Minister, chemist and hunter.
It is the study of recovered projectiles to identify the firearms
First successful priming mixture was one composed of potassium which fired them. It would be better termed firearms identification. The
chlorate. evidence thus obtained is generally accepted in criminal Courts trials to
establish use or possession of a certain weapon.
Formerly, all that an “expert” could testify in Court concerning a
1. Boxer primer (one flash hole) – favorite in U.S. invented by Col. bullet recovered from the scene of a crime was that it was a certain type and
Edward Munier Boxer in 1869. caliber. Thus a caliber .38 bullet could not have fired in a caliber .45 revolver.
2. Berdan (European Type) – two flash holes or vents invented by Linking a bullet to a specific revolver was not then possible. About 1920,
Hiram Berdan of New York in 1850’s. great advances began to be made in identifying firearms by their fired bullets
and/or cartridge cases, and for the first time, formed criminology courses were
PARTS OF PRIMER AND FUNCTION offered by universities to train individuals in the techniques of Forensic
Ballistics. Colonel Calvin H. Goddard was the leader in this effort. The most
1. Primer Cap – it is the soft guiding metal which serves as the important tools used was the Comparison Microscope, a binocular instrument
container of priming mixture, paper disc and anvil. so arranged that two similar objects can be compared in detail simultaneously,
2. Priming Mixture – contains a small amount of explosive mixture with corresponding surfaces adjacent.
which is sufficiently sensitive to result of chemical reaction being
set up by the caused by a sudden blow. When bullet is fired, it acquires marks or scratches from the bore
3. Paper Discs – this is made of thin shellacked paper disc that surfaces. These marks, from irregularities left by the tool cuts or caused by
protects the priming mixture that will cause its disintegration. Its wear and rust, by reproducible by firing another bullet through the same
two-fold purposes: barrel. The bullet is evidence and the second bullet can then be compared for
a. help hold the priming mixture in place and match. The pattern obtain is comparable to a fingerprint, thus making
b. exclude moisture coincidence of identical patterns from two different guns most unlikely if not
4. Anvil – it is made of spring tempered brass place inside the primer impossible. A composition is that, was yet, there has been no system devised
and it is on this side or point which the priming mixture is crushed. to classify such patterns, as there is with fingerprints.
5. Battery Cap – battery cap as applied to shotgun primer serves as
the main support for the whole primer components. When a cartridge is fired it is pressed forcibly against the
breechface of the firearm, there receiving an impression of any tool marks.
PRIMING COMPOUNDS The firing pin also leaves its marks can be compared by the microscope, and a
fired cartridge case thus be linked to a specific weapon.
1. Corrosive – it has potassium chlorate – IF ignited produces
potassium chloride which draws moisture from the air and this moisture
speeds the rusting and corrosion in gun barrels. ARMS MANUFACTURING PROCESS AND FIREARMS
CORROSION – chemical wear and tear of the inside of the barrel
due to rust formation or chemical reaction by products of combustion How a firearm is manufactured?
during firing.
The first thing which is of importance for the Firearms Examiner
EROSION – mechanical wear and tear of the inner surface of the is the understanding of the construction of a gun barrel and to be sufficiently
gun barrel due to mechanical abrasion or sliding friction. familiar with the various steps in the manufacture of firearms which may
influence the investigation of the crime. There should always be sound reason
2. Non-corrosive for all markings, scratches or dents visible or firearms evidence and it is the
Mixture 25 yrs. ago: function of the firearms examiner to determine how and why they were made
a. potassium chlorate (initiator & fuel) – 45% and also to interpret their significance both to himself as well as to the Court
b. antimony (element & fuel) – 23% of Justice.
c. fulminate of mercury (initiator) – 32%
The process of manufacture starts with a solid steel bar which,
WWII – Frankford Arenal (FH 42) when drilled from end to end makes it is steel pipe. The interior surface at
sulfur – 21.97% ; potassium chlorate – 47.20%; antimony sulfide – this stage bears numerous scratches resulting from irregular cutting of the drill
30.83% and the metal chips which mark the finish. For smooth bore barrels, after the
drilling process the inside of the barrel is made very smooth by a process
Typical rimfire (Cal. .22) – Frankford Arsenal known as “lapping”. In barrels intended for rifles the next steps after drilling
potassium chlorate – 41.43%; antimony sulfide – 9.53%; copper sulpho- consists of “reaming” and drilled hole for its entire length, this removes some
cyanide – 4.70%; ground glass – 44.23% of the sears and scratches. The reamer removes metal from the entire surface
because it is slightly larger in diameter than the drill.
fulminate of mercury – 39%; barium nitrate – 41%; antimony sulfide – If the barrel is to be rifled it is done with the use of modern tools
9%; picric acid – 5%; ground glass – 6% which automatically cut the spiral grooves on the inside the barrel and impart
to every firearms characteristics which are peculiar to the barrel. Each
Swiss by Ziegler – 1911 manufacturer has its own characteristics designed for the lands and grooves.
fulminate of mercury – 40%; barium nitrate – 25%; It has its individual patterns which determine whether the grooves are inclined
antimony sulfide – 25%; barium carbonate – 6%; ground glass – 4% to the left or to the right.
Take Note:
In addition to these peculiarities there are other markings left by
 Match Slow – a slow burning fuse or twisted cotton soaked in a the rifling tools which cuts the grooves that is as the rifling cutter wears small
solution of saltpeter or hemp or on matchlock weapons. imperfections on its surface are transmitted to the surface of the barrel and in
 Maynard Primer – another form of percussion cap. Explosive similar manner the accumulation of metal chips remove by the cutter will
pellets were sealed at proper intervals between two strips of paper. scratch the barrel as it passes along. Even in the button system imperfection
This primer tape was then rolled and inserted in guns of suitable will remain after the lapping and finishing operations are completed. These
design. The action of cocking the hammer pulled the primer tape microscopic scars will make a series of striations on every bullet which passes
until a primer pellet lay under the hammer and over the ignition through the barrel. It is the comparison of these bullet striations which is the
vent into the chamber ready for firing. Similar forms are used in basis of examination.
cap pistols.

Another phase of firearm manufacture which is of great fire from another barrel. And conversely,. The engraving on
importance to the identification of firearms is finishing operations of the bullet from the same barrel will be the same.
breechface of the breechblock of the firearm. It is that portion of the firearm c. Every barrel leaves its “thumbmark” on every bullet which is
against which the cartridge is fired. fired through it, just as every breech face leaves its
“thumbmark” on the base of the fired cartridge case.
1. CLASS CHARACTERISTICS – are those characteristics which are
determinable even before the manufacture of the firearm. It is categorized a. The first thing to do in the examination of bullets is to
into the following: conduct a visual examination of the bullets in order to
familiarize with all markings appearing on it.
a. Caliber b. Conduct examination of the bore of the firearm.
b. Number of Lands and Grooves c. Determine the conspicuous characteristics appearing on the
c. Width of Lands and Grooves bullet or any markings appearing therein.
d. Twist of riflings d. Markings appearing on the test bullet No. 1 and does not
e. Pitch of the rifling appear on the succeeding test bullet such markings should be
f. Depth of grooves disregarded. Consequently, such markings are called
accidental markings which came from foreign substances.
CLASS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT FIREARMS e. If the bullet is undersized or the bore of the firearms is badly
worn out there will be a cylindrical passage of the expending
a. Colt Type ---------------------------------------- .45 6L gas will appear dark or black in the picture.
b. Grease Gun ------------------------------------- .45 6R G+ WHAT TO COMPARE?
c. Smith and Wesson Rev. ---------------------- .45 6R GL
d. Smith and Wesson Rev. ---------------------- .38 5R G=L 1. Evidence Bullet
e. Colt Revolver ---------------------------------- .38 6L G+ 2. Test/Standard Bullet
f. Colt Pistol Super-------------------------------- .38 6L G+
g. Colt Revolver ----------------------------------- .32 6L G+ Before proceeding in the examination of the firearm by
h. Colt Pistol --------------------------------------- .32 6L G+ means of the fired bullets, first identify the particular firearm
i. Colt Pistol --------------------------------------- .25 6L through the class characteristics appearing on the cylindrical
G2X surface of the bullet.
j. Colt Revolver ----------------------------------- .22 6L
G2X Manufacturers of firearms make certain marks which
k. Colt Revolver ----------------------------------- .357 6L may distinguish firearms manufactured by them from that of other
G2X manufacturers. Each manufacturer makes specific number of
l. Smith and Wesson Rev. ---------------------- .32 5R G=L spiral grooves and direction of the twist of rifling. A bullet
m. Smith and Wesson MRF Rev. ---------------- .22 6R recovered at the crime scene or from the body of the victim may
G=L show those marks and on examination, the examiner may
n. Enfield Revolver -------------------------------- .38 7R presumptively state from what make of firearm it came from, thus,
G2X if one examination or recovered bullet, it was found out that there
o. US Carbine -------------------------------------- .30 4R G3x are six (6) grooves and the rifling marks are twisted to the left, then
p. Browning Pistol --------------------------------- 9mm 6R it is possible that it came from a Colt firearm. Smith and Wesson
G=L manufacturer has five (5) lands, five (5) grooves and with right
q. Star Pistol ---------------------------------------- .380 6R hand twit of rifling. Other class characteristics varied from one
G+ manufacturer to another.
r. Llama Pistol ------------------------------------- .380 6L
G+ 3. SHELL Identification
s. Beretta Pistol ------------------------------------.32 6R
G2X a. The breechface and the striker of every single firearm leave
t. Astra Pistol -------------------------------------- .32 6R microscopically individualities of their own. The firearm
G2X leaves its “fingerprint” or “thumbmark” on every cartridge
u. Arminius Revolver ------------------------------ .22 6R which is fires.
G2X b. The whole principle of identification is based on the fact that
v. Burgo Revolver --------------------------------- .22 8R G+ since the breechface of every weapon must be individually
w. Marlin M57 Rifle -------------------------------- .22 2OR distinct, the cartridge case which it fires is imprinted with this
G+ individuality.
c. The imprints on all cartridges fired from the same weapon
2. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS – are those characteristics are the same and those cartridges fired from different weapon
which are determinable only after the manufacture of the firearm. They are must always be different.
characteristics whose existence is beyond the control of man and which have a
random distribution. Their existence in a firearm is brought about by the tools
in their normal operation resulting through wear, tear, abuse, mutilations,
corrosion, erosions and other fortuitous causes. These are the irregularities
found on the inner surface of the barrel and on the breech face of the
breechblock of the firearms as a result of the failure of the tool beyond the
control of the manufacturer to make them smooth as a minor.
a. By means of fire bullet you can determine the particular
a. No two barrels and microscopically identical as the surface of
barrel of firearm used.
their bores all posses individual characteristics markings.
b. Recovered bullet can tell the type, caliber and make of
b. When a bullet is fired from a rifled barrel, it becomes
firearm from which it was fired.
engraved by the riflings and this engraving on a bullet fired
c. Can determine also the condition of the firearm us
from one barrel will be different from that on a similar bullet

FIREARM CARTRIDGE CASE 1. Physical – Evidence bullets, cartridge cases and suspected
firearm once submitted by the requesting party will be physically examined to
Before proceeding in the examination, conduct a preliminary determine its markings or initials made by the investigator for identification
examination on the cartridge case having a visual examination on the purposes. If no identifying marks were found the firearms examiner will,
condition of such cartridge case. Determine whether or not it came from a before anything, affix his own identifying markings or initials derived form
revolver or from an automatic pistol and sub-machine guns. Examine those the names of the requesting party, victim or suspect in that order of priority.
markings that are present on the base portion, the breechface marks, firing pin The firearm will also be physically examine to determine its safety devices
impression, the location of the extractor and ejector markings. Check also the seeing to it that there is no cartridge inserted in the chamber that will cause
markings caused by the chamber of the firearm. The magazine and the ejector accidental firing. Likewise, it will be examined of its vital parts whether or not
port markings must also be taken into consideration particularly those it is in operating condition and a tag will be attached for distinction.
cartridge cases from gums having full automatic mechanism.
Bullets of different class characteristics will be segregated from
MARKINGS APPEARING ON A FIRED CARTRIDGE CASE one another especially the determination of caliber, number of lands and
grooves, twist of rifling, etc. to facilitate its easy final microscopic
1. Breechface marks examination.
2. Firing pin impression
3. Ejector mark Cartridge cases will also be segregated to determine the caliber,
4. Extractor mark type and make of firearm from which they were fired. Misfired or dud
5. Chamber mark cartridges will also be taken into consideration. Although they may not have
any ballistics probative value, yet, they may give a clue to the solution of a
TWO TYPES OF MARKINGS (individual) crime.

1. Impression type – those markings caused by direct pressure 2. Test Firing – The firearm is test fired before a bullet recovery
contact. (ex. Breechface mark) box in order to obtain test bullets and test cartridge cases for comparison with
2. Striated mark – those markings caused by sliding contact. (ex. the evidence bullets and cartridge cases, respectively,. But before firing, the
Minute striations on the cylindrical surface of the bullet) cartridge will be marked at the side of the case and on the nose portion of the
bullet with letter “T” (to represent test) followed by the last two digits of the
Take Note: serial number of the firearm of the test to be made (eg) T-77-1 to T-77-3 in
their order of firing to distinguish the number 1 test from the number 2 or 3 as
 Abrasion (in the bore) – Scratches caused by using improper the case may be.
cleaning materials, or by firing ammunition with bullets to which
abrasive material was adhering. Normal enlargement of the bore 3. Microscope Examination – After the recovery of the test
and wearing away of lands due to the abrasive action of the bullets. bullets and cartridge case, they will be compared with the evidence cartridge
 Accidental Characteristics - Those ate characteristics or marks cases under the Bullet Comparison Microscope to determine whether or not
left by some individual gun that occurred on that particular shot the have the congruency of striations or the same individual characteristics.
and may or may not reproduced on any other shots. For example, a
grain of send of shaving of steel happened to be in the barrel when BULLET COMPARISON MICROSCOPE
a shot was fired.
 Ballistician – Person whose knowledge in firearms identification Toady, the most widely and reliable instrument in Firearms
is accepted by the courts and other investigation agencies. Identification is the Bullet Comparison Microscope. With this instrument, the
 Definitive Proof – after the gun is finally completed, it is again firearms examiner can make a complete examination and comparison of the so
fired with a heavy charge to ensure against accident. This is the called Class and Individual characteristics that appears on the fired bullets and
definitive proof and guns passing this test are stamped with still fired cartridge cases.
another marked.
 Expert - As used in courts includes all witnesses whose opinions This instrument consists of two single tubes fitted with a cross arm
are admitted on grounds of specialized knowledge, training and and comparison eyepiece, in which the images of two objects held on its two
experience. adjustable stages are fused into one, forming a single image as can be seen on
 Fouling - The accumulated of a deposit within the bore of a the comparison eyepiece. The microscope tubes are built as a unit with the
firearm caused by solid by-products remaining after a cartridge of comparison eyepiece which has a prism arrangement that brings the images of
is fired. the specimen held under the microscopic tubes into a side by side position in
 Heavy Rusting - Usually called corrosion rather than fouling. the left and right side of the eyepiece field the eyepiece is threaded for
 Proof Marks – It is the examination and testing of firearms by a focusing on the dividing line between the two fields.
recognized authority according to certain rules and stamped with a
mark to indicate that they are safe for sale and used by the public. Under the microscope the two fired bullets or fired cartridge cases
 Provisional Proof – the testing of the rough gun barrels and fired can be examined in a “juxtaposition” and whatever the observation and
with a heavy charge of powder to see if they are strong enough to findings obtained during the examination can be photographed for court
be finished and assembled into gun. This provisional proof and a presentation and also to give the Court a better understanding and good
certain stamp are placed on barrels so tested. appreciation of how he came to that conclusion.
 Secondary Firing Pin Impression – Is a mark on the side of the
regular impression usually found in pistols. HOW TO OPERATE THE MICROSCOPE
 Shaving Marks – a shaving on the ogive portion of the fired bullet
due to poor alignment of the cylinder with the barrel. This shaving Place the two objects on the two adjustable stages under the two
is often found in the revolver. microscopic tubes and peep through the comparison eyepiece. If the objects
 Skid Marks – When the bullet first starts forward without turning, cannot be seen, adjust the stages through the rock and pinion mechanism.
that before the bullet can begin to turn, it moves forward a small Once the two objects focused, the next step is to find the similarities existing
distance and this makes the front of the groove in the bullet wider between the objects either shifting them vertically or horizontally.
than the rear part. This skidding is more pronounced in revolvers.
 Slippage Marks – Scratches of the fired bullet due to badly worn Every examiner, no matter how experienced or expert he may be,
rifling or when the bullet is small or too soft for the velocity used, has had the experience of spending many hours in the attempt to get the
there is a tendency for it to go straight forward without turning and satisfactory and convincing matching in cases where there was every reason to
it jumps the rifling or slips. believe that the has the gun that fired the evidence bullet or shell.
 Stripping Marks – scratches on the fired bullet due to worn out
barrel. Obtain matching as many as possible, because convincing one’s
self and convincing the Court “beyond all reasonable doubt” are two quite
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION different matters. Te expert must always keep in mind the fact, judges are
always keep in mind the fact, judges are always unpredictable: if some pairs

of grooves (or lands) match and others do not, the expert must be prepared to in the crime laboratory with method that can be seen in the screen
explain why they do not. can be photographed by any kind of camera.
5. Filan Micrometer Eye Piece - a measuring microscope to read the
FINDINGS/CONCLUSION width of the land and groove marks and to obtain the pitch of the
rifling in turns per inch.
Findings are the bases of conclusion. A conclusion cannot be made 6. Helixometer – Type of instrument used in measuring pitch of
without the findings. A good conclusion is always based on good findings. In rifling firearms. This instrument is generally used in high advanced
comparative examination of the evidence bullet that are found on the ballistic laboratory. It is not very much needed in a typical police
periphery running from the forward shoulder to the base portion (these are ballistic laboratory. With the use of this instrument it is possible to
surface of the barrel), are discernible with the test bullet or if they have the measure the angel of twist in a rifle, pistol, or revolver barrel. It is
congruency, correspondence or intermarriage, then the evidence bullet and the used by the insertion of a telescope aligned with the axis of the
test bullet were fired from one and the same firearm. For conclusive of bore. There is an eyepiece and an objective. The scope is mounted
findings, there should be at least three (3) tests that should be compared. The on a routable bearing with graduated discs that permits reading
first is for preliminary, the second is for confirmation and the third is for circular measurements, there is a scale graduated in inches. From
conclusion. This is also true for fired cartridge cases. Although the individual the discs we can get the angel of the pitch, this can be combined
characteristics of the cases may be found at the base portion where with the scale reading to compute how many inches of barrel
breechface, ejector, extractor markings are found on the sides that are in length would be needed for one complete turn of the rifling.
contact with the inner surface of the chamber. Comparing this figure with those in tables of manufacturers’
specifications, we can often identify the making and the model of a
Clip or magazine markings may also give discernible markings. weapon whose other features have been destroyed already.
Like the ejector or extractor markings if considered singly may not be a basis 7. Machine Rest - A machine use for testing the accuracy of a
for conclusion. These only serve as corroborative characteristics but certainly firearm.
lack legal significance. This is so because the case may have these markings 8. Caliper – an instrument used for making measurements such as
even if they were unloaded from the firearm without firing. As a rule, the bullet diameter and bore diameter.
point of the examination and comparison is at the area of the primer proper 9. Micrometer – similar in use as caliber.
where breechface markings together with the firing pin impression are 10. Onoscope – a small instrument sometimes used in examining the
located. Primers are softer metals and receive more prominent striation than internal surface of the gun barrel in determining the irregularities
any other portion of the base. inside the bore of the gun barrel. It has a tiny lamp at the terminal
portion and this is inserted inside the bore for internal examination.
Conclusion is the opinion gathered from the finding. This is the 11. Optical Sight – sight containing series of lenses to form an optical
end result of the examination and should be taken seriously as it involves the system being contained in one unit. Optical sights do not
life and liberty of the suspect. When the evidence and the test bullets or necessarily have telescopic properties. The optical system may
cartridge cases have the same individual characteristics, the competent merely include range indicating, or range estimating devices, plus
examiner will conclude that they were fired from one and the same individual the necessary means of adjusting for elevation and wind age.
characteristic; the competent examiner will conclude that they were fired from 12. Shadow Graph – Equipment used in firearms identification. It
one and the same suspected firearm. If they have different individual contains a series of microscopic lenses of different magnification
characteristics, certainly, the evidence bullet or case was not fired from the that can be used in examining fired bullet or fired shells to
suspected firearm. Where the evidence has prominent or minor striations that determine their class characteristics and also for orientation
the three tests, it calls for uncertainty and doubt for a positive or negative purposes. It greatly differs from the bullet comparison microscope
conclusion. Only those evidence bullets or cases that have the same individual and stereoscope microscope, that this instrument contains a large
characteristics may be taken of photomicrograph for Court presentation. ground glass, 14 inches more or less in diameter, wherein the
observation and comparison of the class characteristics is done by
REQUIREMENTS FOR A POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION the firearm examiner. Similarly with the bullet comparison made in
the circular ground glass.
1. PROMINENT – Standing out or projecting beyond a surface or 13. Stereoscopic Microscope – unlike the bullet comparison
line, readily noticeable. microscope does not have any camera attachment and no
2. CONSISTENT – Possessing firmness. The impression or striation photomicrograph can be taken for court presentation. It is generally
found on the evidence bullet or cartridge case appearing in every used in the preliminary examination of fired bullets and fired shells
test bullets and cartridge cases. to determine the relative distribution of the class characteristics or
3. SIGNIFICANT – The markings have meaning or capable of being for so-called orientation purposes. It can be used also in the close-
interpreted by the Firearms Examiner or Ballistician. up examination of tempered serial numbers of firearms. It has two
eyepieces and the lenses and objectives can be manipulated
INSTRUMENTS USED IN FORENSIC BALISTICS vertically with a series of magnifications. It is one effective
instrument for firearms identification.
1. Analytical or Torsion Balance – Used for determining weights of 14. Taper Gauge – It is used primarily for determining bore diameter
bullets and shotgun pellets for possible determination of type, and of firearms. This instrument is very useful for giving quick idea as
make of firearm from which it was fired. to the caliber of a gun.
2. Bullet Comparison Microscope – This valuable instrument is 15. Telescope Sight – an optical employing the principle of the
specially designed to permit the firearms examiner to determine telescope to enlarge the image of the target.
the similarity and dissimilarity between two fired bullets or two
fired shells, by simultaneously observing their magnified image in OTHER TERMS TO PONDER IN BALLISTICS
a single microscopic field.
3. Bullet Recovery Box – Consist of a wooden box, 12 “x”12”x 96, 1. Accelerator – A device used in some automatic and semi-
with a hinged to cover and with one end open. This long box is automatic weapons to accelerate the rearward travel of the bolt of
filled with ordinary cotton and separated into sections by breechblock by applying leverage at the critical point in the bolt’s
cardboard petitions. travel. Any device of linkage designed to speed the movement of
4. CP–6 Comparison Projector – An instrument very much similar some portion of the mechanical train.
with the bullet comparison microscope, where 2 fired bullets or 2. ACP – Arms Corporation of the Philippines.
shells can be compared in one setting of the firearms examiner. 3. Barrel Length - In interior ballistic work this differs from the
Also in one sitting, the evidence fired shell can b4e immediately "barrel length" use in general measurements. It is measured from
compared with the test fired shell with the use of this equipment is the face of the muzzle to the base of the seated bullet or base of the
absolutely no strain of any kind. No eye strain because the case neck.
magnified image appears on a large screen and is observed as a 4. Barrel Telescope – Instrument used to make a visual inspection of
vertical and comfortable viewing distance. No back strain from the inset of a gun barrel to see a sign of having been fired recently,
stooping over a microscope several hours a day. No mental strain to look for leading or metal fouling and to see how distinct the
because comparison of evidence is faster, easier and less tiresome, lands and grooves appear.
thus allowing a more efficient and productive of investigative time
5. Blow back – As pertains to automatic and semi-automatic arms, a pressure on the grip is relaxed the safety automatically resets itself,
weapon in which no mechanical locking system is employed. The In a few instances, it must bee usually reset.
breech is held closed at the moment of firing by the action of recoil 31. Hair Trigger – A term loosely applied to any trigger which can be
springs and the weight of the slide, hammer and other moving release by very light pressure.
parts. The weight of these parts is so much greater than the breech 32. Hammer – mechanism in a firearm that strikes the prime.
action has been appreciably overcome; then the breechblock action 33. Hammer Block - Safety device that prevents hammer blow to
is blown backward, by residual pressure. A term commonly used to primer.
describe the backward escape of powder or primer gases from the 34. Hand (Pawl) - Mechanism of a revolver which rotate the cylinder.
chamber around the breechblock or bolt due to split or fractured 35. Hanged Frame - A weapon in which the barrel including the
cartridge case or punctured primer. cylinder in the case of revolver is pivoted to the forward end of the
6. Blow Forward – An automatic of semi-automatic firearm having a frame. Closing the gun swings the barrel into firing position where
standing breech, in which the barrel is blown to open the action the chambers are firmly locked against the standing breech.
and eject the fired cartridge case. The barrel is then forced back 36. Headspace - The distance between the breech of the gun and the
against the standing breech by a powerful spring. The gun is support for the cartridge rim; in other words, it is the space
cocked and reloaded as the barrel is forced to the rear. occupied by the head of the cartridge when the gun is loaded.
7. Bore Centerline - This is the visual line of the center of the bore. 37. Head stamps - Merely the letters or design placed on the base of
Since sights are mounted above the bore's centerline and since the the cases by the manufacturer to identify his product.
bullet begins to drop when it leaves the muzzle the bore must be 38. Inertia Firing Pin - A firing pin assembled into the breech block
angled upwards in relation to the line of sight so that the bullet will and free to move forward and backward. It is impelled forward by
strike where the sights point. the blow of the hammer or striker and backward by the explosions
8. Breech Block – The steel block which closes the tear bore against of the primer.
the force of the charge; or the face of the block. 39. LC- Lake City Arsenal
9. Burr Hammer – An expose hammer having a serrated knob at the 40. Leaf Sight - Any metallic sight which is hinged at the base to
top to provide a griping surface for cocking. permit raising it to a vertical position sighting and lowering it to a
10. Camming – lug bolts – that type which employs one or more bolt horizontal position to avoid damage and carrying leaf sight.
locking logs which are cammed outward from the interior of the Principle is usually applied to rear sight only.
bolt cylinder to unlocked the action. 41. Line of Sight - This is the visual line of the aligned sight path.
11. Chamber – the rear portion of the barrel where the cartridge is Since sights are mounted above the bore's centerline and since the
inserted. bullet begins to drop when it leaves the muzzle the bore must be
12. Cylinder – serves as chamber and magazine and a revolver. angled upwards in relation to the line of sight so that the bullet will
13. Cylinder Stop – stops and holds the cylinder in alignment for strike where the sights point.
firing. 42. Mainspring – mechanism in a firearm that provides energy to the
14. Delayed Blowback – Sometimes called hesitation locking the hammer to activate firing mechanism.
breech, although not positively locked, must overcome a 43. Metallic Sights – normally consist of a pair of front sight and rear
mechanical disadvantage, such as knuckle joint, to open. sights.
15. Disconnector – The lever in the gunlock which prevents the 44. Muzzle Brake – a device attached to the muzzle of a gun designed
release of the hammer unless the slide and barrel are in forward to deflect the propelling gases emerging from the muzzle behind
position safely interlocked. the bullet and to utilize the energy of these gases to pull the gun
16. Double – Set Triggers – A pair of triggers so arranged that forward to counter the recoil of the weapon.
pressure on one trigger engages the sear in such fashion that the 45. Open Sight – any sight in which there is to tube or aperture
slightest tough on the second trigger will then discharge the gun. through which aim is taken.
17. Double Action Sear – Built into weapon to allow double action 46. Paradox Gun – a shotgun having the last few inches of the muzzle
fire. rifled so that it will impart a spin to the patented slug that is used
18. EC- Evansille Chrisler with it when it is desired to fire a large single projectile instead of a
19. Ejector - The mechanism in the firearm which causes the cartridge charge of shot.
case or shell to be thrown out from the gun. 47. Parker size – a Gray rust preventive finish for metal.
20. Extractor – That mechanism in a firearm by which the cartridge 48. Post Sight – A front sight resembling a post or one of generally
case or shell is withdrawn from the chamber mechanism in a rectangular of quadrilateral design.
revolver that pulls the empty shells simultaneously. 49. Pump Action – Popular term for slide action.
21. Extractor Rod – That mechanism in revolver that activates the 50. Pyramidal Sight - a front sight of generally pyramidal design.
extractor and is a locking device. 51. RA or REM – Remington arms company.
22. FA – Frankford Arsenal. 52. Ramp Sight – A front sight mounted at the ramp, which inclines
23. Falling Block Action –That type of action, which the breechblock upward and forward, a rear sight having a sliding member, which
is pivoted at the rear of the receiver so that the face of the may be moved up and down a ramp to change the elevation of the
breechblock swings down below the chamber to open the action. sight.
24. FCC- Federal Cartridge Company 53. Rear Sight – The rear-most of a pair of metallic gun sights. It may
25. Firearm (Other Definition) - Means any pistol or revolver with a be mounted on the barrel, receiver, frame, slide, tang, cocking
barrel les than 12 inches, any riffle with a barrel less than 15 piece, bolt sleeve or stock; may be fixed or adjustable.
inches, other weapon which is design to expel projectile buy the 54. Receiver Sight – Any type of sight fastened to the receiver bridge.
action of explosion.(Uniform firearms act of Pennsylvania) 55. Recoil Operated – Pertains to automatic and semi-automatic arms,
26. Flying Firing Pin – A firing pin shorter that the length of its travel a weapon in which the barrel and breechblock are locked together
in the breechblock. A spiral spring coiled around the pin forward at the instant firing. As the bullet leaves the barrel, the rearward
compressing the spring and exploding the primer, the compressed thrust of the powder gases starts the locked barrel and bolt to the
spring immediately draws the firing pin back into the breechblock. rear.
This is a safety feature since the firing pin is not in contact with 56. Repeater – Any firearm holding more than one round at a time.
the primer except when driven forward by the hammer at the 57. Rolling Block Action – that type of action in which the
instant of firing. Also known as rebound type firing pin Ex: Colt breechblock rotates its about an axis pin downward and backward
Government Model Caliber. 45 and Tokarev 7.62 mm. from the chamber.
27. Folding Trigger - A trigger hinged so that it can be folded forward 58. RPA – Republic of the Philippines Arsenal
close to under side of the frame. Ex: Italian 10:35 mm Bodego. 59. Sear – The lever in the gunlock, which hold the hammer until the
28. Frame - Part of the firearm that houses the internal parts. released by the trigger.
29. Front sight - A protrusion or attachment above the barrel near the 60. Semi-Automatic Revolver – are those in which the recoil from
muzzle. It may be fixed or adjustable. one shot plus spring action revolvers, the cylinder aligns a chamber
30. Grip or Automatic Safeties - Flat lavers of plungers normally and cocks the hammer ready for firing the next shot.
protruding from some portion of the grip such position that when 61. Set Trigger – An adjustable trigger design to operate reliable with
the hand firing the piece is squeezed around the grip, by the firer, a very light trigger pull. Colloquially a “hair trigger”.
automatically releasing the firing mechanism. In most cases, when
62. Shoat Trigger – An absolute form of trigger in which no trigger
guard was used. The trigger was mounted in and projected only
slightly from the frame just forward of the grip.
63. Shoulder – Portion of a shell that support the neck.
64. Slide Action – That type of breech closure, which is moved POLICE PHOTOGRAPHY
forward and backward along guide ways paralleling the lower side
of the barrel. The operating rod is properly linked to the INTRODUCTION
breechblock to provide the desired and closing action.
65. Slide Plate – Part of the revolver that provides access to the Photography is an invaluable aid to modern day scientific crime
internal part. detection and investigation as well as crime prevention. Perhaps it could be
66. Signal Radius – the distance between forward and rear sight. stated that without photography our law enforcement officer in the so-called
67. Silencer – A device intended to be attached to muzzle of a firearm modern day scientific crime detection would still be lagging a hundred years.
to prevent or reduce its noise. The year 1839 is considered generally as the birth year of
68. Single Action Revolvers – Are those in which the hammer must photography. Its first landmark in police history is generally confined to its
be manually cocked. application to the problem of personal identification. In those days the
69. Solid Frame – in a revolver, a swing-out cylinder or rod ejector Bertillon system of the facial features of the criminal were measured, as well
type. There is a break or hinge in the frame. as the bone structures of the various parts of the body. These measurements
70. Spur Hammer – a hammer having a cocking spur. were worked into a classification system and the photograph of the criminal
71. Stab Crimp – a series of small indents at intervals around the was used to supplement the classification. Later, the Bertillon system was
cartridge case, engaging a cannelure in the bullet jacket. Both types superseded by the fingerprint system of personal identification. Under the
of crimp are also used on high-pressure cartridge to hold the fingerprint system the photograph of the subject is still placed on his finger
primer in the pocket. print chart, not to supplement the identification system but to have available
72. Standing Breech – when a receiver is not cut away at its rear to a photograph if needed for investigation purposes.
point below the line of the gun bore, the solid rear wall of the
receiver is the “standing breech”. In the case of hinged frame This course is divided into two main topics: TECHNICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
weapons the solid rearward portion of the frame (receiver) against AND FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY.
which the heads of the chambered cartridge rest after the gun has
been closed and locked is the “standing breech”. In a revolver or TECHNICAL: technical concepts and principles which includes
single shot pistol that section of the frame that supports the head of characteristics of photographic rays, the use of camera, lenses, filters,
the cartridge in the cylinder or chamber is the “standing breech”. structure of film and photographic papers, chemical processing and others.
73. Straight-line Hammer – a metal forced straight back by bolt
action during bolt reciprocation to cocked position. When released FORENSIC: covers investigative photography, preparation of mug file and
it drives straight ahead to fire. Found on reising and similar guns. crime scene photography.
74. Straight-pull Action – that type in which the rotary motion
required to turn the bolt locking lugs into or out of engagement Objective:
with their locking recesses is applied by the action of studs on the
bolt sliding in helical grooves cut inside a bolt cylinder. The objective of this course is to help the students become aware
75. Sub caliber Barrel – a barrel of small caliber inserted down the of the basic principles and concepts of photography. Although this course is
bore or mounted over the barrel of a large caliber gun, permitting it not intended to make the students become professional photographers, it is
to be used for practice work with less powerful, cheaper designed to give them enough information for them to realize the vital use of
ammunition. Generally, it is called a “Sub-caliber tube”. photography as a significant tool in law enforcement and criminal
76. Thumb latch – mechanism in a revolver that actuates bolt to investigation. As future law enforcers and criminal investigators, they must be
release the cylinder. knowledgeable on how to utilize effectively and efficiently photographic
77. Thumb trigger – a button design on or near the tang. It fines the evidences during court proceedings.
rifle when depressed normally by thumb pressure. Tang-rear-ward
projecting arms of the receiver into which the butt stocks is Significance:
78. Trigger – the lever operated by the shooter which releases the The usefulness of Forensic Photography in criminal investigation
firing pin and allows it to discharge the cartridge. is very extensive. Small objects but of great importance in a crime committed
79. Trigger Guard – the bent strip of metal that protects the trigger may escape in the first phase of examination by the investigator but may be
from accidental discharge. seen and recovered, only after closed examination of the photographs of the
80. Trigger Lever – mechanism in a revolver that contacts the crime scene.
rebound slide to return the trigger forward. Investigators are sometimes compelled to reconstruct or describe in
81. Trigger Spring – spring that provides energy for return movement court some of the details of the crime scenes they investigated several months
of rebound slide. ago. With the bulk of cases the investigator handle, perhaps he would be
82. Trigger Stop – mechanism in a revolver that prevents excessive confused or may not exactly recall some of these details or exact location of
rearward movement after hammer release. objects. However, with the aid of photographs taken from the crime scene,
83. Tube Sight – a tube in which front and rear sights are mounted. investigator will not find hard time to refresh in their minds and will be able to
84. Turn-bolt Action – that type of firearm which locked by the describe or explain exactly the details in court.
turning one or more bolt locking lugs into locking recesses cut into A good photograph of the scene is a permanent record, which is
the receiver. always available, especially in court presentation. In court proceedings,
85. U or UT – Utah Ordinance Company judges, prosecutors and defense lawyers have generally never visited the
86. Vernier Sight – metallic sights which may be adjusted for scene of the crime. Therefore, photographers should bear in mind to obtain a
elevation or wind age by the action of a vernier screw. Also called normal, sharp and free of distortion photograph. As a general rule, take many
a micrometer sight. Screw having a head calibrated to indicate the photograph of the crime scene and select the best.
amount of movement transmitted to the sight. A photograph of the crime scene is a factual reproduction and
87. WCC – Western Cartridge Company accurate record of the crime scene because it captures TIME, SPACE AND
88. Wedge-type Bolts – that type which employs a ramp or camp EVENT. A photograph is capable of catching and preserving the:
arrangement raise lower, or move to either side, one end of the
bolts so that the end of the bolt or lug thereon is wedged against a SPACE - the WHERE of the crime (Locus Criminis)
supporting surface in the receiver to lock the action. TIME – the WHEN of the crime
89. WRA – Winchester Repacking Company EVENT – the WHAT of the crime – what is the nature or
90. Yoke – mechanism in a revolver that connects pivot between the character of the crime?
frame and cylinder.
Uses of photography in police work

1. Identification files- Criminals missing persons, lost property, Everyone also knows light. It excites the retina of the eye. Light
licenses, anonymous letters, bad checks, laundry marks, and makes things visible. There is no exaggeration to say that man cannot live
civilian of personal fingerprint IF In the case of atomic attack or a without light. Same things are true in photography, because light is needed to
catastrophe such as an airplane crash, the fingerprints from a produce a photograph.
civilian file are proving helpful in making positive identification
2. Communication and microfilm files- Investigative report files, LIGHT AND THE EYE
Accident files transitions of photos (Wire Photo) Photographic
supplements to reports. With modern day electro photography Our eyes are sensitive to light, which give us information about the
machines accident reports can be made in seconds and sold to shapes, colors and movements of objects around us. Light is a form of
insurance adjusters for nominal fees. An excellent source of electromagnetic radiation and we know it travels in the form of waves. The
revenue for department is the sale of photographs of traffic complete range of electromagnetic spectrum and our eyes are capable of
accidents to insurance companies and lawyers. seeing only part of the spectrum. We can see a large part of the wavelengths
3. Evidence- Crime scenes, traffic accidents, homicides suicides, emitted by the sun, that is white light but the sun also emits other waves,
fires, objects of evidence, latent fingerprint traces. Evidence can be which we cannot see.
improved by contrast control, by magnification and by visible Infra red is a wavelength emitted by the sun which cannot be seen,
radiation. though we can feel it in our bodies as warmth or heat. Ultra violet is another
4. Offender detection – Surveillance, burglar traps, confession, form of light we cannot see, but we know about it because it tans our skin in
reenactment of crimes intoxicated driver test. One of the newest summer.
applications of police photography is to record on motion picture
film arrests in which the suspect offers resistance. The practice has HOW LIGHT BEHAVES
been instituted by at least one metropolitan law enforcement
agency to counter charges of police brutality. Light moves in straight lines from its source, but it can be bent and
5. Court exhibits- Demonstration enlargements, individual photos, scattered by objects placed in its path. We see rays of sunlight streaming
projection slides, motion pictures. through a window on a sunny day because some of the light is scattered by
6. Reproduction or Copying – Questionable checks and documents, dust particles in the air. We can only see a ray of light when it strikes the eye
evidential papers, photographs, official records and notices. directly. Then it forms an image of the object from which it has come, either
7. Personnel training- Photographs and films relating police tactics, the light source itself, or something from which it has been reflected, such as a
investigation techniques, mob control, and catastrophe situations. motorcar. Non-luminous objects are one, which are only visible when they
8. Crime and Fire prevention – Hazard lectures, security clearance, reflect the light from a light source. In a totally dark room, you would not be
detector devices, photos of hazardous fire, conditions made when able to see a desk, but you would be able to see the hands of a luminous clock.
fire prevention inspection are made. If the totally black room had no dust particles floating around it, you would
9. Public relations – Films pertaining to safety programs, juvenile not able to see the beam of light, but only the light source itself and any object
delinquency, traffic education, public cooperation, and civil that reflects the light.

*Four primary ways of using photography in Police Work: SPEED OF LIGHT

1. As means of identification. Even an electric light appears to glow immediately it is switched

2. As a method of discovering, recording and preserving evidence. on, a small but definite time lag occurs between the light coming on and the
3. As a way to present, in the courtroom, an impression of the electromagnetic radiation entering our eyes. In a room, this time lag is too
pertinent elements of a crime. short to be noticeable, but for distant objects like stars, the lag is thousand of
4. As a training and public relations medium for police programs. years. Even light from the moon, which is relatively close to earth,
experiences a time lag of one second. The speed of light, measured in a
PHOTOGRAPHY: ITS PRINCIPLE vacuum is 299, 792.5 km/sec (approximately 186,281 miles/sec / 186,000).

In photography, the light writes when it strikes minute crystals of BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT
light sensitive surfaces (films and photographic papers), a mechanical device
(camera) and chemical processing (film development and printing). As a INTERFERENCE - Any phenomenon having a periodic
process, photography is the method of using light to produce identical image disturbance of some sort and travels outward from a source is called a wave.
of an object that can be preserved permanently by employing: To understand how energy can travels in waves, think of a wooden log
a. camera: camera use to regulate, absorb and filter light floating in the ocean. Light maybe visualized as such as the high points are
b. film and any sensitized material to record light called crest while the low points are called troughs. The distance between two
successive crest and troughs is called a wavelength.
Photograph is a mechanical result of photography. To produce a When two light beams cross, they may interfere in such a way that
photograph, light is needed aside from sensitized material (films and the resultant intensity pattern is affected. When two waves meet or interfere,
photographic papers). Light radiated or reflected by the subject must reach the they reinforce one another (crest form a higher crest than either) at some
sensitized material while all other lights must be excluded. The exclusion of points and annul one another (crest of one wave interfere with the trough of
all other lights is achieved by placing the sensitized material inside a light the other) at other points.
tight box. The light maybe visible or invisible. The crest of one wave meets the trough of another wave. The
The effect of light on the sensitized material is not visible in the phenomenon is called annulment of waves. The British physicist Thomas
formation of images of objects. The effect could be made visible with the aid Young in the experiment illustrated first demonstrated such an interference
of chemical processing of the exposed sensitized material called development. pattern. Light that had passed through one pinhole illuminated an opaque
Photography is the production of visible images by using the action surface that contained two pinholes. The light that passed through the two
of light on a sensitized material. The word photography was derived from two pinholes formed a pattern of alternately bright and dark circular fringes on a
Greek terms PHOTO which means light and GRAPHY which means to write. screen. Wavelets are drawn in the illustration to show that at points such as A,
Thus, literally, photography means to draw with light. C, and E (intersection of solid line with solid line) the waves from the two
pinholes arrive in phase and combine to increase the intensity. At other points,
PHOTOGRAPHIC RAYS such as B and D (intersection of solid line with dashed line), the waves are
180° out of phase and cancel each other.
What is light? Many as good while darkness the opposite as bad
have associated light. In case of anxiety, fright, severe mental disorders and
depression many experienced dream like apparitions. In states of religious
ecstasy, visions and hallucinations occur which can be attributed to the high
sensitivity of the retina. Many frequently perceived light impressions, which
cannot be attributed to external stimuli of an altogether different kind, such as
pressure, impact and functional disturbances in our body and nervous system.

The source of all daylight is the sun. The combination of color and
contrast ascertains the quality of the daylight. The lighting contrast depends
upon the sunlight available in the daylight, when clouds do not cover the sun.
Then, the contrast is high on the contrary; if clouds cover the sun the contrast
is low. In the process of photographing and object; the lighting contrast must
be considered in the exposure of the film. It is suggested that the
recommendations, given by the manufacturer of the film be observed
religiously to produce good and presentable photographs.

Color of the daylight will also affect the appearance of the objects
being photographed specially in color photography. Some of the factors
affecting the color of the daylight:

DIFFRACTION – light in space and not within the gravitational a) atmospheric vapor
field of any object travels in a straight line. The bending of light around an b) atmospheric dust
object gives rise to the phenomenon called diffraction. This phenomenon is c) reflected light reached the objects and directly coming from the
responsible for the partial illumination of object parts not directly in the path source.
of the light.
Daylight maybe classified according to its intensity. They are:
LIGHT AND MATERIALS a) Bright sunlight
b) Hazy sunlight
Materials, which allow light to pass through so that objects on the c) Dull sunlight.
other side can be distinguished, are called transparent.
Those that allow light to pass through but diffuse the flow of light These classifications are modified by the film manufacturers like
so that objects on the other side cannot be distinctly seen are called a) Open bright sunlight
translucent. b) Under shade bright sunlight
Materials, which allow no light to pass through, are called opaque. c) Hazy sunlight
When light strikes an object such light is absorbed, transmitted and d) Cloudy bright sunlight
or reflected practically. The amount of light transmitted or reflected depends e) Cloudy dull sunlight.
upon the characteristics of the material, the quantity and quality of the light
the angle of the source etc. To distinguish this classification of daylight according to intensity,
the appearance of the shadows of the objects must be considered. In bright
THE LAW OF REFLECTION – refers to the rebounding or sunlight, the subject will produced a strong shadow, because the source of
deflection of light. The angle of reflection depends upon the angle of the light light in not covered and the objects or subjects appear glossy in open space
striking the material, which is referred to as the angle of incidence. due to direct sunlight and reflected light coming from the sky which act as a
THE LAW OF REFRACTION – when the material in the path
of the light is transparent a change in the direction of the light occurs. In Hazy sunlight, the sun is covered by thin cloud and the shadow
appears bluish because of the decrease of light falling on the subject in open
The change in the direction of light when passing from one space. The shadow cast is transparent to the eye and more details are visible
medium to another is called the phenomenon of refraction. The change in the under this lighting condition than a bright sunlight.
direction of the light is due to the change in the speed of light when passing
from one medium to another. The displacement depends upon the angle of In dull sunlight, the sun is totally covered by thick clouds. No
incidence, the kind of material and its thickness. shadow is cast to the uniform illumination of lights all around the subjects in
open space.
By using a prism made of glass or plastic, it is possible to see the
colors that made up the sunlight. The colors separated in this way are called a Almost all artificial light sources can be used in photographing of
spectrum. Another way to see the spectrum of sunlight is to look at a rainbow. objects, as long as the light is capable of exposing the sensitized materials
The light is bend as observed, and because some of wavelengths bend more (film). Some of the artificial lights are electronic flash, photoflood lamp,
than others, the colors are separated. The violet rays are bent the most, and the fluorescent lamp, and Infrared and Ultra-Violet lamp.
red rays least.
The prism experiment shows how white light is made up of a
combination of wavelengths of different colored lights. To make colors it COLORS OF LIGHT FOUND IN VISIBLE SPECTRUM
would seem that we would need paints or dyes of every possible colors and
shade to get exactly what we want but in fact any color can be made by Visible Spectrum - a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum
where the visible light is found, the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
combining various proportions of the three basic colors. These are called the
primary colors. that affect the human sense of sight. Visible light includes all those radiation
The whole range of radiant energy that includes radio waves, having a wavelength ranging from 400 – 700 mu.
microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultra violet lights, x-rays and gamma
rays. Visible light, which makes up only of a tiny fraction of the COLOR
electromagnetic spectrum, is the only electronic radiation that humans can
Primary Colors Approximate
perceive with in their eyes.

A. Red (longest wavelength) 700 mu

B. Blue 450 mu
There are two sources of light, they are known as natural and C. Green 550 mu
artificial. Natural lights are lights which come to existence without the
intervention of man and artificial lights are lights which are man made. In Complementary Colors
photography natural light is used for outdoor photography and artificial lights
A. Magenta (shortest wavelength) 400
are utilized in indoor photography to augment the adverse lighting condition.
B. Cyan 500
C. Yellow 590
Neutral Color

same material, it will appear red. And green light of the same material it will
A. Gray appear green. Such material exhibits what is called non-selective absorption.
B. White There are other materials, which behave differently as stated
C. Black above, when light incident upon other such material they appear red, or blue
or green but not white. With green or blue light the same material appears
COLOR MIXING black because practically all lights are absorbed. A material appears red under
white light because only red light is practically reflected while all other
1. Color Addition wavelengths are absorbed. Such materials which selectively reflects and
R+B+G = W absorbed others wavelength exhibits selective absorption characteristics.
R+B= M M+Y= R
R+G= Y Y+C= B
B+G= C Y+C= G
2. Color Subtraction
W-R= C W-C=R C-G=B Objects that influence the intensity of light as they may reflect
W-B=Y W-Y=B Y-G=R absorb or transmit.
Mediums of light maybe classified as:
TRANSPARENT OBJECTS – mediums that merely slow down
The three primary colors in light are red, green and blue. White the speed of light but allow to pass freely in other respects, transmit 90% or
light can be made by mixing red, blue and green. The process of making more of the incident light.
colors by mixing primary colors of light is called addition, because one color
is added to another. TRANSLUCENT OBJECTS – mediums that allow light to pass
Colors made by combining two primary colors are called through it in such a way that the outline of the source of light is not clearly
secondary colors. They are yellow (red and green), cyan (blue and green) and visible, transmit 50% or less of the incident light.
magenta (blue and red). When the primary colors are mixed in different
proportions any color at all can be produced. OPAQUE OBJECTS – A medium that divert or absorb light, but
does not allow lights to pass though, they absorb most of the light while
Painted objects do not produce their own light, they reflect light, reflecting some of it.
when objects look red, because it is reflecting only red light to our eyes. To
do this, it absorbed the other primary colors in the white light it is reflecting. It THE RAT LAW
absorbed green and blue and reflects red.
When incident light hits a medium, three things might happen, the
light maybe:
A. Reflected
Optics is the study of light. It is concerned with the nature of light B. Absorbed
and the way it behaves in optical instruments. Light is a form of energy and so C. Transmitted
an object may only produce light when there is energy present. A red-hot
piece of metal receives energy in the form of heat and converts some of it into MECHANICAL DEVICE (CAMERA)
red light.
The principle of photography are derived from science and the
images on the film or paper made by the rays or light through the camera are
ATTRIBUTE OF COLORS dependent on the same general laws which produces images upon the retina
through the lens which produce images upon the retina through the lens of the
Radiant energy within a limited frequency range has the property eye.
of stimulating the retina of the eye to create color sensation, which the brain
interprets. Radiant energy, which has this property, is called light, the physical A camera basically is nothing more than a light tight box with
stimulus of vision. pinholes or lens, a shutter at one end and a holder of the sensitized material at
one end. While there is various kind of camera from the simplest in
Color can be defined in qualitative terms according to certain construction (the box type) to the most complicated, all operate in the same
psychological attributes. These attributes are hue, brightness and saturation. principle. The exposure of the sensitized material to light is controlled by the
Hue is the attributes of chromatic colors, which distinguishes them from lens and its aperture and the shutter through its speed in opening and closing
achromatic colors. Brightness is the attributes of colors, which allows the the lens to light.
relation of colors in it to be related to given tones of gray ranging in a series
from white to black. Saturation is the attribute of a chromatic color, which The essentials of any camera, therefore, are light tight box, a lens,
designates to which the color differs from a gray of the same brightness. a shutter, and a holder of sensitized material. All other accessory of any
Brightness and saturation can be understood in a practical sense from the camera merely makes picture taking easier, faster, and convenient for the
following, take a very vivid red (single saturation) and either a small amount operator and is call accessories.
of white or black. The color will change to lighter or darker. In both instances,
the vividness of the color is lessened (decreased saturation). The purity of the Light tight box suggests an enclosure devoid of light. An enclosure
color is then affected. By adding at the same time small amount of white and is one which would prevent light from exposing the sensitized material inside
black, the brightness can be held constant and only saturation is affected. the camera. This does not necessarily mean that the box or enclosure be
When sufficient amount of white and black are added the hue becomes no always light tight at all times because if it does, then no light can reach the
longer recognized from the gray tone to which it was originally related in sensitized material during exposure. Light tight box means that before and
brightness. after the exposed to extraneous light which is not necessary to form the final
The lens, which must be focus at the object at the time of picture
Absorption refers to the taking in of light by the material. taking, is one of the most important parts of any camera. The function of the
Following the law of conservation of energy, such light taken in is not lost but lens is to focus the light coming from the subject. It operates more or less the
merely transformed into heat. same way as the lens of the eye. It is chiefly responsible for the sharpness of
Materials in their appearance are sometimes deceiving when light the image formed through which light passes during the exposure of the
strikes them. For instance, when light strikes a material and all the light is sensitized material inside the light tight box. The area of the lens may large or
practically reflected, it will appear white. However when red light strikes the small during the exposure of the sensitized material depending upon the light
coming form the subject to be pictured. The quantity and quality of the light
coming from the subject depend upon the light source. As a rule the more opening of the diaphragm. Many new models can also adjust the focus and
light we have from the source the more light will be reflected and vice versa. control the light exposure automatically.
Should the light be too great the area of the lens maybe reduced with the focal
number adjustment. The smaller the area of the lens the greater is the The standard lens of the SLR camera can be replaced by special
numerical value of the focal number. The greater the focal number purpose lenses that change the size and depth relationship of objects in a
numerically the less light will pass through the lens but more distance will scene. These lenses include wide-angle lens, telephoto lens, and zoom lenses.
appear in reasonable sharpness. A wide-angle lens provides a wider view of a scene than a standard lens does.
A telephoto lens has a narrow angle of view and makes objects appear larger
The shutter has for its function through its action called shutter and closer. A zoom lens combines many features of standard, wide angle and
speed the control of the duration of the exposure of the sensitized material to telephoto lenses. With other accessories, many SLR cameras can take pictures
light. The higher the numerical value of the shutter speed the shorter will be through a microscope, telescope or underwater.
the duration of the opening and closing of the lens. As an effect only a small
amount of light will pass through the lens. Reflex cameras, both the SLR and the TLR types, are equipped
with mirrors that reflect in the viewfinder the scene to be photographed.
Thee holder of sensitized material located at the opposite side of The twin-lens reflex is box-shaped, with a viewfinder consisting of a
the lens has for its function to hold firmly the sensitized material in its place horizontal ground-glass screen located at the top of the camera. Mounted
during exposure to prevent the formation of a multiple or blurred image of the vertically on the front panel of the camera are two lenses, one for taking
subject. photographs and the other for viewing. The lenses are coupled, so that
focusing one automatically focuses the other. The image formed by the
CAMERA TYPES upper, or viewing, lens is reflected to the viewing screen by a fixed mirror
mounted at a 45° angle. The photographer focuses the camera and adjusts
the composition while looking at the screen. The image formed by the
Frequently it asked, “What is the best camera?” The answer would lower lens is focused on the film at the back of the camera. Like
be the best camera is the one that takes the best pictures. Regardless of the rangefinder cameras, TLRs are subject to parallax.
type or kind of camera, a good operator will get results even with a cheap one.
In the SLR type of reflex camera, a single lens is used for both
THE PINHOLE CAMERA - The simplest camera is a pinhole viewing the scene and taking the photograph. A hinged mirror situated
camera, which consists of a box with a small hole in one of its sides. To between the lens and the film reflects the image formed by the lens through
produce a sharp image, the hole must be very small and this restricts the a five-sided prism and on to a ground-glass screen on top of the camera. At
amount of light entering the camera. Quite a long time may be necessary to the moment the shutter is opened, a spring automatically pulls the mirror
let enough light through to affect the film and this causes problems because if out of the path between lens and film. Because of the prism, the image
the subject moves the picture will be blurred. It is impossible to photograph recorded on the film is almost exactly that which the camera lens “sees”,
anything like a moving car or a galloping horse with a pinhole camera. without any parallax effects.

CAMERA OBSCURA - Is a box used for sketching large objects? Most SLRs are precision instruments equipped with focal-plane
The term means dark chamber. The box contains a mirror set at 45-degree shutters. Many have automatic exposure-control features and built-in light
angle. Mounted in the front end of the box is a double convex lens like that in meters. Most modern SLRs have electronically triggered shutters;
a photographic camera. Light from the object or scene is transmitted through apertures, too, may be electronically actuated or they may be adjusted
the lens. The mirror reflects this light upward to ground glass screen on the manually. Increasingly, camera manufacturers produce SLRs with
top of the box. There the light forms an image of the object or scene that can automatic focusing, an innovation originally reserved for amateur cameras.
be sketched easily. Minolta's Maxxum series, Canon's EOS series, and Nikon's advanced
professional camera, the F-4, all have autofocus capability and are
FIXED FOCUS CAMERA - The most basic of all camera, have a completely electronic. Central processing units (CPUs) control the
non-adjustable lens. Most models have a single diaphragm setting and only electronic functions in these cameras. Minolta's Maxxum 7000i has
one or two shutter speeds. Most fixed focus cameras, including many software “cards” which, when inserted in a slot on the side of the camera,
inexpensive, pocket-sized models, use 110 or 126 size film. The negative of expand the camera's capabilities.
such film require considerable enlargement, which may produce a fuzzy
image. Autofocus cameras use electronics and a CPU to sample
In general, a fixed focus camera can take satisfactory photographs automatically the distance between camera and subject and to determine
in ordinary daylight but not in dim light, because its lens does not admit much the optimum exposure level. Most autofocus cameras bounce either an
light. The camera may produce a blurred picture is moving or less than two infrared light beam or ultrasonic (sonar) waves off the subject to determine
meters away. Many fix-focused cameras can take flash pictures. distance and set the focus. Some cameras, including Canon's EOS and
Nikon's SLRs, use passive autofocus systems. Instead of emitting waves or
Disposable cameras are a kind of fixed - focus camera that beams, these cameras automatically adjust the focus of the lens until
combine a plastic lens, a shutter, a film in one small box. The entire camera is sensors detect the area of maximum contrast in a rectangular target at the
taken to the photo laboratory when the roll of film has been exposed. centre of the focusing screen.

TWIN LENS REFLEX CAMERAS - Have a viewing lens

POINT AND SHOOT CAMERA - Have many automatic directly above the picture - taking lens. The image in the viewfinder appears
features that make them easy to use. Electronic devices inside the cameras on a flat screen on top of the camera. Photographer found such a viewing
automatically adjust the focus, set the light exposure and the shutter speed and screen helpful in composing a picture. Photographers do not hold the
advance and rewind the film. A built in electronic flash automatically supplies viewfinder to the eye, as they do with a fixed focus, point and shoot, and
light when too little light reflects from the subject. The cameras are equipped single lens reflex camera. They usually hold the camera at the chest or waist
with high quality lenses that produce a sharp image. Some of them have a and look down into the viewfinder. The image appears reversed from left to
zoom lens. Point and Shoot cameras use films that measure 35 mm. Since right. In most models, nearby subjects appear lower in the picture area of the
their introduction in 1970’s theses cameras have gained wide popularity viewfinder than they appear in the photograph. Most twin lens reflex cameras
among amateur’s photographers. use film that produces negatives measuring six by six centimeters.
SINGLE LENS REFLEX CAMERAS - Appealed to skilled VIEW CAMERAS - View cameras are generally larger and
amateur photographers and to professional photographers. The camera’s name heavier than medium- and small-format cameras and are most often used for
refers to its viewing system. The photographer views the subject through the studio, landscape, and architectural photography. These cameras use large-
camera lens rather than through a separate viewing lens. A mirror between the format films that produce either negatives or transparencies with far greater
lens and the film reflects the image onto a viewing screen. When the shutter detail and sharpness than smaller format film. View cameras have a metal or
release button is pressed to take a picture, the mirror lifts out of the way to wooden base with a geared track on which two metal standards ride, one at the
allow the light to expose the film. Thus the photographer sees almost the exact front and one at the back, connected by a bellows. The front standard contains
image that is recorded on the film. SLR cameras use 35 mm film. The the lens and shutter; the rear holds a framed ground-glass panel, in front of
photographer can adjust the focus, select the shutter speed, and control the which the film holder is inserted. The body configuration of the view camera,

unlike that of most general-purpose cameras, is adjustable. The front and rear advantage of this system is the convenience and speed of the
standards can be shifted, tilted, raised, or swung, allowing the photographer results. Special film used in conjunction with the camera is
unparalleled control of perspective and focus. designed to develop itself, and represents one of the more
recent chemical revolutions in photography.
It is the largest and most adjustable type of camera. Most have
accordion like body, with a replaceable lens in front. They have a large Reflex cameras use mirrors to form an image of the scene to
viewing screen instead of a viewfinder. Most models have an adjustable be photographed in the viewfinder. The 35-mm single-lens
diaphragm and shutter speed. View cameras must be mounted on a stand for reflex (SLR) camera is one of the most popular cameras on the
efficient operation. market today because of its compact size, speed, and
versatility. Most models offer a combination of automatic and
A photographer focuses a view camera by moving the lens end or manual options.
the back end of the camera forward or backward to produce a sharp image. A
view camera can provide artistic distortions of subjects more effectively than
any other kind of camera.

Many professional photographers use view camera for portraits

and other subjects. A view camera uses sheet of film that range in size from
60 to 90 mm to 280 by 360 mm. The picture is often contact printed. A
contact print is a photograph made to exactly the same size a negative. It is
made by shining light through the negative, which is held in contact with light
sensitive paper.

INSTANT CAMERAS - Use film that provides a print without

first being developed into a negative. The cameras produce a print 15 seconds
to 2 minutes after the photographer takes a picture. The time varies according
to the camera and to the type of film. Instant camera use film that provides Single-lens reflex, or SLR, cameras are among the most common in
pictures ranging in size from 73 by 94 mm to 508 by 610 mm. Special types use today. Single-lens reflex means that the same lens is used for
of film for instant camera also provide negatives. Some instant cameras can viewing and taking the photograph. The movable mirror between the
take flash pictures and focus automatically as the photographer lines up a lens and the film reflects the image on a ground-glass viewing screen
subject in the viewfinder. while the user adjusts the focus. When the shutter release button is
depressed, a spring pushes the mirror out of the way, and the image is
ELECTRONIC CAMERA - Create pictures that can be viewed recorded on the film. The cameras are popular because users often have
on a television screen. The lens in most electronic cameras focuses light on the option to control elements such as shutter speed, focus, and
light sensitive mechanism called CHARGED COUPLED DEVICE OR CCD. aperture manually or automatically. This option allows photographers
The CCD changes the light into electronic signals. The electronic pictures can to achieve a wide variety of effects with relative ease. The quality of
then be stored on small magnetic discs similar to those I=used in computers. SLR camera pictures is generally superior to that of the so-called point-
With additional equipment, electronic images can also be sent over telephone and-shoot camera.
lines or printed on paper. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
FILM CAMERAS - Takes pictures that re-create the motion of a
subject when they are viewed. Professional filmmakers generally use large CAMERA WITH LENSES
cameras that take 35 or 16 mm film. Most amateur’s records on 8 mm film
called super 8. Today, many amateur filmmakers use portable video cameras A lens can be used to focus the light onto the film to produce a
called CAMCORDERS. These cameras convert light reflected by the subject bright, clear image. The hole behind the lens is called the aperture and on
into electronic signals that are recorded on magnetic tape. Most film cameras many cameras the size of the hole, or aperture can be altered. The length of
and camcorders can record sound at the same as they record images. Most of time that light is allowed to enter the camera is called the exposure and is
them also have a zoom lens. controlled by the shutter. In its normal position the shutter is closed and
prevents light entering the camera. When the button is pressed, the shutter
STEREO CAMERAS - Have two identical picture taking lenses flies open for a pre - determined length of time, depending on the light
with matched shutter. When a stereo camera takes a picture, each lens conditions in which the photograph is being taken. This can be as long as one
photographs the same subject, but from a slightly different angle. When second or as short as 1/1000 second or even shorter. On a dull day you need a
shown to a device called a stereoscope or seen through glasses that polarize longer exposure than on a sunny day.
light, the two images blend in one picture that seems to have depth. Stereo
cameras are made for taking photographs or for making films. Both the diaphragm and the shutter need to be adjusted according
to the amount of light that is available for taking a photograph. At midday in
SPECIAL PURPOSE CAMERA - Have been designed for summer there will probably be plenty of light. On a winter afternoon there
industrial, medical, military, and scientific uses they include aerial cameras may not. In a living room at night, the light maybe quite good for the eye, but
used in space and underwater cameras. not enough for the camera.
Folding cameras favored for their compact design and
movable bellows, have been in use for many years. The
A camera is essentially a sealed with an opening at one end to
camera’s lens is incorporated into the bellows, which is slid
admit light and a device at the other end for holding photographic film or
back and forth along a rail to change focus. The dark clothe
other light sensitive material.
covering the photographer and the box body of the camera
blocks out undesirable light, which might otherwise interfere
with the picture.

Box cameras like this “Brownie” were the earliest cameras LENS – The lens of a camera consist of one or more glass or
used by the general public. Relatively simple in design and plastic disk with flat, concave, or convex surfaces, each disk is called element.
operation, they consisted of a wooden or plastic box, a drop- The purpose of the lens is to focus light on the film. The focal length of the
blade shutter, and a holding device for the film. Modern box lens is the distance between the optical center and the film. For any given film
cameras are similar to early models, generally featuring only size, the shorter the focal length is, the greater the field of view – that is, the
one shutter speed and one opening; the very easy operation greater the area covered in the picture. Focal length also affects depth of field
makes it a popular camera among casual photographers. – the amount of the foreground and background that will be in sharp focus in
the picture. The shorter the focal the greater is the depth of field.
The Polaroid, or instant, camera delivers a finished print
directly following exposure. Although most models are Lenses of various focal lengths can be used interchangeably on
somewhat larger than the standard personal camera, the some cameras, allowing the photographer to vary the field of view without

taking the camera to a different position. A zoom lens has an adjustable focal
length and stays focused on one object as its focal length is change. The shutter, a spring-activated mechanical device, keeps light from
entering the camera except during the interval of exposure. Most modern
The light power of the lens is determined by the ratio of its focal cameras have focal-plane or leaf shutters. Some older amateur cameras use a
length to its effective diameter (the effective diameter is equal to the diameter drop-blade shutter, consisting of a hinged piece that, when released, pulls
of the aperture - the circular opening that controls the amount of light that across the diaphragm opening and exposes the film for about 1/30th of a
passes through the lens). The ratio expressed with the symbol f/, is called the second.
f- number. The larger the aperture in relation to the focal length, the smaller is In the leaf shutter, at the moment of exposure, a cluster of meshed blades
the f- number. springs apart to uncover the full lens aperture and then springs shut. The focal-
plane shutter consists of a black shade with a variable-size slit across its
SHUTTER – The shutters on most cameras can be adjusted to width. When released, the shade moves quickly across the film, exposing it
different shutter speeds. The shutter speed means the length of time the shutter progressively as the slit moves.
is open. This might be several seconds ( or even hours if you are
photographing a night sky ) or one thousandth of a second or even less with DIAPHRAGM – The diaphragm changes the size of the aperture
special cameras. Most cameras have a shutter speed dial showing speeds from of the lens. Like a shutter with valuable speed, a diaphragm regulates the
one second to, for example, one thousand of a second. The dial is set to the amount of light reaching the film. The diaphragm also affects depth of field –
speed the photographer wants. Of course, the faster the shutter speeds the the smaller the aperture the greater the depth of field.
shorter the time the shutter is open and the smaller the amount of light let in.
Shutter speed are arrange so that each setting will let in half the amount of The diaphragm controls the size of the aperture in the same way as
light let it half the amount let in by the one below it and twice the amount of the iris of the eye, if you look at a cat’s eye when it comes in out of the
the one above it. There is usually also a time exposure setting so that the darkness you will that the irises have contracted to make the pupils bigger.
shutter can be left open for minutes or even hours in certain conditions. After a few moments in a bright light the irises expand and cause the pupils to
become much smaller. The aperture of the camera must also be larger in dim
The shutter is a device that prevents light from reaching the film light and smaller in bright light.
until the photographer is ready to take a picture. When a lever or button is The diaphragm is usually a ring of overlapping metal leaves, which can be
released or button is pushed, the shutter is released, and a spring or magnet adjusted. The control settings for the diaphragm are referred to as f – stops
snaps its aside, exposing the film to light for a certain light of time. The length and going from one f – stop to the next reduces the amount of light by one
of time is adjustable on all but the simplest camera,, it ranges from one second half. The common setting are f /2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16 and f/22.
to 1/1000 of a second or less. Most adjustable cameras are capable of making
time exposure – exposure of more than one second. Typically, time exposure The diaphragm usually consists of a series of movable blades
is made by using a special shutter setting marked “T “(FOR TIME) or “B’ attached to a supporting ring. Its various positions are called stops, or f –
(FOR BULB) referring to a shutter release device used with early cameras. stops. The diaphragm is controlled by a hand operated ring or lever, or by
automatic electromechanical device. Simple cameras do not have diaphragm,
An adjustable speed shutter is one of two devices a camera has to so the aperture can not be changed.
permit the photographer to regulate the amount of light reaching the film ( the
diaphragm is the other ) At a given aperture setting, a small shutter speed will Most cameras with diaphragms have a series of standard f- stop
let more light reach the film than a fast shutter speed. However, the lower the numbers marked on the lens mount, in some cameras, theses numbers are also
shutter speed, the greater is the chance that the image on the film will be visible in the viewfinder. At each succeeding stop, the lens admits half as
blurred by the movement of the subject or camera. Some cameras have much light as at the previous one.
electronic shutter control. After the shutter is released the control uses a light
sensing device called a photocell to determine when enough light has been As the shutter speed is increased, the aperture must be larger, if the
received for a proper exposure and it then it closes the shutter automatically. same amount of light is to reach the film. The amount of light reaching the
film is the same at f/8 and 1/500 of a second as at f/11 and 1/250 ( the setting
The shutter is located behind the lens, between the elements of the of f/8 provides twice as much light f/11, but the shutter speed of 1/500
lens (between the lens shutter) or immediately in front of the films (focal provides half as much light as 1/250).
plane shutter).
In taking pictures, a photographer will often select a particular
shutter speed and then adjust the f – stop for getting the proper exposure or the
photographer will select a particular f-stop and then adjust the shutter speed.

The diaphragm, a circular aperture behind the lens, operates in

conjunction with the shutter to admit light into the light-proof chamber. This
opening may be fixed, as in many amateur cameras, or it may be adjustable.
Adjustable diaphragms are composed of overlapping strips of metal or plastic
that, when spread apart, form an opening of the same diameter as the lens;
when meshed together, they form a small opening behind the centre of the
lens. The aperture openings correspond to numerical settings, called f-stops,
on the camera or the lens.

The function of the Diaphragm (F/Number)

1. By expanding or contracting the diaphragm or

increasing or decreasing the F/ number numerically it is
possible to regulate the amount of light passing through
the lens reaching the sensitized material.

2. By expanding or increasing or decreasing the f/number

The shutter is a sliding door that allows light to pass through the
numerically it is possible to control the depth of field.
aperture (opening) onto the film. Different settings on a small dial on the top
of the camera determine how long the shutter will remain open. The aperture
3. By expanding or contracting the diaphragm, it is
selector is on the body of the lens. The numbers that indicate the size of the
possible to control the degree of sharpness due to lens
aperture are called f-numbers or f-stops. The f-stop is equal to the ratio of the
focal length of the lens to the diameter of the opening. The shutter speed and
f-stop determine the exposure—that is, the overall amount of light that will
reach the film. However, even when the amount of light is constant, the effect
shows the photographer the scene being photographed. It maybe a viewing
may be different. Photographers experiment with different combinations to
screen, a miniature lens system, or a sample wire frames.
achieve various effects.
Most modern cameras also have some sort of viewing system or FLASH UNIT
viewfinder to enable the photographer to see, through the lens of the camera, FLASH TERMINAL
the scene being photographed. Single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs) all FLASH ACCESSORY SHOE
incorporate this design feature, and almost all general-use cameras have some TIMER/SELF-TIMER
form of focusing system as well as a film-advance mechanism. CABLE RELEASE
LENS APERTURE – Adjustable cameras are equipped with an
iris diaphragm, a device located in or near the lens and consisting of thin DAYTIME EXPOSURE (Outdoor) – Without Flash
overlapping leaves that fold together to create a hole of continuously variable
size. In this way the aperture or lens opening, can be adjusted to admit more Bright Sunlight – SS – 125 or250
or less light as required. The diaphragm is usually marked with a series of LO – F5.6 or F8
settings called STOPS, which are designated by F- NUMBERS, such as f/5.6 Hazy Sunlight - SS – 125
or f/5.8. The f/ number expresses the ratio of focal length to aperture. The
larger the number, the smaller the aperture. Bright Hazy -LO – F5.6 or F4
Low Hazy -LO – F2 or F4
To “stop down” or “close one stop” is to set the diaphragm control -LO – F5.6 or F4
at the next smaller marked stop, for instance from f/4 to f/6, or from f/6 to Low Shaded -SS – 30 or 125
f/11. This reduces the amount of light admitted by one half. To open up one -LO – F2 or full open
stop, means to set the diaphragm control at the next wider aperture.
DEPTH OF FIELD - The lens aperture not only controls the BULB
amount of light entering the camera, it also affects another fundamental aspect SHUTTER SPEED – 15
of the photograph – depth of field. Depth of field is the range in front of and LENS OPENING - F1.2 or F2
behind a sharply focused subject in which details also look sharp in the final
photographic image. It depends on lens aperture, the focused distance, and the INDOOR BUT WELL LIGHTED- (BRIGHT LLIGHT)
focal length of the lens. A small lens aperture, great camera to subject
distance, and focal length result in greater depth of field. SHUTTER SPEED –60
LENS OPENING - F5.6 orf4
SHUTTER SPEED AND MOTION – Shutter speed determines
how effectively a moving object can be stopped, that is, how sharply it can be INDOOR OR OUTDOOR WITH FLASH (DAY OR NIGHT)
reproduced without blurring, or streaking in the final image. With a fast
shutter speed, the shutter is opened only briefly and the moving object has USE SYNCHRONIZED SHUTTER SPEED WHICH IS 60 OR X ANY
little time to change its position before exposure is completed. With a slow COLORED NUMBER IN THE SHUTTER SPEED.
shutter speed, on the other hand, the shutter remains open for a relatively long
time. Thus, the faster the shutter speed, the sharper the moving object will Distance of the Subject :
appear on the final image, and the slower the shutter speed, the more blurred 1-6 ft = F8
object will appear. 6-10FT = F5.6
10-15FT = F4
The camera shutter must stop the subjects’ apparent speed or the 15FT and above = full open
speed at which its image move across the film, regardless of the subjects’
actual motion through space. Factors such as distance, direction of motion, NIGHT EXPOSURE (TOTAL DARKNESS WITHOUT FLASH)`
and focal length of the lens must all be taken into consideration. Generally, Shutter Speed is = B
the closer the moving subject is to the camera, the greater it’s apparent, Lens Opening is full open
motion will be. Thus, if they wish to get sharp image, most photographers
avoid extreme close – ups of moving subjects. ESTIMATE THE TIME, THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT ENTERS THE
FILM TRANSPORT MECHANISM – Moves new, unexposed
film into position for the next picture. EX. SS = B
LO = F1.2
FILM ADVANCER – Necessary so that the exposed film can be TIME = 90 seconds (Depends upon the available light)
transferred to the take up spool while the unexposed film remain on the
opposite side of the lens for another exposure. CAMERA LENSES

FILM ADVANCE LEVER A camera lens is a transparent material made of glass or plastic,
FILM REWIND CRANK which has two opposite symmetrical and spherical surfaces. A lens is also a
FILM REWIND KNOB piece of transparent material that has at least one curved surface. The lenses
FILM TAKE-UP SPOOL refract (bend) light rays and in doing so can form images of an object. The
image maybe larger, smaller or the same as the object itself.
SHUTTER SPEED DIAL – Controls the opening and closing of
the shutter, regulates the quantity of light that reaches and affects the
sensitized material, a dial which sets the length of time in which the light is The lens, which must be focus at the object at the time of picture
allowed to enter the camera. taking, is one of the most important parts of any camera. The function of the
lens is to focus the light coming from the subject. It operates more or less in
SHUTTER RELEASE BUTTON – The “click” of the camera the same way as the lens of the eye. It is chiefly responsible for the sharpness
that releases the shutter of the image formed through which light passes during the exposure of the
sensitized materials inside the camera. The area of the lens may large or small
FOCUSING MECHANISM – The mechanism that estimates the during the exposure of the sensitized materials depending upon the light
appropriate objects distance from the camera to form a sharp or clear image coming from the subject to be pictured. The quantity and quality of the light
on the photograph. coming from the subject depend upon the light source. Should the light be too
great, the area of the lens maybe reduce with the focal number adjustment.
FOCUSING RING – The outer ring of the lens which is rotated or The smaller the area of the lens the greater is the numerical value of the focal
adjusted to obtain a clear and sharp photograph and it enables the number. The greater the focal number numerically the less light will pass
photographer to adjust focal range. through the lens but more distance will appear in reasonable sharpness.

F-STOP RING The higher the numerical value of the shutter speed, the shorter
F-NUMBERS will be the duration of the opening and closing of the lens. As an effect only
ASA DIAL/SHUTTER SPEED DIAL small amount of light will pass through the lens.
The ability of a lens to bring light to a focus or make it diverge
Artificial lenses are made of various transparent materials such as derives from the fact that the velocity of light changes as the light passes
glass, plastics or crystals. Quartz crystals are used to refract ultra violet light, through different materials. Thus when a ray of light leaves the atmosphere
which a very short wavelength. and enters a lens, it slows down. According to the angle at which it strikes the
lens surface, it is refracted – that is, it changes direction. The ratio of velocity
Interchangeable lenses allow a photographer to capture a variety of light in air to its velocity in the lens material is called the index of
of pictures that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain with a refraction of the material.
single camera. For instance, a zoom lens may be used to photograph
individual drops of dew on a spider’s web. A telephoto lens might be used to A lens refracts light rays in such a way that on of three things will
shoot a close-up view of a dangerous or easily frightened wild animal. Other occur:
options provided by special lenses include wide-angle lenses such as the 1. The rays will come together at a point.
fisheye lens, which curves outward to show a view of 180 degrees or more. 2. The rays will produce an image.
3. The rays will move in parallel lines or in diverging lines.
The lens is as important a part of a camera as the body. Lenses are
referred to in generic terms as wide-angle, normal, and telephoto. The three A LENS can be used to focus the light onto the film to produce a
terms refer to the focal length of the lens, which is customarily measured in bright, clear and sharp image. The hole behind the lens is called the aperture
millimetres. Focal length is defined as the distance from the centre of the lens and on many cameras the size of the hole or aperture can be altered. The
to the image it forms when the lens is set at infinity. In practice, focal length length of time that the light is allowed to enter the camera is called the
affects the field of view, magnification, and depth of field of a lens. exposure and is controlled by the shutter. In its normal position the shutter is
closed and prevents the light entering the camera. Both the diaphragm and the
Cameras used by professional photographers and serious amateurs shutter need to be adjusted according to the amount of light that is available
are designed to accept all three lens types interchangeably. In 35-mm for taking a photograph.
photography, lenses with focal lengths from 20 to 35 mm are considered
wide-angle lenses. They provide greater depth of field and encompass a larger All photographic lenses do the same basic job. Collect light rays
field (or angle) of view but provide relatively low magnification. Extreme from a scene in front of the camera and project them as images unto the film
wide-angle, or fisheye, lenses provide fields of view of 180° or more. A 6-mm at the back. However, the choice of lenses also plays a very important role in
fisheye lens made by Nikon has a 220° field of view that produces a circular the creative aspects of photography.
image on film, rather than the normal rectangular or square image.
Lenses with focal lengths of 45 to 55 mm are referred to as CAMERA LENSES CAN BE USED TO CONTROL THE
normal lenses because they produce an image that approximates the
perspective perceived by the human eye. Lenses with longer focal lengths, 1. Amount of light that reaches the film.
called telephoto lenses, constrict the field of view and decrease the depth of 2. Magnification of the image.
field while greatly magnifying the image. For a 35-mm camera, lenses with 3. Lastly, area of the image to be recorded on the film.
focal lengths of 85 mm or more are considered telephoto.

A fourth generic lens type, the zoom lens, is designed to have a IMAGE FORMATION
variable focal length, which can be adjusted continuously between two
fixed limits. Zoom lenses are especially useful in conjunction with single- The focal length of a single lens is the distance from the lens to the
lens reflex cameras, for which they allow continuous control of image point at which incoming parallel rays focus. Light converged in the manner
scale. can produce a real images, that is, an image that can actually be projected onto
screen. In a negative lens, rays do not actually come to a real focus but appear
History of Lenses to originate from a point called the virtual focus.
The early history of lenses is unknown. In 1845, an archeologist
uncovered in what is now Iraq an ancient rock crystal ground to form a small TYPOLOGY OF LENSES
convex lens, but there is no evidence that lenses were widely known or used
in ancient time. An early investigation of the principles of lenses was made in There are two types of lenses, the converging and diverging lens.
the 11th century by Alhazen, a Persian physicist. Spectacles with convex As to converging lenses we have the double convex, Plano convex and the
lenses were in common use both in Europe an din China as early as the 13 th concavo-convex. Under diverging lenses we have double concave, Plano
century. concave and the concavo concave.

Zacharias Janssen, a Dutch optician, is credited with combining

lenses to make a compound microscope about 1590. Galileo improved the 1. CONVEX LENS – DIVERGING LENS
telescope in 1609. The art of designing and manufacturing lenses has
progressed steadily since that time. A convex lens causes light rays to converge, or come together, and
is called a positive lens. A positive lens focuses light form a distant source
into visible image that appears on then opposite side of the lens to the object.

How Lenses Are Made A convex lens is thicker in the middle than at the edges. When
parallel rays of light pass through this type of lens, they are bent inward and
The refraction of light is always the same under identical meet at a point called the focus. The distance from the center of the lens to the
circumstances, allowing physicist to draw up mathematical laws of optics. focus is known as the focal length.
These laws are use in determining the shape of a lens for a particular purpose.
The shape is computed mathematically and is expressed by a formula that The size, position, and type of image produced by a converging
guides the lens maker in his or her work. lens vary according to the distance of the object from the lens. If an object is
more than one focal length from the lens, an inverted real image of it is
The glass used for a lens is of the highest quality. It is first molded formed on the opposite side of the lens. Light rays from the object pass
into blanks, which are disk about the size of the finished lenses. A lens is through a real image and can be focused on a screen. When an object is
formed by grinding and polishing a blank into shape. Grinding operations are located a distance of two focal lengths on a converging lens, the image is the
performed by revolving dish-shaped devices coated with abrasives. The first same size as the object and is located on the opposite side of the lens. A
grinding, with a carborundum abrasive, gives the lens its general shape. Later, smaller image of the object can be obtained by moving the objects by more
grindings with finer and finer abrasives give it its final shape. The lens is then than two focal lengths from the lens. Placing the object between one and two
polished with rouge (fine ferrous oxide) and cut to the proper size. focal lengths from the lens can produce a larger image.

Principles of Lens Action If the object is less than one focal length from the lens, no real
image can be formed. Instead a magnified virtual image is formed behind the

object and is right side up. Light rays from the object do not pass through a Simple lenses generally produce aberrated (imperfect) images.
virtual image, and such an image cannot be focused on the screen. This imperfection in image formation can be reduced using
compound lenses.


Lens speed refers to the largest opening of the diaphragm that the
light can pass through it determines the maximum intensity of the light
entering the light tight box.

A. FAST LENS – Lens with high lens speed, a high lens speed is
used during nighttime or in dark room.
B. SLOW LENS – lens with low lens speed, used during daytime or
where the room is very bright.
A convex lens has a thick centre and thinner edges. Light
passing through a convex lens is bent inward, or made to converge. This
causes an image of the object to form on a screen on the opposite side of
the lens. The image is in focus if the screen is placed at a particular
distance from the lens that depends upon the distance of the object and the TYPES OF LENSES BASED ON THEIR FOCUS
focal point of the lens. This diagram shows how rays of light starting from
a point, O, on the object, strike the lens and are then brought to focus at Focus: the means by which the object distance is estimated or
another point, I. The same applies to every point on the object, as is shown calculated to form sharp images.
by the pair of points P and J; thus an image, exactly similar to the object is It also refers to the point at which light rays converge. It is the
built up. point where a set of lights rays converges after passing through a lens or other
optical arrangement. It also refers to the point from which rays appear to
1. SIMPLE CONVEX – convexo – convex diverge, the place where the visual image is clearly formed, as in the eye or a
2. SPECIAL CONVEX – special positive lens camera. The point of principal focus is called focal point.
a. – Plano – convex
b. – convexo – concave Focusing is the process of changing the distance between the
centers of the lens to the focal plane. It is the technique of adjusting the focal
2. CONCAVE LENS – DIVERGING LENS length to get the sharp image of the object or scene to be photographed.

Concave lens or negative lens spreads the light depends on the Infinity refers to the distance so far removed from the observer
amount of curved on the faces of the lens. The distance between the lens and that the rays of light reflected to a lens from a point at the distance maybe
the image it produces is called the FOCAL LENGTH. The shorter the focal regarded as parallel. It is a distance setting on a camera focusing scale, beyond
length, the smaller the image. The greater the curvature of the faces of the which all objects are in focus.
lens, the shorter its focal length will be. Lens that posses at least one surface
that curves inward. It is a diverging lens, spreading out those light rays that REAL FOCUS – the point of convergence of the light rays.
have been refracted to it. Concave lens is thicker at the edges than they are at VIRTUAL FOCUS - the point where diverging rays would meet
the center. Light rays passing through a diverging lens are bent outward. if their direction were reversed.
Diverging lens form only virtual image.

1. SIMPLE CONCAVE – concavo – In terms of focus, there are two types of lenses sold today:
concave - Biconcave lens (with both
surfaces curved inward) 1. AUTO FOCUS – are the predominant types to the market.
2. SPECIAL CONCAVE – special negative AFLSR’s focus using a phase detection system that slits the
lens incoming light into two or more parts and compares them to
a. Plano - concave – lens with one flat surface and one concave. determine the amount of DEFOCUS. AF is not perfect, but the
b. Concavo – convex technology has greatly improved since the first AF lenses made
their appearance. As it is, sometimes this phase detection system
can have difficulty with dim lighting and fast – moving objects, but
they are more accurate than the infrared systems found on point
and shot cameras.
SHARP IN THE VIEW FINDER. Although AF lenses dominate
the market today, nearly all interchangeable AF Lenses allow the
user to over ride the AF mode with the manual focus option. These
lenses usually have a switch on the barrel, so that you can choose
one or the other to suit the shooting circumstances.


A concave lens is curved inward; it is shaped like two dishes
placed back-to-back. Light passing through a concave lens bends outward, The most important way lenses differ is in their FOCAL
or diverges. Unlike convex lenses, which produce real images, concave LENGTH.
lenses produce only virtual images. A virtual image is one from which
light rays only appear to come. This one appears as a smaller image just in FOCAL LENGTH – the distance between the lens and the film
front of the actual object (in this case a shamrock). Concave lenses are plane when the lens is focused on infinity. Focal length controls magnification
generally prescribed for myopic, or short-sighted, people. Concave lenses (the size of the image formed by the lens). A lens is also described in terms of
help the eyes to produce a sharp image on the retina instead of in front of its view angle, the mount of the image shown on the film.
© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. GROUP OF LENSES ACCORDING TO THE ANGLE OF VIEW

3. COMPOUND LENSES 1. Normal Lens – A lens with a focal length equal to the diagonal
measure the image area. The image area of 35 mm camera is
24x36 mm, thus a normal lens for any 35 mm SLR is 50 mm 6. Zoom Lenses – The macro zoom is relatively new in both long
international standards, 50 mm lens may have an actual focal and short-range classes. By turning a ring on the lens barrel, you
length of 48 – 52 mm, and the normal lens has a picture angle of 5 are able to focus as close as three four inches and still use zoom
degrees that correspond to the viewing angle of the human eye. capability. Such lens gives you close – ups as well as variable focal
lengths. and the macro zoom is taking this field. A final zoom
CHARACTERISTICS: category is the variable- focal length lens that operates in the same
 Optimum area coverage than any lens type. manner as the zoom.
 Minimum distortion and fewer common lens defects.
 Angle of view equal to 75 degrees but not less than 45 7. Special Purpose Lenses – Two special- purpose lenses in
degrees. particular should be familiar to you. The first is adjustable through
movement of the front portion up and down for perspective control
2. Wide Angle Lens – The wide-angle lens has a shorter focal length (PC). Architectural photographers benefit using a PC lens that
than the normal lens. As a result, it covers a picture angle of 60 – offers some control of perspective similar to the using the tilting
90 degrees. It enables photographing a widely extended scene from front and back of a view camera.
a close proximity or within a confined area. The range for wide
angles for 35 mm SLR cameras includes 8mm, 24mm, 28 mm, and The other lens, a guide-number (GN) lens, includes a diaphragm
35 mm. The 28 mm and 35 mm are the most important for general mechanism that changes aperture as the lens is focused to
wide angle for police work. synchronize exposure and distance with specific flash attachment
on the camera. A GN lens can be handy, but the use of automatic
CHARACTERISTICS: electronic flash unit would make the GN lens unnecessary.
 Reduced scale but increases area coverage compared
with any lens at the same distance. Incidentally, a number of compact 35 mm range finder cameras
 Increased deep perception at a given scale. with fixed (non interchangeable) lenses are guide- number
 Increased distortion toward the edges of the negative equipped. As a flash unit slips into the accessory shoe on top of the
material. camera a small pin is activated that synchronizes change of
 Reducing illumination from the center toward the edges aperture with focusing. In this way distant subjects are
of the negative material. photographed through wider f tops than close ones, giving the
 Angle of view exceeds 75 degrees. effect of exposure automation.

3. Telephoto Lens – as telephoto lens, or long focus lens has a longer 8. Add – On Teleconverter Lenses – Add-on lenses. Principal
focal length and provides a close up image of a distant object. In among add- on lenses is the fishnet lens that is screwed into the
contrast to the wide-angle lens, the telephoto lens covers a small front of a normal 35 mm camera lens, offering a super wide effect
field of view and a shallower depth of field. Because of shallow for less cost than a separate fisheye lens.
depth of field, there will be lack of sharpness of the subject focus
areas in the photograph to be produced. Another characteristics of FOCUSING THE LENS
the telephoto lens is production of flat composition, far objects
appear enlarged while near objects do not appear proportionally It is important to have the lens at the right distance from the film
large. otherwise the image of an object point will be seen as a circle which is blurred
in appearance. The permissible diameter of this circle or disc must be small
CHARACTERISTICS: enough under certain viewing condition to make impossible to distinguish it
 Increase scale but reduced area coverage compared to from a point. The image will be seen sharp as long as this circle appears to the
any lens type. eye as a point. The diameter of the circle that can be accepted varies with the
 Decreased depth perception. application. The acuity of the vision of the eye and the condition under which
 Image quality usually deteriorates which is apparent the print is viewed (contact or enlargement or projected).
when subject is in great motion.
 Angle of view less than 45 degrees. For a pinhole camera no focusing is required because the aperture
is too small that such produces a point image of an object point. The image is
Lenses beyond 58 mm are included in the group of telephoto almost equally good over a very wide range of positions of the film.
lenses. For identification shots in police works, lenses of 85 to 135 mm focal
length are frequently used. Long tele lenses are those beyond 200 mm. For a lens camera to produce a sharp image must be focused at the
subject. When the camera lens is being focused at the subject one can
4. Super wide Angle Lenses – In this category are fish eye lenses observed that the lens travels back and forth from the film. The lens must be
with a 180 degrees angle of view. Focal lengths run from an focused at the object point to produce an image point instead of a visible circle
amazing 6 mm to about 18mm. F stop ranges begin at F 1.8 but of light.
average f 3.5 and f 4.
The question is how an object point pictured as an image point by
5. Macro Lenses – The word macro is derived from the Greek word focusing the lens? Why are not all objects at different distances from the lens
and means, “ to enlarge “. In photographic terms, a macro lens is sharp in the picture? The light bending ability of any one lens is constant that
designed with extended focusing capabilities to shoot a few inches is the light is bending to the same degree.
from a subject. A lens used for close up photography particularly
in taking pictures in minute objects. Using a macro lens, the GATHERING POWER OF LENS
subject being photographed will appear bigger than its actual size.
This group of lens is most helpful in fingerprint work, in recording The light gathering power of lens that is express F/ number system
evidences such as pollen grains, hair, fiber and the like. is equal to the ratio of the focal length of the lens to the diameter of the
aperture. It is otherwise called the relative aperture. A lens does not perform
Two Main Types of MACRO LENS: the same at all apertures. If an f/2 lens is being used its widest aperture, it will
have less depth, poorer resolution and coverage at the corners that if this same
- One is meant to be used on a held tripod mounted camera and lens were field stopped down to the point of best resolution.
ranges from 40 mm to about 90 mm with the average about 25
mm. It is important to differentiate between sharpness at the corners of
- The other type is either a wide angle or a lens with a focal length the field and illumination at these same points. Some lenses will give a
with 100 mm or more and is designed with a close up bellows needle-sharp image across the entire slide, but lack of coverage will cause a
attachment to the camera. The longer lenses give a larger image darkening at the corners. Conversely, there are those lenses that will give
and are most suitable for static subjects and painstaking unsharp images at the corners although the illumination supplied by the lens is
photography. absolutely uniform and no darkening will take place.

In most modern high-quality cameras performance at the center of 5. Curvature of Field
the field is a seldom a problem at any aperture; it’s the edges that make the 6. Distortion
difference. In the case of both illumination and sharpness, the point of best
performance usually occurs when a lens is stopped down from two to three SPHERICAL ABERRATION
stops. Actually, this optimum diaphragm setting gives the greatest amount of
sharpness, brilliance, and gradation over the entire field. Aberration Geometrical optics predicts that rays of light
emanating from a point are imaged by spherical optical elements as a small
When a lens, even a fine lens is used at its widest aperture, the blur. The outer parts of a spherical surface have a focal length different from
extreme edges of the lens are being used to form part of the image. These that of the central area, and this defect causes a point to be imaged as a small
edges are major source of aberrations. Stopping down prevents these aberrated circle. The difference in focal length for the various parts of the spherical
rays from reaching the film; it might seem logical, then, that the further the section is called spherical aberration
lens is stopped down, the better. This is not the case, here’ what actually
happens. As the lens is stopped down, further and further, the opening gets Spherical Aberration is found in all lenses bounded by spherical
smaller and smaller. When the opening gets so small two things happen. First aberration / surfaces. The marginal portions of the lens bring rays of light to
of all the opening gets so small that the thickness of the diaphragm leaves shorter focus than the central region. The image of a point in space is
approach the diameter of the opening. When this happen, the edges of the therefore not a point, but a blur circle. Spherical aberration is the focusing at
diaphragm become a refractive unit and a general loss of sharpness occurs. A the different parts of spherical lens. This aberration occurs because light
second phenomenon of a completely stopped down lens is shift of focus. hitting the outer parts of the lens is bent more sharply and comes to a focus
Since the image that strikes the film is made up of light from all portions of sooner than that passing through the middle. In spherical aberration, the image
the lens, and the lens is actually set for the focus of the rays passing through is blurred because different parts of a spherical lens or mirror have different
an area about 1/3 from its center. In many lenses the point of focus between focal lengths.
these extreme central rays that provides most of the illumination (1/3 from the
center) fall at different points, hence a loss of sharpness due to apparent shift When parallel marginal rays and axial rays passing through a
of focus. simple lens focus at several planes along the optical axis.


No lens is perfect in every respect. Usually a lens maker tries to All lenses (single) made of one material refract rays of short
find the best compromise among such qualities as sharpness of definition, wavelength more strongly than those of longer wavelenght and so brings blue
speed of light transmission, simplicity of construction and others. Special more to a shorter focus than red. The result is that the image of a point white
purpose lenses however are computed for a single purpose only and in order light is not a white point, but a blur circle bordered with colors.
to achieve the maximum of usefulness in one special field, other qualities are
sacrificed. Chromatic aberration is the failure of different colored light rays to
focus after passing through a lens, focusing of light of different colors at
Except, the very finest lenses, traces of the following common lens different points resulting in a blurred image. When white light, which consists
defects will be found in all, such as chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, of colors, passes through a lens, the lens bends the rays. The rays then cross
curvilinear, distortion, curvature of field, astigmatism and others. No camera one another on the other side. The violet rays bend more than the other colors
lens will produce defects so exaggerated as the ones which will be and focus close to the lens. The red rays bend the least and focus farther from
demonstrated. However, even considerably less pronounced fault the lens. Rays on the other colors focus at points between these two points. In
manifestation maybe enough to produce fuzziness, which usually becomes chromatic aberration the image is surrounded by colored fringes, because light
more severe toward the edges of a picture. at different colors is brought to different focal points by a lens.
ABERRATION in optics, is the failure of light rays to focus The inability of a lens to bring the different wavelengths (colors)
properly after they pass through a lens or reflect from a mirror. Proper focus of white light to a focus on the same plane. Because the index of refraction
occurs when the light rays cross one another at a single point. ABERRATION varies with wavelength, the focal length of a lens also varies and causes
occurs because of minute variations in lenses and mirrors, and because longitudinal or axial chromatic aberration. Each wavelength forms an image
different parts of the light spectrum are reflected or refracted by varying of a slightly different size, giving rise to what is known as lateral chromatic
amounts. aberration. Combinations of converging and diverging lenses and of
components made of glasses with different dispersions, help to minimize
ABERRATION also defined as an optical imperfection chromatic aberration. Mirrors are free of this defect. In general, achromatic
responsible for image distortion. It can be avoided by combining several lens combinations are corrected for chromatic aberration for two or three
lenses and by elimination of marginal rays refracted through the outer edges colours.
of the lens. Lenses or mirrors that are sections of spheres produce spherical
aberrations. If a beam of parallel rays reflects from a concave mirror, the rays ASTIGMATISM
that reflects from the center of the mirror cross one another at a single point.
The rays that reflects far from the center cross at points closer to the mirror Astigmatism is the defect in which the light coming from an off-
surface. The imaginary line connecting these points of focus is called a axis object point is spread along the direction of the optic axis. If the object is
CAUSTIC. a vertical line, the cross section of the refracted beam at successively greater
distances from the lens is an ellipse that collapses first into a horizontal line,
A CAUSTIC appears as a bright line if it shines on a surface. For spreads out again, and later becomes a vertical line
example, when sunlight shines through the open top of a glass of milk and
onto the curve interior acts as a mirror. Consequently, the light reflects onto Astigmatism is the failure of a lens to produce a point image of an
the milk in a caustic curve. Without aberration, a bright spot would appear on object point. Such condition occurs when the lens surfaces are not
the milk. Convex lenses also produce spherical aberration. The light rays that symmetrical with respect to the principal axis of the lens. An extreme example
pass through the middle of the lens focus farther from the lens than do the rays would be one surface is spherical and the other is cylindrical, or when the lens
that pass through the lens of the edges. If the lens is in a camera, the image on surfaces are perfectly spherical but the beam of light from the object point
this is blurry. To sharpen the image, a camera has a small opening called a passes through the lens very obliquely.
stop. The stop allows only the rays passing through the center of the lens to
reach the film. Thus, the rays focus at one spot on the film, and the picture is In astigmatism, the image appears elliptical or cross shaped
clear. because of an irregularity in the curvature of the lens. This is the inability of
the lens to bring horizontal and vertical lines in the subject to the same plane
There are six ( 6 ) types of optical aberrations: of focus in the image.
1. Spherical Aberration The inability of the lens to project a sharply focused image of both
2. Chromatic Aberrations vertical and horizontal lines upon the same plane, at one lens to image
3. Astigmatism distance.
4. Coma
The result of differences in lateral magnification for rays coming
from an object point not on the optic axis is an effect called coma. If coma is What is focal length?
present, light from a point is spread out into a family of circles that fit into a
cone, and in a plane perpendicular to the optic axis the image pattern is comet- It is usual to think of the focal length of the lens as the distance
shaped. Coma may be eliminated for a single object-image point pair, but not from the lens center or the position of the image it forms of a distant object. It
for all such points, by a suitable choice of surfaces. is important to know that it is the focal length that determines how large an
image is formed by the lens. All lenses of the same focal at the same distance
A pear – shaped image of small circle or point near the edges of produce the same of size; whether they are called wide angle, or by any other
the image plane. names.

Coma occurs when light falling obliquely on the lens and passing The focal length of a lens can be define as the distance from the
through different circular zones is brought to a focus at different distances optical center of the lens to its focal plane, when the lens is focused upon an
from the plane film. A spot of light appears to have a tail, rather like a comet. object at infinity in practical terms, means focused on a subject a great
In come, the images appear progressively elongated toward the edge of the distance away ( 200 ft. or more ) the light rays reflected by that the subject
field of view. The term Coma was coined 1733 by French mathematician will be traveling on parallel paths, for all practical purposes, when they reach
Alexis Clairaut ( 1713 – 1765 ). the film. The photographer seldom or need not measure the focal length of a
lens, for this characteristic is almost always marked on the front of the lens

A curved, concave, or saucer – shaped image of an object which

has a flat surface produced by simple lens. The focal length is a fixed value of a lens that cannot be changed.
It is an inherent factor determined by the thickness of the lens and curvatures
In curvature aberration the relation of the images of the different of its surface. The focal is frequently employed to indicate the size of the lens
points are incorrect with respect to one another. In curvature, the images of in millimeter or inches. Thus, a lens labeled as F.L 50 mm. Indicates that
the different points of the plane image lie on a curved surface, with points at when it is focused on a point at infinity, the distance from the optical center to
the edge of the field lying nearer to the lens than those at the center. In the focal plane is 50 mm. And it is also the nearest distance at which such a
curvature, the images distance is different for different points of the same lens will sharply focuses an image.
object due to their differing distance from the axis. The focal length also controls the image brightness, speed of the
lens and the image size of the focal plane; IMAGE SIZE, the focal length
The fuzziness increases toward the edge of the film. Refocusing determines the size of the image at the focal plane, the longer the focal length,
brings different circle into focus but others now are blurred. the greater the size of the image on the film when the subject remains at the
given distance. In fact, image size and focal are directly proportional,
DISTORTION doubling the F.L. results in doubling the image size. Because the image size
increases with focal length, it is logically to follow that the longer the focal
Distortion arises from a variation of magnification with axial length the less of the subject the lens will include on the negative, that is the
distance and is not caused by a lack of sharpness in the image. negative size remains constant. Or, to state it another way, the greater the lens
focal length, the narrower its field of view (often called angle of view). A
When there exists a different magnification for rays at different short focal length produces smaller image.
angles distortion exists. Any straight light extending across the field is
considered curved and for different lenses the curvature maybe from or LENS SPEED, the largest opening of diaphragm (aperture) at
toward the center. The distortion is called barrel distortion (in the first case). It which a lens can be used is also known as the speed of the lens. Hence the
is the common type of curvilinear defect. The second distortion is the light gathering capability of a lens is called lens speed. Speed here refers to
pincushion defect. intensity of light reaching the film, and not to any movement. Thus, an F/2
lens is faster than F74, because an F2 has a larger aperture and will admit
For correction two similar lenses, each of half necessary power are more light at a given time. Lenses having a large aperture are called “fast”
placed a short distance apart, with a diaphragm between. Such a lens is called lenses because their large aperture makes it possible to take photograph at a
RECTILINEAR LENS. very short exposure interval or under very dim light conditions. The closer
this largest aperture to one (1) or to being equal in diameter to the focal length
OTHER OPTICAL DEFECTS of the lens, the faster the lens.
These defects are usually corrected when the lens is designed; SENSITIZED MATERIAL
however, they can occur if the lens is misused or through normal wear.
Sensitized Material refers to films and papers that are composed of
FLARE or OPTICAL FLARE emulsion containing SILVER HALIDE crystals suspended in gelatin and
coated on a transparent or reflective support.
In a result of double reflection from inner lens surfaces. It exhibits
itself as a misty haze, or a cloudy semicircular patch of light, which may cover FILM
part or the entire image. This doubly reflection may form an image called a
ghost image. A film consists basically, of a random scattering of light sensitive
silver halides suspended in a layer of animal gelatin which is coated onto
MECHANICAL FLARE acetate support or base.
Are bright spots on the film caused by stray light from worn shiny THE FILM STRUCTURE
parts of the lens such as the stop, shutter lens mount, or from the camera itself.
1. TOP COATING (TOP LAYER) – scratch resistant coating also
Most corrected lenses is coated with a substance which will reduce called gelatin coating, an over coating composed of a thin
one type of flare ( optical ) and which will also increase the optics ability to transparent layer of a hard gelatin which help protect the silver
transmit light thus reducing light loss. halide emulsion from scratches and abrasions. The hard gelatin,
which is derived from cows, contains SULFUR. The SULFUR is
STRAY LIGHT very much compatible with silver halides.
Can be reduced or eliminated by using the proper lens shade composed of silver compounds which are light sensitive and
placed on the front of the lens as shield.
halogens (such as bromide, chloride and iodide bromide in fast C. TYPOLOGY OF FILMS
film emulsion). A silver compound when combined with a halogen
becomes SILVER HALIDE. Silver Halides are rare compound that Exposure is made simultaneously in the three layers. Each layer
are responsible in forming the so called the LATENT IMAGE in responding to only one of the additive primary colors (red, blue and green).
the photographic film. After exposure and during the film processing, the yellow color of the filter
3. FILM BASE – commonly made of cellulose or other material such layer is destroyed.
as paper, plastic, or glass, which supports the emulsion layer and is
coated with a non-curling antihalation backing. Films maybe classified according to their forms and types.
4. ANTIHALATION BACKING – a black dye applied on the rare Basically, films that are available in the markets today are in various forms.
surface of the film. Its function is to absorb light that may They can be in rolls, in cartridges and cut sheets. Light sensitivity of the film
penetrate the emulsion thus making the image sharper since it can be ascertained through its various types.
suppresses double image. It prevents halo formation in the
photograph. The black dye is removed during processing by one of There are some films that are sensitive to all colors while there is
the chemicals in the developer. Its second function is to control the some that are sensitive only to one or specific set of colors.
film from curling inwards. (Towards the emulsion surface).
Classification according to USE
1. BLACK and WHITE FILM – for B and W Photography
1. TOP LAYER – sensitive to blue light only, green and red light 2. COLOR FILM – films that have names ending in COLOR
passes through it without exposing the color halide. - Color negatives for prints
2. EMULSION LAYER The negative in this type of film is divided into blocks and is color
positive. It is composed of hue dyes. In between the blue and green hues,
a. Blue filter yellow gelatin is placed so that the blue rays of light would not affect the
b. Yellow filter – CAREY LEA silver suspended in green hue and in between the green and the red dye, magenta gelatin is placed
gelatin, it is coated between the top and second layer to so that the green rays of light would not affect the red hue dye of the
absorb any penetrating blue light but allowing green emulsion.
and red light to pass through.
c. Green filter – a layer that is orthochromatic, the layer 3. CHROME FILMS – films with names ending in CHROME
sensitive to blue light (which can not reach it) and - For color transparency (slides); films that are exposed
green, but not to red light pass on to the bottom of the by slides, mounted in a cardboard for slide projectors:
emulsion layer. reversal type.
d. Red filter – a panchromatic layer, sensitive to blue 4. X – RAY FILM – films that are sensitive to X- radiations
(which can’t reach it) and red. It is also sensitive to
green light but to a slight degree that is insignificant. Types based on FILM SPEED (according to light sensitivity)

3. ANTIHALATION BACKING / COATING 1. FAST FILM – contains numerous number of large grains of silver
4. FILM BASE – Plastic film base halides that usually develop in groups; film that are very sensitive
to light. When the available is dim, this type of film is the best
Emulsions are thin, gelatinous, light-sensitive coatings on film choice because of the low reflection power of the subject against a
that react chemically to capture the color and shadings of a scene. The background. It is low in contrast but high in brightness. However,
four layers pictured above show the same image as it would appear on the use of fast speed film is not advisable due to its graininess
different emulsions in photographic film after the first stage of result.
developing. For black-and-white photographs, only one emulsion is
required, because it is the amount of light, not the colour that activates the 2. SLOW FILM – film that require longer period of time to
chemical reaction. Color film requires three layers of emulsion, each of completely expose their emulsion to light; film with fine grains of
which is sensitive to only one of the primary colors of light: blue, green, silver halides.
or red. As light passes through the layers, each emulsion records areas
where its particular color appears in the scene. When developed, the Film Speed Film is classified by speed as well as by format. Film
emulsion releases dye that is the complementary color of the light speed is defined as an emulsion's degree of sensitivity to light, and determines
recorded: blue light activates yellow dye, green light is magenta, and red the amount of exposure required to photograph a subject under given lighting
light is cyan (bluish-green). Complementary colors are used because they conditions. The manufacturer of the film assigns a standardized numerical
produce the original color of the scene when the film is processed. rating in which high numbers correspond to “fast” emulsions and low
numbers to “slow” ones. The standards set by the International Standards
Color films are more complex than black-and-white films Organization (ISO) are used throughout the world, although some European
because they are designed to reproduce the full range of color tones as manufacturers still use the German Industrial Standard, or Deutsche Industrie
color, not as black, white, and grey tones. The design and composition of Norm (DIN). The ISO system evolved by combining the DIN system with the
most color transparency films and color negative films are based on the ASA (the industry standard previously used in the United States). The first
principles of the subtractive color process, in which the three primary number of an ISO rating, equivalent to an ASA rating, represents an
colors, yellow, magenta, and cyan (blue-green), are combined with their arithmetic measure of film speed, whereas the second number, equivalent to a
complements to reproduce a full range of colors. Such films consist of DIN rating, represents a logarithmic measure.
three silver halide emulsions on a single layer. The top emulsion is
sensitive only to blue. Beneath this is a yellow filter that blocks blues but Low-speed films are generally rated from ISO 25/15 to ISO
transmits greens and reds to the second emulsion, which absorbs greens 100/21, but even slower films exist. Kodak's Rapid Process Copy Film, a
but not red. The bottom emulsion records reds. special process film, has an ISO rating of 0.06/-12. Films in the ISO 125/22
to 200/24 range are considered medium speed, while films above ISO
When color film is exposed to light by a camera, latent black-
200/24 are considered fast. In recent years, many major manufacturers have
and-white images are formed on each of the three emulsions. During
introduced super fast films with ISO ratings higher than 400/27. And
processing, the chemical action of the developer creates actual images in
certain films can be pushed well beyond their ratings by exposing them as
metallic silver, just as in black-and-white processing. The developer
though they had a higher rating and developing them for a greater length of
combines with dye couplers incorporated into each of the emulsions to
time to compensate for the underexposure.
form cyan, magenta, and yellow images. Then the film is bleached,
leaving a negative image in the primary colors. In color transparency film, DX coding is a recent innovation in film and camera
unexposed silver-halide crystals not converted to metallic silver during the technology. DX-coded cartridges of 35-mm film have printed on them a
initial development are converted to positive images in dye and silver characteristic panel corresponding to an electronic code that tells the
during a second stage of development. After the development action has camera the ISO rating of the film as well as the number of frames on the
been arrested, the film is bleached and the image fixed on it. roll. Many of the newer electronic cameras are equipped with DX sensors

that electronically sense this information and automatically adjust The light sensitivity of the film is also known as the FILM SPEED. Speed of
exposures accordingly. the film is determined through the numerical film speed labels given by the
film manufacturer. There are two classical speed ratings that became popular:
Differences in sensitivity of a film emulsion to light depend on
various chemical additives. For example, hypersensitizing compounds 1. ASA (American Standard Association) rating - This is expressed in
increase film speed without affecting the film's color sensitivity. High- arithmetical value system. The speed in numbers is directly
speed film can also be manufactured by increasing the concentration of proportional to the sensitivity of the material. A film with an
large silver-halide crystals in the emulsion. In recent years, a generation of arithmetical value of 400 is four times as fast as one with a speed
faster, more sensitive films has been created by altering the shape of of 100.
crystals. Flatter silver-halide crystals offer greater surface area. Films 2. DIN (Deutche Industrie Norman) rating – This is expressed in
incorporating such crystals, such as Kodak's T-grain Kodacolour films, logarithmic value system. In this system, an increase of 3 degree
have a correspondingly greater sensitivity to light. doubles the sensitivity of the film.
The grain structure of faster films is generally heavier than that
 ISO rating (International Standards Organization) –
of slower films. Grain structure may give rise to a mottled pattern on prints
combination of ASA and DIN rating. The higher the
that have been greatly enlarged. Photographs taken with slower-speed film
ISO number, the more sensitive the film to light and the
appear less grainy when enlarged. Because of the small size of their silver-
pictures can be taken indoors or in dim light condition.
halide grains, slow-speed films generally have a higher resolution—that is,
they can render fine details with greater sharpness—and can produce a  ISO 100-200 – film for general purpose
broader range of tones than fast films. When tonal range and sharpness of
detail are not as important as capturing a moving subject without blurring, One film maybe rated ISO – 100, and another film ISO- 200. This
fast films are used. means that the 200 films are twice as fast ( twice more sensitive to light ) than
the ISO-100 film. Hence, it would only require half the amount of light to
produce a satisfactory negative. Each time the film speed is doubled, it is
Types based on SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY (color sensitivity) equal to one f / stop higher. For instance, in the example given, if ISO-1 is
exposed at f / 8, then ISO-200 should be exposed at f / 11 to produce the same
Spectral sensitivity – responsiveness of the film emulsion to the negative image quality. Any film above ISO-200 can be considered grain. The
different wavelength of light source. suggested uses of the following film exposure under varying conditions are:

1. MONOCHROMATIC FILM – film that is sensitive to a single 1. ISO – 25 – slowest speed that natural condition will permit, for
color of light (for white and black) best color and sharpness.
a. BLUE SENSITIVE FILM – a film specially treated 2. ISO – 100 to ISO – 200 – for general purpose
that makes it more sensitive to blue rays of light 3. ISO – 100 – slow speed film; needs sufficient light and low shutter
b. ULTRA-VIOLET SENSITIVE FILM – sensitive to speed; has fine grains of silver halides; produce sharp image.
UV rays only 4. ISO – 200 – twice as fast and as sensitive as ISO – 100; has large
grains; produce large sharp image.
2. PANCHROMATIC FILM – sensitive to ultra-violet rays, and all 5. ISO – 400 – for dim light or with moving subject
light found in the visible spectrum, especially to blue and violet 6. ISO – 1000 and up – for extremely low light conditions or for fast
light. It is suitable for general use in the preparation of black and moving objects
white photography because it produces the most natural
recording of colors.  When DX is attached to the film speed, it means that
the film automatically sets the film speed dial (ASA
Panchromatic films are further sub classified according to their dial).
degree of sensitivity to each primary colors or light. There are three classes of E. FILM SIZE
panchromatic film. They are the following:
1. 110 – for cartridge loading pocket cameras
a. Process Panchromatic Film – permit short exposures 2. 126 – for older and larger cartridge loading type
under average lighting condition and has the 3. 120 – variation of the 2.25 inch-wide roll film that was first
advantage of fine grain structure. introduced for box cameras a decade ago and now used in
b. Grain Panchromatic Film professional medium format cameras like the Hasselbald or
c. High Speed Panchromatic Film – designed originally Mamiya.
for photographing objects under adverse lighting 4. 135 – commonly known as the mm. so named because the film is
condition. 35 mm wide
5. 220 – the same with 120 but twice as many exposure
Contrast of the panchromatic film usually varies with the color of
the light and using filters can attain proper contrast in photograph. FILM AND LIGHT

3. ORTHOCHROMATIC FILM – film that is sensitive to UV rays, An alteration in the spectral response of a photographic material
blue and green colors, but not to red. Red portions are recorded brought about by a change in the spectral distribution of energy in the light
as dark tones, while green and blue parts appear as light tones source used for exposure is a difference in a relative brightness in which
when printed. This type of film is popular in the market as the different colors are reproduced by the photographic material.
4. INFRARED FILM – a special type of film that is sensitive to A comparison of the relative brightness in which the different
infrared and ultra-violet radiation (radiation beyond the human colors of the original are produced by two light sources shows that the
eye’s sensitive). It is also sensitive to all the colors found in the employment of tungsten illumination with its greater abundance of long wave
visible spectrum. Although the infrared film is sensitive to blue radiation, has resulted in yellow, orange and red being produced relatively
color, a red filter can exclude the blue color. The red filter lighter, and violet and blue darker, than with sunlight. The relative brightness
transmits only long red and infrared radiation. IR film is useful in in which different colors are reproduced depends on the distribution of
penetrating haze because of its longer wavelength. In spectral sensitivity with the particular light source used for the exposure. The
Investigative Photography, it is useful in laboratory analysis of greater the effective sensitivity in any particular part of the spectrum, the
questioned documents, in discovering old ( or faded ) tattoos greater the density of the negative and the lighter the tone of gray in which the
under the skin, and in the construction of camera types. corresponding color sensation is represented in the print.


EMULSION SPEED – the sensitivity of the film to light; the Photographic exposure is defined as the product of illumination
extent to which emulsion is sensitive to light. and time. The unit of exposure is usually in meter candle second which is

equivalent to exposure produced by a light source of one candlepower, in the VIEWING FILTER – Are designed to show by direct
second at a distance of one meter from the surface of the sensitive material. observation the relative values in which colors will be reproduced by a
particular type of sensitized without or with a given filter.
When light is brought in its focus by the camera lens and strikes
the front surface of the film emulsion, a number of tiny crystals of light NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTER – Are used to reduce the light
sensitive silver halide rendered developable forming later the image is known intensity to prevent over exposure.
as the latent photographic image. This image becomes visible by chemical
development. This image conforms to the shape of the object points in the POLARIZING FILTER – Are used primarily to control light
subject according to the capability of the lens and film. reflected from highly polished surfaces, metallic objects and others.

While at this point the light had done all that it has to do, however The Principle of Color Filters
it continue to penetrate the emulsion layers throughout whose depth lie
suspended millions of other light sensitive halide crystals. As the ray moves Objects are distinguished from their surroundings by the contrast,
deeper and deeper into the emulsion, it moves farther and farther away from which may be the result of a difference in brightness or color. At times parts
its original point of entry into the emulsion, and parts are scattered off in of a subject may differ slightly in brightness yet the contrast due to difference
every direction. During this travel it has struck and therefore made in color is very marked to the eye. For example red and green colors show a
developable, many more light sensitive crystals than it originally affected to striking difference to the eye yet when photograph on a panchromatic film the
form the latent image at the surface of the emulsion. Finally, it bumps into the brightness difference is very slight to be notice by the eye. To show the
anti- halation backing and is absorbed. difference the use of a green filter will render the green color lighter and the
red color darker (in the print or positive).
FILTERS To render a color lighter in effect than it would appear, a filter,
which selectively transmits light of the same color, should be used. To render
Filters made of gelatin or glass; filters are used in front of a a color darker a filter, which absorbs the color, should be used. To transmit
camera lens to alter the color balance of light, to change contrast or means to allow or to pass through while to absorb means to stop partially or
brightness, to minimize haze, or to create special effects. In black-and- wholly.
white photography, color filters are used with panchromatic film to
transmit light of the matching color while blocking light of a contrasting Filter Factor
color. In a landscape photograph taken with a red filter, for example, some
of the blue light of the sky is blocked, causing the sky to appear darker and
thereby emphasizing clouds. Under a blue sky, a yellow filter produces a A photographic material exposed to such filtered radiation will
less extreme effect because more blue light is transmitted to the film. The receive a small amount of light than one without any filter. To compensate for
No. 8 yellow filter is often used for outdoor black-and-white photography the loss of radiation because of the absorption of the filter, the shutter speed
because it renders the tone of a blue sky in much the same way that the should be increased or a longer time in opening and closing or wider lens
human eye perceives it. aperture, or an increase in the intensity of the light source is necessary. Filter
factors depend upon:
Conversion filters, light-balancing filters, and color- 1. Absorption characteristics of the filter.
compensating filters are all widely used in color photography. Conversion 2. The subject
filters change the color balance of light for a given film. Tungsten films, 3. The spectral sensitivity of the emulsion
for example, are designed and balanced for the color temperature of amber 4. The processing conditions.
tungsten light. Exposed in daylight, they will produce pictures with a bluish
cast. A series 85-conversion filter can correct this. Daylight film, on the The general effects of filter may be given as below:
other hand, balanced for sunlight at noon, which has a greater Color of Subject Rendered Lighter Rendered Darker
concentration of blue wavelengths than tungsten light, will have a yellow-
amber cast when exposed under tungsten light. A series 80-conversion Red Filters F, A or G
filter corrects this problem. Filter B or C-5
Green G, X-1, X-2
Light-balancing filters are generally used to make small Filter A or C-5
adjustments in color. These pale-toned filters eliminate undesirable Blue Filter A
colorcasts or add a general warming hue. Color-compensating (CC) A, F, G, or B
magenta filters can balance greenish fluorescent light for daylight or Magenta Filter F or A
tungsten film. Another type of filter, the polarizer, is used primarily to Filter B
reduce reflection from the surface of shiny subjects. Polarizing filters are Yellow Filter F or G
also used in color photography to increase color saturation. Filter C-5
Orange Filter G or A
Photographic filters maybe divided into four classes: a) color Filter C-5
filters b) viewing filters c) neutral density filters and d) polarizing filters
Filter Guide
COLOR FILTERS – Are used to control the relative tone values
in which colors are rendered by the photographic process, to lighten or G---- Deep Yellow
darkened particular colors or to obtain color separation records for color B---- Green
photography works. X-1, X-2 - - - Lighter Green
A or F - - - - Shades of Red
A color filter maybe defined as an optically homogenous filter in
which the absorption of light and transmission of light varies with the SENSITIZED PAPER (PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER)
The result of photography in its final form is the photograph. The
 Blue Filters – A blue filter can be used effectively when materials necessary to produce a photograph (POSITIVE PRINT) are a
photographing blood in black and white. When used outdoors as sensitized paper. It has emulsion that is coated with opaque material like
blue filters will make the sky, or any blue object appears white in paper.
 Green Filters – Are now used in place of blue filters for
photographing blood.
 Yellow Filters – Yellow filters cut through haze to certain extent
and can be used with good results to photograph an accident on a After the process of producing the negative image is produced
hazy day. from the negative, which is a true presentation of the relative brightness of all
parts of the object and is now called a print. A print is ordinarily made on

paper that is coated with light sensitive emulsion. This emulsion is similar to The choice of photographic paper for printing will depend upon the
the. Basic layers of printing paper are: purpose of the photographs to be made. Black and White object are usually
1. Emulsion Layer – the layer containing minute silver suspended in printed in a white base photographic paper. Reproduction of photographs
gelatin; the layer of chemical needed to reproduce the opposite would give satisfactory results if printed on glossy white photographic paper.
tone of the negative print. For portrait photograph, a cream paper base photographic paper is
2. Baryta Layer – a gelatin layer containing Baryta crystals (barium recommended and for law enforcement photography, the smooth photographic
oxide particles) to increase the reflectivity of the paper. paper is necessary so that the detail of the image appear and appreciated by
3. Base – made of hardened white paper, which must be chemically the viewers.
pure to ensure that it will not interfere with the chemical processes
to which the emulsion is subjected. Available either in single or ACCORDING TO CONTRAST
double weight paper.
No. 1 ---- No. 2 ---- No. 3 ---- No. 4
In the preparation of photographic papers, there are three important
factors to be considered, the: Photographic papers are supplied in different grades. Numbers
1. Type of emulsion and or descriptive names, # 4 or hard, # 3 or medium, # 2 or normal, # 1 or
2. Contrasting light rays and soft contrast designates them. The type of paper to be used is frequently the
3. Physical characteristics opposite in the name to the type of negative. For instance, hard paper is used
for thin, and normal paper is used for the so-called normal negative.
Each type of emulsion has its own substance and use in the
preparation of photographs. The types of emulsion use in photo papers are: ACCORDING TO PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Silver Chloride emulsion
2. Silver Bromide emulsion Photographic paper is made with different characteristics. They are
3. Silver Chlorobromide emulsion the combination of thickness and finish. Photographic papers are supplied
according to weight or thickness of the base, surface, color and contrast.
A. Light Weight – are used when the thickness of the
1. SILVER CHLORIDE PAPER – contains silver chloride paper is not a consideration and high degree of
emulsion; grained and produce deep black images; used for contact flexibility is necessary. Intended for purposes,
printing. Its sensitivity to light is low. Generally, the size of the which involve folding.
positive print is the same as the size of the negative used and B. Single Weight – are paper used for small print or
usually it will give blue-black tone if properly developed. print which need to be mounted on solid and fine
2. SILVER BROMIDE PAPER – contains silver bromide emulsion. details are necessary in the production. Used only
Light sensitivity of this type is faster than the silver chloride paper. for ordinary photographic purposes.
This photographic paper is used for projection printing or C. Double Weight – generally used for large prints
enlarging process wherein the negative image is projected or because they stand up better under rough
enlarged. If properly developed, the silver bromide paper will give treatment.
a black tone.
combination of silver chloride emulsion; its emulsion speed lies
between that of chloride and bromide papers; used both for contact A. Glossy Papers – are preferred where fine detail and
and projection printing. The sensitivity of this paper is either slow brilliant images are required.
or fast. The slow emulsion is used for contract printing while the B. Semi – mate Papers – are with decided textures which
fast emulsion is used for projection printing. obscure fine details
4. VARIABLE CONTRAST PAPER – combines the contrast C. Rough Papers – used for large prints or where breadth
ranges in one paper, it uses a special Chlorobromide emulsion that rather than detail is necessary.
produces varying contrast responses upon exposure to different
colored light. 3. COLOR
The manufacturer of the films according to their own ideas A. White – are preferred for cold effect
classifies the contrast range of photographic paper. They produce different B. Cream – are preferred for pictorial effect, portraits,
photographic papers intended for the specific contrast of the negatives to be landscapes or when warmth effect is desired.
printed. Generally, this contrast range is classified into four: They are the C. Buff Papers – are preferred for tone prints.
1. Low Contrast The choice of photographic paper for printing will depend upon the
2. Normal and Medium Contrast purpose of the photographs to be made. Black and White object are usually
3. Hard Contrast printed in a white-based photographic paper. Reproduction of photographs
4. Very Hard or Extra Hard Contrast would give satisfactory results if printed in glossy white-based photographic
paper. For portrait photograph, a cream based photographic paper is
The low contrast paper is usually suitable to a very contrast recommended. For law enforcement photography, the smooth photographic
negative to produce a normal print or photograph. On the other hand, the high paper is necessary so that the details of the image appear and appreciated by
or hard contrast is suitable to a very low contrast paper is suitable to a very the viewer.
low contrast negative to compensate for lack of brilliance and produce a
normal print or photographs.
Photographic papers are made with different characteristics. They
are the combination of thickness and finish. The texture maybe smooth, rough Because of the fact that all negative do not print best on one kind
or linen, its finest maybe glossy with a very smooth surface texture. Other of paper, and in order to permit printing for special effects, photographic
type of textures may produce a mate or semi-glossy finish in rough or linen papers is made in several different grades of contrast and surface texture.
texture. Velox paper made by Kodak offers six degrees of contrast and glossy surface.

The paper base of the photographic paper maybe either white or VELOX No. 0 – used for printing from extremely contrast
tinted. Its weight or thickness maybe either lightweight or single-weight or negatives, the low contrast in the paper sensitizing counteracts the high
double-weight. contrast in the negative to give a new print.
VELOX No. 1 – used for high contrast negative

VELOX No. 2 – a paper for normal contrast used with normal 1. In the case of People vs. Moreno, CA, 338 O.G. 119: any written
negatives document by which a right is established or an obligation is
VELOX No. 3 – used for negatives that have weak contrast extinguished.
VELOX No. 4 – provides for sufficient contrast to compensate for 2. In the case of People vs. Nillosquin, CA, 48 O.G. 4453: every deed
very thin or weak negatives. It is useful in printing pictures which high or instrument executed by person by which some disposition or
contrast is desired agreement is proved, evidenced or setforth.
VELOX No. 5 – for flat negative that is unprintable 3. In relation to Criminal Jurisprudence under the Best Evidence rule:
any physical embodiment of information or ideas; e.g. a letter, a
contract, a receipt, a book of account, a blur print, or an X-ray


1. PUBLIC DOCUMENT - notarized by a notary public or
A. DOCUMENT. Any material containing marks, symbols, or competent public official with solemnities required by
signs either visible, partially visible that may present or ultimately law.(Cacnio vs. Baens, 5 Phil. 742)
convey a meaning to someone, maybe in the form of pencil, ink 2. OFFICIAL DOCUMENT - issued by the government or its agents
writing, typewriting, or printing on paper. or its officers having the authority to do so and the offices, which
The term “document” applies to writings; to words printed, in accordance with their creation, they are authorized to issue and
lithographed, or photographed; to maps or plans; to seals, plates, or be issued in the performance of their duties.
even stones on which inscriptions are cut or engraved. In its plural 3. PRIVATE DOCUMENT -executed by a private person without
form, “documents” may mean; deeds, agreements, title, letters, the intervention of a notary public or of any person legally
receipts, and other written instruments used to prove a fact. authorized, by which documents, some disposition or agreement is
 Latin word “documentum”, means “lesson, or example proved, evidenced or set forth (US vs Orera, 11 Phil. 596).
(in Medieval Latin “instruction, or official paper”), OR 4. COMMERCIAL DOCUMENT - executed in accordance with the
 French word “docere”, means to teach. Code of Commerce or any Mercantile Law, containing disposition
of commercial rights or obligations.
According to Microsoft Encarta Reference Library (as a noun):
1. formal piece of writing Take Note:
2. object containing information
3. computer file A private document may become a public or official document
when it partake the nature of a public or official record. So if the falsifications
As a verb, Microsoft Encarta gives the following definition: committed on such document that is, when it is already a part of the public
1. record information in or on media record, falsification of public or official document is committed. However, if
2. support a claim with evidence such private document is intended to become a part of the public record,
even though falsified prior thereto, falsification of a public document is
B. QUESTIONED. Any material which some issue has been raised committed.
or which is under scrutiny.
therein may not be true, and are contested either in whole or part some Supreme Court Rulings.
with respect to its authenticity, identity, or origin. It may be a deed, 1. A draft of a Municipal payroll which is not yet approved by the
contract, will, election ballots, marriage contract, proper authority (People vs. Camacho, 44 Phil. 484).
check, visas, application form, check writer, certificates, etc. 2. Mere blank forms of official documents, the spaces of which are
D. DISPUTED DOCUMENT. A term suggesting that there is an not filled up (People vs. Santiago, CA, 48 O.G. 4558).
argument or controversy over the document, and strictly speaking 3. Pamphlets or books which do not evidence any disposition or
this is true meaning. In this text, as well as through prior usage, agreement are not documents but are mere merchandise (People vs.
however, “disputed document” and “questioned document” are Agnis, 47 Phil. 945).
used interchangeably to signify a document that is under special
E. STANDARD a.k.a. STANDARD DOCUMENT - Are condensed 1. Documents with questioned signatures.
and compact set of authentic specimens which, if adequate and 2. Questioned documents alleged to have been containing fraudulent
proper, should contain a cross section of the material from a alterations.
known source. 3. Questioned or disputed holographic wills.
"Standard" in questioned documents investigation, we a. HOLOGRAPHIC WILL - will entirely written in the
mean those things whose origins are known and can be proven handwriting of the testator
and which can be legally used as examples to compare with b. NOTARIAL WILL - signed by the testator acknowledge
other matters in question. Usually a standard consist of the before a notary public with 3 witnesses.
known handwriting of a person such case, "standard" has the 4. Documents investigated on the question of typewriting.
same meaning as is understood by the word "specimen" of a. with a view of ascertaining their source
handwriting. b. with a view of ascertaining their date
F. EXEMPLAR. A term used by some document examiners and c. with a view of determining whether or not they contain
attorneys to characterize known material. Standard is the older fraudulent alterations or substituted pages.
term. 5. Questioned documents on issues of their age or date.
G. HOLOGRAPHIC DOCUMENT. Any document completely 6. Questioned documents on issues of materials used in their
written and signed by one person; also known as a holograph. In a production.
number of jurisdictions a holographic will can be probated without 7. Documents or writings investigated because it is alleged that they
anyone having witnessed its execution. identify some persons through handwriting.
H. REFERENCE COLLECTION. Material compiled and a. anonymous and disputed letters, and
organized by the document examiner to assist him in answering b. Superscriptions, registrations and miscellaneous writings.
special questions. Reference collections of typewriting, check
writing specimens, inks, pens, pencils, and papers are frequently

ADDITION - Any matter made a part of the document after its original
LEGAL ASPECT OF DOCUMENTS preparation may be referred to as addition.

A. LEGAL BASIS OF DOCUMENTS: CONCLUSION - A scientific conclusion results form relating observed
facts by logical, common-sense reasoning in accordance with established
rules or laws. The document examiner's conclusion, in legal term is referred B. Handwriting Investigation/Analysis. This is more focused in
to as "opinion". determining the author of writing. It is more difficult procedure and
requires long study and experience.
DOCUMENT EXAMINER. One who studies scientifically the details
and elements of documents in order to identify their source or to discover FORMS/ASPECTS (SUBJECTS) OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT
other facts concerning them. Document examiners are often referred to as EXAMINATION
handwriting identification experts, but today the work has outgrown this
latter title and involves other problems than merely the examination of A. Handwriting Examination (Graphology/Graphoanalysis)
handwriting. 1. examination of signatures and initials
2. examination of anonymous letters
ERASURE - The removal of writings, typewriting or printing, from a 3. hand printing examination
document is an erasure. It maybe accomplished by either of two means. A B. Examination of Typewritings and typeprints.
chemical eradication in which the writing is removed or bleached by C. Examination of Inks
chemical agents (e.g. liquid ink eradicator); and an abrasive erasure is D. Examination of Erasures, alterations or obliterations, etc.
where the writing is effaced by rubbing with a rubber eraser or scratching 1. Detection of alteration
out with a knife or other sharp with implement. 2. Decipherment of erased writings
3. Restoration of obliterated writings
EXAMINATION - It is the act of making a close and critical study of any E. Counterfeiting
material and with questioned documents, it is the process necessary to 1. Examination of currency bills and coins and the like.
discover the facts about them. Various types are undertaken, including 2. Examination of fake documents
microscopic, visual photographic, chemical, ultra violet and infra-red F. Miscellaneous aspects
examination. 1. Determination of age of documents
2. Identification of stamps
EXPERT WITNESS. A legal term used to describe a witness who by 3. Examinations of seal and other authenticating devices
reason of his special training or experience is permitted to express an
opinion regarding the issue, or a certain aspect of the issue, which is DOCUMENT EXAMINATION (In General)
involved in a court action. His purpose is to interpret technical information
in his particular specialty in order to assist the court in administering A. VALUE -
justice. The document examiner testifies in court as an expert witness. 1. In the commission of a crime, the criminal often finds it necessary
to employ one or more documents in furtherance of his act.
INSERTION OR INTERLINEATION - The term "insertion" and 2. In some crimes, such as forgery, the document is an integral part of
"interlineations" include the addition of writing and other material the crime.
between lines or paragraphs or the addition of whole page to a 3. In others, such as false claims against government, documents
document. often play an important part in proving the commission of the
NON-IDENTITIFICATION (Non-identity) – as used in this text it 4. Proof of the fact that a document was altered or made by a
means that the source or authorship of the compared questioned and particular individual may show that:
standard specimens is different. a. He committed the crime.
b. He had knowledge of the crime.
OBLITERATION - the blotting out or shearing over the writing to make c. He was present in a certain locality at a specified time.
the original invisible to as an addition.
B. PURPOSE - A document may be examined to know the following:
OPINION. In legal language, it refers to the document Examiner's conclu- a. Identity of the author.
sion. Actually in Court, he not only expresses an opinion but b. True contents of the document.
demonstrates the reasons for arriving at his opinion. Throughout this c. Origin of the instrument or paper used in making the document.
text, opinion and conclusion are used synonymously. d. Alterations or erasures which have been made.
e. Authenticity of the document.
QUALIFICATION. The professional experience, education, and ability
of a document examiner. Before he is permitted to testify as an expert
witness, the court must rule that he is qualified in his field. THE LOGICAL PROGRESS OF INQUIRY IN DOCUMENT
Generally, examination of questioned documents is restricted to "DENIED" or "ADMITTED", "AUTHENTIC", and "DOUBTFUL"
“Scientific Comparison” which means that determination of authenticity, documents.
genuineness, falsification or forgery lies on the availability of known
standards for comparison. After thorough comparison, the following 1. Concerning the Document in Questioned.
principle of identification is applied: a. Is only one signature in questioned?
b. Is any part of the document in question?
“When two items contain a combination of corresponding or similar c. Is the date of the document in questioned?
and specifically oriented characteristic of such number and significance as d. Is the paper or the typewriter used in the document in ques-
to preclude the possibility of their occurrence by mere coincidence and there tioned? Etc.
are no unaccounted for differences, it may be concluded that they
are same in their characteristics attributed to the same cause.” 2. Regarding the Standards:
a. Make sure that there are sufficient numbers of authentic
documents for comparison submitted. If there are inadequate
b. Determine whether the standards are authentic ones, on
A. Criminalistics Examination. This involves the detection of forgery, which a foundation can be built for admitting them in
erasure, alteration or obliteration of documents. evidence.

Dr. Wilson Harrison, a noted British Examiner of questioned B. SECOND - ANALYZE THE DETAILS: Synthesize the elements,
documents said that an intelligent police investigator can detect date, circumstances, conditions, technical problems and the like.
almost 75% of all forgeries by careful inspection of a document with 1. The examiner after ascertaining the facts, should have detailed
simple magnifiers and measuring tools. information as to the circumstances of the document in questioned,
the condition of an alleged writer, or of any condition that may
have affected the writing or typewriting or any facts that are part of
the technical problem with the document that is submitted to the 13. Does the document contain abrasion, chemical/pencil erasures, and
expert. alterations/substitutions of any kind?
2. He should inquire about the circumstances and conditions as far as 14. Does the document show abrasion, erasure or lack of continuity
the client knows, such as; was the document signed sitting on the when viewed by transmitted light?
wall, on the lap, or lying in bed? Sitting on bed, lying on his back 15. Has the document been wet in any way and if so, for what
or side? For example, a document could have been signed in a purpose?
moving automobile or while having a drink at the bar. 16. If typewritten, are the contents of the document all written on the
same machine?
C. THIRD - QUALIFY THE CASE: 17. Was each sheet written continuously at one time without being
1. How much time is needed for the examination? removed from the typewriter?
2. Is it possible to complete the study from the original papers, or is it 18. Are there added figures, words, clauses, sentences, paragraphs or
necessary to make special photo-enlargements for proper pages written on a different typewriter?
examination? 19. Do the perforations agree with the stubs from which the alleged
3. If it is possible to make arrangements with the client for photo- document came?
enlargement, is it advisable to do so? 20. If the document is a carbon copy, does it conform in the size,
4. Photo-enlargements are always useful for demonstrating the position, and arrangement of matters with original letterheads?
reasons on which the opinion is based, especially in Court. 21. If the document is a letter, does postmark, postage stamps, manner
of sealing and opening of envelope have any significance?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN QUESTIONED DOCUMENT 22. Are there indentations in the paper from handwriting or
EXAMINATION typewriting on a sheet placed above the paper examined?
23. Is the rubber-stamp impression if any appears made from a genuine
A. Analysis (Recognition) - properties or characteristics, observed or stamp?
measured. 24. Is the attached seal of proper date or the seal impression made
B. Comparison - Properties or characteristics of the unknown from a genuine seal and is it made in proper sequence?
determined thought analysis are now compared with the familiar
or recorded properties of known items. C. Who Conducts the Preliminary Examination? – It should be
C. Evaluation- Similarities or dissimilarities in properties or conducted by a QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXPERT.
characteristics will each have a certain value for identification,
determined by its likelihood of occurrence. The weight or D. Who is a Questioned Document Expert? A Questioned Document
significance of each must therefore be considered. Expert is one who has:
1. Attained the appropriate education and training;
The criteria of scientific examination of documents are: 2. Sufficient knowledge on the technical, scientific, and legal aspects
of document examinations; and
A. Accuracy – correspondence between results obtained and the truth. 3. A broad experience in handling questioned document cases.
B. Precision – measure of the consistency of results obtained in repeated
“In scientific study of signatures/handwritings, we learn the basic 1. Assurance of preparedness;
facts and then reason carefully and logically from these facts according to 2. Trial fiscal or judges are infrequently confronted with document
established and recognized rules in order to form an opinion or conclusion cases; consequently, they do not possess the knowledge of the
as to whether a questioned signature/handwriting is genuine or forged” documents expert's ability of the various methods that exist for
determining forgeries.
3. Avoidance of an “OFF-HAND” opinion.
F. What is an “OFF-HAND OPINION”? Off-hand opinion is usually
It is the initial examination conducted on a document to determine a conclusion that is not based on thorough scientific examination.
whether it is genuine or not. It is not a misnomer, for in reality it consists of
painstaking analysis more than looking at a document and expressing an off- G. THE DANGER OF OFF-HAND OPINIONS - It has happened in
hand opinion. some cases that an off-hand opinion, has sent an innocent man to
prison, while a murderer was given a chance to escape.
1. ensures preparedness; DOCUMENT EXAMINATIONS
2. avoidance of delay; and
3. ensures success of the case. A. MAGNIFYING LENS – Bank personnel and other people involved
in currency examinations usually use and ordinary hand-lens; the
B. Principal points for consideration in the PRELIMINARY maximum diameter of which is four inches, and this appears big with
EXAMINATION of questioned documents. Please note that these its wide frame it has a magnifying power of two times the original
questions may not be applicable in every case. only. Magnifying lenses of five times or more magnifying power,
1. Is the signature genuine? with built-in-lighting are more useful.
2. Is the signature in a natural position? B. SHADOWGRAPH – a pictorial image formed by casting a shadow,
3. Are the signatures of the witnesses genuine and were they written usually of the hands, upon a rightful surface or screen.
in the order as they appear? C. STEREOSCOPIC BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE – a tri-
4. Does the signature touch the other writings? Or was it written last? dimensional (3D) enlargement is possible.
5. Are there remains of pencil or carbon marks which may have been D. MEASURES AND TEST PLATES (TRANSPARENT GLASS) –
an outline for the signature of other writings? those used for signatures and typewritings.
6. Is the signature shown in an embossed form on the back of the E. TABLE LAMPS WITH ADJUSTABLE SHADES (Goose Neck
sheet? Lamps) – used for controlled illumination; needed in sidelight
7. Is the writings written before the paper was folded? examination wherein light is placed at a low-angle in a position
8. Is the signature written before or after the paper was folded? oblique to plane or document.
9. Is more than one kind of ink used in the preparation of the F. TRANSMITTED LIGHT GADGET – a device where light comes
document? from beneath or behind glass on document is placed.
10. Are the several sheets of the document exactly the same sizes, G. ULTRA VIOLET LAMP – this is usually used in the detection of
thickness and colors? counterfeited bills but can actually be used to detect security features
11. Is the paper torn, burned or mutilated in any way, and if so, for of qualified documents.
what purpose? H. INFRARED VIEWER – primarily used to decipher writings in a
12. Is the paper unnecessary soiled or crumpled? charred document.
I. COMPARISON MICROSCOPE – similar to that of the bullet d. determining retouching or patching of a writing by
comparison microscope. showing clearly the presence of added ink film and the
uneven distribution of ink in interrupted strokes.

A. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION - Any examination or study A. ERASURES - One of the common inquiries in questioned document
which is made with the microscope in order to discover minute is whether or not an erasure was actually made on a document. In
physical details. Stereoscopic examination with low and high power cases like this, the following examinations are made:
objectives is used to detect retouching, patching and unnatural pen-lift 1. Physical inspection: using ultraviolet light, observation with
in signature analysis. With proper angle and intensity or illumination, light striking the surface at a sharp angle, and observation under
it aids in the decipherment of erasures, some minute the microscope maybe considered.
manipulations not perfectly pictured to the unaided eye and the 2. Fuming with iodine may cause an almost negligible stain, but in
sequence of entries done by different writing instruments. most instances not the slightest semblance of a stain remains.

B. TRANSMITTED LIGHT EXAMINATION – In this examination, B. INDENTED WRITING - Indented writing is a term usually applied
the document is viewed with the source of illumination behind it and to the partially visible depressions appearing on a sheet of paper
the light passing through the paper. Documents are subjected to this underneath the one on which the visible writing appears. These
type of examination to determine the presence of erasures, matching depressions or indentation are due to the application of pressure on
of serrations and some other types of alterations. the writing instrument and would appear as a carbon copy if a sheet
of carbon paper had been properly inserted. Indentation may also
C. OBLIQUE LIGHT EXAMINATION - An examination with the appear on a blank sheet of paper if such is used as a backing sheet
illumination so controlled that it grazes or strikes the surface of the while typing out a message on a typewriter. Methods of examination
document from one side at a very low angle. Decipherment of faded are:
handwriting, determination of outlines in traced forgery, embossed 1. Physical methods maybe used by passing a strong beam of
impressions, etc. are subjected to this type of examination. nearly parallel light almost horizontally over the surface of the
D. PHOTOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION - This type of examination is 2. Fuming the document maybe of values in some cases.
very essential in every document examination. Actual observations 3. Powders of various kinds maybe used without changing the
are recorded in the photographs. document.

E. ULTRA-VIOLET EXAMINATION - Ultraviolet radiation is C. BURNED OR CHARRED PAPER - A piece of paper maybe
invisible and occurs in the wave lengths just below the visible blue- subjected to the action of a limited amount of heat, causing it to
violet end of the spectrum (rainbow). These visible rays react on become scorched and retaining a certain amount of its identity or it
some substances so that visible light is reflected, a phenomenon maybe subjected to intense heat, reducing it to ashes and losing its
known as FLOURESCENCE. This type of examination is done in a identity. However, if the combustion is incomplete, a certain amount
darkroom after the lamp has been warmed up in order to give a of success maybe realized provided the pieces are large enough to
maximum output of the ultra-violet light. Exposure to the ultra-violet form a coherent message.
light should be to the minimum duration in order to avoid fading of
some writing ink and typewriter ribbon.
The following methods maybe applied to decipher the original
F. INFRARED EXAMINATION - This examination of documents message contained thereon:
employs invisible radiation beyond the red portion of the visible
spectrum (rainbow) which is usually recorded on a specially 1. Photographic methods, using various types of filters and
sensitized photographic emulsion. different angles of illumination may determine the writing
contained thereon without changing the appearance of the
2. Chemical methods, such as spraying, painting, or bathing
A. PURPOSES OF PHOTOGRAPHS IN QDE: charred pieces with solutions of different chemical reagents.
3. Photographic plates maybe utilized by allowing the charred
1. serve as record of the initial condition of a disputed document; paper to remain in contact with the emulsion sides in total
2. make clear what otherwise may be hidden or indistinct; darkness from one to two weeks.
3. enlarge a writing in question so that every quality and
characteristics of it can be clearly and properly interpreted D. ADDING MACHINES - The construction of an adding machine
whether the facts so shown point to genuineness or to forgery; differs greatly from the typewriter but the methods and principles of
4. enable any number of accurate reproductions of document, thus identification are related.
affording unlimited opportunity for study, comparison and
evaluation by any number of examiners, which would not be Manufacturers use different types of numerals and from time to
possible by using the document alone; time change their design. The spacing between columns is also not
5. allow cutting apart as may be desired and the various parts standardized for all machines. Those factors form the basis of determining the
classified for comparisons; make of the machine and for estimating the period in which it was built.
6. can show delicate discolorations due to chemical erasures or Another kind of approach is the ribbon impression, for the ribbon is made and
other fraudulent changes, which may otherwise be overlooked, operates very similarly to the typewriter.
or misinterpreted;
7. can show very clearly any erasures by abrasions made by HANDLING OF DOCUMENTS AND QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS
ordinary rubber eraser and it can record in permanent form with
the paper placed obliquely to the plane of the lens and plate and A. THE CARE OF DISPUTED DOCUMENTS AND
inclined at just right angle of reflection so as to show DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
differences in the reflected light from different portions of the
paper surface; and 1. It is a basic requirement, that when a document becomes disputed
and deposited in court or with the attorney, in order to maintain
8. with transmitted light, photographs is useful in: its original condition, it should be kept UNFOLDED AND IN
a. examination of watermarks A SEPARATE, PROPER SIZE ENVELOPE OR FOLDER.
b. determining the identity, or the differences in paper by This is true not only for the disputed documents, but for many
showing arrangement of the fibers and the markings of the other important documentary evidence.
wire gauze and dandy roll 2. It is also advisable that right after the document becomes
c. showing the continuity of strokes and disputed, or questioned, it is important to make not only the usual
photo static copy (Xerox), but also a proper photograph or photo- I. KINDS OF WRITINGS:
enlargement, done if possible by the document expert or under the
supervision of the document expert. A. Cursive – connected; writing in which one letter is joined to the next.
3. When working in the preparation of case, it is often B. Script – separated or printed writing.
necessary for the lawyer or court to handle repeatedly the C. BLOCK – all CAPITAL LETTERS.
disputed document. Should this be necessary, instead of
handling and working with the original document, the photograph II. BASIS OF HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION
should be used.
4. Every touching, folding, refolding or pointing to certain parts of a A. In Wignore's Principles of judicial Proof, handwriting is defined as a
document, can change the physical condition of the case. visible effect of bodily movement which is an almost unconscious
For example, touching with wet hands or fingers can create expression of fixed muscular habits, reacting from fixed mental
smearing in the ink, pointing with a pencil can leave marks that impression of certain ideas associated with script form.
create a suspicion of previous pencil marks, or experiments as B. Environment, education and occupation affect individuals so
proof of attempted forgery. variously in the formation of these muscular habits that finally the act
5. Pointing a document with any other instruments, such as sharp of writing becomes an almost automatic succession of acts stimulated
stick, can cause slight damage which although it can not be seen by by these habits.
the naked eye, can show definite marks under the microscope or on C. The imitation of the style of writing by another person becomes
the enlarged photograph. difficult because the other person cannot by mere will power
6. No test should be made to alter the conditions of the document; for reproduce in himself all the muscular combination from the habit of
example, the old-fashioned ink test, which was used to determine the first writer.
the age of the ink-writing.
7. Should any test be necessary, insist that it should be done in the Take Note:
presence of a chemist, or in court, or in front of both parties
involved the case. Is handwriting/signature identification an “exact science”?

B. DO's and DON'T's in the CARE, HANDLING AND In the hand of a qualified examiner operating under proper conditions,
PRESERVATION OF DOCUMENTS identification by means of handwriting/signature is certain. Proper conditions
1. “DO’S” 1. sufficient questioned writing
a. Take disputed papers to Document Examiner's Laboratory at 2. sufficient known writing
the First Opportunity. 3. sufficient time
b. If storage is necessary, keep in dry place away from 4. use of scientific instruments
excessive heat strong light.
c. Maintain in consequential document, unfolded and in III. PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF HANDWRITING
transparent plastic envelope or evidence preserver.
In writing the pen functions as an extension of the hand. The
2. “DONT’S” fingers transmit to the paper, the directive impulse and the variation in
a. Do not underscore, make careless markings, fold, erase, muscular tension that according to the nature of tie writer's nervous
impress rubber stamps, sticker, write on, or otherwise alter organization occur during the act or writing. This center near the motor area of
any handwriting. the cortex is responsible for the finger movement involved in handwriting.
b. Do not smear with fingerprints powder or chemicals. The importance of this center is that when it becomes diseased as in a graphic,
c. Do not carry handwriting document carelessly in wallet, one loses the ability to write although he could still grasp a fountain pen, ball
notebook or brief case on grounds of interviews. pen or pencil. Thus, the ability or power to hold a fountain pen or pencil to
d. Do not handle disputed papers excessively or carry then in form symbols and words can be said to emanate from its cortical center.
pocket for a long time.
e. Do not marked disputed documents (either by Two Groups of Muscles Involve in Handwriting:
consciously writing instruments or dividers)
f. Do not mutilate or damage by repeated refolding, creasing, 1. extensor muscles - push up the pen to form the upward strokes
cutting, tearing or punching for filing purposes. 2. flex muscles which push the pen to from the downward strokes.
g. Do not allow anyone except qualified specialist to make
chemical or other tests; do no treat or dust for latent finger Generally speaking, four groups of muscles are employed in
prints before consulting a document examiner. writing - those which operate the joints of the fingers, wrist, elbow, and
shoulder. The delicate way in which the various muscles used in writing work
C. HANDLING CHARRED DOCUMENTS together to produce written form is known as motor coordination.

1. Those extremely fragile must be handled as little as possible and IV. VARIATIONS IN HANDWRITING
transporting them to the laboratory requires extra-ordinary care.
With forethought and caution they can be brought from the distant A more or less definite pattern for each is stored away in the
fire scene to the laboratory. subjective mind but the hand does not always produce a stereotyped duplicate
2. They should be moved in the container in which they are found of that pattern. The hand ordinarily is not an instrument of precision and
whenever possible. When the fragments are not packed tightly, therefore we may not expect every habitual manual operation to be absolutely
they should be padded with lightweight absorbent cotton. If jarring uniform. The greater this skill in the art of penmanship, the less the variations
can not be entirely eliminated jarring the box must be kept to a there will be in the form of individualize letters as well as in the writing as a
minimum. whole.
3. Thus every precaution must be taken in handling and transporting
the charred residue in order to prevent the large pieces CAUSES OF VARIATION
from becoming unnecessarily and badly broken. The
fragment must be held firmly without crushing and prevent 1. Function of some external condition i.e. influence of the available
movement or shifting when finally packed in a sturdy container. space.
2. Abnormal conditions such as physical injury, toxic effects,
HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION inebriation's, emotion and deception.
3. Position of letter - all the letters are to be found initially, medially,
HANDWRITING - It is the result of a very complicated series of and finally. The fact of a different position, especially in
facts, being used as whole, combination of certain forms of visible mental and combination with another and particular letter, may modify any
muscular habits acquired by long, continued painstaking effort. Some defined of them in some way or another.
handwriting as “visible speech.”
3. British Copybook
1. Personal variation encountered under normal writing conditions is 4. French Copybook
also a highly important element of identification. The qualities of 5. German Copybook
personal variation include both its nature and its extent. It becomes
necessary to determine the amount, extent, and exact quality of the C. SIGNIFICANCE OF SCHOOL COPY FORMS or System
variations. Characteristics as Basis in the Identification of Handwriting
2. It is improbable that the variety and extent of the variation in
handwriting will be exactly duplicated in two individuals that such 1. Similarities of form are not indicative of identity unless
a coincidence becomes practically impossible and this multitude of they concern unusual form or what are termed deviations from the
possible variations when combined is what constitutes normal. Similarities are bound to occur in different writings but
individuality in handwriting. such similarities exist only in letters which are normal in form, the
3. With a group of signatures of a particular writer, certain normal fact bears no significance.
divergence in size, lateral spacing and proportions actually indicate 2. All differences in form are indicated of non-identity
genuineness. Variation in genuine writing is ordinarily in 3. The likeness in form maybe general and simply indicate the class
superficial parts and in size, proportions, degree of care given to or genus or the difference that does not differentiate maybe nearly
the act, design, slant, shading, vigor, angularity, roundness and superficial.
direction of stroke. 4. In many systems of writing, the date and influences of system of
writing have an important bearing on the question of genuine or of
Take Note: “The most common error in the identification of forgery and in other cases, the presence of European
handwriting is due to the fact that the evidence of actual forgery is executed characteristics in handwriting is a vital and controlling fact.
on the ground that there is variation in genuine writing.”

1. Children learn writing by following the school copy or model. 1. To the nationality of the writer.
2. After acquiring some degree of skill the children no longer follow 2. To the system learned.
the school model. 3. To the date when the writing was acquired and
3. As speed increases, conscious design and regularity begin to break 4. To some of the influences that have surrounded the writer.
4. In the course of trial and error, modification are made, TERMINOLOGIES RELATED TO HANDWRITING
simplification and elaborations, addition and omissions occur. IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATIONS
a. The writing pattern of each child embodies unique
combinations of such deviation from the standard letter forms ALIGNMENT - Is the relation of parts of the whole of writing or line
or school model, and becomes his personal habits. of individual letters in words to the baseline. It is the alignment of words
b. Although thousands learn the same system and that the or the relative alignment of letters.
natural result is identity, but facts show that it is not because
those who were taught the same system or school copy a ANGULAR FORMS – Sharp, straight strokes that are made by
class of writers, but such impairs does not by any means stopping the pen and changing direction before continuing.
produce a slavish uniformity.
c. Variation begins as soon as writing begins and continues ARCADE FORMS – Forms that look like arches rounded on the top
until each writer in the way that seems best and easiest to and open at the bottom.
CHARACTERISTICS - any property or mark which distinguishes and
VI. SCHOOL COPYBOOK FORM (school model) - refers to the standard in document examination commonly called to as the identifying details.
of handwriting instruction taught in particular school. Classes of
copybook depend on the standard school copy adopted by a writer. COLLATION - side by side comparison; collation as used in this text
means the critical comparison on side by side examination.
A. SYSTEMS of Early American Handwriting
COMPARISON - the act of setting two or more items side by side to
1. Old English round hand - an Italian hand popular in 1840. weigh their identifying qualities; it refers not only a visual but also the
2. Modified round hand - early edition of the Spencerian, and the mental act in which the element of one item are related to the
Payson, Dunton, and Scribners copybook - 1840 -1860. counterparts of the other.
3. Spencerian - there is simplification by the omission of extra strokes
and flourishes. And a general tendency toward plainer letters than DISGUISED WRITING - A writer may deliberately try to alter his
the preceding system, some of which were very ornate - 1860- usual writing habits in hopes of hiding his identity. The results,
1890. regardless of their effectiveness are termed disguised writing.
4. Modern Vertical writing 1890-1900
5. The arm movement writing - the manner or method of writing, DOWNSTROKE – The movement of the pen toward the writer.
instead of the form alone is especially emphasized.
FORM – The writer’s chosen writing style. The way the writing looks,
Out of these five divisions of early handwriting, the modern whether it is copybook, elaborated, simplified or printed.
commercial hand systems developed. This is characterized by free movement.
And the forms adopted are best suited to easy rapid writing. These are the GARLAND FORMS – A cup-like connected form that is open at the
Zaner and Blozer system of arm movement writing and the Palmer system of top and rounded on the bottom.
American arm movement. The last great revolution in American handwriting
was the adoption of vertical writing which was in fact a reversion to the GESTALT – The German word that means “complete” or “whole”. A
old system of slow but legible writing. The connecting stroke is based on the good gestalt needs nothing added or taken away to make it “look right”.
small circle and is the most distinctive "round hand" ever devised. It was very Also a school of handwriting analysis that looks at handwriting as a
slow compared with writing based on the narrow ellipse like the Spencerian in whole picture.
which all connections were almost points instead of broad curves. Most
commercial handwritings tend toward straight connecting strokes and narrow GRAPHOANALYSIS - the study of handwriting based on the two
connections. fundamental strokes, the curve and the straight strokes.

B. SOME MODERN SCHOOL MODEL FORMS GRAPHOMETRY - analysis by comparison and measurement.

1. Palmer Copybook GRAPHOLOGY - the art of determining character disposition and

2. D’Nealian Copybook amplitude of a person from the study of handwriting. It also means the
scientific study and analysis of handwriting, especially with reference to
forgeries and questioned documents. SIGNIFCANT WRITING HABIT – Any characteristic of handwriting
that is sufficiently uncommon and well fixed to serve as a fundamental
HANDLETTERING. Any disconnected style of writing in which each point in the identification.
letter is written separately; also called handprinting.
SIMPLIFICATION – Eliminating extra or superfluous strokes from
LETTER SPACE – The amount of space left between letters. the copybook model.

LINE DIRECTION – Movement of the baseline. May slant up, down, SIZE – May refer to the overall size of the writing or the proportions
or straight across the page. between zones.

LINE QUALITY - the overall character of the ink lines from the SKILL - In any set there are relative degrees or ability or skill and a
beginning to the ending strokes. There are two classes: Good Line specimen of handwriting usually contains evidence of the writer's
quality and Poor Line quality. The visible records in the written proficiency; degree, ability, or skill of a write proficiency.
stroke of the basic movements and manner of holding
the writing instrument is characterized by the term "line quality". It is SLOPE/SLANT - the angle or inclination of the axis of the letters
derived from a combination of actors including writing skill, speed relative to the baseline. There are three classes: Slant to the left; Slant to
rhythm, freedom of movements, shading and pen position. the right; and Vertical Slant.

LINE SPACE – The amount of space left between lines. SPEED OF WRITING - The personal pace at which the writer’s pen
moves across the paper.
MANUSCRIPT WRITING. A disconnected form of script or semi-
script writing. This type of writing is taught in young children in SPEED (SPEEDY) WRITING - Not everyone writes at the same rate
elementary schools as the first step in learning to write. so that consideration of the speed of writing may be a significant
identifying element. Writing speed cannot be measured precisely from
MARGINS – The amount of space left around the writing on all four the finished handwriting but can be interpreted in broad terms of slow,
sides. moderate, or rapid.

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION - Any study or examination which SYSTEM (OF WRITING) - The combination of the basic design of
is made with the microscope in other to discover minute details. letters and the writing movement as taught in school make up the writing
system. Writing through use diverges from the system, but generally
MOVEMENT – It is an important element in handwriting. It embraces retains some influence of the basic training.
all the factors which are related to the motion of the writing instrument
skill, speed freedom, hesitation, rhythm, emphasis, tremors and the like. TENSION – The degree of force exerted on the pen compared to the
The manner in which the writing instrument is move that is by degree of relaxation.
finger, hand, forearm or whole arm.
THREADY FORM – An indefinite connective form that looks flat and
NATURAL WRITING - Any specimen of writing executed normally wavy.
without any attempt to control or alter its identifying habits and its usual
quality or execution. VARIABILITY – The degree to which the writing varies from the
copybook model.
NATURAL VARIATION - These are normal or usual deviations found
between repeated specimens of any individual handwriting. VARIATION – The act or process of changing.

PEN EMPHASIS - The act of intermittently forcing the pen against WORD SPACE – The amount of space left between words.
the paper surfaces. When the pen-point has flexibility, this emphasis
produces shading, but with more rigid writing points heavy point WRITING CONDITION – Both the circumstances under which the
emphasis can occur in writing w/out any evidence of shading; the act writing was prepared and the factors influencing the writer’s ability to
intermittently forcing the pen against the paper with increase pressure. write at the time of execution. It includes the writer’s position (sitting,
standing, abed, etc.), the paper support and backing, and the writing
PEN HOLD – The place where the writer grasps the barrel of the pen instrument; writing ability may be modified by the condition of the
and the angle at which he holds it. writer’s health, nervous state, or degree of intoxication.

PEN POSITION - relationship between the pen point and the paper. WRONG-HANDED WRITING. Any writing executed with the
opposite hand that normally used; a.k.a. as “with the awkward hand.” It
PEN PRESSURE - the average force with which the pen contacts is one means of disguise. Thus, the writing of a right-
the paper. Pen pressure as opposed to pen emphasis deals with the usual handed person which has been executed with his left hand accounts for
of average force involved in the writing rather than the period increases. the common terminology for this class of disguise as "left-hand writing".

PRINTSCRIPT – A creative combination of printing and cursive WRITING IMPULSE – The result of the pen touching down on the
writing. paper and moving across the page, until it is raised from the paper.

PROPORTION or RATIO - the relation between the tall and the short MOVEMENT IN HANDWRITING
letter is referred as to the ratio of writing.
QUALITY. A distinct or peculiar character. Also, “quality” is used in 1. Finger Movement - the thumb, the first, second and slightly the
describing handwriting to refer to any identifying factor that is related to third fingers are in actual motion. Most usually employed by
the writing movement itself. children and illiterates.
2. Hand Movement - produced by the movement or action of the
RHYTHM – The element of the writing movement which is marked by whole hand with the wrist as the center of attraction.
regular or periodic recurrences. It may be classed as smooth, 3. Forearm Movement - the movement of the shoulder, hand and arm
intermittent, or jerky in its quality; the flourishing succession of motion with the support of the table.
which are recorded in a written record. Periodicity, alternation of 4. Whole Forearm Movement - action of the entire arm without
movement. resting. i.e., blackboard writing.

SHADING - Is the widening of the ink strokes due to the added pressure B. QUALITY OF MOVEMENT
on a flexible pen point or to the use of a stub pen. 1. Clumsy, illiterate and halting
2. Hesitating and painful due to weakness and illness
3. Strong, heavy and forceful HANDWRITING STROKE
4. Nervous and irregular
5. Smooth, flowing and rapid STROKE is a series of lines or curves written in a single letter;
one of the lines of an alphabet or series of lines or curves within a single
C. SPEED - Slow and drawn; Deliberate; average; and rapid letter; the path traced by the pen on the paper.

D. DIFFERENT MOVEMENTS EMPLOYED AFFECT WRITING 1. ARC – a curved formed inside the top curve of loop as in small
IN – Smoothness; Directness; Uniformity; Continuity of strokes; and letters “h”, “m”, “n”, & “p”.
Connecting or curves between letters 2. ARCH - any arcade form in the body of a letter found in small
letters which contain arches.
MOTOR COORDINATION 3. ASCENDER - is the top portion of a letter or upper loop.
4. BASELINE - maybe actually on a ruled paper, it might be
It is the special way in which the various muscles used in writing imaginary alignment of writing; is the ruled or imaginary line upon
work together to produced written forms. which the writing rests.
5. BEADED - Preliminary embellished initial stroke which usually
The Characteristics of Motor Coordination are: occurs in capital letters.
6. BEARD - is the rudimentary initial up stroke of a letter.
1. Free, smelt rounded curves 7. BLUNT - the beginning and ending stroke of a letter (without
2. Speed and gradual changes of directions hesitation).
3. Pressure is always in a state of change, moving from light to heavy 8. BODY - The main portion of the letter, minus the initial of strokes,
or from heavy to light. terminal strokes and the diacritic, of any. Ex: the oval of the letter
4. The shading impulse is distributed over a considerable length of "O" is the body, minus the downward stroke and the loop.
the line whereas in writing produced with a slow motion as in the 9. BOWL - a fully rounded oval or circular form on a letter complete
finger movement, the shading often has a "bunchy" appearance, in into "O".
which the maximum width of the shaded line is attained abruptly. 10. BUCKLE/BUCKLEKNOT - A loop made as a flourished which is
added to the letters, as in small letter "k & b", or in capital letters
Faulty motor coordination’s are characterized by the following: "A", "K","P"; the horizontal end loop stroke that are often used to
complete a letter.
1. Wavering and very irregular line or strokes with uncertain and 11. CACOGRAPHY - a bad writing.
unsteady progress. There is no freedom of movement along the 12. CALLIGRAPHY - the art of beautiful writing.
strokes of the letter-forms. The writing is obviously very slow and 13. DESCENDER - opposite of ascender, the lower portion of a letter.
is typical of the writing of a young child or for any one who 14. DIACRITIC - "t" crossing and dots of the letter "i" and "j". The
painstakingly draws a picture of an unfamiliar form. matters of the Indian script are also known as diacritic signs; an
2. Angular Line - a very common fault of coordination. Curves, element added to complete a certain letter, either a cross bar or a
large and small are not smoothly rounded and there is no dot.
gradual change of direction. On the contrary, and angle marks 15. ENDING/TERMINATE STROKE OF TOE - the end stroke of a
almost every change are direction in the line. Investigation has letter.
disclosed that angles are accompanied by a lessening of writing 16. EYE/EYELET/EYELOOP - a small loop or curved formed inside
speed. the letters. This may occur inside the oval of the letters "a, d, o";
the small loop form by stroke that extend in divergent direction as
RHYTHM IN HANDWRITING in small letters.
17. FOOT - lower part which rest on the base line. The small letter
Rhythm is a succession of connected, uniform strokes working in "m" has three feet, and the small letter "n" has two feet.
full coordination. This is manifested by clear-cut accentuated strokes, which 18. HABITS - any repeated elements or details, which may serve to
increase and decrease in which like perfect cones. Pressure is always in a state individualize writing.
of change moving from light to heavy or from heavy to light. 19. HESITATION - the term applied to the irregular thickening of ink
which is found when writing slows down or stop while the pen
A. LACK OF RHYTHM - Characterized by a succession of take a stock of the position.
awkward, independent, poorly directed and disconnected motions. 20. HIATUS/PEN JUMP - a gap occurring between a continuous
stroke without lifting the pen. Such as occurrence usually
B. IMPORTANCE OF RHYTHM - By studying the rhythm of the occurs due to speed; may be regarded also as a special form of pen
succession of strokes, one can determine if the writer normally and lift distinguish in a ball gaps in that of perceptible gaps and appear
spontaneously or write with hesitation as if he is attempting to for in the writing.
another signature. 21. HOOK - It is a minute curve or a ankle which often occurs at the
end of the terminal strokes. It also sometimes occurs at the
C. LETTER OF CONNECTIONS - Determine the essential beginning of an initial stroke. The terminal curves of the letters
expression of the writing pattern. It is a mean indicator of the "a", "d", "n", "m", "p", "u", is the hook. In small letter "w" the
neuromuscular function. Words are formed by connection letters to initial curve is the hook; the minute involuntary talon like
one another. Even letters are formed by the joining of the upward and formation found at the commencement of an initial up stroke or the
downward strokes. These types of connections are: end terminal stroke.
22. HUMP - Upper portion of its letter "m","n","h" ,"k" - the rounded
Arcade - a rounded stroke shaped like an arch. It is a slow outside of the top of the bend stroke or curve in small letter.
mode of connection resulting from controlled movements. 23. KNOB -the extra deposit of ink in the initial and terminal stroke
Garland - Links the downward stroke to the upstrokes with a due to the slow withdrawal of the pen from the paper (usually
flowing curve swinging from left t right. It is an easy, effortless applicable to fountain pen).
mode of connection, written with speed. 24. LIGATURE/CONNECTION - The stroke which connects two
Angular connective form- When the downward strokes and stroke of letter; characterized by connected stroke between letters.
upward strokes meet directly, angular connection is formed. 25. LONG LETTER - those letters with both upper and lower loops.
This type of connection imposes a check on the continuity of 26. LOOP - A oblong curve such as found on the small letter "f", "g",
movement which is characterized by an abrupt stop and start in "l" and letters stroke "f" has two. A loop may be blind or open.
each turning point. A blind loop is usually the result of the ink having filled the open
The threadlike connective form - the joining of downward and space.
upward strokes is slurred to a threadlike tracing or where 27. MAJUSCULE - a capital letter.
rounded turns used at both top and bottom produce a double 28. MINUSCULE - a small letter.
curve. These forms appear both in the shaping of letters within 29. MOVEMENT IMPULSES - this refer to the continuity of stroke,
the word. forged writing is usually produced by disconnected and broken
movements and more motion or movement impulses than in
genuine writing. B. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS - They are characteristics which
30. PATCHING - retouching or going back over a defective portion of are the result of the writer's muscular control, coordination, age, health,
a written stroke. Careful patching is common defect on forgeries. and nervous temperament, frequency of writing, personality
and character. They are found in Writing movement, Form and design of
Take Note: letters, Motor Coordination, Shading, Skill, Alignment, Pen pressure,
Connection, Pen hold, Rhythm, Disconnections or pen lifts between
1. AIRSTROKE – The movement of the pen as it is raised from the letters, Speed, Slant as a writing habit, Proportion of letters as an
paper and continues in the same direction in the air. individual characteristic or habit, Quality of stroke or line quality,
2. COVERING STROKE – A stroke that unnecessarily covers Variation and Muscular control or motor control -
another stroke in a concealing action. a. Loose writing - this is characterized by too much freedom of
3. FINAL – The ending stroke on a letter when it is at the end of a movement and lack of regulation. This is noticed especially
word. in tall letters forms.
4. UPSTROKE – Movement of the pen away from the writer. b. Restrained writing - there is lack of freedom
5. SEQUENCE OF STROKES - The order in which writing and inhibited movements. It gives you the impression that
strokes are placed on the paper is referred to as their sequence. every stroke was made with great difficulty. This writing is
6. SUPPORTED STROKES – Upstrokes partially covering the small. There is distortion of letter forms which may lead to
previous down strokes. Originally taught in European schools. illegibility.
7. TRAIT STROKE – a school o handwriting analysis that assigns
personality trait manners to individual writing strokes. Indications of speed (speedy) writing
a. Smooth, unbroken strokes and rounded forms.
QUALITIES OF THE STROKES b. Frequent signs or tendencies to the right.
c. Marked uncertainty as to the location of the dots of small
1. Expansion - whether the movement is extended or limited in its letters "I", "j" & crosses of small letter "t".
range with respect to both vertical and horizontal dimension. d. Increased spontaneity of words or small letter "t" connected
2. Co-ordination - whether the flow of movement is controlled or with the following words.
uncertain, smooth or jerky, continuous or interrupted. e. Letters curtailed or degenerated almost to illegibility towards
3. Speed - whether the movement has been rapid or slow and whether the end of words.
the pace has been steady or variable. f. Wide writing - width of letters is greater than the connecting
4. Pressure- whether the pressure exerted in the movement and its spaces adjoining it.
upward and downward reach. g. Great difference in emphasis between upstrokes and down
5. Direction- Left ward and right ward trend of they movement and strokes.
its upward and downward reach. h. Marked simplification of letters especially capital letters.
6. Rhythm - in the sequence of movements that weave the total i. Rising line.
pattern, certain similar phases recur at more or less regular j. Increased pen pressure.
intervals. k. Increase in the margin to left at the beginning of the line.

HANDWRITING PROBLEMS Indications of slow writing

a. Wavering forms and broken strokes.
1. A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality b. Frequent signs or tendencies to the left.
is genuine and corresponds perfectly to the ordinary, and c. Conspicuous certainly as to the location of the dots of small
habitual signatures of that person. letters "I","j","or "t" crosses with scarcely perceptible
2. A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality deviation from the intended direction.
was written by him but in a way which was different from the d. Frequent pauses by meaningless blobs, angles, divided letters
ordinary manner and which is more or less different from the and retouches.
common genuine signatures of that person. e. Careful execution of detail of letters, toward the end or
3. A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality names.
was written by a third person and which is a forgery written in an f. Narrow writing.
attempted imitation of a model. g. No difference in emphasis in upstroke and down stroke
4. A spurious signature/handwriting written by somebody who did h. Ornamental or flourishing connections.
not attempt to imitate the signature of a person and who uses a i. Sinking lines
fictitious name and this to give his work the appearance of a
5. An uncontested signature/handwriting, in fact, genuine but written 1. Ordinary copy-book form
by an unknown person whose name must be deciphered by the 2. Usual systematic slant
document examiner. 3. Ordinary scale of proportion or ratio
4. Conventional spacing
1. Forged or simulated writings in which the attempt is made to 1. Permanent characteristics - found always in his handwriting.
discard one’s own writing and assume the exact writing personality 2. Common or usual - found in a group of writers who studied the
of another person. same system of writing.
2. Those writings that are disguised and in which the writer seeks to 3. Occasional - found occasionally in his handwriting.
hide his own personality without adapting that of another. 4. Rare - special to the writer and perhaps found only in one or two
persons in a group of one hundred individuals.
1. Outgrowth of definite teaching
Writing Habits - Writing by all its thousand of peculiarities in 2. Result of imitation
combination is the most personal and individuals thing that a man does that 3. Accidental condition or circumstances
leaves a record which can be seen and studies. This is what constitutes 4. Expression of certain mental and physical traits of the writer as
individuality in handwriting. affected by education, by environment and by occupation.


refer to those habits are part of basic writing system or which are CHARACTERISTICS
modifications of the system of writing found among so large a group of 1. Hook to the right and hook to the left
writes that have only slight identification value. 2. Shape, position, size and angle of "i" dots "t" crossing
3. Idiosyncrasies
4. Bulbs and distinctive initial and final pen pressure STANDARDS OR EXEMPLARS
5. Embellishment, added strokes and free movement endings
6. Abbreviation of letters STANDARD - They are known writings, which indicate how a
7. Simple and compound curves and graceful endings person writes. A writer manifests fixed habits in his writings that identify him.
8. Labored movement producing ragged lines This fact provides the basis for an opinion of conclusion regarding any
9. Terminal shadings and forceful endings writing identification problem.
10. Presence and influence of foreign writing, with the introduction of EXEMPLARS - Specimen of the writing of suspects are commonly
Greek "e" known as exemplars. The term standards is a general term referring to all
authenticated writings of the suspects while exemplars refers more especially
PRINCIPLE IN HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION to a specimens of standard writing offered in evidence or obtained or request
for comparison with the questioned writing.
1. When any two specimens of handwritings contain a combination
of corresponding or similar and specifically oriented char- SAMPLE - A selected representative portion of the whole is known
acteristics of such number and significance as to preclude the as a sample. In this text, the term "sample" follows closely the statistical
possibility of their occurrence by mere coincidence, and there are usage.
no unaccounted for difference, it may be concluded that they are TYPES OF HANDWRITING "STANDARDS"
similar in writing characteristics and therefore written by one and
the same person. 1. Collected Standards are KNOWN (genuine) handwriting of an
2. Handwritings are fixed habits. individual such as signature and endorsements on canceled
3. These writing habits like habits of speech become so automatic and checks, legal papers letters, commercial, official, public and
unconscious that even by the most strenuous effort, it is almost private document and other handwriting such as letters,
impossible to change them. It is one of the most permanent of memoranda, etc. Written in the course of daily life, both business
human habits. and socials.
4. No duplication of handwriting by two individuals. 2. Request standards are signature or other handwritings (or hand
printings) written by an individual upon request for the purpose of
CORRECT CONCLUSION comparison with other handwriting or for specimen purposes.
3. Post Litem Motan Exemplars - writings produced by the subject
1. To reach the conclusion that two writings are written by the after evidential writings have come into dispute and solely for the
same hand, characteristics or "dents" and scratches" should be purpose of establishing his contentions.
in sufficient quantity to exclude the theory of accidental
coincidence; to reach the conclusion that writings are by different TYPES OF STANDARDS DESIRABLE FOR COMPARISON USE IN
hands, we may find numerous likeliness in class characteristics THE TWO MOST COMMON TYPES OF QUESTIONED
but divergences in individual characteristics or we may find DOCUMENTS PROBLEMS
divergences in both but the divergence must be something 1. Submit collected and request standards signature from both
more than mere superficial differences. individual case.
2. If the conclusion of identifying is reached, there must not remain 2. When anonymous letter writings other than signature are in
significant differences that cannot reasonably be explained. This questioned:
ignoring of the differences or the failure properly to account for a. Submit request standards writings of general nature from
them is the cause of the errors in handwriting identification. both victim and suspect's (as much standards writing as
3. Although there is no specific approach, the document examiner possible to obtain within reason).
always observed: Analysis; Comparison; and Evaluation. b. Submit request standards of the questioned text written (or
printed) - at least 3 writings by the suspect/s and in some
(Anonymous, threat, poison letters)
1. Uniformity- Does the questioned writing have smooth, rhythmic HANDWRITING STANDARDS IN ALL TYPES OF QUESTIONED-
and free-flowing appearance? DOCUMENT PROBLEMS
2. Irregularities - Does the questioned writing appear awkward, ill- 1. Have subject seated in a natural position at table or desk having
formed slowly drawn smooth writing surface.
3. Size & Proportion- Determine the height of the over-all writ- 2. Furnish subject with paper and writing instrument similar to those
ing as well as the height of the individual strokes in proportion to used in questioned writings, lie; paper should be same size, and
each other. ruled or unruled; as questioned document: if questioned document
4. Alignment - Are they horizontally aligned, or curving, uphill or is in written furnish subject with pen and ink, etc.
downhill. 3. Never permit the subject to see any writing on the questioned
5. Spacing - Determine the general spacing between letters, spacing document.
between words. Width of the left and right margins, paragraph 4. Dictate material to be written (or printed, if questioned material is
indentations. hand printed): give no assistance in spelling or arrangement on
6. Degree of Slant- Are they uniform or not. page. Dictate at a rate of speed, which will produce the subject
7. Formation and Design of the letters, "t" (-) bars, "i" dots, loops, natural writing habits.
circle formation. 5. Remove each specimen upon completion by subject number in
8. Initial, connecting and final strokes. consequence, date, time and identify by initiating each, and request
subjects to sign each specimen.
HANDPRINTING 6. Observe all writing done by subjects and indicate any attempt
of disguise, and whether subjects appears to be normally right or
The procedure and the principle involved are similar to that of cursive left handed, etc.
handwriting. In block capital and manuscript writings, personal individual
rests principally in design, selection, individual letter construction, size ratios SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR TAKING REQUEST
and punctuation habits. The initial step in handwriting examination is to HANDWRITING STANDARDS WHERE CHECKS FORGERY IS
determine whether the questioned handwriting and standards were CHANGED OR SUSPECTED
accomplished with:
1. Furnish subjects with check blanks similar to the questioned
1. A fluency of movement and a certainty of execution indicative of check/s.
familiarity with and a measure or skill in handwriting of 2. Dictate the entries to be made on specimen checks as follows:
conversely. a. Date - Same as shown on questioned check
2. A conscious mental effort and non-rhythmic execution denoting b. Payee - - do -
either unfamiliarity with or disguise in the subject’s handwriting. c. Amount- - do -
d. Signature- - do - Type of Signature Remedy (Required Standards)
e. Any other handwriting shown on questioned check 1. Signature of the careless Collected standards
3. Give subjects to help or suggestions in completing specimen or highly erratic writer.
checks. 2. Receipt Signature. Other receipt signatures
3. Near - Illiterate Writer. Requested standards if writer is still
4. Signatures of Physical a. Collect standards written in
1. The laboratory should be informed of the age apparent health and Impaired Writer the same situation
physical condition of the time standards are written. a. The b. Collect 2 or 3 times more
2. Do not fold, staple or pin document: handle questioned documents intoxicated standards
with care. signature c. Similar to old age deterioration
3. Indicate in the sample handwriting the time, place, date signature b. Old age
of writer as well as witness of the handwriting. deterioration
c. The sick bed
DAILY AFFAIRS 5. Disguised signature or Specimen written in normal
writing condition could not be used
1. Canceled Checks therefore consider collected and
2. Signature cards for saving, checking and charge accounts and safe requested standards.
deposit boxes. 2.
Abnormally small writing.
3. Credit applications and cards 3.
Alteration in slant (usually backhand).
4. Signature on sales slips, on job orders slips, requisition slips and 4.
Usually variation in slant within a single unit of writing (with in
purchase slips. a single signature).
5. Court records and affidavits, such as naturalization papers, 5. Printed forms instead of cursive forms.
bankruptcy proceedings, divorce papers. Probated wills and estate 6. Diminution in the usual speed of writing.
files, powers of attorney, etc. 7. Unusual widening or restriction of lateral spacing.
6. Passports, marriage application, license and affidavits. B. KINDS OF DISGUISES
7. Driver automobile chauffeur, and other types of licensee 1. Change of slant - from right to left or vice versa.
applications 2. Change of letter, either from cursive to block style or vice-
8. Application for gas, electricity, water and telephone services versa.
9. Loan application and receipts 3. Change from cursive (conventional style) to block form or vice-
10. Records from currency exchanges, check-cashing agencies and versa.
pawnshop 4. Change of style from small to big or vice versa.
11. Time sheets, payroll, pay receipts and personal forms 5. Deteriorating one's handwriting.
12. Barangay registration, petitions 6. Using the wrong hand (AMBIDEXTROUS).
13. Signature for certain drug purchases, hotel registrations EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL IN HANDWRITING
14. Church, club and professional society record
15. Veteran records A. PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS - Intoxication affects the
16. Fingerprint records physiological being of an individual hence, the manner of
17. School or University class records and cards handwriting is also affected.
18. Application for firearm and licenses B. EVIDENCE OF ALCOHOLIC INTOXICATION IN
19. Application for export and import and dollar allocations HANDWRITING - Bizarre letter forms, Greatly enlarged writing,
20. ID cards Illegible forms and writing generally, Uneven baseline, Meaningless
blobs or extraneous strokes in the writing, Inconsistency in slant of
HOW TO PREPARE AND COLLECT HANDWRITING writing, Inconsistency in the form of repeated letters.
Factors to Consider in the Selection of standards ADMISSIBILITY OF STANDARD WRITINGS
A. THE AMOUNT OF STANDARD WRITTEN The following are standard writings which are admissible for
B. SIMILARLY OF SUBJECT MATTER. If the questioned writings comparison purposes:
are hand printed, then get hand printed standard or exemplar. Standard writings witnessed, Standards writings admitted, Record
C. RELATIVE DATES of the questioned and the standards writing Maintained in Regular Course of Business as Standard Writings, Government
standard signatures or writing must be those written five (5) years Document as standard Writings, Ancient writings, Other Writings Standards -
before or five (5) after the date of the questioned signature or writing. Among writings admissible as standard are signature on spelling motion or
other instruments, such as an appearance bond, which may without further
The importances of contemporaneous standards are: proof of genuineness be used as a standard. Familiarity sometimes establishes
1. Helps to determine or trace gradual changes on one’s handwriting standard writings.
or signature.
2. Aids in tracing the development of any writing variation Take Note
Opinion Evidence - The court seem to be in general agreement that
D. CONDITION UNDER WHICH BOTH THE QUESTIONED proof of the genuineness of a standard cannot be established by the opinion
AND THE STANDARD ARE PREPARED. Look for standards of experts testifying from a comparison of the writing sought to be used as
prepared under comparable circumstances such as: paper rested on standard with another writing.
the knee; standing; sitting; lying down; and/or while on moving
vehicle. Genuineness of standard decided by court - The sufficiency of the
proof of the genuineness of a standard of writing is a matter to be decided by
E. WRITING INSTRUMENT AND PAPER. Same instrument used the court.
in the preparation of the questioned document must be obtained in the
- Some problems are complicated and harder to solve that includes: SIGNATURE defined – It is the name of a person written by
him/her in a document as a sign of acknowledgement. Or, it is a name or a
mark that a person puts at the end of a document to attest that he is its author
DISGUISES IN HANDWRITING or that he ratifies its contents. Microsoft Encarta Reference Library has these
1. Abnormally large writing.
to say about signature: signed name, signing of name, distinctive 2.INDIRECT TRACING - forger uses a carbon paper and place
characteristic. document on which he will trace the forged signature under the
SIGNIFICANT TERMS document bearing the model signature with a carbon paper
A. CROSS MARK. Historically, many who could not write signed with between the two.
a cross mark or crude X. This authenticating mark is still used today The types of Traced Signatures are:
by illiterates, and if properly witnessed, it can legally stand for a 1. CARBON PROCESS
signature. Ballot marks are also referred to as cross marks because of 2. INDENTATION PROCESS
the common practice of marking with an X. 3. TRANSMITTED LIGHT PROCESS
B. EVIDENTIAL SIGNATURE - Is not simply a signature - it is a C. SPURIOUS SIGNATURE (SIMPLE FORGERY) - Forger does not
signature, signed at a particular time and place, under particular try to copy a model but writes something resembling what we
conditions, while the signer was at particular age, in a particular ordinarily call a signature. For this, he uses a false (spurious) name
physical and mental condition, using particular implements, and with and makes a rapid stroke, disturbing his usual writing by adopting a
a particular reason and purpose for recording his name. camouflage called disguise.
writing of a name as a signature by someone other than the person GENUINE OR MODEL
himself, without his permission, often with some degree of imitation. E. FORGERY BY COMPUTER SCANNING
executed purely by simulation rather than by tracing the outline of a
genuine signature. STEP 1 - Place the questioned and the standard signatures in the
E. GUIDED SIGNATURE. A signature that is executed while the juxta-position or slide-by-side for simultaneous viewing of the various
writer’s hand or arm is steadied in any way. Under the law of most elements and characteristics.
jurisdictions such a signature authenticates a legal document provided STEP 2 - The first element to be considered is the handwriting
it is shown that the writer requested the assistance. Guided signatures movement or the manner of execution (slow, deliberate, rapid, etc). The
are most commonly written during a serious illness or on a deathbed. fundamental difference existing between a genuine signature and an almost
F. IMITATED SIGNATURE. Synonymous with freehand forgery. perfect forgery is in the manner of execution.
G. MODEL SIGNATURE. A genuine signature that has been used to STEP 3 - Second elements to examine is the quality of the line, the
prepare an imitated or traced forgery. presence or tremors, smooth, fluent or hesitation. Defect in line quality is only
H. THEORY OF COMPARISON - The act of setting two or more appreciated when simultaneous viewing is made.
signature in an inverted position to weigh their identifying STEP 4 - Examine the beginning and ending lines, they are very
significance, the reason being that those we fail to see under significant, determine whether the appearance blunt, club-shaped, tapered
normal comparison may readily be seen under this theory. or/vanishing.
STEP 5 - Design and structure of the letters - Determine as to
THE EXAMINATION OF SIGNATURES IS CONSIDERED A roundness, smoothness, angularity and direction. Each individual has a
FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: STEP 6 - Look for the presence of retouching or patching.
1. A signature is a word most practiced by many people and therefore STEP 7 - Connecting strokes, slant, ratio, size, lateral spacing.
most fluently written. STEP 8 - Do not rely so much in the similarity or difference of the
2. A signature is a means to identify a person and have a great personal capital letters, for theses are the often changed according to the whim of the
significance. writer.
3. A signature is written with little attention to spelling and some other CHARACTERISTICS PRINCIPLES THAT SUPPLY MOST CASES:
details. 1. Pen pressure
4. A signature is a word written without conscious thought about the 2. Movement
mechanics of its production and is written automatically. 3. Proportion
5. A signature is the only word the illiterate can write with confidence. 4. Unusual distortion of the forms of letters
TYPES OF SIGNATURES 5. Inconspicuous characteristics
A. FORMAL (a.k.a. CONVENTIONAL or COPYBOOK FORM) - 6. Repeated characteristics
complete correct signature for an important document such as will. 7. Characteristics written with speed
B. INFORMAL (CURSORY) - usually for routine documents and 1. Carelessness
personal correspondence. 2. Spontaneity
1. Personalized
2. Semi-personalized 3. Alternation of thick and thin strokes
C. CARELESS SCRIBBLE - for the mail carrier, delivery boy or the 4. Speed
autograph collector. 5. Simplification
6. Upright letters are interspersed with slanting letters
7. The upward strokes to a threadlike tracing
Forgery is, strictly speaking, a legal term which involves not only
a non-genuine document but also and intent to fraud. However, it is also used 8. Rhythm
synonymously with fraudulent signature or spurious document. 9. Good line quality
10. Variation

A. SIMULATED OR FREEHAND IMITATION FORGERY – 1. Tremulous and broken connecting strokes between letters,
executed purely by simulation rather than by tracing the outline of a indicating points at which the writer has temporarily struck.
genuine signature can be referred as freehand imitation or simulated 2. no rhythm
forgery. Or it refers to the free-hand drawing in imitation of model 3. carefulness or unusual care and deliberation
signature. 4. no contrast between upward and downward strokes
1. SIMULATED WITH THE MODEL BEFORE THE FORGER 5. slow writing- angular writing
a. DIRECT TECHNIQUE - forger works directly with ink. 6. blunt beginning and endings
b. INDIRECT - forger works first with pencil and afterwards 7. placement of diacritical marks just over the stem of letters
covers the pencil strokes with ink. 8. absence of spontaneity - lack of smoothness of letters
2. SIMULATED FREE HAND FORGERY (TECHNIQUE) - used 9. restrained writing - there is lack of freedom or "inhibited"
by forgers who have a certain skill in writing? After some movements THAT gives the impression that every stroke is made
practice, the forger tries to write a copy of the model quickly. with great difficulty. This writing is small.
1. DIRECT TRACING - tracing is made by transmitted light.
1. Writing habits of the writer (forger) is evident in the forged NOTE/BILL
1. flat strokes
2. no contrast between upstrokes and down strokes Portrait
3. deposit of ink at the junction of two strokes or where two strokes
cross each other.
4. no variation - All signature will superimpose over each other. Distinctive feel & embossed Generally smooth
A. Genuine Signature which the writer refuses to admit not genuine. 1. The fingers will readily feel 1. The fingers will hardly feel the main
Generally presence of tremors, remnants of carbon, retouching the the main print on the front prints of the front & back even on
(patching) indicates forgery. Produced, the probability of genuineness & back on fairly new notes. new notes.
B. Genuine Signature Deliberately Modified. Examination of this 2. This is due to the measurable 2. This is brought about by offset print
kind of signature is confidently discover that the modification is only thickness of the ink deposited the most common process employed
on the prominent features of the letter designs that are pointed out by on the paper which gives the by counterfeiters
the disclaimer, while the rest appear to be normal. There are unnatural prints an embossed effect. 3. The prints are mere stains on the
tremors and retouching. The minute details in genuine signatures are coating of the sensitized paper which
present. is glossy.
A. COUNTERFEITING - It is the crime of making, circulating or
uttering false coins and banknotes. Literally, it means to make a copy 1. The watermark 1. This is imitated by printing white ink
of; or imitate; to make a spurious semblance of, as money or stamps, underneath the security or dry block on the finished paper.
with the intent to deceive or defraud. Counterfeiting is something lacework on the right
made to imitate the real thing used for gain. hand side of the note is
B. FALSIFICATION – The act/process of making the content/s of a the same on the colored
document not the intended content. portrait.
WATERMARK 2. The design is placed by 2. Sometimes wax or other oily medium
C. FORGERY – The act of falsely making or materially altering, with means of dandy roll is stamped to give transparency to the
intent to defraud, any writing which if genuine, might be of legal during the manufacture portion where the designing appears.
efficacy or the foundation of a legal liability. of the paper.
Take Note: In forgery, every person who, with intent to defraud, 3. Sharp details of the 3. Printed outline is placed on the inner
signs the name of another person, or of fictitious person, knowing that he outline or the light & sheet where merely a paper cutout is
has no authority to do so, or falsely makes, alters, forges or counterfeits any - shadow effect are placed inside. As a result course or
checks, drag - due bill for the payment of money or property - or counterfeits discernible when harsh and occasional irregular lines &
or forges the seal forged, or counterfeited, with intent the same to be fake, viewed with the aid of sometimes-opaque areas are very
altered forged, or counterfeited, with intent to prejudice, damage or defraud transmitted light. obvious.
any person.... is guilty of forgery. 4. The relief of the
features can be felt by
MAKING OF PAPER MONEY running the finger on
A. ENGRAVING – It is the process by which the line to be printed are the design.
cut into pieces of metal by hand or with a machine. Ink is rubbed
over the plate to fill the cuts in the metal and the extra ink wiped-off
1. Appears life-like 1. It appears dead.
the top. The pressure of the paper on the plate causes the ink in the
holes to be lifted on the surface of the paper. The ink lines will be 2. The eyes sparkle. 2. The eyes do not sparkle.
felt to be raised above the surface. The engraving process is used for 3. The tiny dots and lines 3. It appears blurred, dull, smudgy
the production of all genuine bank notes. (Vignette) forming the details and poorly printed.
B. LETTERPRESS PRINTING – is the most common form of of the face, hair, etc. are 4. Hair is lifeless.
printing books, magazine, letterheads and the usual printing in clear, sharp and well defined.
common uses. In the process, the letters are made on raised pieces of 4. Each portrait stands out 5. The face and/or forehead are
metal which covered with ink and then impressed upon the paper in distinctly from background. often naturally white or pale due
the same form as a rubber stamp or cliché. The serial numbers of a This is noticeable along the to absence of most of the details.
bank note are usually added by this letterpress process after the note shoulders.
has been produced by an engraving. 5. The background is composed 6. The concentric lines depicting the
C. OFFSET PRINTING – is the method a photograph is taken of the of multi-colored fine pattern eyes often merged into solid
desire material and a print is made on a specially prepared aluminum of lines in varying tones and printed areas.
plate. The plate is kept wet with water. When ink is applied, it sticks shades interlacing with each 7. The background often blends with
only these parts of the plate where printing is desired. The aluminum other. These shadings or the portrait and is usually
plate is then put in contact with rubber roller which transfers the ink toning are intricately printed “scratchy.”
to the papers. The offset process is quite used in small printing in such a way that the 8. The lines are thick with rough
plants. Because it was photographic process, it is the most common contrast or shifting of colors edges.
modern used by counterfeiter to make false paper money. creates the impression of life 9. The multi-colored prints on
BANK NOTE PAPER & vividness to the notes. genuine notes are extremely
Paper bank notes get a lot of handling. If a good grade of paper is difficult to duplicate and as a
not used, they would soon wear out and have to be replaced. Even with the result, counterfeit notes are
best paper, the old two peso bill usually wears out and has to be replaced at usually off-color & not of the
the end of thirty days. Government buy the very best grade of paper they can right shade or tone.
get, in order that the paper will last as long as possible. Special paper also
makes it difficult for the counterfeiter to duplicate it. It is usually the use of
wrong paper that causes the counterfeited bank note to be detected by
ultraviolet light.

Take Note: In most modern printing, papers have chemicals

added to make look whiter. These chemicals cause brilliant fluorescence
under ultraviolet light. Bank notes paper does not have this filler and does not
1. This is a special thread 1. Counterfeit by means of printing
placed vertically on the on the back of the note, on the
COLORED FIBERS OR SECURITY FIBERS paper during manufacture. inner side of the paper, insertion of
2. On the surface of the paper twin thread or simply folding the
The geometric pattern On counterfeit, these geometric where this thread is located note vertically where the thread
which looks like a delicate patterns are often blurred, round on the are patterns of short vertical appears on the genuine bill.
lacework along the border edges & blotch on the joints. Its lines.
on both surfaces, continuity could not be traced. The color METTALIC THREAD
embellishing the portraits, appears faded.
value panel & vignettes are
multicolored & composed of 1. As well as inspection under ultraviolet light, the investigator
harp lines, which are, should look at the banknote with a hand lens.
continuous & traceable even 2. He should pay particular attention to the quantity of the portrait in
at the joints. the bank note. This is the one extremely fine detail of a good
engraved plate.
3. The color of the ink should be compared with the color of a
genuine banknote. It is very difficult for counterfeiter to match
LACEWORK DESIGN exactly the same shade of ink by a genuine manufacturer.

1. These fibers are scattered on the On counterfeit, this is simulated CHARACTERISTICS OF U.S. PAPER MONEY
surface of the paper (front & by printed lines, cannot be picked
back) at random & can be readily off, but can be easily erased with A. TYPES:
picked off by means of any ordinary rubber or by agitating with
pointed instrument. wet fingers. 1. Federal Reserve note – with GREEN treasury seal and serial
2. The colors of these fibers are red number.
& blue. 2. United States Note – with RED treasury seal and serial number.
3. Silver Certificate – with BLUE treasury seal and serial number.

carries a regional seal at the left of the portrait on the face of the bill.
This seal is printed in black and bears the name of the Federal
SERIAL NUMBERS Reserve Bank of issue. Numbers and letters representing the Federal
Reserve District in which that bank is located, are:
1. The prefix 1. On counterfeit, the letters & numbers are 1 - Boston - “A” 7 - Chicago- “G”
letter/s & poorly printed. They are usually of 2 - New York - “B” 8 - St. Louis- “H”
numbers (Six different style. 3 - Philadelphia - “C” 9 - Minneapolis- “I”
of them 4 - Cleveland - “D” 10 - Kansas- “J”
except on 5 - Richmond - “E” 11 - Dallas - “K”
replacement 6 - Atlanta - “F” 12 - San Francisco - “L”
note) are
printed. every denomination has the following
2. They have 2. Most often, they are evenly spaced &
peculiar style poorly aligned. $1 - Washington $50 - Grant
& are $2 - Jefferson $100 - Franklin
uniform in $5 - Lincoln $500 - McKinley
size & $10 - Hamilton $1000 - Cleveland
thickness. $20 - Jackson $5000 - Madison
3. Spacing of 3. The numbers are too big or too small, too
the numbers thick or too thin & in certain cases shaded COINS
is uniform & on the curves.
alignment is These are pieces of metal stamped by government authority, for
even. use as money or collectively referring to metal currency.

CLEARNESS OF PRINT CASTING is the most common method of making gold coins.
Plaster molds bearing an image of gold coins are filled (within a low
The registry of the In general, a spurious not exhibits temperature) with alloy made with lead or tin. Some molds are used for high
different printed features is a Second hand look. It is dirty due to temperature metal such as copper or silver alloy.
perfect. The lines are very the sputtering of ink on the interior
clear & sharp. There are no area. Over-inked areas are visible STRIKING OR STAMPING is the making of an impression of a
Burrs clinging to the sides. instantly. The shadings & coin or metal blank by pressure.
ornamentations of the letters & figures
are thick & usually merged.

EXAMINATION OF SUSPECTED COUNTERFEIT BANKNOTE A. Genuine coins show an even flow of metallic grains. The details
of the profile, the seal of the Republic of the Philippines, letterings
1. The lines & dots composing 1. On counterfeit usually
& numerals are of high relief, so that it can be readily felt distinctly
the vignettes are fine, distinct dull & poorly printed.
by running the fingers on theses features. The beadings are regular
& sharp.
& the readings are deep & even.
2. The varying color tone gives 2. It appears dirty.
a bold look to the picture that 3. The lines are B. Counterfeit coins feel greasy & appear slimy. The beading
makes it stands out of the comparatively thicker composed of tiny round dots surrounding the genuine coin appear
paper. with rough edges.
4. There is no variation in
color tone so that the
picture appears flat.
irregular & elongated depressions & are not sharp & prominent as 2. Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or
in the genuine. The letterings & numerals are low & worn out due proceeding when they did not in fact so participate;
to the lack of sharpness of details. The readings are uneven & 3. Attributing to persons who have participated in an act or
show signs of filing. proceeding statements other than those in fact made by them;
4. Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts; Altering true
5. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine document
1. Coin made of gold was to widely use but are not now often see. which changes its meaning;
Government kept their gold in the form of heavy bars called 6. Issuing in an authenticated form a document purporting to be a
bullions and then issue papers for the value of gold. copy of an original document when no such original exists, or
2. Metal coins issued nowadays are mostly in amount for less than its including in such copy a statement contrary to, or different from,
face value. In most countries, the possession of gold coins is now that of the genuine original; or
forbidden except for coin collectors. 7. Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the issuance thereof
in a protocol, registry, or official book.
EXAMINATION OF COUNTERFEIT COINS – should be examined by a
magnifying lens; comparing it with a known coin WRITING MATERIALS

DEFECTS IN CAST COIN ARE USUALLY CAUSED BY: formation of A. ANACHRONISM – It refers to something wrong in time and in
air bubbles, or removal of small parts of the sole along with the coin. The best place. This means that the forger has trouble matching the paper, ink,
place to examine a counterfeit coin is on the edge since there are usually or writing materials to the exact date it was supposed to have been
special milling marks or designs which are added to a genuine coin by written.
machinery. B. PAPER – These are sheets of interlaced fibers - usually cellulose
fibers from plants, but sometimes from cloth rags or other fibrous
materials, that is formed by pulping the fibers and causing to felt, or
COUNTERFEIT PASSPORT mat, to form a solid surface.
C. WATERMARK - Certain papers are marked with a translucent
Passports are rarely counterfeit, because they are quite complicated design, a watermarks impressed in them during the course of their
in design and manufacture. The most usual method of forgery is to steal a manufacture.
genuine passport and make change in it. Many safety features are incorporated D. WRITING MATERIALS – Any material used primarily for writing
in passport and are easily detected by close inspection. Ultraviolet light is very or recording such as papers, cardboard, board papers, Morocco paper,
useful in this type of examination. The investigator should look particularly at etc.
the photograph in any passport as identification card. This is always
necessary because sometimes forgers remove and change or substitute the WRITING MATERIALS IN QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS - The
picture. Hence, the position of perforation caused by staples and another common (probable) questioned on paper is its age, whether the actual
pasting device should be studied carefully. age of the paper corresponds with the alleged date of preparation of the
questioned document.
(Pursuant to Title Four, Chapter One, Revised Penal Code – Crimes against
Public Interests)
A. FOREGERIES - What are the crimes called forgeries?
A. PAPYRUS - This came into use about 3,500 B.C. - people of Egypt.
1. Forging the seal of the government, signature or stamp of the Palestine, Syria, and Southern Europe used the pith (soft spongy
chief Executive (Art. 161). tissue of the stem) of the sedge (grass-like herb) CYPERUS
2. Counterfeiting coins (Art. 163). PAPYRUS to make a writing material known as PAPYRUS.
3. Mutilation of coins (Art. 164).
4. Forging treasury or bank notes or other documents payable to B. PARCHMENT - writing material made from skin of
bearer (Art. 166). animals primarily of sheep, calves or goats - was probably developed
5. Counterfeiting instruments not payable to bearer (Art. 167). in the Middle East more or less contemporaneously with papyrus.
6. Falsification of legislative documents (Art. 172). It came into wide use only in the 2nd century B.C. in the city of
7. Falsification by public officer, employee or notary or PERGAMUM in ANATOLIA.
ecclesiastical minister (Art. 171).
8. Falsification by private individuals (Art. 172). C. VELLUM - writing materials from fine skins from young calves or
9. Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone kids and the term (name) was often used for all kind of parchment
messages (Art. 173). manuscripts, it became the most important writing material for
10. Falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or bookmaking, while parchment continued for special manuscripts.
service (Art. 174). Almost every portable surface that would retain the marks of brush or
pen was also used as a writing material during the early period.
B. ACTS PUNISHABLE UNDER ART. 161: Forging the great seal of
the Government of the Philippines; Forging the signature of the D. DEVELOPMENT OF PAPER MANUFACTURING
President; Forging the stamp of the President. 1. It is widely claimed that invention of paper is generally
attributed to a Chinese court official, CAI LUN (TSAI LUN), in
C. What are the crimes under counterfeiting coins? They are: Making about A.D. 105. He is the first to succeed in making paper from
and importing and uttering false coins (Art. 163); Mutilation of coins – vegetable fibers, tree barks (mulberry tree), rags, old fish nettings.
importation and utterance of mutilated coins (Art. 164); and Selling of 2. The art of papermaking was kept secret for 500 years; the Japanese
false or mutilated coin, without connivance (Art. 165). acquired it in the 7th century A.D.
3. In A.D. 751, the Arab city of Samarkand was attacked by
D. Reason for punishing forgery - Forgery of currency is punished so as marauding Chinese and some Chinese taken as prisoners were
to maintain the integrity of the currency and thus insure the credit skilled in papermaking and were forced by the city Governor to
standing of the government and prevent the imposition on the public and build and operate a paper mill and Samarkand soon became the
the government of worthless notes or obligations. papermaking center of the Arab world.
4. Knowledge of papermaking traveled westward, spreading
E. ACTS OF FALSIFICATION (Art. 171 & 172) throughout the Middle East, the Moorish invasion of Spain led to
the invention (A.D. 1150) or erection of the first European paper
1. Counterfeiting or imitating any handwriting, signature, or rubric; mill, at JATIVA, province of VALENCIA.

5. Knowledge of the technology spread quickly and by 16th century, documents examiner's finding is limited only to the
paper was manufactured throughout most of Europe. APPROXIMATE DATE (YEAR) of the paper manufacture.
6. The first paper mill in England was established in 1495. e. In determining the age of the paper by watermarks, it is
7. The first such mill in America in 1690. necessary to ascertain the owner of the watermark in
8. The first practical machine was made in 1798 by the French question or its manufacturer.
inventor Nicholas Louis Robert. The machine reduced the cost of f. In the FBI, this is done by checking the reference file of the
paper it supplants the hand-molding process in paper manufacture. laboratory. Once the manufacturer is determined, then
9. Robert's machine was improved by the British stationers and consideration is given to changes in design and defects
brothers Henry Fourdrinier and Sealy Fourdrinier, who in 1803 of individual design.
produced the first of the machines that bear their name. g. In recent years, some large manufacturers have cleverly
10. The solution of the problem of making paper from cheap raw incorporated inconspicuous changes in their watermark
material was achieved by the introduction of the groundwood design in order to date their products.
process of pulp making about 1840 and the first of the chemical h. Obviously, document is fraud if it contains a watermark
pulp processes approximately ten years later. that was not in existence at the time the document purports to
11. CHLORINE - This was introduced in the 19th century have been executed.
for bleaching and colored linen could already be manufactured for
paper. 5. In case the watermark did not change, the following is applied:
12. ESPARTO – This is a grass grown in Libya, also in Spain and a. Consider any defect in the individual design may furnish a
North Africa was first introduced in England in 1861. clue as to the age of the paper.
13. STRAW – This was used to make paper in 1800. b. The dandy roll, through constant usage, will somehow be
14. SULPHITE – This is a paper from wood was not attempted until damaged. This damage is also known as caused by
1869 and paper called SULPHITE (modern type) was first used WEAR AND TEAR which becomes progressively more and
between 1880 and 1890. more as time goes by.
15. OLDEST MANUSCRIPT - Letters dated A.D. 874 have been c. The damage on the dandy roll will leave some peculiar
found in Egypt and the oldest manuscript in England on cotton markings on the watermark of the paper manufactured or all
paper dated AD 1890. papers that will pass through the damaged dandy roll.
d. The investigator, carefully determining the distinct markings
TRACING THE AGE OF PAPER (DOCUMENT) caused by the dandy roll's damaged surface, will coordi-
nate with the paper manufacture regarding when such
The age of the document may be estimated from paper. Four cases damage occurred on the dandy roll used.
were reported by Lucas where the age of the document was established from
the compositor/composition of the paper. In one of these cases, a document DISCOLORATION
dated 1213 A.H. (A.D. 1798) was found to be written on paper composed
entirely of chemically prepared wood cellulose. Considering that this type of One way of tracing the age of the paper is through the observance
paper was not introduced not until about 60 years later, the document is of the changes in its physical characteristics particularly DISCOLORATION.
obviously a fake one. Naturally, a paper will discolor after a passage of time due to numerous
environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, dust, etc. In case of
WATERMARKS papers out of wood pulp, they start to discolor at edges from 2 to 3 years.
While RUG-SHIP QUALITY papers, they are very old before discoloration
1. Definition – It is a term for a figure or design incorporated into starts.
paper during its manufacture and appearing lighter than the rest of
the sheet when viewed in transmitted light. The earliest way of CAUSES OF DISCOLORATION
identifying the date of manufacture of the paper is by the
WATERMARK - a brand put on the paper by the manufacturers. 1. due to process of oxidation brought about by natural means.
2. brown spots due to mold that are very obvious characteristics both
2. How watermark is made? The watermark was made when the in appearance and distribution.
semi-fluid paper pulp (mixture of cotton or other fibers) was being 3. exposure to dust and dirt.
drained on a grid of laid (warp) and chain (woof) wires. Fine wires 4. occasional staining of fruit juice, grease.
forming the desired design were tied on top of the grid and 5. excrete of rats, mice and other insects.
impressed into the pulp. This impression made the paper thinner, 6. may also due to heat, partial burning, etc.
and therefore, more transparent, where it appeared.
3. Origin. Watermarks first appeared on papers produced in Italy
around 1270, less than 100 years after the art of papermaking was 1. Collect standard document from the issuing institution, company
introduced to Europe by Muslims from the Middle East. Early in or individual and compare. Consider the physical characteristics of
the 19th century, papermakers began to solder the watermark wires both questioned and standard documents such as the size, the
to the grid frame, thus insuring uniformity of impression and thickness, the surface (glossiness, opacity, etc.) and the general
aiding in the detection of counterfeiting and forgery. The first texture of the paper.
British postage stamps of 1840 bore a watermark, but stamps of the 2. Check with the issuing institution, company or individual about the
United States were not so marked until 1895. When paper began dissimilarity of writing material used in the questioned document.
to be machine-made, the watermark wiring was simply transferred 3. Conduct further physical or chemical examination such as folding
to the grid cover of the dandy roll, a turning cylinder that passed endurance test, folding test, bursting test, etc.
over the paper.
4. Concept of document’s age detection thru watermarks.
a. Sometimes a LIMIT may be placed to the age of the A. FLEXIBILITY OF PEN POINT - One quality of the nib pen is its
document by means of watermark, the earliest pliability. This quality varies which different pens and can be
known dating from 1282. Unfortunately, however, not all measured by the amount of pressure necessary to cause a spreading of
papers contain watermarks. the nibs or a given degree of shading.
b. It is impressed into the paper by wires on the rollers B. FOUNTAIN PEN - A fountain pen is a modern nib which contains a
called “DANDY ROLL” that make the paper, reservoir of ink in a specially designed chamber.
and these designs are changed from time to time. After complete filling the pen is capable of writing a number of pages
c. Usually watermarks are requested by without refilling.
their owners/manufacturers with the patent office. C. INK - is a fluid or viscous marking material used for writing or
d. If present, watermark is one of the most reliable means of printing.
tracing the age of the paper. However, the questioned

D. PEN - A tool for writing or drawing with a colored fluid, such as ink; 4. Early ball point pens did not write well; they tended to skip, and
or a writing instrument used to apply inks to the paper is a pen. It the slow-drying oil-based ink smudged easily. However, the
came from the Latin word "PENNA", meaning feather. ball-point pen had several advantages over the fountain pen:
E. PEN NIBS - The tow divisions or points which from the writing a. the ink was waterproof and almost un-erasable;
portion of a pen are its nibs. b. the ball point pen could write on many kinds of surfaces;
F. QUILL PENS - It is a hollow, horny part of large feather usually c. could be hold in almost any position for writing; and
from goose and was used for writing on parchment. d. the pressure required to feed the ink was ideal for making
Poland, Germany, Russia, and the Netherlands were the largest carbon copies.
producers of quill.
G. WRITING INSTRUMENTS (WRITING IMPLEMENTS) - 5. Ink formulas were improved for smoother flow and faster
Writing Implements, manual devices used to make alphanumeric drying, and soon the ball-point replaced the fountain pen as the
marks on or in a surface. universal writing tool.


1. In 1963, fiber tip markers were introduced into the U.S. market
A. REED PENS/SWAMP REED and have since challenged the ball point as the principal writing
1. It came from especially selected water grasses found in implement.
Egypt, Armenia and along the shores of the Persian Gulf, were 2. The first practical fiber tip pen was invented by YUKIO
prepared by leaving them under dung heaps for several months. HORIE of Japan in 1962. It was ideally suited to the strokes of
2. It was the first writing tool that had the writing end slightly Japanese writing, which is traditionally done with a pointed ink
frayed like a brush. About 2,000 years B.C., this reed pen was brush.
first used in NEAR EAST on papyrus and later on parchment. 3. Unlike its predecessors, the fiber tip pen uses dye as a writing
fluid. As a result, the fiber tip pen can produce a wide range of
B. QUILL PEN colors unavailable in ball point and fountain pen inks. The tip is
1. Although quill pens can be made from the outer wing feathers made of fine nylon or other synthetic fibers drawn to a point and
of any bird, those of goose, swan, crow and (later) turkey, were fastened to the barrel of the pen. Dye is fed to the point by
preferred. The earliest reference (6th century AD) to quill pens elaborate capillary mechanism.
was made by the Spanish Theologian ST. ISIDORE OF
SEVILLE, and this tool was the principal writing implement for G. Felt-tip markers are made of dense natural or artificial
nearly 1300 years. fibers impregnated with a dye. These markers can be cut to a
2. To make a quill pen, a wing feather is first hardened by variety of shapes and sizes, some up to an inch in width. A
heating or letting it dry out gradually. The hardened quill is then modification of the ball point pen using a liquid dye fed to a
cut to a broad edge with a special pen knife. metal/plastic ball was introduced in the U.S. from Japan in 1973.
3. The writer had to re-cut the quill pen frequently to maintain
its edge. By the 18th century, the width of the edge had COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INKS
diminished and the length of the slit had increased creating a
flexible point that produced thick and thin strokes by pressure 1. Indian Inks - The oldest form of Indian ink consisted of a
on the point rather than by the angle at which the broad edge suspension of carbon black (soot or lampblack) in water to which
was held. glue or a vegetable gum was added. Inks of these compositions are
still on the market mostly in the shape of sticks or cakes.
C. STEEL POINT PENS (BRAZEN PENS) 2. Log wood Inks - These inks which were used extensively about a
1. Although pens of bronze may have been known to Romans, the century ago, have now because obsolete and are no longer
earliest mention of "BRAZEN PENS" was in 1465. The manufactured. They were made from an aqueous extract of
16th century Spanish calligrapher JUAN DE YCIAR mentions logwood chips and potassium chromate. These inks will be found
brass pens for very large writing in his 1548 writing manual, but only on old.
the use of metal pens did not become widespread until the early 3. Iron Gallotanate Inks - This ink has been used as writing for over
part of the 19th century. a thousand years. Formerly it was made of a fermented infusion of
2. The first patented steel pen point was made by the English gall nuts to which iron salts were added. The ink was composed of
engineer BRYAN DONKIN in 1803. suspension of the black, almost insoluble ferric tannate.
3. The leading 19th century English pen manufacturers were 4. Fountain Pen Inks - These inks are regarded as special fountain
WILLIAM JOSEPH GILLOT, WILLIAM MITCHELL, pen inks, and consisting of ordinary iron gallotannate inks with a
AND JAMES STEPHEN PERRY. lower iron content in most cases but with a higher dyestuff
content than normal inks.
1. In 1884, LEWIS WATERMAN, a New York insurance agent, 5. Dyestuff Inks - These inks are composed of aqueous
patented the first practical FOUNTAIN PEN containing its own solutions of synthetic dyestuffs, to which a preservative and a flux
ink reservoir. Waterman invented a mechanism that fed ink to are added.
the pen point by capillary action, allowing ink to flow evenly 6. Water Resistant Writing and Drawing Inks - These inks are
while writing. special group of dyestuff inks. They consist of a pigment paste
2. By the 1920's, the fountain pen was the chief writing instrument and a solution of shellac made soluble in water by means of borax,
in the west and remained so until the introduction of the ball liquid ammonia or ammonium bicarbonate.
point pen after WORLD WAR II. 7. Alkaline Writing Inks - These are quick drying inks which
possess a ph of from 9 to about 11. They penetrate quickly
E. BALL POINT PEN: through the size of the paper allowing the ink to penetrate quickly
1. JOHN LOUD, in 1888, patented the first ball point writing into the paper. The dyestuff in these inks consists of acid dyes,
tool. A ball point pen has in its point a small rotating metal ball sometimes combined with phthalo cyanide dyes.
that continually inks itself as it turns. 8. Ballpoint Pen Inks - The ballpoint pens did not appear on
2. The ball is set into a tiny socket. In the center of the socket is a the European market before 1945. The development of the present
hole that feeds ink to the socket from a long tube (reservoir) pen was accomplished during World War II because the Army and
inside the pen. the Air Force needed a writing instrument which would not leak at
3. As early as the 19th century, attempts had been made to high altitude and which supplied quick drying water resistant
manufacture a pen with a rolling ball tip, but not until 1938 did writing.
Hungarian inventor brothers LADISLAO and GEORG BIRO a. In principle, the construction of all ballpoint pens is the
invent a viscous, oil-based ink that could be used with such a same. The differences are in the finish, the
pen. Hence, they are attributed for the invention of the first precision with which the instrument is made, the size
practical ballpoint pen. and the material of the ball, and the composition of the
b. As a rule, the diameter of the ball lies between 0.6 and 5. It is necessary therefore to be acquainted with the composi-
1.0 mm, the cheapest makes having the largest tion and developmental history, method of manufacture of the
diameter. The ball is made of steel while the more types of ink most commonly used. Sometimes, antedating
expensive makes of sapphire. can only be proven by identifying a component of the ink,
c. The quality of the pen is chiefly to be judged by the which was not yet included in inks at the alleged date of the
writing angle. The best writing angle for a document.
ballpoint pen is 90 degrees, but a normal hand of
writing seldom uses this angle. THE CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF INK
d. The cheaper makes have a minimum writing angle of
55-60 degrees. If one writes at too small an angle, the A. THE CHROMATOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION AND
brass socket holding the ball will scratch a lined into the SEPARATION OF THE DYESTUFFS IN THE INK
paper, parallel with the ink line.
1. This is restricted to a comparison of the dyestuffs in the ink but
9. Stamp Pad Inks - They are made with the acid of substances such sometimes it is also possible to identify one or more of the
as glycerol, glycol, acetin or benzyl alcohol and water. Airline components of the dyes.
dyes are added as coloring matter. For quick drying stamp pad 2. Regarded as the principal method of ink examination.
inks, more volatile organic solvents are used as acetone, ethanol, 3. To identify a dyestuff, it is necessary to possess a collection as
etc. As a vehicle, dextrine, gum arabic, or tannin complete as possible of the various dyes used in the
is sometimes added. Through the addition of tannin, manufacture of inks.
the stamp impression becomes water resistant after drying. 4. The chromatographic separation of the dyes maybe carried out
10. Hectograph Inks - These inks very much resemble stamp pad inks by paper chromatography.
and are exclusively made with basic dyes. To the 5. Procedure:
dyestuff solution several other substances are added such as a. Collection of the ink material
glycerol, acetic acid and acetone. (1) Extraction of the inks stroke by scraping
11. Typewriter Ribbon Inks - These inks are usually composed of a fragments from the ink stroke. Dyestuff inks can
blend of aniline dyes, carbon black and oil such as olein or castor as a rule can be extracted with water. Ball point
oil. The two-tone ribbons however contain no dyes, but pigments ink can be extracted with organic solvent such as
suspended in oil base. This is necessary because aniline dyes tend ethanol, acetone or butanone. Pyridine is the best
to bleed and would cause the sharp division between the differently solvent for ball point inks.
colored halves of the ribbon to merge. (2) It is also possible to cut a small pocket at starting
12. Printing Inks - Printing inks often consist of a mixture of colored line in the chromatographic paper into which the
pigments, carbon black and a "base" which may consist of oil, re- ink fragments are placed. The pocket is firmly
sins, synthetic resins or a mixture of these. It is possible to remove pressed.
printing ink from a document by scrubbing the document with an b. The vessel which is a beaker or a flask is filled with the
aqueous solution of a suitable detergent. The rubbing and solvent; then the filtered paper strip containing the ink
breaking up of the surface of the ink and the detergent facilitates material is lowered into the vessel with the ends just
the suspension and eventual removal of the carbon and other touching the surface of the solvent and let it hang on the
ingredients by the water. side of the vessel for 15-20 minutes.
13. Canceling Inks - These inks often contain carbon and c. The chromatography should be carried out in shaded light.
this fact should be burned in mind when it is required to decipher
faint cancellation marks on a postage stamp and wrappers. Carbon
is opaque to infra-red sensitive plate and be relied upon to improve
the legibility of any marking affected by a carbon containing B. DETERMINATION OF THE AGE OF THE INK
canceling ink. Erasure of canceling ink on valuable stamps is
usually affected by attack on the medium which bind the carbon to 1. In general, in order to determine the age of writing or the
the surface of the stamp and it is to be regretted that many cancel- difference in the ages of different writings, the document
ing inks are manufactured with media which offer resistance to examiner makes use of a property of the ink writing which
attack so that the resistant carbon can simply be swabbed off. changes in the course of time. This selection of properties will
This can be usually be detected by infrared photography which will be determined by the composition of ink and the circumstances
reveal the traces of carbon, which almost invariably remain on the under which the writing ages.
14. Skrip Ink - These are manufactured by W.A. Chaffer Pen 2. Procedure:
Company since 1955. The inks contain a substance that is a. Ball Point Pen Inks
colorless in visible light and has a strong affinity for the fibers of (1) If a document has been written with a ballpoint pen, the
the paper, and yet is not bleached by hypochlorite ink eradicators writing in question is bound to date in all probability
or washed out by soaking on water. from a point of time later than 1945.
(2) The analysis of ballpoint inks may yield an important
(3) The first ballpoint inks were practically without
1. In most cases the inks to be examined are not available in liquid exception based on oleic acid. These inks will flow out
form. One kind of examination centers on the question as to when a drop of benzene or petroleum ether is applied to
whether the ink of some writings or of alterations in a police them.
blotter is identical with the ink found in the possession of the (4) Not until 1950 were these inks made on a basic of
suspect. polyethylene glycols, which are resistant to treatment
2. For this reason, the examination of questioned documents is with benzene or petroleum ether.
restricted to a comparative examination of certain properties of (5) However, the presence of oleic acid is not yet proof that
these inks. However the examination carries with it the writing in question is old for oleic acid is sometimes
certain difficulties as the quantity of material available also used in modern ballpoint inks.
for examination is small and the examination can be done only (6) In the later case, however, the ink will as a rule not flow
one. out with the petroleum ether because these inks, no
3. It is necessary then that before a chemical examination is water soluble coloring matter is worked out. Instead
attempted, which results in a partial destruction of writing, an pigments and dyestuffs are used that will not dissolve in
exhaustive examination by non-destructive methods be carried out. petroleum ether.
4. These non-destruction methods include visual examination with (7) The presence of phthalocyanine dyestuff is an
the aid of a binocular microscope as well as photographic indication of an ink produced later than 1954-1956.
examination. They should be used first before any chemical
examination is resorted to.
(8) Thus it is not possible to determine the absolute age of mal-alignment, vertical mal-alignment, and a character "Off its
ballpoint inks. Neither it is possible to determine the feet".
relative ages of two ballpoint ink writings, not even if B. ALIGNMENT DEFECT - Include character which write
they are of the same kind. The ink dries rather quickly improperly in the following respects: A twisted letter, horizontal
because the base is absorbed by the paper. mal-alignment, vertical, mal-alignment and a character special
(9) Recent ballpoint writing can be offset, and efforts have adjustment to the types block.
been made to use the copying power for age C. CARBON IMPRESSION- Any typewriting which is placed on
determination. the paper by the action of the type faces striking thought
carbon paper is classed as a carbon impression. Generally, carbon
b. Dyestuff Inks impressions are "carbon copies", but sometime original typewriting
(1) The dyestuff inks lack properties that would permit age is made directly through a carbon ribbon.
determination but the presence of an obsolete or D. CHARACTER - In connection with typewriting identification, the
modern dyestuff may indicate age of writing. term "Character" is used to include letters, symbols, numerals, or
(2) If a phthalocyanine dye is found in the ink, it would be points of punctuation.
improbable for the document to be dated prior to 1953. E. CLOGGED (DIRTY) TYPEFACES - With use the type faces
becomes filled with lint, dirty and ink, particularly in enclosed
c. Iron Gallotannate Inks - These inks show a remarkable letters such as the o,e,p, and g.
change of color in maturing. This based on the chemical F. DEFECTS - The term defect describes any abnormality or malad-
change of ferrous to ferric in the course of time. The justment in a typewriter which is reflected in its works and which
following are the methods used to show the gradual change leads to its individualization or identification.
of inks: G. NATURAL VARIATIONS - These are normal or usual devia-
(1) Method based on the change of the Color of the Ink tions found between repeated specimens of any individuals
– This method is useful in those cases where the ink handwriting or in the product of any typewriters.
writing received for examination is too recent that the H. OFF ITS FEET - The condition of a typeface printing heavier
process of maturing can be observed visually. The kind on one side or corner than over the remainder of its outline.
of ink must be known and one or more writings of I. PERMANENT DEFECT - Any identifying characteristics of a
known age must be available for comparison. type-writer which cannot be corrected by simply cleaning the type
(2) Methods based on the Solubility of the Ink – The face or replacing the ribbon is classified as a permanent defect.
solubility of iron gallotannate ink decreases J. PLATEN - The cylinder which serve as the backing of the paper
considerably as the ink matures. As with the color and which absorbs the blow on the type face is known as a platen.
change, it can only be applied successfully to a very K. PROPORTIONAL SPACING TYPEWRITING - A modern
recent writing. This method can establish a difference form of typewriting which resembles printing in that all of
in the age of writings on one and the same document. the horizontal space as they do with the conventional typewriter.
The solubility is determined by a visual estimate of the For example, the "i" occupies two units. The "o" - three and the
quantity of ink which can be withdrawn with a drop of "m" - five. A typewriter of this design is known as a proportional
water from a stroke. It is necessary however that the spacing machine.
drop of water be applied to ink stroke of the same L. REBOUND - A defect in which a character prints a double
intensity. impression with the lighter one slightly offset to the right or left.
(3) Method based on the amount of ferrous iron in the M. RIBBON IMPRESSIONS - Typewriting which is made directly
ink – In iron gallotannate ink, the iron is mainly present through a cloth ribbon is called ribbon impression.
in the complex bound ferrous form. As the N. RIBBON CONDITION - Typewriter ribbons
manufacturing process goes on, the ric gallotannate is gradually deteriorate with use and the degree of determination is a
formed. A drop of aa1-dipyridyl reagent (1% of aa1- measure of the ribbon condition.
dipyridyl in 0.5N HCL (normal hydrochloric acid)) is O. TRANSITORY DEFECT - Any identifying typewriter
applied to the ink stroke. The reagent is left in contact characteristics which can be eliminated by cleaning the machine
with the ink for 1 minute and then recovered with a or replacing the ribbon is described as a transitory defects.
piece of filter paper. If ferrous iron is still present in Clogged type is the most common defects in this class.
the ink, the paper will show a red zone of ferrous aa1- P. TWISTED LETTER - Each letter and character is designed to
dipyridyl around the stain of blue dyestuff. By print a certain fixed angle to the base line, due to wear, and
repeating this test daily, it is possible to check the damage to the type bars and the type block, some letters become
decrease in the ferrous iron in the ink by the changes in twisted so that they lean to the right or left of their correct slant.
the coloration of this red zone. However, this method is Q. TYPE FACE - The printing surface of the type block is known
applicable when the questioned writing is not more than as the type face, with most modern typewriter this block is
a few days old. attached at the end of a movable arm or type bar which propels
(4) Estimation of age based on the detection of the dyes the type face against the ribbon and paper to make the typewriter
– Iron gallotannate inks contain an organic dye, impression.
(soluble blue) which is oxidized or at least becomes R. TYPE FACE DEFECTS - Any peculiarity of typewriting caused
insoluble complete or partially as the ink ages. It is by actual damage to the type face metal is known as type face
claimed that the organic dye becomes completely defect. These defect may be actual breaks in the outline of the
insoluble in four to five years. However, the letter where the metal has been chipped away sometimes referred
application of this method appears to yield results in to as broken type, or they may be distorted outlines of the letter
practice. where the type face metal has become bent or smashed, they can
only be corrected by replacing the type block.
TYPEWRITER - A writing machine with a keyboard for
reproducing letters, figures, symbols and other resembling printed ones; a 1. The first patent, however, was granted by QUEEN ANNE of
machine that can reproduce printed characters on papers or that can produce England to HENRY MILL in 1714 for a machine designed to
printed letters and figures on paper; a machine designed to print or impress reproduce a letter of the alphabet.
type characters on paper, as a speedier and more legible substitute for 2. In 1829, WILLIAM AUSTIN BURT of Detroit, invented the
handwriting. . TYPOGRAPHER.
3. In 1833 a French patent was given to the French inventor Xavier
SIGNIFICANT TERMS Progin for a machine that embodied for the first time one of the
principles employed in modern typewriters: the use for each letter
A. ALIGNMENT - Alignment defects include characters which write or symbol of separate typebars, actuated by separate lever keys.
improperly in the following respects: A twisted letter, horizontal 4. In 1843, American inventor Charles Grover Thurber invented a
typewriter which prints through a metal ring that revolved
horizontally above the platen and was equipped with a series of defined the principles of typewriting identification used today. He called it
vertical keys or plungers having pieces of type at the bottom. The “THE LANDMARKS IN TYPEWRITING IDENIFICATION.”
machine was operated by revolving the wheel until the correct
letter was centered over the printing position on the platen, and THE LANDMARKS IN TYPEWRITING IDENTIFICATION
then striking the key.
5. Several other inventors attempted to produce machines designed to 1. The type faces used by the different type writer manufacturer can
make embossed impressions that could be read by the blind. One be differentiated on the basis of design and have dating
such machine, developed by the American inventor Alfred Ely significance.
Beach in 1856, resembled the modern typewriter in the 2. Through usage, typewriters develop individuality which can serve
arrangement of its keys and typebars, but embossed its letters on a to identify the typewriting of a particular typewriter.
narrow paper strip instead of a sheet. 3. The gradual development of typewriting individuality plus ribbon
6. A similar machine created by the American inventor Samuel W. condition and typeface. Cleanliness can be used to date a
Francis, and patented by him in 1856, had a circular arrangement document of fix it written a period of time.
of typebars, a moving paper holder, a bell that rang to signal the 4. Horizontal and vertical alignment, tilting characters, lack of
end of a line, and an inked ribbon. The keyboard arrangement of uniformity of impression (off-footedness); type-face score,
Francis's machine resembled the black and white keys of a piano. breadths, defects and deformities all serve to identify the type
7. The development of the first practical typewriter begun in 1866 by writing of a particular machine.
CHRISTOPHER LATHAM SHOLES and was patented in 5. Peculiar habits of striking the type writer keys,
1868. He developed the first practical typewriter in cooperation spacing, arrangement, punctuation, mistakes, corrections, can be
with two fellow mechanics, CARLOS GLIDEN and SAMUEL used to identify a typist or differentiate typists.
SOULE'. 6. A sheet of paper cannot be reinserted in a typewriter in exact
8. Six years later (1874), Christopher Latham Sholes entered an register with previous typing done on the sheet of paper.
9. Four years later, REMINGTON MODEL II was introduced having
both the lower and upper case of the alphabet. A. CONVENTIONAL TYPEWRITERS USING TYPE BARS
10. MARK TWAIN (Samuel Clemens) was among the first to buy a 1. Pica Type - 10 letter/inch
typewriter and the first to submit a typewritten manuscript to a 2. Elite Type - 12 Letters/inch
publisher. 3. 6 Letters/inch
11. GEORGE BERNARD SHAW recognized the importance 4. Teletype Machine
of typewriter when he became the first playwright to use it as a 5. 14-16 letter/inch - specials typewriters
stage prop in Candida in 1897.
12. When THOMAS EDISON visited Sholes to see his machine, he B. TYPEWRITER USING SINGLE ELEMENT OR BALL - A
forecasted that typewriters would one day be operated by machine, capable of typing 10 or 12 characters per inch. Change of
electricity. horizontal spacing is done easily by the flip of a switch.
13. Soon afterwards, Edison built such a typewriter. He used a series
of magnet, which made the machine cumbersome and too C. TYPEWRITER USING A PRINT WHEEL (ELECTRONIC
expensive to be marketed. TYPEWRITER) –This has a disc type device called a print wheel,
14. The first practical electric typewriter was invented in 1914 by The printwheel contains all of characters represented on the
JAMES F. SMATHERS of Kansas City. typewriter keyboard. This machine has the capability of typing 10, 12
15. In 1933, the International Business Machines, Inc. (IBM), and 15 letters per inch.
introduced the first commercially successful electric typewriter to
16. The latest development in electric typewriter is one which not only DESIGNS
eliminates type bars and movable carriages but can use six
interchangeable type of type faces. A. The small “w” – depending on the presence or absence of a center
17. The first basic change in typewriting operation appeared in 1961. serif, height of central peak and design of the two central diagonals.
Despite of the revolutionary advances in typewriting w-1 – central peak is the same height as the top of the outside
capabilities, one essential element has remained unchanged stroke and is capped by serif.
since the first Remington. The keyboard arrangement, nick- w-2 – same with w-1 but has no central serif.
named QWERTY for the top line of letters, was designed to make w-3 – central joining is below the top of the sides.
it easier for salesmen to use the machine. w-4 – low center but the two central diagonals join the sides well
18. A much more efficient arrangement was devised in 1936 by above the base of the letter.
AUGUST DVORAK. The process of
changing over the DVORAK seemed so difficult that it was never B. Crossbar of small letter “t” – cross bar is either longer on the right or
even begun. on the left side and or equidistant on each side. The curved lower
extension of the “t” is either turn upward at a point the left of, to the
IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF TYPEWRITTEN right of, or about even with the right terminus of the crossbar of the

HAGAN in 1894, made the first comment on typewriting C. The small letter “g” – upper oval is either much smaller or the same
examination. He wrote that all typewriter machines even when using the same and/or different or the same in shape than the lower oval. Upper and
kind of type become more or less peculiar by use as to the work done by them. lower ovals are either very closely spaced or not.
These peculiarities positively connect them with the printing done by the
machine. D. Small letter “r” – right arm is either long with very small curve at its
end or a long right arm with full curve at the end and/or the right arm
This exposition of the principles of typewriting identification was is short with its curve moderate to full.
followed in 1900 by AMES who wrote that the identity of writing by different
operators as well as that done on different machines can be done with E. Small letter “y” – has three distinctive designs:
considerable degree - Different operators have their own peculiar methods lower stroke has a broad turn which forms a very shallow trough.
which differ widely in the location of date, address, margins, punctuation, lower stroke has a deep full curve which clearly curves right ward.
spacing, signing as well as impressions from touch. Lower stroke turns sharply upward like forming a narrow trough.

In several articles written between1901 to 1907, ALBERT S. F. Small letter “i” – has two distinctive designs:
OSBORNE, the foremost document examiner of the early 20th century, center of the dot is aligned with the central line of the vertical staff.

Center of the dot is set off to the left of the central line of the
vertical staff. a The character may show a distortion in its engraving, a
"break" which is shown by an alteration of the design.
G. Upper and Lower Strokes of Capital Letter “E” – maybe equal or the Exceptionally, it means a defect of manufacture. Most often,
bottom stroke maybe longer than the upper stroke. The serif is either the break occurs when the machine is working. The metal is
vertical or oblique. The small “e” may have its straight stroke either locally damaged by the continued striking of the letter against
horizontal or oblique. hard surfaces and according to the general direction of the
striking will dented or deviated. In the first case the altered
H. Figure “7” – horizontal stroke is either straight or curve. sign will print an incomplete design with broken or
interrupted lines, in the second case it prints a deformed
I. Figure “5” – horizontal stroke is either straight or slightly or fully sign. The predominant cause of the defect is that
curved. corresponding bars one behind the other; the character of
corresponding bars strikes the back of the first and crashes on
J. The comma “,” – tail may extend to the left of the dot or only very it.
slightly to the left of the dot. b Twist of the printing surface which comes in the course of
manufacturing. Irregular tempering gives an abnormal
K. Parentheses – may vary in curvature. contraction of the metal for the bearing of the character again
the plated and gives a local impression more intense and
Take Note: Two typewritten documents are said to be typed from more heavily inked.
one and the same typewriter if they agree in type face style, design, spacing, c Misalignment of the two signs engraved on the same
alignment and three or four scars or damaged type faces. character so that they are not set exactly one under the other.
This defect may be due to a bad engraving of the mold.
STROKE Positioning of the Character on the Type-bar

Each typewriter has its own individual characteristics that enable one a A bad position of the bar on the plate of the soldering
to differentiate the typed characters from a similar machine of the same make. apparatus, results in a bad portioning of the character. It will
Typewriter of the same make and model but of different age have differences be bent forward, backward or sideways.
attributed to wear. b Sometimes a solder fails in the course of typing. The
character turns over the slides along its support. The
WHAT TO CONSIDER? changes of alignment become grater and greater growing in
frequency in proportion with the collar of the solder. This
1. A typewriter coming out fresh from the factory has already some defect is detected in the writing by the fact that the top and
defects which give its own personality. Whatever the quality of the bottom of the letter are not printed with the same
the manufacture, a typewriter is never absolutely perfect. intensity and mostly, the vertical misalignment has a tend-
2. Later, through faults of the typist and also by wear, the typewriter ency to vary at each stroke and becomes so important that
will acquire a stronger individuality by new defects which become often a part of both signs of the deficient characters are
more and more prominent and in time, progressively overcome the impressed at the same time.
initial ones.
Defects of the Type-bar - The deformations of a type-bar modify
PROCEDURE the position of the character in connection with the platen and alter
the originally correct writing.
1. Conduct preliminary examination of the questioned document to
determine the make and model of the typewriter. a Any error of place position of the bar in the basket gives an
2. Then study the defects of the stroke which will distinguish the incline to its head and to the character.
suspected typewriter from the others. b The type-bars are outer sinuous. Under the effect of an
intensive working, the bends are modified, so that the type-
The defects of the typewriter maybe compared to ailment or bar elongates or shorten and its head inclines forward or
sickness and congenital deformation while its translation on the paper be backward. This deformation causes a misalignment of the
compared to symptoms of the defects. This comparison has the advantage of character and no longer allows a uniform impression of its
sorting out the exact conditions of the control of questioned typewritten surface.
documents as follows: c Twist of the type-bars is caused by mistakes of the typist. In
depressing, by error, two neighboring keys, two corre-
1. First, it will show the actual state of the typewriter and sponding bars are moved towards the type-bar guide 1, each
consequently that the aspect of the stroke is not immutable but bar undergoes the lateral strike of the other and bends along
evolves progressively so that a good identification needs the its longitudinal axis. One error in manipulation does not
comparison of documents from sufficiently adjacent period. great damage but its repetition certainly develops the defect.
2. The health of a typewriter tends to change and the defect The type-bar thus bent no long offers a perfectly vertical
become more and more numerous and characteristics. From surface to the axis of the platen and the character strikes the
time to time, an overhead or repairs may help the ailment paper more or less off its feet.
definitely or at least give a temporary or partial healing.
3. It will show that the expert does not see the defect of the Defects of the Ring - On a worn type writer it is not exceptional to
typewriter right away but only its translation on the paper by a find that the more active type-bars have depressed the metal of the ring at their
writing anomaly of which he must appreciate the cause point of contact. It no longer has any effect on the type-bars corresponding to
4. Lastly it will explain that certain anomalies are not even the depression, it no longer stops them in their travel and it does not send them
ascribable to an organic cause of the type writer but to a back to their original position.
phenomenon outside it. For example, an error of manipulation by
the typist may give some anomalies of the stroke and have no These bars strike directly at the platen, stoop their momentarily and
connection with the mechanism of the typewriter itself. Others are fall back by their own weight giving by this very slow motion a vibration to
due to a temporary sickness such as a torn ribbon which will give the character in the vicinity of the platen. At this time the escapement has
an incomplete impression of the character or dust which may already moved and the character gives two impressions instead of one. The
choke the mechanism of the stroke. It is only the permanent second impression, displaced in connection with the first and much paler
faults which permit of a positive identification. seems to be its shadow. The name given to it is 'veiled stroke'.

DEFECTS OF A TYPEWRITER Disorder of the Type bar guide - If the position of the type bar
guide is modified for some reason, the result is a complete disorder of the
Defects of the Character writing. A guide moved to the right will raise all signs on the right of the
keyboard and will lower all the signs on the left. If it is moved to the left, it
will cause the opposite effect. METHODS OF PRINTING

Alteration of the Platen - The rubber of the platen gets old and A. RELIEF PRINTING (LETTERPRESS)
hardens, the surface formally smooth becomes more and more irregular and
rough and does not offer anymore intimate contact with all surface of the sign. In this method of printing, the image characters are raised above
The writing becomes inconsistent and the same sign will print itself partially the level of the non-printing areas. The ink is applied to a raised surface
or entirely and with a greater intensity and more intensively on the tight or the that in turn is applied to paper. The letterpress process is the oldest of
left, on the bottom or the top. all printing procedures. It prints with cleaner and sharper letters.
After the type has been set, the next step is the actual printing
General Wear of a Typewriter - The typebars are subjected to a which is made on one of three principles:
lateral play particularly felt at the top. This gives poor accuracy at the point of 1. The platen or “flatbed press” opens and closes like a clam shaft; it
impact of the character. The same signs print themselves on the right or on has raised type on one flat surface and paper on another flat surface
the left of their theoretical point of impact. and the two are pressed together. Small hand presses are generally
platen presses.
TYPEFACE MISALIGNMENTS – synonymous to “alignment defects: 2. Cylinder presses roll the paper around a cylinder and then across
the flat surface of inked type.
1. Vertical Misalignment - A character printing above or below 3. Rotary presses pass the paper between two cylinders, one of which
its proper position. Possible causes are: holds the curved printing plates.
a. a character soldered too high or too low on the typebar;
b. an unsoldered character;
c. a typebar having lost its correct curvature; B. INTAGLIO (GRAVURE PRINTING) – There are four types of
d. a type bar having an oval of axis bearing; printing which employ the Intaglio principle of placing ink in an area,
e. misalignment of the typebar guide to the right or to the left; which has been cut out or etched.
f. disorder of the capital letter shift lock. 1. Gravure – This is a process in which the ink in recessed or sunken
2. Lateral or Horizontal Misalignment - An alignment defect in letters is drawn out or sucked out under pressure. The process
which the character prints the right or left of its proper position is produces high quality reproduction of photographs and half-tone
known as horizontal alignment. illustrations, but the letters of type reproduced have slightly fuzzy
3. Oblique Misalignment – The character leans towards the right or edges. The printing is done from large copper plates or copper
towards the left. covered cylinders on presses of two kinds; sheet-fed gravure
presses and web-fed rotogravure presses for longer runs. The
TYPEWRITING STANDARDS OR EXEMPLARS – the procurement of copper plates or cylinders are produced by making film positives
typewriting exemplars are grouped as follows: of the art work to be reproduced.
2. Engraving – The paper her is forced into the sunken areas of a
1. Study of the questioned document by the investigator; metal plate where the ink is. A special plate is made by the artist
2. Procurement of the regular course of business typewriting; who removes or scratches areas in the metal itself into which the
3. Preparation of exemplar typewriting by the suspected writer; ink is placed. The actual printing process is very slow, and after the
4. Preparation of typewriting exemplar by the investigator on paper is removed from the plate, time must be allowed for the
suspected typewriter; and drying of the ink to prevent smudging.
5. The procurement of the suspected typewriter itself by the 3. Planographic – Lithography is the most well known printing
investigator. process which employs the principle of putting ink on a chemically
treated surface. The commercial application of lithography is
OBTAINING KNOWN TYPEWRITTEN EXEMPLARS - Properly known as offset. In this process, the copy is placed in front of a
prepared known typewriting samples not only facilitate the examination in the big camera and photographed so that the film is the exact size that
laboratory but they aid immeasurably in the demonstration in the court room. the final result is to be. The film is in turn placed over a sensitized
plate make of paper, albumen or chemically treated metal) and
HOW TO OBTAIN EXEMPLARS OF TYPEWRITING? exposed to a strong light.
4. Stencil – Stencil sheets on which the copy is typed or drawn are
1. If the typewriter ribbon is obviously new, remove it from the made of a porous lease tissue, covered with a coating which is
typewriter and send it to the laboratory with the typewriting impervious to ink. The typing or drawing pushes the coating aside
exemplars prepared from another ribbon.(the text of the material and exposes the porous tissue. This stencil wrapped around an
in question may still be discernible of the ribbon) inked cylinder and the cylinder is rolled across the paper, forcing
2. Use paper of about of about the same size as the questioned the ink through the porous parts of the stencil.
material, type out a full word for word copy of the message in
question, typographical errors, using as nearly as possible the C. PLANOGRAPHIC (LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING) – In
same degree of touch as that used in typing the questioned planographic printing, the image characters are in the same general
material. plane as the non-printing areas. The ink is applied to a dead level
3. After placing the typewriter in a stencil position or removing the plate which has been chemically treated such as lithograph and offset.
cloth ribbon, obtain samples of each character on the keyboard D. STENCIL – It is a process where the letters or image are holes cut in a
by typing through carbon paper which has been inserted carbon sheet, or a sheet is made more porous in the area of the letters and ink
side down over a piece of white bond paper. is applied to paper through the holes or porous areas such as
4. Make certain that each specimen contain the make, model and mimeograph.
serial number of the typewriter from which it was produced as well E. HALFTONE BLOCK PRINTING – This is offset-related and is used
as the date and initials of the officer. for the reproduction of pictures and illustrations in little covers. To
5. Typewriter specimens should be taken from suspected prepare a halftone block, the model is photograph and its image is
typewriter/s. It is usually not necessary to forward the typewriter transferred to a metal surface by photo-printing.
to the laboratory if complete known exemplars are obtained.
6. If possible, after a typewritten exemplar is obtained from a IDENTIFYING CHARACTERISTICS OF PRINTING
suspected typewriter, the investigation should insure that the
typewriter is kept in its current condition. A. LETTERPRESS
7. With evidence thus obtained from typewritten documents, the 1. Study of this printing shows that the edges of the letters are more
laboratory experts is in position to lend valuable assistance to sharply defined than offset printing.
the solution and subsequent prosecution of many cases. 2. Careful microscopic study and measurement may reveal different
“runs” of letterpress printing which have been made from the same
PHOTO MECHANICAL PRINTING PROCESS set-up; the “y” type face may exhibit evidence of damage and the

spacing and alignment may be different due to pressure applied by applied; the direction the pig is facing; attention to details; line quality;
the frame. angular or curved strokes; and emphasis on head of pig.
1. The edges of the letters are more irregular than in letterpress;
2. The middle portion and the edges of the letters are more or less of TYPEWRITING
the same density; and
3. There is no indentation of the paper in the area of the printed All typewriters of a particular make and model are pretty much the
letters as is sometimes found in letter press printing. same but, through use, the develop defects that translate to paper when the
machine is used. These defects on the typed page can be matched back to the
IDENTIFICATION OF PRINTING – The identification of printing is typewriter that was used to create it.
based on the general principles which consider the existence of an
adequate combination of class and individual characteristics exceeding These defects in the type face are revealed in a number of ways. If
the limits of an accidental coincidence. the type bar is bent (the bar on which the letter element is attached and
hammered down to the page) the letter is misaligned or 'off its feet.'
A. CLASS CHARACTERISTICS – maybe grouped under body size Misalignments can also cause non-printing areas of a specific letter, such as
and type face designs. losing the loop on the bottom of a ‘g.’ The letter can be displaced horizontally
1. Body size of a type – responsible for the width of a line and depth or vertically. Little clumps of plastic can adhere to the type key during
of a column. manufacture and are made permanent by the coating process. This defect is
2. Unit measurement – six picas making an inch. called 'flashing.' As wear and tear increases, the defects become more
3. The body size in metallic type – varies from six points up to exaggerated.
seventy points, larger ones being made mainly in wood.
4. According to the type face – there are eight main designs Just looking at the type style, or font, the spacing (horizontal and
vertical) and type size allows for determining the make and model of the
typewriter. Ribbons are a major evidentiary component. It is possible to read
B. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS – These come into existence a ribbon to see what it has been used to type.
as a result of:
1. Defective setting in relative space positioning, slant and weight of
type faces; or
2. Due to mutilations and imperfections in the type faces.



Graphology, the study of handwriting to determine one's

personality traits, is not handwriting analysis. It's not even considered a
science; more like a parlor trick. True handwriting analysis involves
painstaking examination of the design, shape and structure of handwriting to
determine authorship of a given handwriting sample. The basic principle HANDWRITING AND FINGERPRINT EXPERTS
underlying handwriting analysis is that no two people write the exact same
thing the exact same way. Every person develops unique peculiarities and Illustrations Concerning Forged Signatures in thumb impressions,
characteristics in their handwriting. typed matter, alleged alterations & interpolations etc.

Handwriting analysis looks at letter formations, connecting strokes

between the letters, upstrokes, retraces, down strokes, spacing, baseline,
curves, size, distortions, hesitations and a number of other characteristics of
handwriting. By examining these details and variations in a questioned
sample and comparing them to a sample of known authorship, a determination
can be made as the whether or not the authorship is genuine. The upper disputed signature marked Q is a forged signature in
'Devnagari Script' of Hon'ble Ex-Prime Minister " Sh. Chandrashekhar" on a
Graphology systems tend to be one of three (3) types: (1) those cheque as compared with his admitted signature marked A-1.
based on individual letter formations; (2) those based on stroke analysis; and
(3) those based on an holistic/gestalt method. Over 3000 private business
companies use it routinely (to screen employees), and it enjoys a growing
sense of scientific respectability. The courts appear to be waiting to see
college psychology courses on it. It probably has the most validity with the
following domains: (1) intelligence; (2) attitude toward work; and (3)
interpersonal skills. Recent developments have focused on "profiling" of
uncaptured criminals and sex offenders (where handwriting analysts say they
can spot a "perversion", not exactly the best word for it).

There's some precedent in art therapy and projective psychological

testing for graphology. Many convictions of child sex offenders have
occurred because of what the child victim portrayed in a drawing, and with
psychological testing, there's the famous "Draw a Pig" assignment, which
apparently contains everything you need to make a subjective personality
assessment from: where placed on paper; the size of the pig; the pressure
The disputed signature marked Q-3 across the revenue stamp is a
forged signature as compared with the genuine signature marked POLYGRAPHY (LIE DETECTION)
The upper signature marked Q-2 is a forged signature as compared
with the admitted signature marked A-2. What is Polygraphy? It is the scientific method of detecting
deception with the use of a polygraph instrument. This is the new name of LIE

What is a Polygraph? It is a scientific diagnostic instrument used

to record physiological changes in the blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration
and skin resistance of an examinee under controlled condition.

What is Lie Detector? It is the popular but misleading name of

the Polygraph. In Greek, Polygraph means “many writings” and the
instrument was so named because it make various ink recordings of a person’s
body functions.

What is the other name of the Polygraph? It is also called

The upper signature marked Q across the revenue stamp is a forged “Truth Verifier” since statistics show that is the vast majority of the instances
signature in 'Telugu Script' as compared with the specimen the instrument verifies an innocent person’s truthfulness.
signature marked S-4.
What are the Concepts of Polygraph Examination?

1. Used to test an individual for the purpose of detecting

deception or verify the truth of statement
2. Records identifiable physiological reactions of the subject,
such as; blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration and skin
3. The effectiveness of the polygraph in recording symptoms of
deceptions is based on the theory that a conscious mental
effort on the part of a normal person to deceive causes
The upper fingerprint marked Q is a latent fingerprint developed involuntary physiological changes that are in effect a body’s
from the object of burglary and found to be identical with the reaction to an imminent danger to its well being.
specimen fingerprint (S-78) of the suspect on scientific
comparison. What are the objectives of a Polygraph Examination?

1. Obtain additional investigation leads to the facts of the

2. Ascertain if a person is telling the truth
3. Locate the fruits or tools of the crime or whereabouts of
wanted persons.
4. Identify other persons involved.
5. Obtain valuable information form reluctant witnesses
6. Eliminate the innocent suspects.

What are the Principal uses of the polygraph?

The fingerprint marked X developed with Chemical Powders from 1. Aid in investigation
the object of burglary was found to be identical with the specimen 2. Speeds up processing of investigation
fingerprint D-5 of the suspect. 3. Eliminates innocent suspects
4. Pre-employment screening
5. Honesty test (Periodic test)

What is the significance of understanding Lie Detection?

In every criminal investigation, the truth must be established to

ensure proper prosecution of offenders. Criminal investigators must exert all
effort to determine lying not only on the part of the suspect but as well as to
everyone involved in the criminal act – witnesses, victims, etc.

In establishing the truth, criminal investigators apply various

A highly enlarged photograph of a clear rolled fingerprint methods such as: observation; mechanical lie detection; use of drugs that
inhibits the “inhibitor”; hypnosis; and interrogation.

What is Lie? Any untruthful statement; Falsehood; Anything that

deceives or creates false impression; to make untrue statements knowingly,
especially with intent to deceive; To give an erroneous or misleading
impression; Lie is also synonymous to Deceit; deception; fabrication;
falsehood; and untruth.

What is the meaning of Detection? The act of detecting,

discovery, perceiving, finding, or uncovering something obscure

…oΩo… What are the Kinds of Lie?

1. White Lie or Benign Lie - the kind of lies used to protect or Historically, early human beings have their own way of
maintain the harmony of friendship or any relationship. determining lying or guilt on the part of the accused and accuser. Their
2. Pathological Lie - this is a lie made by persons who cannot common method is thru the application of “ORDEAL.”
distinguish right from wrong.
3. Red Lie - this involves political interests and motives What is Ordeal?
because this is a part of communist propaganda strategy.
This is prevalent in communist countries or A severe test of character or endurance; a trying course of
communist infested nation. Lies of means of experience, A medieval form of judicial trial in which the accused was
propaganda-brain-washing and blackmail via subjected to physical tests, as carrying or walking over burning objects or
espionage and treason. immersing the hand in scalding water, the result being considered a divine
4. Black Lie - a lie accompanies pretensions and judgment of guilt or innocence.
hypocrisies, intriguing to cause dishonor or discredit
ones good image. It is also a term of varying meaning closely related in the Medieval
5. Malicious or Judicial Lie - this is very pure and Latin “Dei Indicum” meaning “Miraculous decision.” Ordeal is also an
unjustifiable kind of lie that is intended purely to ancient method of trial in which the accused was exposed to physical danger
mislead or obstruct justice. which was supposed to be harmless if he was innocent.

What are the Types of Liars? What are the Early Methods of Detecting Lies?

1. Panic Liars - one who lies in order to avoid the 1. Red hot iron ordeal - Practiced on the hill tribe of Rajhmal in the
consequences of a confession, He/She is afraid of North Bengal; Accused placed his tongue to a red hot iron nine
embarrassment to love ones and it is a serious blow to his / times (9) unless burned sooner; If burned, he is put to death. Not
her ego, He/She believes that confession will just male the only that (licking the iron), he is also made to carry the metal into
matter worst. his hands. It is doubtful whether the ordeal is meant to determined
2. Occupational Liars - Is someone laid for spare years, this the physiological changes occurring in description for if this so,
person is a practical liar and lies when it has a higher “pay many false observations must have been made.
off” than telling the truth. 2. Ordeal by balance - Practiced in the Institute of Vishnu, India;
3. Tournament Liars - Loves to lie and is excited by the Scale of balanced is used; In one end of the scale, the accused is
challenge of not being detected, this person views an placed in the other end, a counter balance; The person will step out
interview as another contest and wants to win, this person of the scale listened to a judge deliver an extortion is the balance
realizes that he or she will probably be convicted bur will not and her back in. If he were found to be lighter than before then he
give anyone the satisfaction of hearing him or her confesses, should be acquitted.
he wants that people will believe that the law is punishing an 3. Boiling water ordeal - Used in Africa; the method was that the
innocent person. subject will plunged their right arms into the boiling pot to the
4. Psychopathic Liars - the most difficult type, this person has elbow and step into the other side of the fire. All are told to
no conscience. He shows no regret for dishonestly and no undergo the test without a murmur. And when all are finished, they
manifestation of guilt, are told to return at the same tine the next afternoon. The one who
5. Ethnological Liars - is one who is taught not to be a by that time had lost some or showed blisters would prove the thief
squealer, *squealer – to cry or to shrill voice, used by (Point out who is the one who steal among his tribe mates).
underworld gang in order for their member not to reveal any 4. Ordeal by rice chewing - Practiced by Indians; It is formed with a
secret of their organization. kind of rice called sathee, prepared with various incantations; The
6. Pathological Liars - A person who cannot distinguish right person on trial eats, with his face to the and then spits upon an
from wrong (his mind is sick.), Is an insane person. eyeful leaf; If the saliva is mixed with blood or the corner of his
7. Black Liars - A person who always pretends, (What he mouth swell or he trembles, he is declared then a liar.
thinks of himself, what kind of person he is, and what he is.) 5. Ordeal of the red water - Used in a wide region of Eastern
Africa; The ordeal of the “sassy bark” or red water is used; The
accused is made to fast for twelve hours; The swallow a small
amount of rice; Then he will be imbibed in dark colored water.
CONCEPT OF DETECTING LIES This water is actually an emetic and if the suspects ejects all the
rice, he is considered innocent of the chare, Otherwise, the accused
What is the theory of lie detection? is guilty.
6. Combination of Drinks and Food Ordeal -The accused first
It must be recognized that there is no such thing as an instrument fasted for 12 hours and the given small amount of rice to ear
that will detect lies. The popular name, Lie Detector, given to a collection of followed by large amount of black colored water. If the concoction
certain medical instruments, is somewhat misleading. No collection of was vomited, the accused was pronounced innocent; Otherwise,
inanimate objects including the very finest and complicated modern guilty. And practiced by “West African Regions”.
computers, can detect lies on the part of any human being. 7. Trial by Combat - A fight between the accuser and the accused,
whoever lost the battle will be the adjudged guilty. Originated
The students can understandably ask, “Well, what does this do from India and one of the examples of this: a rich man or accuser
called “lie detector” do?” The answer to that question is that the lie detector could hire somebody or bigger one to fight the accused. After the
records certain physiological activities of the body. These activities are fight the loser is adjudged guilty of crime.
constantly in operation as long as the person is alive. The student should be 8. Trial by Torture - The accused was put into a severe physical
aware that the most common lie detectors record a breathing pattern of test.
inspiration and expiration, a continuous pattern of relative blood pressure and 9. Drinking Ordeal - The accused was given a decoction to drink by
pulse rate, and a pattern of electro dermal activity. a priest – if innocent; no harm befalls him, but if guilty, will die.
Practiced in Nigeria and India.
It is well known that the body adapts itself as efficiently as 10. Trial of the Eucharist - This trial is reserved for the clergy, and
possible to its environment. If the environment changes, the body will rapidly administered with pomp and ceremony. If the accused was guilty,
adjust itself to these changes. This is done by a complicated system of internal the Angel Gabriel will descend from heaven and prevent the
checks and balance primarily involving the autonomic nervous system. This accused from swallowing the food given to him. Practiced in the
ability to adjust is necessary if the organism if the organism or body is to European countries.
survive in a constantly changing world. Those organisms that cannot adjust 11. Ordeal by heat and fire - The accused was compelled to walk
rapidly die out. bare footed through a fire; if he remains unhurt then he is innocent.
Practiced in East Germany, Early Scandinavian Countries and
early England.

12. Ordeal of Boiling Oil or Water - The accused was forced to dip 18. Incoherence, trembling and sweating of the whole body.
his hands into the boiling water or oil and ask to pick up stone in it.
If he remains unhurt then he is innocent. Practiced in Asian Detection through Regular Police Methods
13. Ordeal of Red hot Needle - Red hot needle was drawn through Police methods sought to answer the legal investigative process to
the lips of the accused, if innocent; no blood will be seen flowing the following: The “five Wives and One Husband” (5 W’s and 1H) which
out. Practiced in Wanaka, East Africa. stand for: WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, and HOW. The “Three Eyes” (3
14. Ordeal of the Tiger - Accuser and accused were placed together I’s) which stands for: Information gathering – through record Check,
in the same and a tiger set loose upon them. If both were spared, Surveillance and Intelligence Check, Investigation – through Interrogation or
further elimination followed. Practical in Siam. Interview for Admission or Confession, Instrumention or Criminalistics
15. Ordeal by Combat - Accuser and accused report to a duel where (Police Sciences) with the use of the different Investigative Forensic Sciences
the winner was adjudged innocent. Those not proficient in such as Medico Legal or Forensic Medicine, Forensic Chemistry, Police or
weapons and those who could not afford to do so could hire Investigative photography, Forensic Ballistics (Firearm Identification),
champions in the field to do the fighting for them. This type of Questioned Documents Examination, Dactyloscopy, Police or Investigative
ordeal is vividly dramatized in the movie “Ivanhoe” based on the Communication, Polygraphy /Deceptography
novel of the same title (became the only legal ordeal). Practiced in
16. Test of the Cross ordeal - The accuser and accused each were
made to stand with arms crossed on their breasts. The one who In the middle of the 19th century, Dr. Hans Gross, an Austrian
endured the longest was deemed to have told the truth, the other, is known as the “Father of Criminalistics”, defined search for truth as the basis
the liar. Practiced in Europe. and goal of all criminal investigations. He asserted that “a large part of the
17. Donkey’s Tail Ordeal - Psychological theory, the donkey placed criminalist’s work is nothing more than a battle against lies. He has to
in one room alone and observed it, and if the donkey cried is a discover the truth and must fight the opposite. He meets the opposite at every
judged of guilty of crimes, because deep in side and conscience he step.
is guilty.
The searches for truth and attempts at uncovering falsehood have
What are the Common Countries that Practiced Ordeal? been a universal and almost constant endeavor dating back at ancient times. In
their attempt to discover deception, primitive societies developed complex
1. Burma - The accuser and accused were given each identical procedures founded on magic and mysticism. The doors to the truth, divine
candle and both were lightened at the same time. creatures sent messages through fire, boiling water and torture. In some
2. Borneo - The accuser and accused were presented by shell fish instances, faith in this powerful mysticism miraculously allowed the innocent
placed on a plate. An irritating fluid was then poured on the shell to go unscathed while the guilty bore the mark of guilt.
fish and the litigant whose shell fish moved first was adjudged the
winner. Some of these rituals were based on sound physiological
3. Greece - A suspended axe was spun at the center of a group of principles. Oriental people for example distinguished truth form lying by
suspects. When the axe stopped, whoever was in line with the having the entire accused chew dry rice and then spit it out. While this was a
blade as supposed to be guilty as pointed out by the divine simple task for the honest, those who were deceiving have difficulty in
providence. accomplishing this task and were then judged to be guilty and punished
4. Nigeria - The priest greased a clock’s feather and pierced the accordingly. This practice recognized that fear slows the digestive process,
tongue of the accused. If the feather passed through the tongue including salivation. Thus, the deceptive were unable to spit out the dry rice,
easily, the accused was deemed innocent. If not, the accused is while the innocent, having faith in the power of their deity to clear them of the
guilty. Another Method (same country) Pour corrosive liquid into unjust accusation, felt little fear in contrast to the guilty who know they would
the eyes of the accused who was supposed to remain unharmed if be discovered.
innocent. Pour boiling oil over the hand of the accused with he
usual requisites for guilt or innocence (if remain unharmed, he is Throughout the centuries, man continued to experiment with more
innocent). scientific methods in determining truth and deception with the following
5. Europe and Early United States (17th Century) - Trial by water scientists having contributed much in the development of the polygraph
was commonly used on those accused of witchcraft. The accused instrument:
was bound (hand and foot) and then cast into the body of water. If
the accused sank, he was hauled to the surface half-drowned and A. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARDIOGRAPH COMPONENT
deemed innocent. If the floated, he was deemed guilty and burned
to death. ANGELO MOSSO – 1895
1. Studied fear and its influence on the hearth and his
Detecting Lies through Observation Methods observations subsequently formed the basis for the
1. Through Facial Expression 2. Developed the SPHYGMAMOMANOMETER and the
2. Blushing, paling or profuse sweating of forehead. SCIENTIFIC CRADLE, which he used in studying fear
3. Dilation of the eyes, protrusion of eyeballs and elevation of upper on the heart.
4. Squinting of the eyes (showing envy, distrust, etc.). CESAR LOMBROSO – 1895
5. Twitching of the lips. 1. Employed the first scientific instrument to detect
6. Excessive winking of the eyes. deception. This instrument known as
7. Failure to look the inquirer “straight into the eyes”. HYDORSPHYGMOGRAPH, measured changes in
8. Excessive activity of the Adam’s apple and the vein at the temple pulse and blood pressure when suspects were
due to dryness of throat and mouth. questioned about their involvement in or knowledge of
9. Quivering of nose or nostrils. a specific response.
10. A peculiar monotone of the voice. 2. Procedure on the use of the
11. A forced laugh. “HYDROSPHYGMOGRAPH” in detecting deception:
12. Rolling of eyeballs from one direction to another Subject’s hand placed in a water filed tank sealed with
13. Through Postural Reaction membranes of rubber; Subject will be shown pictures
14. Fidgeting, tapping or drumming of fingers on the chairs or the connected with the crime or mention will be made to
other surfaces. relevant facts of the crime; Pulsation of blood in fist
15. Swinging of legs or one leg over the other. was recorded on smoked drum.
16. Unnecessary movements of hands and feet (like scratching, nail
biting, thumb or finger sucking). WILLIAM MARSTON – 1915
17. Pulsation of the artery in the neck.

1. He dealt with the sphygmomanometer which was used
to obtain periodic discontinuous blood pressure GEORG STICKER – 1897
readings during the course of an examination; 1. First to suggest the use of the galvanograph for
2. He also experienced with and helped to develop the detecting deception based on the work of several
pneumograph, which records breathing patterns, and the predecessors.
galvanometer, which registers changes in skin 2. Theorized that the galvanic skin phenomena was
resistance. influenced by exciting mental impressions and that the
will have no effect upon it.
1. Developed the polygraph, an instrument capable of OTTO VERAGUTH – 1907
continuously records blood pressure, pulse, and 1. First to use the term “PSYCHOGALVANIC
respiration. REFLEX”.
2. The polygraph instrument which he developed was 2. Believed that the electrical phenomenon was due to the
polygraphic apparatus in a portable form. Had activity of the sweat glands.
published more than anyone in this field.
apparatus and some of his co-workers in the Berkeley Police Department. A
strip of paper on which the tracings are recorded is mounted on two drums, HUGO MUNSTERBURG (1908)
which are turned by a spring mechanism known as a kymograph. The paper is 1. Proposed that lie test based on lie detector should be
smoked to reduce the friction of the styluses or recording levers which are admissible as evidence in court.
actuated by Marey Tambours. A manometer is placed on the right shoulder of 2. The detection is based on using blood pressure
the subject, the function of whish is to indicate the pressure in the bag, the variations for deception detection.
pressure bag, encased in a leather cuff, is strapped pneumograph is strapped 3. He advocates the used of lie detection in court.
around the chest to record respiration. This type of pneumograph or 4. But it was not known if the same was followed.
respiration applicator is sill being used in some of the modern instruments. In
a later model developed by Larson, a Jaquet polygraph replaced the CHARLES SAMSON FERE – (1888)
kymograph and smoked paper, and the pens moved horizontally instead of 1. French Scientist who discovered that electro dermal
vertically as in the original apparatus. In a further modification, metal tambour response is caused by an increase in the action of the
stacks were substituted for the Erlanger capsule and rubber covered tambours. heart and vital energy converted with human emotions.
2. He asserted that human body has the ability to generate
LEONARD KEELER –1926 store, discharged high voltage of static electricity.
1. Continued research and development of the polygraph.
In 1949, he invented the Keeler Polygraph with JACQUES D’ARSONVAL – (1851-1940)
components that simultaneously recorded changes in 1. French Scientist who declared that electricity is
blood pressure, pulse and respiration, as well as the generated by the body and named External Friction as
newly developed galvanic skin reflex. source of generation.
2. He devised the chart roll paper, a better method of 2. He assorted those sweat glands which the body at times
questioning, and incorporated the kymograh. store the electricity and at other times discharged them.
3. He also devised a metal bellows. 3. His works helped in the development of the
THE KEELER POLYGRAPH - In 1925, Keeler developed a
compact portal instrument using a modification of the Erlanger pressure PAUL WILHELM AND DONALD BURNS (1951)
reducer that permitted the blood pressure changes to be recorded over a 1. Michigan City, Indiana, USA, (Independent Lie
greater range. He later made further improvement by substituting metal Detector Specialists) who invented the Electronic
bellows or diaphragm capsules in place of the Erlanger type pressure reducer. Psychometric using Electrodermal Response as a basis
The instrument is housed in a steel case with wrinkle finish and chromium for lie detection.
trim. The cover is attached to case by means of slip hinges and can be 2. Both have proven that results of lie detection test
removed when the instrument is to be used. Opening of the cover permits (during) using their instrumental 95% accurate.
hinged doors at each end of the case to open outward for access to the chart at
one end and the accessories at the other. All connections to the instrument are CHESTER W. DARROW (1932)
made directly under the right end of the panel, which include the hose 1. Made a third modification to the Larson Cardio-
connection for the cuff inflation bulb, the tube from the blood pressure cuff, a Pneumo Psychograph, by adding a galvanometer. The
connector for the hand electrodes of the electro dermal recording unit, an new instrument included a psycho-galvanometric
extension cord, and a tube from the pneumograph. Space is provided directly record, electrodes on the palm and back of the hand, as
below the attachments for storage of the accessories, and they may be stored well as a continuous blood pressure record, and a
without disconnecting the accessories form the instrument. pneumographic record.


1. Devised an instrument for recording muscular activity.
VITTORIO BENUSSI – 1914 2. The recording made simultaneously with blood pressure
1. Successfully detected deception with a pneumograph, pulse respiration tracings, renders much more accurate
an instrument that graphically measures an examinee’s any diagnosis based upon these later phenomena.
inhalation and exhalation.
2. He demonstrated that changes in breathing patterns SIR JAMES MACKENZLE (1906)
accompany deception. 1. Generally overlooked in that history of the lie detector
technique is the fact that so called polygraph was in
HAROLD BURTT – 1918 existence at least as early as 1906.
1. Determined that respiratory changes were indicative of 2. Its invention, however as not for lie detection purposes,
deception. rather for the use in medical examination.
2. Found out that changes in systolic blood pressure were 3. Nevertheless, it did contain the essential features of
of greater value in determining deception than changes present day instrument and first construction was based
in respiration. upon the same principle.
4. Its inventor was Sir James Mackenzle, the famous
C. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GALVANOGRAPH English Heart Specialist which articles entitled “The
COMPONENT Ink Polygraph” which appeared in 1908 number of the
English Journal.
CLEVE BACKSTER – (1947) In polygraph testing, the receptor is the ear of the subject, which
1. Develop the control question technique which receives the threatening question or stimulus from the polygraphist. The
introduces a lie in the polygraph chart to establish a stimulus is transmitted from the ears via sensory neurons into the brain where
yard sticks so that one would know what the reaction the hypothalamus analyzes, evaluates and resolves that particular question. It
really means. makes a decision for the subject as to whether it is threatening situation. If
2. If this person responds to this control lie to a greater affirmative, the hypothalamus immediately activates the sympathetic
extent than does to the actual questions under subdivision of the autonomic nervous system. When the sympathetic system is
investigation we assume and establish the subject is activated, it immediately prepares the body for the fight or flight by the
telling the truth at that point. situation by causing the adrenal glands to secret hormones known as
3. If the reverse is true we state that he is not telling the epinephrine and norepinephrine, so that the blood will be distributed to those
truth at that point. areas of the body where it is most needed to meet the emergency, such as the
brain and the larger muscle group. The chemical norepinephrine causes the
THE LEE PSYCHOGRAPH - This instrument was designed by arterioles in certain parts of the body to constrict. Thereby preventing blood
Captain Clarence D. Lee and known as the Berkeley Psychograph. It consists from entering those areas where it is not immediately needed. Other obvious
essentially of four units: effect took place when the sympathetic system is activated, the heart pumps
a) Chart drive or recording unit blood harder and faster, increasing blood pressure, pulse rate, and strength,
b) Pneumograph or respiration unit thus furnishing more oxygenated blood to those areas of the body where it is
c) Cardiograph or pulse-blood pressure unit vitally needed to meet the emergency, such as the brain when increased
d) Stimulus signal unit mental activity is demanded. The second division of the autonomic nervous
system is the parasympathetic nervous system. It is functionally antagonistic
PSYCHOLOGY OF POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION to the sympathetic nervous system. Its role is to maintain the homeostasis of
the body necessary for normal functioning. Therefore, it follows to re-
Psychology of the Lying Person establish the chemical balance of the body.

The polygraph technique uses the principle that the bodily What are the Tripod Foundations of Polygraph Technique?
functions of a person are influenced by his mental state. The physiological
changes accompanying deception are capable of being recorded, measured 1. The Mechanical Leg Basic Premise - The polygraph machine is
and interpreted with reasonable certainty. mechanically capable of making graphical records containing
reliable information regarding physiological changes
Telling a lie is usually an emotional experience. A conscious act of 2. The Physiological Leg Basic Premise - Among the physiological
lying causes the mind of the examinee, which produces an emotion of fear or changes that may be recorded and identified are those that
anxiety, manifested by fluctuations in pulse rate, blood pressure, breathing automatically occur only following the stimulation of specific
and perspiration. The physiologic fluctuations that come with the emotion are nervous system component and from which stimulation of those
in nature automatic, self-regulating and beyond conscious control because specific nervous system components can be reliably diagnosed.
they affect the functioning of the internal structures that prepare the body for 3. Psychological Leg Basic Premise - Under the polygraph leg
emergency. premise, the specific nervous system component whose stimulation
can thus be diagnosed are so stimulated by the involuntary mental
The underlying psychology here includes: and emotional processes of the individual who is consciously
attempting concealment of deception specially if that individual
1. The lying person fears detection, causing physiological changes to has something at stake and the prevailing circumstances lead him
take place in his body. to believe that exposure to detection is quite possible though
2. Fear of detection must be experienced by the subject; otherwise no undesirable.
physiological changes will occur.
3. A person “tunes in” that which indicates trouble or danger by GOALS, USES AND PURPOSES OF POLYGRAPH TECHNIQUE
having his sense organs and attention for a particular stimulus, and
he “tunes out “that which is of a lesser threat to his self- What is the ultimate objective of conducting Polygraph examination?
preservation or general well-being.
4. In a series of questions containing relevant and control questions, The ultimate objective of Polygraph Examination is to obtain the
the lying subjects will “tune in” on the most intense relevant Subject’s “ADMISSION or CONFESSION” of the offense committed.
questions and “tune out “ the control question and may not be
materially affected by other weak relevant questions. General Purposes of using Polygraph
5. The truthful subject will direct his attention to the control question
wherein he consciously knows he is deceptive and “tune out” the Polygraph Examination is generally used an investigative
relevant ones. aid/technical aid in the investigative process. It is used to verify if the
statement of the victims/complainant, establish the credibility of the
Theory of Polygraph Examination witnesses, evaluates the truthfulness of the suspects. It is also used for pre-
employment screening and loyalty check of personnel.
A conscious mental effort of a mentally normal person lie causes
physiological changes within his body. The physiological changes could be Generally, it deals with
recorded by the Polygraph Instrument and diagnosed of evaluated by the
polygraph examiner. 1. Security risk – Leakage of Information Intelligence and Counter-
The physiological effector mechanism in polygraph examination is 2. Criminal Law Infraction – Murder, Robbery, Theft, Rape etc.
the Autonomic Nervous System. The autonomic nervous is the one 3. Personnel Screening
responsible for regulating mechanism that corrects the slightest deviation from 4. Misconduct
a particular standard within very fine limits. Sleeps, oxygenation of the blood 5. Medical Measurements
temperature, levels of potassium, sodium, calcium magnesium and all the
essential chemical substances that maintain the activity of all cell membranes Importance of Polygraph to a Law Enforcer
are finely adjusted. This is found at the center of the brain and its central
controls is in the “hypothalamus” – a group of nerve cells of the brain that 1. Most effective way of establishing the truth.
reflexes – those that we cannot control consciously such as our heart beat, 2. Guilt is separated from truth (guilty separated from innocent)
pulse rate, increase and decrease in blood pressure and the expansion and 3. If scientifically determined (lie) the investigator can evaluate the
constriction of arteries are governed by the autonomic nervous system. When evidence.
one of our senses detects a threat to our well-being, it sends a signal to the 4. Saves time, efforts and money
autonomic nervous system, which activates its sympathetic division regardless 5. Measures the efficiency and effectiveness of the law enforcer.
whether threat is physical or psychological.
5. The test will not be given until enough facts have been established
What is the Accuracy of the Polygraph Exam Result? to permit the examiner to prepare a complete set of suitable
This has been the unending question among many of us. However, 6. The test will not be given without the voluntary consent of the
practitioners have agreed that the accuracy of the polygraph results ranges subject.
from 85% to 100% depending upon the factors that affect it. 7. No indication will be given to any person or placed in any report
that a person will be considered guilty because he refused to take
the test.
Factors that Affects the Accuracy of the Polygraph Results 8. A test will not be given until the accusations have been explained
with the subject.
Generally, the following are factors affecting polygraph 9. No attempt to use Polygraph for mental or physical evaluation of
examination accuracy: any person.
1. The instrument. 10. No examination will be conducted on unfit subject.
2. The condition of the Subject.
3. The condition of the examination room.
4. The qualification and skills of the examiner. What are the Barriers to the Polygraph Examination?

Specifically, the 25% errors of lie detection test come from the There are instances where it is impossible to make an analysis of
following circumstances: polygraph tests because of the following:
1. Nervousness or extreme emotional tension experienced by a 1. Pathological liar (a person who cannot determine right and wrong).
subject who is telling the truth regarding the offense in question 2. Mental cases.
but who is nevertheless affected by: 3. Persons under the influence of intoxicating liquor.
a. Apprehension induced by the mere fact that suspicion 4. Narcotics related cases.
or accusation has been directed against him. 5. Various heart and other organic troubles.
b. Apprehension over the possibility of an inaccurate lie
detector test result. Problem encountered by Law Enforcement Officer during investigation
c. Over-anxiety to cooperate in order to assure an accurate and interrogation
test result. 1. Determination whether subject is telling the truth regarding the
d. Apprehension concerning possible physical hurt from crime index investigation.
the instrument. 2. Obtaining admission or confession from a suspect after his guilt
e. Anger resentment over having to take a lie detector test. has been established.
f. Over-anxiety regarding serious personal problems 3. In cases of witnesses, informer and informant who are in
unrelated to the offense under investigation. possession of helpful information who are willing but fearful or
g. Previous extensive interrogation, especially when reluctant to disclose it to interrogator.
accompanied by physical abuse.
h. A guilt complex or fear of detection regarding some Qualities of a Good Examiner (Backster)
other offense which he had committed. 1. To make himself understand and not resented by subject, by his
very exposure to him.
2. Physiological abnormalities such as: 2. Ability to establish or create a rapport with the subject.
a. Excessively high or excessive low blood pressure. 3. Much investigative experience as possible.
b. Diseases of the heart. 4. Interrogation Experience.
c. Respiratory disorder. 5. Must be deeply involved in his work (even beyond the call of
3. Mental Abnormalities such as;
a. Feeblemindedness as in idiots, imbeciles and morons. What kind of man should be conducting the Polygraph Test? (Fred
b. Psychosis or insanities, as in maniac-depressives, Inbau)
paranoids, schizophrenia, paretics, etc. 1. Good educational background
c. Pschoneurosis and psychopathia, as among the so- 2. Intelligent and some degree of maturity
called “peculiar” or emotionally unstable persons – 3. Possessed with sense of values
those who are neither psychotic or normal. 4. Adequate period of training under someone who is experienced
and skilled in the technique.
4. Unresponsiveness in a lying or guilty subject because of:
a. No fear of detection. THE POLYGRAPH INSTRUMENT
b. Apparent inability to consciously control response by
means of certain mental sets of attitudes. The instrument used in the proper application of the polygraph
c. A condition of “sub-shock” or “adrenal exhaustion” at technique is essentially a pneumatically operated mechanical recorder of
the time of test. changes in respiration, blood pressure/pulse heat supplemented with a unit for
d. Raionalization of the crime in advance of the test to recording galvanic skin reflexes, or an additional unit for recording abdominal
such an extent that lying about the offense arouses little respiration; muscular movements and pressures; or a plethymograph for
or no emotional disturbance. recording changes in blood oxygenation. Attachments for the human body
e. Extensive interrogation prior to the test. comprises of a rubber convoluted tube for the chest area, a blood pressure
arm-cuff on one bicep, and, in some models, an electrode on two fingers or
5. Attempt to “beat the machine” by controlled breathing or by on the palmer side of one hand. These attachments act as the detectors of the
muscular flexing. physiological changes and transmit the same to the instrument where it is
connected into mechanical impulses and transformed into tracings of the
6. Unobserved application of muscular pressure which produces respiration, blood pressure and skin resistance or the likes.
ambiguities and misleading indications in the blood pressure
tracing. How Does the Polygraph Instrument Work?

What are the limitations of the Polygraph? The polygraph simultaneously records various physiological
phenomena by means a horizontal kymograph. The resulting polygram
1. It is an invaluable investigative aid, but never a substitute for indicates tracing of external respiration in the thoraxic and abdominal cavities
investigation. by means of a pneumograph tambour assembly, systolic and diastolic
2. It is not a lie detector; it is a scientific diagnostic instrument. contraction of the heart, as well as pulse fluctuations with the resistance of a
3. It does not determine facts, it record responses to that which the phygmonometer and psycho-galvanic skin response by means o instrument
subject knows to be true. connected electronics sensors fixed to the person. Each phenomenon is
4. It is only as accurate as the examiner is competent.
recorded by a hallow-tube ink styles moving across horizontally and vertically
ruled being driven by a synchronous electronic motor. 5. Galvanograph section:
a) Hand electrode
What are the Major Components of the Polygraph? b) Electrode jellow
c) Galvanometer
A. Pneumograph – this occupy the two/upper pens of the instrument
which records the thoraric and abdominal breathing patterns of Electrodes and Controls
respiration. This is accomplished through the use of a
pneumograph consisting of two hollow corrugated tubes about 1. RESONANCE CONTROL – It allows you to clear up or make a
seven inches in length, each attached to a unit by a rubber hose not better pattern when you have too much pulse pressure of the
longer than six feet and not larger than one quarter inch in subject.
diameter. This breathing or pneumo unit is a low pressure unit. The 2. HAND ELECTRODE – This is fastened to the hand by a stretched
inhalation/exhalation of the subject causes the tubes to expand and band. Function is to make electrical contact with the subject.
contract, thereby reflecting the change through billows to the pen 3. PANEL CONTROL – to allow the operator to control or adjust the
into the chart. operation of the galvanograph.
B. Galvanometer – this is the longest and the third pen of the
instrument. The electrodes are attached to the index finger and the There are other five important controls:
ring finger of the left hand, or to the palmar and dorsal surfaces of
the left hand. The electrodes used for obtaining the recording of the 1. Off and on power switch – on switch is to energize the
GSR or electro-dermal responses, are fastened to the hand or finger galvanograph section.
by means of the passage of an imperceptible amount of electrical 2. Subject’s resistance control – is to balance the galvo section to the
current through the hand or finger bearing the attached electrodes, skin resistance of the subject.
a galvanometer unit provides recording of the variation in the flow 3. Reactivity control – to adjust sensitivity of the galvo section.
of the electrical current. 4. Self-centered normal switch – is to select either mode of operation.
C. Cardiosphymograph – this is the fourth and the bottom pen of the 5. Self-centering mode – is when the circuit electronically centers the
instrument. This cardio unit is a mechanically operated unit. It is a pen itself after every excursion.
high pressure system. This system records changes in mean blood
pressure, rate and strength of pulse beat by means of a medical CONTROL OF THE CARDIO-SPHYGMOGRAPH SECTION
blood pressure cuff containing a rubber bladder that is wrapped
around the upper arm, in a manner that places the bladder against 1. Manual centering knob – used to place cardio in its proper place on
the brachial artery. The bladder is connected to the rubber hose, the chart.
past a pressure indicating gauge to a very sensitive billows and its 2. Vent Valve – is used to left atmospheric pressure into the system
connected lever system that powers the pen. The polygraphist and used to release pressure all or parts of the pressure.
inflates the bladder with a hand pump to a constant air pressure 3. Resonance control – is used to decrease the amplitude of the cardio
that will provide tracing amplitude of 0.75 to 1 inch with a dichotic tracing and used to sharpen the diacrotic notch.
notch situated about the middle of the diastolic limb of the tracing.
D. Kymograph – This is the chart recording unit of the instrument. It HOW TO OBTAIN BLOOD PRESURE PATTERN OR TRACING
has a synchronized motor that drives the charts at the rate of six (CARDIO)
inches per minute and its speed constant is vital because the
vertical lines, which are spaced either at one-half or one inch Pen balance is critical. Pen is to be held on paper by friction of the.
interval, represents five or ten seconds interval on the chart. This Inflate pressure until you reach subject’s mean pressure. The mean pressure is
provides the polygraphist with a means of determining pulse rater the midway between the systolic and the diastolic is the lowest pressure. In
and question spacing. order to get the arithmetic mean pressure, add the diastolic and systolic and
the sum divided it by two. To get the geometric mean pressure, plus diastolic,
What are the Detachable Parts and Accessories? watch your sphyg-dial when inflating the pressure, for maximum deflection.


a) Chart roll arbor - Idler roller - Pen table - Paper guides -
Sprocket roller - Cutter bar - Off and on power switch - 1. Manual centering knob – used to position base line of the pneumo
Synchronous motor tracing on the upper heavy horizontal line.
2. Vent – with the vent down, the system is closed and unoperative.
2. Pen and Inking System: With the vent up, the system is open and ready for use.
a) Capillary pen 3. Uses of the vent:
b) Ink well plates a) To stop the pen between the tests and to prevent possible
c) Ink dropper tambour assembly.
d) Cuct bill b) To prevent pen from possible jam by moving up or down in
one place of the chart paper.
3. Pneumograph section: c) To stop pen during the tube adjustment.
a) Rubber jellows d) To assists in gaining amplitude.
b) Beaded chain e) To let atmospheric into the system.
c) Rubber flexible tubing
d) Pneumograph tube connection HOW TO OBTAIN PROPER TRACINGS OF THE PNEUMO
e) Pneumograph connecting tube
f) Pneumograph distributing ink First observe subject for point of maximum chest motion. Placed
g) Pneumograph pipe line tube at point where maximum motion is observed. The tube must be smug. A
h) Vent valve and vent bottom tube that is too loose will result in a distorted pattern. A tube is too tight will
i) Tambour assembly be uncomfortable and distort the pattern. With female subjects the tube is
j) Sphygmomanometer almost, always placed above the breast. Some females are abdominal
k) Resonance control breathers and tubes will have to be lowered.

4. Cardio section:
b) Blood pressure pump connection 1. Sudden noise
c) Blood pressure cuff assembly 2. Interruption
d) Connector block 3. Extraneous thoughts
e) Sphygmomanometer pipe line 4. Sudden movements

MACHINE: (GALVO) Graph paper is lined and spaced in seconds. It is moving under
pens at a uniform rate of six inches per minute. Rate is kept uniform through
Turn power switch from off and on position. Then the galvo pen medium of synchronized motor. From one heavy vertical line constitute a five
fails to the bottom of the chart, and then galvo section is then ready for second period. It is also one half inch. Cont the beats inside any five seconds
operation from 15 to 18 seconds after you have turned the switch to an on scale multiply by twelve. This gave you number of heartbeats at any point in
position. the test. For greater accuracy you count the beats in two five seconds area
multiply by six.
Position of hands or tip of fingers for convenience, adjust the
sensitivity - Sensitivity test - Have subject take a deep breath, Touch subject Basis to all that has been said with regards to the utilization and
ear or neck, Quick motion within subject’s line of vision. accuracy of the polygraph technique is the matter of the examiner
qualifications and skills.
An Examiner must be an intelligent person, with reasonably good
1. The ascending limb – pulse wave causes an expansion of the educational background – preferably college degree. He should have an
arterial wall and an increase surface pressure against the cuff intense interest in the work itself, a good practical understanding of human
bladder thus forcing air from the bladder through the tubing into nature, and suitable personality traits which may be evident from his
the tambour. The increasing air volume in the tambour increases otherwise general ability to “get along” with people and to be well liked by his
pressure against the bellows and forces the bellows forward. friends and associates. No amount of training or experience will overcome
lack of these necessary qualifications.
This forward movement provides power to move the penfork
in the attached pen in a lateral clockwise or upward direction pen THE SUBJECT
in a lateral clockwise or upward direction of the chart surface.
Types or kinds of Subjects for Polygraph Test are:
2. Descending limb – when a pulsed wave passes beyond cuff 1. Subject whose guilt is definite or reasonably certain.
bladder attendant drop in a surface pressure against bladder 2. Emotional offender
reverses this processes permitting the below to return to or toward 3. Person who commit crimes in the heat of passion
its original position. This return of the bellows to its original 4. Person whose offenses are for accidental in nature
position is transmitted to the penforks and attached pen as a lateral 5. Non-Emotional offender
counter clockwise or downward stoke on chart surface. 6. Person who commit crimes for financial gain
7. Subject whose guilt is doubtful or uncertain
3. Diacrotic notch – is cause by the minor secondary pulse wave
passing under and beyond the blood pressure cuff. In the wake of Three (3) General Types of Subjects
subsiding primary wave which momentarily halts or slow down the 1. Victim or Complainant
decrease in the surface pressure against the bladder in turn causing 2. Witness
a hesitation in the bellow movement back to or towards its original 3. Suspects
Take Note: All Subjects must be in good physical and mental
condition before he/she may be submitted for polygraph examination. The
following may not be submitted for Polygraph Test:

2. Person who has physiological abnormalities such as
1. Ascending limb – with the expansion of the chest during the high blood pressure/hypertension, heart disease,
inhalating, the air capacity in the pneumograph tube is increased respiratory disorder, toothaches, severe headaches and
creating a vacuum within the system, which reduces the internal practically any painful ailments.
surface pressure against the bellow. Thus moving the bellows 3. Person with mental abnormalities
backward causing a lateral clockwise or upward stroke of the pen. 4. Unresponsive persons, such as person who suffer
mental fatigue or under the influence of drugs or
2. Descending limb – cause by the exhalation thus reversing this alcohol.
process causing an increase in internal surface pressure against the 5. Pregnant woman
bellows, thus moving the bellow to or toward its original position 6. Person below 18 years of age.
and producing a lateral counter-clockwise or a downward
movement of the pen.
1. The ascending limb – it is caused by the decrease of the subject’s
resistance which throws the established circuit out of balance and 1. Lie-detector test should be conducted in a quiet private room.
modifies the electric current flow through the magnetic field 2. Select a room with none of the usual police surroundings and with
surrounding the pivot-movement of the recording pen. no distraction within the subjects view.
3. Select a room without any windows at all.
2. Descending limb: 4. The interrogation room should contain no ornaments, pictures or
a) Physical cause – is caused by a reverse in the subject other objects which would distract the attention of the person being
resistance toward the original position thus bringing the tested or interviewed.
circuit back to or toward balance again producing a lateral 5. This suggestion refers to the presence within the subject’s reach of
clockwise or downward movement of the pen. small loose objects such as papers, clips or pencils that he may be
inclined to peck up and further distract during the course of the
b) Mechanical cause – the fine coil springs attached to the interrogation.
pivot mountain pen cradle serve as counter balance for pen
movement either above or below the established base line (EFFECT) – Tension relieving activities of this sort detract from the
and assists in returning the pen cradle to or towards the effectiveness of this interrogation, especially during the critical phase
original position. when a guilty subject may be trying desperately to suppress an urge to
6. Estrange noise such as the ringing of a telephone or the f. Exact type of weapon, tool or firearms used.
conversation of persons outside the examination room, of the g. Result of laboratory test.
presence of the arresting officers or other spectators in the room h. Unpublished facts of the offense known only by the
itself, may produce disturbances and distractions which will victim, suspects and the investigator.
interfere with a satisfactory diagnosis of deception.
2. PHASE II - PRE-TEST INTERVIEW with the subject - The
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS primary purpose of the pre-test interview of to prepare or condition
the subject for the test.
When conducting the polygraph examination: a. The appraisal of subject’s constitutional right.
b. Obtain subject’s consent to undergo polygraph test by
1. In order to conduct a satisfactory lie-detector test, kit is advisable signing a statement of consent.
for the examiner to obtain from the investigators interested in the c. The taking of personal data of the subject.
case, all the available facts and circumstances forming the basis of d. Determining his/her suitability as a subject.
the accusation or suspicion directed against the person to be e. Evaluating the psychological preparation of the subject.
examined. f. Informing the subject of his involvement with the case.
2. This will include, of course, the details of the case itself. Such
information is essential to the examiner so that he will be in a The following rights of the subject must be informed clearly to
position to know questions should be asked of the subject during him/her:
the test. a. The right to remain silent
3. The subject who is about to be tested should be informed of the b. Anything he/she say may be used in favor or against
nature of the test and purpose of it. The instrument should be him/her
pointed out to him as one which is capable of determining whether c. The right to have a lawyer of his/her own choice
or not a person is telling the truth about a given matter. He should d. Right to refuse
be informed that it records certain bodily changes and that the
instrument will not cause any physical pain except for a slight As earlier noted, subjects will not be scheduled for examination
temporary discomfort occasioned by the blood pressure cuff. when they:
4. The writer made it a practice, at this point in the proceeding to tell a. are obviously fatigued or in ill health.
to the subject somewhat as follows: “If you are telling the truth you b. are physically injured or in pain.
have nothing to worry about, this instrument will indicate you are c. their judgment is obviously influenced by or impaired
telling the truth, and I’ll report the fact to the officers who by drugs or alcohol.
requested me to make the test. The machine itself will show it; and d. have just suffered emotional trauma.
I’ll tell you so, and then I’ll ask you to let me hear the truth. That is
fair enough, isn’t it? And you don’t mind taking the test, do you?” The examiner’s interview with the subject prior to the test is of
5. Experience has indicated that such statement tends to relieve the considerable importance, both for the purpose of conditioning the subject for
emotional tensions in a person who is telling the truth, and at the the examination and also in order to provoke and observe the helpful
same time they offer no relief to the liar. Moreover, the asking of indications of guilt and innocence which are often forthcoming at this time.
as regarding the subject’s consent has proved worthwhile in those
cases where the criminal confessions are obtained as a result of the The following is the detailed outline of the pre-test interview
test. which has been found to be effective. (We are assuming in the case illustrated
that the subject has already been advised of the fact that he is to be given a lie-

1. Do not wait until the last minute to ask a person to take the test. a. As the examiner enters the waiting room to request the
2. Do not tell the subject everything that you know about the offense subject to accompany him into the examination room,
or about him. the greeting which the examiner extends should be
3. Do not fail to investigate the case before you ask a person to take cordial, but firm.
the test. b. Upon entering the examination room the subject should
4. If for some reasons, it must be temporarily taken, the investigator be requested to sit down in a chair alongside the
must continue investigating the case. instrument, and immediately thereafter the examiner
5. Do not depend on mass screening of possible suspects to produce a should proceed to the taking of the consent of the
real or the guilty one. subject.
6. Do not tell anyone that the lie detector will decide whether one is c. Then fill up the necessary data asked in the
innocent or guilty. The court will make the decision. interrogation log.
7. If the test indicates that the person did not tell the truth or if the d. Afterwards inquire from the subject whether he has
person confesses after the test, do not think that the investigation is been on a lie detector test before. No further comment
over. should be made by the examiner but he should listen
carefully to whatever the subject himself may say.
e. If the subject has not told of the purpose of his
FOUR (4) PHASES OF POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION appearance in the testing laboratories, the examiner
should explain that a lie detector test is desired of him
1. PHASE I (PRELIMINARY PREPARATIONS) - Initial as part of the investigation regarding the case. Much
Interview with the investigator handling the case or person time should be spent in the preliminary interview as the
requesting it. The group involve in this stage are the Victim / circumstances reasonably warrants.
Complaint, Suspects, Witnesses. This stage includes obtaining and
evaluation of facts, determining the areas the subjects needs to be 3. PHASE III (THE EXAMINATION/INSTRUMENTAL TEST)
asked and the investigator must furnish the examiner of the – The conduct of Instrumentation and Actual Test.
a. Sworn statement of the suspect / witnesses/ victim/ After the pre-test interview, the examiner should proceed to place
complainant, Incident or spot report, B.I. of the suspect, the attachment on the subject. The first to be attached is Pneumograph, then
witnesses, and victim / complainants, rough sketch or the Cardiosphymograph and the Galvanograph. Review all the questions with
pictures of the crime scene and other facts such as the subject before the actual examination is made. The examiner should
Specific article and exact amount of money stolen. discourage any comments or statement by the subjects. Test instrument must
b. Peculiar aspect of the offense or any strange set. be given to the subject.
c. Exact time the offense was committed.
d. Known facts about the suspect’s action or movement. a. Upon completion of the necessary preliminary preparation
e. Facts indicating any connection between the suspects, the instruments is attached to the subject.
victim and witnesses.
b. The blood pressure pulse cuff is wrapped around snugly
around the subject’s upper arm and the pneumograph tube THE TEST CONSTRUCTION AND PROCEDURES
adjusted around the chest.
c. If female subjects or around the body, if male subjects or The polygraph test consists of asking the subject/ person though
around the torso of male subjects. the transducer of the instrument, a list of prepared questions in a planned
d. The cuff is then inflated to a point approximate midway sequence; comprising of not more than twelve. At least 3 test charts are taken,
between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. That is each lasting not more than four (4) minutes with a rest interval of five (5) to
midway between the pressure produced by the output action ten (10) minutes between charts.
of the heart and that maintained at the time of the hearts
intake action. There are two general types of questions to be constructed and
e. The synchronous motor carrying the paper upon which blood maybe supplemented by other types of questions:
pressure pulse respirations recording are made is then set in
motion, the motor being so timid that the paper moves along 1. General Question Test – most commonly applied.
at the rate of a out six inches per minute, then ten to fifteen 2. Peak-of-Tension Test – usually used as supplementary test.
seconds after the instrument has been set in motion, the inked
filled pens of the instruments are permitted to make their There are five set of tests that maybe applied:
blood pressure pulse respiration tracings before the question
are asked of the subject. Test I – General Question Test - Purposes: To get the standard
f. During the test period the subject is informed that he will be tracing of the subject and to establish a true telling pattern for the
asked several questions which should be answered by either initial part of the record.
yes or no answers, and that they are so brief and to the point. Test II – Number Test (Psychological Test) - To check the
g. Approximately five to ten seconds after this instruction first possible deliberate distortion when the chosen number is asked and
question is asked and then the other questions follows after or to obtain a chart wherein the subject is not under stress.
at the interval of fifteen or twenty seconds. Test III – Spot Responder - To determine the responsiveness of
the subject to crucial question on spot responses.
Take Note: The questions may be written in advance of the test or Test IV – Mix Question - To compare the degree of reaction
in the course of the test during the intervals between the asking of each between control and relevant question.
question. The phraseology of the test question is an extremely important Test V – Silence Answer Test (SAT) - It is a confirmatory test
aspect of the examination. The questions, and every word used in the with the silence answer test.
questions must be unambiguous, unequivocal, and thoroughly understandable
by the subject. The questions must be states as simply as possible, and with a THE GENERAL QUESTION TEST (GQT)
complete avoidance of such double inquires as “Did you shoot him and then
run into the house”? All questions must have only a single, unambiguous This consists of a series of Relevant & Irrelevant Questions asked
meaning. Avoid lengthy questions and avoid legal terms such as rape, murder, in a planned order. Questions are so arranged as to make possible a
embezzlement, etc. comparison of responses to relevant questions with a subject’s norm made
during the answering of irrelevant questions. There are other types of
Limiting Scope of Questions - The relevant test questions used in questions asked in the GQT:
any examination should be confined to a single case investigation. The
Polygraph technique is not effective for stimulation testing regarding two or a. Weak Relevant Question – it concern some secondary element of
more unrelated occurrences. With all the gadgets attached to the body of the the crime or problem and deals with mostly in guilty knowledge
subject, the instrument will start running by applying pressure on a button. and partial involvement.
The subject then will be asked to answer the following standard test questions:
b. Strong Relevant Question – it is defined as verbal stimulus of
a. Irrelevant questions (unleaded/immaterial questions) – primary important projected in the form of a question which
these are questions which have no bearing to the case under overcome a psychological excitement level and causes
investigation. pneumograph, cardiosphygmograph, and galvanograph tracings
b. Relevant questions (leaded/material questions) – these are changes from the subject’s physiological norms.
questions pertaining to the issue under investigation. It is
equally important to limit the number of relevant questions to c. Evidence Connecting Question – it is designed to stimulate the
avoid discomfort to the subject. Relevant questions must be guilty subject and focus his attention on the probability of
very specific to obtain an accurate result. incriminating proof that would tend to establish his guilt.
c. Control questions – These are questions unrelated to the
matter under investigation but are of similar nature although d. Knowledge Question – this question is designed or begun to probe
less serious as compared to those relevant questions under whether the subject possess information regarding the identity of
investigation. The use of control question is considered by the offender, the location of evidences or items of secondary
many polygraphists to be the most reliable and effective element of the case.
questioning technique. These are usually asked if there is
doubt in the interpretation of the subject’s response to There are rules to be followed in the formulation of questions such as the
relevant and irrelevant questions. following:
4. PHASE IV – POST–TEST INTERVIEW/ INTERROGATION 1. Questions must be simple and direct.
- This includes all consideration that bears on the examination. 2. They must not involved legal terminology such as rape, murder,
This is done just after the instrument is turned off. If the etc.
Polygraph test result indicates deception, the examiner will then 3. They must be answerable by yes or no and should short as
proceed to conduct short interrogation. The purpose of which is to possible.
obtain confession. However, if the Polygraph indicates that the 4. Must be short as possible.
subject is innocent; the examiner will just release the subject 5. Their meaning must be clear and unmistakable phrase in a
cordially and thanks him/ her for his/her cooperation. language that the subject can easily understand.
6. They must not be in the form of accusation.
The purposes of further questioning after the test are: 7. Question must never contain an inference which presupposes
knowledge on the part of the subject.
a. to clarify the findings; 8. All questions must refer to one offense only.
b. to learn if there are any other reasons for the subject’s 9. All questions must refer to only one element of an offense.
responding to a relevant question, other than the knowledge 10. They must not contain interferences to ones religion races or
of the crime; and belief.
c. to obtain additional information and an admission for law
enforcement purposes, if the results suggest deception. General Question Test (GQT) Sample
1. Have you ever been called by the name Allan? (Irrelevant)
2. Is today Monday? (Irrelevant) This test is conducted in the same manner as when relevant and
3. Do you have anything to do with the robbery at SM/ Shoemart last control questions are asked but the subject is instructed to answer the
night? (Weak Relevant) questions silently, to himself, without making any verbal response causes
4. Are you over 20 years of age? (Irrelevant) distortion in the tracing such as sniff or clearing the throat.
5. Were you one of those who robbed the SM/ Shoemart last night?
6. Have you been involved in a robbery case this year? (Control
Question-Relevant) Known Solution Peak of Tension - This is administered when a
7. Do you drink water? (Irrelevant) fact relating to the event is known only to the perpetrator of the offense and
8. Was the pair of gloves found at SM yours? (Evidence Connecting- the victim, police and client. This material fact, whether it be particular sum
Relevant) of money, a particular make of weapon, etc. is inserted into test comprising a
9. Do you know of anyone involved in the robbery at SM/ Shoemart list of similar items, the examinee is tested to determine his guilty knowledge.
last night? (Knowledge Question-Relevant)
10. Have you ever been involved in any robbery in your entire life? Proving Peak of Tension - This is administered to obtain
(Secondary Control - Relevant) information that might prove valuable to an investigation. It is designed to
11. Have you deliberately lied to any question I have asked you? determine the location, disposition, modus operandi and amounts on the list of
(Relevant-Check Question (optional)) possibilities.

OTHER QUESTIONS Pre-employment Test - This test seeks to verify information

contained in a job application and develop relevant information deliberately
1. Check Question – last question asked in the lie test. It is direct committed by the subject.
question that relates to the fact that the subject has told the truth to
all questions asked in the lie test. Periodic Testing - This is conducted for the purpose of
determining the honesty of employees assigned to sensitive position. It also
2. Fishing Expedition Test Question – Used to vagrants or loiters acts as a constant deterrent to employee’s dishonesty.
for routine interrogation. No idea about what offense has been
committed. Examples: a. Have you ever been arrested before? b. SIX (6) STEPS OF CHAIN REACTION THAT PRODUCE VISUAL
Are you wanted anywhere now by the police? c. Have you stolen RESPONSE
anything since you have been in tour?
Step 1. – The stimuli
SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS Step 2. – The absorption of the stimuli by the body senses which consist
of hearing, seeing, smelling, feeling, testing and extra-sensory faculties.
Aside from the standard tests described above, the following (Body senses)
special tests may be performed and incorporated as part of the procedure or Step 3. – The complicated process that takes place in human being
may be used as supplementary tests depending upon the result of the standard manifested itself in what is called emotion.
test in order to draw a better conclusion. Step 4. – The action of the automatic nervous system
Step 5. – The actual physiological changes that takes place with in the
A. PEAK-OF-TENSION TEST (PTT) body as a result of the autonomic nervous system and the well of the
The subject may be given this test if he is not yet informed of the subject.
details of the offense for which he is being interrogated by the investigation, Step 6. – The final occurrence in the reaction chain (Electro dermal
or by other persons or from other sources like the print media. This valid test Response)
is only made possibly when there is no widespread publicity about a crime
where intimate details as to the methods of commission or certain facts of the DECEPTION DETECTION TRACED ON BODY RESPONSE
case is known from the victim and investigator.
Voluntary Response - Include those over which the subject has
The questions formulated are similar in nature and construction, definite control and include breathing rate and amplitude. Eye movements,
only one of which is true and the perpetrator who would naturally be in facial expressions, muscular movements-contraction and relaxation, oral or
possession of such unpublicized knowledge will usually exhibit a rise in the implied answers, and the expressions of stipulated emotions.
tracing up to that particular question followed by a decline thereafter, caused
by the relief of knowing that a dreaded question dangerous to his well-being, Semi-Voluntary Response - Include metabolism changes
is past. emotional expressions reaction time in replies and eye-movements. The
average subject has some control over these.
Examples of Peak-of-Tension Test:
a. Do you know whether the stolen watch from Allan is a Seiko? Involuntary Response - Include electro dermal response,
(This is an introductory phrase plus padding question) perspiration rates, adrenaline flow rates, blood pressure and pulse rate
b. Is it an Omega? (Padding) chemical changes of the body fluids, psychological reactions, brain electrical
c. Is it a Rolex? (Padding) currents, saliva flow rates, body temperature changes, genuine emotion,
d. Is it Timex? (Relevant question) face color changes, tremor and polarization of body currents. The average
e. Is it Alba quartz? (Padding) subject has no control over these phenomena.
f. Is it a Citizen? (Padding)
What are the Physiological Phenomena as basis of Detecting Deception?
A. Blood Pressure and Heart Beat Frequency
This test is applied when the response to relevant and control
questions are similar in degree and in consistency and in a way that the Increase of blood pressure and heartbeat frequency following
examiner cannot determine whether the subject is telling the truth or not. The relevant questions and the suppression in breathing are the criteria for
subject is asked questions aside from the irrelevant, relevant and control detecting deception.
questions, a new series of relevant questions dealing with a real incident and
that which the subject could not have committed. Ink curves as shown on the heartbeat recorded on a moving graph
paper of a polygraph represent the beat frequency (pulse) and the two
If the subject does not respond to the added relevant questions, it pressures (blood pressures) - a. Systolic or high pressure - They exist when
indicates that the subject was being deceptive as to the primary issue under the heart is contracted and the values are open with the blood rushing into the
investigation. However, no conclusion can be drawn if the response to added arteries, b. Diastolic or Low pressure - This exists when the values are
guilt complex is similar to the real issue questions. closed and the heart relaxed.

Take note: Normal blood pressure is 120/80 8. extraneous factors affecting test chart such as paper jams
9. time interval between questions; and
The Heart is an automatic organ that continues to bat even when 10. chart number, name of subject, time, date, and place taken
removed from the body of provided with proper blood. The rate and force of
the heart beat as regulated by two sets of nerves – a. the sympathetic set - SIGNS AND SYMBOLS (commonly used in Chart Marking)
which accelerate the beat and b. the cranial Autonomic system - which
retard the beat. X / 60 / 1.5 A - first markings of the examiner on the chart
XX / 60 / 1.5 A - examiner’s mark after the test
It is also known that adrenaline - a certain hormone increases the X - start of the test
heartbeat frequency. XX - end of the test
60 - millimeter of mercury shown in
B. Breathing as a means of detecting deception. Breathing consists of two sphygmamometer dial
steps: 1.5 - ohms of skin electrical resistance
A or M - refers to automatic or manual galvo
Inspiration - caused by the contraction of the diaphragm and amplifier used
expansion of the chest cavity those results in the air rushing into the lungs. | | - point where each question begins and end
(also called stimulus mark)
Expiration – caused by a relaxation of the diaphragm and + - Yes answer to question
contraction of the chest cavity resulting in the air rushing out of the lungs. - - No answer to question
A - adjustment
Take Note: The following affects the breathing rates: T - subject talked instead of answering with
1. muscular exercise (muscle movement/jogging) single Yes or No
2. anticipation of muscular exercise (thinking to perform R - subject request for repetition of question
heavy work) C - coughing
3. recalling mentally emotional experience N - noise
4. mental activity S - sigh by the subject
5. anxious expectancy PJ - paper jam
6. shock SN - subject sniffed
7. surprise BI - breathing instruction
OS - tracing changed caused by outside stimulus
C. Electrodermal Response M - movement
IM - movement instruction
This is the most current popular name for the human body L - laugh
phenomenon in which the body, mainly the skin, changes resistance B - used to signify belch
electrically upon the application of certain external stimuli. It consists of two C+ - increase in galvo sensitivity
categories - Normal Response and the Abnormal Response. C- - decrease in galvo sensitivity
Y - yawn
Examples of Abnormal Responses IS - ink stop
CT - clearing of throat
1. Machine Fright Response - Interference abnormal response that
originates in Step 2 (fright to the machine) of the reaction chain or CHART INTERPRETATION
situational fright. It appears on the first question or so and no
longer appears throughout the test. A. The accuracy of instrumental detection of deception is
2. Physical Movement Response - Interfering response caused by dependent upon the examiner’s ability to diagnose truth or deception by
voluntary physical movement by the subject during the lie test and reading and interpreting a subject’s charts. The polygraph chart is the
is found between steps 4 and 5 of the reaction chain. The result of composite record of the pneumograph, cardiograph and galvanograph tracing
such physical movement causes physiological (muscle) changes to from one series of questions. The chart is ruled vertically to represent time
take place within the body that shows up electrodermal response. element at an interval of either in second, five seconds of ten seconds division
3. Outside Interference Response - Interfering response originating and horizontally in fractions of ¼ inch for amplitude measurements. There
in step 1 of the reaction chain in the form of unwanted auditory or are three heavy spaced horizontal lines that serve as the guideline for the 3
stimuli. The slamming of the door or the ringing of telephone, a tracings. The motor that pills the chart under the recording pens has a
cough or sneeze by spectators in the room or any unusual noise to constant speed of either 6 or 12 inches per-minute. A single test may consist
which the subject is not accustomed at the location, will usually of three or more charts taken from one series of questions.
produce outside interference response.
4. Mental Tie-up Response - Interfering response which originates B. The pnuemograph tracing normally, found at the top of the
between step 2 (machine fright) and step 3 (emotion) in the chart, is a record of a subject’s respiratory action during the questioning
reaction chain. Other name is guilt complex. process and is classified as normal or abnormal. The pneumograph pattern
5. Deception Response - Abnormalities as a result of telling a lie consists of inhalation and exhalation strikes with a normal amplitude of form
(more on psychological and such also is accompanied by physical ½ to ¾ inches. The normal cyclic rate is from 13 to 18 breaths per minute and
changes). may vary in reasons of exceptional physical build condition or respiratory
defect. The classification of abnormal is generally applied to those patterns
CHART MARKING that deviate from the norm established by the individual.

To facilitate evaluation and interpretation of test charts, markings Descriptive types of breathing are:
are made with the use of signs and symbols to enable the examiner to Normal; Rapid; Slow; Shallow; Deep; Serrated inhalation / or
determine the following: both;
Deviations caused by coughing and mechanics of answering
1. exact time the test commenced and terminated Pneumograph changes from the individual norm which
2. initial and final blood pressure and galvanograph readings may be indicative of deception are:
3. particular point where each question asked started and ended. Change in rhythm or regularity; Change in amplitude or
Corresponding identification of the question, and the type and time volume; Change in the inhalation / exhalation ratio; Notched
of answer given by the subject or serrated inhalation / exhalation strokes; Change of base
4. duration and amplitude of reaction patterns line; Loss of base line; Hyperverventilation; Suppression;
5. any instruction given or repetition of question made Respiratory block
6. any movement, cough tracing by the suspect or outside distractions
that occurred C. The galvanograph tracing, normally located at the center
7. mechanical adjustment or re-adjustment made position. If the chart, when properly balanced takes from of as lightly
wavering line across the middle portion of the chart with a minor response to Ten years after the Fry case decision the Wiscons Supreme Court
spoken stimuli. Galvanic tracings which may be indicative of deception are: was called upon to consider the admissibility of the results of a Polygraph
1. Vertical rise at point of deception examination. In this case, State V. Bohner, defense counsel offered to prove
2. Double saddle response that the results of a Polygraph examination established the truthfulness of the
3. Long duration and / or degree of response following defendant’s alibi to a robbery charge, which offer the trial court refused.
point of deception Upon appeal the Wiscons in Supreme Court sustained the trial court’s ruling
4. Plugging salvo tracing and held that although the Polygraph technique may have some utility at
present, or may ultimately be of great value in the administration of justice a
D. The cardiosphygmograph tracing normally found at the too hasty acceptance of it during this stage of its development may be
bottom of the chart, is the three physiological phenomena, a systolic stroke, assumed to have.”
a diastolic strokes and a dichotic notch. Normal pulse rate of the average
individual is 72 to 80 beats per minute and may vary due to the emotional tone Two cases regarding the admissibility of the results of tests
of the subject. Amplitude or volume is also subject to variation and dictated conducted with a galvanic skin reflex recorder were decided by the New York
by the physiological structure of the person and the cuff pressure. Tracing court in 1938. One of the cases, People V. Kenny, was a trial court decision;
taking the form of specific responses indicative of deception are: the other, People V. forte, a decision of New York’s highest court, the Court
1. Increase or decrease in blood pressure of Appeals. In the Kenny case the defendant (on trial of robbery) offered in
2. Increase or decrease in pulse rate evidence the testimony of the late Father Summers of Fordham University
3. Increase or decrease in amplitude regarding the results of a test conducted with a galvanometer. Over the
4. Change in position or disappearance of dichotic notch objection of the prosecuting attorney, the trial court admitted the evidence and
5. Extra systoles (premature contradiction of an auricle or permitted the jury to consider the witness opinion as to the defendant’s
ventricle while fundamental rhythm of the heart is innocence or guilt. The court in the Kenny case apparently was impressed
maintained) with Father Summer’s assertion to the effect that this “pathometer” was
“effectively 100 percent efficient.” Moreover, the effect of the Kenny case
E. In the interpretation and analysis of charts taken in a Peak must viewed in the light of the latter and more authoritative decision of the
of Tension Test, the following area considered in the evaluation of the level New York Court of Appeals in the Forte case.
1. An increase or decrease to point of deception then a In the case the defendant (on trial for murder) requested the court’s
level tracing. permission to be tested on the same instrument and by the same examiner
2. An increase to point of deception and the an increase (Summers) as in the Kenny case. This request was denied on the ground that
3. A decrease to point of deception and then an increase despite the view taken by the court in the Kenny case, the validity of such a
4. Level tracing to point of deception and then a decrease test judicial acceptance. Upon appeal the trial court’s ruling was affirmed by
or increase the New York Court of Appeals.
5. Erratic to point of deception and then an erratic tracing
6. Smooth to point of deception and then an erratic tracing COLLATERAL ASPECT OF POLYGRAPH
7. Any changes that may occur at point of deception
1. Pre-employment Screening – it provide a safe method in
F. Other factors; that specific response to be considered as verifying statements of a job applicant, prevent false evaluation
possible deception in chart evaluation and false judgment as reported by previous employer who carry a
1. Distribution of reactions personal grudge against him Done when the subject is applying for
2. Degree of reactions a job.
3. Trend of gross curve
4. Rate of change of the curve 2. Periodic Screening – conducted to organic employees only, act as
5. Latent period of reaction constant deterrent to employee’s dishonesty and create a bond of
6. Duration of reaction mutual strength among employees. We call it as personnel check.

G. For an effective chart interpretation, the following rules 3. Intelligence Testing – provide a scientific method of testing the
must be followed: intelligence of a person.
1. There must be a specific response
2. To be specific, it must form a deviation from norm ADVANTAGES OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT SCREENING FOR THE
3. It must appear in at least two (2) test charts EMPLOYEE
4. The best indication of deception is the simultaneous
specific responses in the three (3) tracings of the chart. 1. Prevent false evaluation and unfair judgment due to personality
conflicts reported by a previous supervisor or employer.
LEGAL STATUS OF POLYGRAPH 2. It does away with lengthy waiting while employment application is
being check, telephone, telegram or letter.
When does the Polygraph Result is Admissible in Court? 3. Eliminate the potential hazard of a person knowing to work along
side with other who might endanger their live or job security.
1. When the examination is conducted upon a court order. 4. Provides a safe method for a person to be cleared of unwarranted
2. When business suffers economic loss and the employee of that suspicion and unjust accusation and malicious gossip.
business who refuses the exam is implicated. 5. It will create a bond of mutual strength between employees.
3. When the polygraph is made a condition or precedent to 6. It create a desire for incentives
employment in continuous employment.
4. When the nature of the subject’s relation to the public so demand. ADVANTAGES OF THE PRE-EMPLOYMENT SCREENING FOR
(Public Trust is paramount). EMPLOYER

What Law or Jurisprudence give the Basis of Admissibility? 1. Provides an accurate method, whereby the employment
background of an applicant and relevant issues collateral thereto
The first appellate court decision upon the admissibility the results can be immediately checked and verify at a negligible cost.
of a deception test was rendered in 1923 by a federal court in Fry V. United 2. Detect the chronic alcoholic job jumper and accident prone person.
States, in which the accused (on trial for murder) offered as evidence the 3. Reveals some of the unusual aspect concerning the psychologically
results of a Marston “systolic” blood pressure” test. The trial court refused to mal-adjusted agitator amateur and professional theft in private
permit Dr. Marston to testify concerning his results, and upon appeal this industry.
ruling was affirmed. The reason which impelled the court to arrive at the 4. Reduces costly personnel turnover by helping management put the
conclusion of inadmissibility are very clearly stated in the following except right person on the job and ascertaining an applicant attitude
from its reported opinion. toward job permanent.

5. Acts as constant deterrent to employee dishonesty and permit ADMINISTRATION OF TRUTH SERUM
basically honest employee to work in greater harmony with
basically honest employee. The term “truth serum” is a misnomer. The procedure does not
make someone tell the truth and the thing administered is not a serum but is

Lists of stimulus and non-stimulus word are read to the subject In the test, byosine hydro bromide is given hypodermically in
who is instructed to answer as quickly as possible. The answers to the repeated doses until a state of delirium is induced. When the proper point is
question may be “yes” or “no”. Unlike the lie detector, the time interval reached, the questions truthfully. He forgets his acts or may even implicate
between the words uttered by the examiner and the answer to the question is others.
When the subject is asked questions with reference to his name,
address, civil status, nationality, etc. which has no relation to the subject- This method of deception detection is practically the same as that
matter of the investigation, the tendency is to answer quickly. But when the of administration of truth serum. The only difference is the drug used.
questions bear some words which have to do with the criminal act the subject Psychiatric sodium amytal o sodium pentothal is administered to the subject.
allegedly committed, like knife, gun or hammer which was used in the killing, When the effects appear, questioning starts. It is claimed that the drug causes
the tendency is to delay the answer. depression of the inhibitory mechanism of the brain and the subject talks
The test is not concerned with the answer, be it a “yes” or “no”.
The important factor is the time of response in relation to stimulus or non- The administration of the drug and subsequent interrogation must
stimulus words. be done by a psychiatrist with a long experience on the line. Like the
administration of truth serum, the result of the test is not admissible in court.
Like the use of the lie detector, the subject cannot be compelled to
be subjected to the test without consent. INTOXICATION WITH ALCOHOL

USE OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS EVALUATOR (PSE) The apparent stimulation effect of alcohol is really the result of the
control mechanism of the brain, so alcohol, like truth serum, and narcoanalytic
When a person speaks, there are audible voice frequencies, and drugs “inhibit the inhibitor”.
superimposed on these are the inaudible frequency modulations which are
products of minute oscillation of the muscle of the voice mechanism. Such The ability of alcohol to reveal the real person behind the mad
oscillations of the muscles or micro tremor occur at the rare of 8 to 14 cycles which all of us are said to wear (“mask of sanity”) is reflected in the age-old
per second and controlled by the central nervous system. maxim, “In vino veritas” (“In wine there is truth”). (Pathology of Homicide
by Lester Adel son, Charles Thomas, 1974, p. 895)/
When a person I under stress as when he is lying, the micro tremor
in the voice utterance is moderately or completely suppressed. The degree of HYPNOSIS
suppression varies inversely to the degree of psycho logic stress on the
speaker. It is the alternation of consciousness and concentration in which
the subject manifests a heightened of suggestibility while awareness is
The psychological stress evaluator (PSE) detects, measures, and maintained. Not all persons are susceptible to hypnotic induction. The
graphically displays the voice modulations that we cannot hear. hypnotic state is characterized by:

When a person is relaxed and responding honestly to the question, a. That it is a comfortable state or complete relaxation in
those inaudible frequencies are registered clearly on the instrument. But when which the subject will readily and willingly to
a person is under stress, as when he is lying, these frequencies tend to cooperate in every way with the hypnotizer.
disappear. b. That it is not actually a sleep.
c. That the subject will do whatever he is told to do.
Basic Procedure d. That the hypnotizer will not order him to do anything
a. The examiner meets the requesting party to determine the specific e. After the test, the subject will wake up with feeling of
purpose of the exanimation and to begin formulation of relevant comfort and refreshment.
b. A pre-test interview is conducted with the subject to help him or The result of this method is not acceptable in court due to the
her feel at ease with the examiner, to provide an opportunity to following reasons:
specify matters, to eliminate outside issues, and to review
questions that will be asked. a. It lacks the general scientific acceptance of the
c. An oral test of about 12 to 15 “yes” or “no” questions is given reliability of hypnosis per in ascertaining the truth from
which is recorded on a tape recorder. The questions are a mixture falsity.
of relevant an irrelevant questions. b. The fear that the truer of fact will give uncritical and
d. Immediately following the test or are a late time, the tape is absolute reliability to a scientific device without
processed through the Psychological Stress Evaluator for analysis consideration of its flaw in ascertaining veracity.
of answer. c. The possibility that the hypnotized subject will
e. If stress is indicated, the subject is given authority to provide deliberately fabricate.
additional clarification. A retest is given to verify correction and d. The prospect that the state of heightened suggestibility
clarification. in which the hypnotized subject is suspended will
produce distortion of the fact rather than the truth.
Advantages of Psychological Stress Evaluator over the Lie e. The state of the mind and professionalism of the
Detector Machine examiner are too subjective to permit admissibility of
the expert testimony.
a. It does not require the attachment of sensors to the person being
b. The testing situation need not be carefully controlled to eliminate
outside distraction A good criminal investigator must be keen observer and a good
c. Normal body movement is not restricted. psychologist. A subject under stress on account of the stimulation of
sympathetic nervous system may exhibit changes which may be used as a
USE OF DRUGS THAT “INHIBIT THE INHIBITOR” potential clue of deception. And since just one or a combination of the
following signs and symptoms is not conclusive or a reliable proof of guilt of
the subject, their presence infers further investigation to ascertain the truth of

Signs or Clues of Deception Are there any ancient records concerning the use of Finger and Palm
1. Swearing to God.
2. Failure of subject to look straight into examiner eyes. 1. On the face of a cliff in NOVA SCOTIA, there has been found
3. Rapid movements of adams apple among males. prehistoric Indian picture writing of a hand with crudely marked
Hysteria among females or woman. ridge patterns.
4. Shedding tears of both sexes. 2. Scholars refer to the impression of fingerprints on clay tablets
5. Arrogance or indifference to interrogation. recoding business transactions in ancient Babylon and clay seals of
6. Bitting upper and lower lips after a hot stimulus is ancient Chinese origin bearing thumbprints. Some of these seals
profounded. can be seen in the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,
7. Changes on the color of the face. WASHINGTON, D.C. Chinese documents identified with the
8. Complete and total denial of the case under Tang Dynasty (618-907) refer to fingerprint being impressed upon
investigation. Questioning accuracy on the polygraph business contracts. It is conjectural as to what extent these earlier
machine. instances of fingerprinting were intended for actual identification
9. Sarcastic laugh of the subject. of the persons impressing the prints. History shows that Emperor
10. Force laugh of the subject. Te In Shi was the first on to use fingerprint in China.
11. Restlessness of the subject. 3. In the Bible, Apostle Paul concludes in one of his epistles with the
12. Show of the unnecessary movements of legs and head. words, “The Salvation of Paul with my own hand, which is the
13. Changing seats from chair to chair. token in every epistle, so I write.” Some have inferred from these
14. Frequent excuses to go to the comfort room. words that Paul used his finger impressions as a distinctive
15. Asking the examiner for a drink or a smoke. signature.
16. Over perspiration despite of an air-conditioned room. 4. In Persia, 14th century, various government papers were reportedly
17. Answering questioning by beating around the hush impressed with fingerprints, and a government official who was
when questioning and answered yes or no. also a physician made the observation that no fingerprints of two
18. Asking the examiner to repeat the question although persons were exactly alike.
propounded clearly. 5. In Holland and China, identification of individuals was by means
19. Asking counter remark who me. of branding, tattooing, mutilation, and also manifested by wearing
20. Making reference to prominent people and mutual clothes of different designs.
friends. 6. In Old Mexico, the Aztecs impressed their hands accidentally or
21. Shifting blame to someone else. intentionally on the molded and still soft clays of their hand-made
22. Pointing the guilt to other. idols to serve as their trade marks. The authorities stamped their
23. Refusal to submit to polygraph examination. hands on the death warrants for the men and women who offered
Consenting to polygraph examination but refuse to sign their lives to sacrifice for their idol-gods.
the consent (written). 7. In France, numerous rock carvings and paintings featuring hand
designs and fingerprints have been found on the granite wall slabs
Physiological and Psychological Signs and Symptoms of Guilt in the Neolithic burial passage of the L’lle de Gavr’nis. Other
specimens were also found in the Spanish Pyrunees caverns, the
1. Sweating numerous digital relics left by Indiana at Keuimkooji Lake in cliff
2. Color Change dwellings in Nova Scotia, in the Balearic Islands, Australis, New
3. Dryness of the mouth England coasts and in Africa.
4. Excessive activity of the Adam’s apple 8. In Babylonia, the first use of fingerprints for personal
5. Fidgeting identification originated when Babylonian Magistrates ordered
6. “Peculiar feeling inside” their officers in making arrests and property confiscation to secure
7. Swearing in the truthfulness and assertion the defendants’ fingerprints.
8. “Spotless past record” 9. Kom Ombo Plain, on the east bank of river Nile, Egypt, lump of
9. Inability to look at the investigator “straight in the eye” hundred much found in Sebekian deposit which shows a portion of
10. “Not that I remember” expression an adult palm during 12,000 B.C.
10. In Judea, Paul, the Apostle, used his own fingerprints to sign his
letters (II Thessalonians 3:17 – “I, Paul, greet you with my own
FINGERPRINTING (DACTYLOSCOPY) hand. This is the mark in every letter. Thus I write.”). Other
significant quotations are found in Job 37:7 – “He sealeth up the
NATURE OF FINGERPRINTS hand of all men, that every one may know his works.” Revelations
13:16 – “It will cause all, the small and the great, and the rich and
A FINGERPRINT is a composite of the ridge outlines which the poor, and the free and the bond, to have mark on their right
appears on the skin surface of the bulbs on the inside of the end of joints of hand or on foreheads.”
the fingers and thumbs. The ridges appearing in a fingerprint are commonly 11. In Jerusalem, fingerprint relics were found in clay lumps during
referred to as papillary or frictional ridges. The ridges have a definite contour the 4th and 5th centuries of the Christian Era. The excavation of
and appear in definite individual details by which positive identification can Palestine by the late Dr. Bade yielded fragments of such specimens
be made. (fingerprints).
12. In China, fingerprint is called “Hua Chi”. The value of
Take Note: fingerprints for purposes of identification was found on a Chinese
clay seal made not later than the 3rd century B.C.
Ridge – literally, the top of long hill 13. During the Tang Dynasty, fingerprints were used in connection
with the preparation of legal documents. Kia Yung-yen, an author
Ducts – these are little pockets underneath the skin where oils or during this time stated that, “Wooden tablets were engraved with
sweats are carried by small holes to the surface of the skin. the full terms of the contract, and notches were cut in the sides
where they were identical so that the tablets could later be matched
Ridge Destruction: Creases – little white lines that are found on a or tallied, thus proving them genuine.”
fingerprint that look like sears (burn/blister). These are not permanent, and 14. The code of domestic relations as described in the Chinese Law
will not show any turning or “puckering.” Skin conditions such as warts and Book of Yang Hwui states: “To divorce a wife, the husband
blisters of temporary impairments caused by certain occupations, e.g. must write a bill of divorcement and state the reasons or
bricklayers, carpenters, have no permanent effect and the individual grounds that are due for action, and then impress his
characteristics revert to their natural alignment once the temporary skin palmprint thereon.” For contracts, fingerprints were also used as
condition has been corrected.
signatures of those who were illiterates, who could neither read nor studies established the individuality of classifying fingerprint
write. This was under the subject of “Land Tenure.” patterns.
15. Early in the 12th century, in the novel, “The Story of the River 4. 1882-Gilbert Thompson, a U.S. geological surveyor in charge of
Bank,” fingerprinting found itself already in the criminal a field project in New Mexico used his own fingerprints in
procedure of China; and in the 16th century, a custom prevailed in commissary orders to prevent forgery.
connection with the sale of children. 5. Isaiah West Taber – A photographer in San Francisco advocated
16. In Japan, deeds, dotes, and certificates to be used as proofs were the use of the system for the registration of the immigrant Chinese.
sealed by the mark of the hand (Palm-print) called “Tegata.” In 6. 1883-An episode in Mark Twain’s life on the Mississippi relates
the treatment of criminals, the imprint of the thumb (bo-in or bo- to the identification of a murderer by his thumbprint.
an) was taken. The criminal signed only by thumb-print with 7. Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) further developed his theme. Eleven
regard to his sentence and it was considered as an inferior sort of (11) years later, he causes the publication of “Puddin Head
signature. Wilson”, a novel based on dramatic fingerprint identification
17. In Constantinople, in a treaty of ratification, the sultan soaked his demonstrated during a court trial. His story pointed out the
hand in a sheep’s blood and impressed it on the document as his infallibility of fingerprint identification.
seal. 8. 1888-Sir Edward Richard Henry, succeeded Sir William J.
18. In England, Thomas Bewick, an English engraver, author, and Herschel at his post in India. He became interested in fingerprints
naturalist engraved the patterns of his own fingers on every wood- and devised a classification of his own and published his work in
work he had finished to serve as his mark so as to establish its book form and titled it “Classification and Uses of
genuineness. Fingerprints.”
9. 1889-Sir Richard Henry at Dove, England read a paper detailing
Are there any early publication concerning Fingerprints? his system before the British association for Advancement of
1. 1684-Nehemiah Grew published a report which was read before 10. 1891-Juan Vucetich, an Argentinean police official, installed
the royal society of London, England. He described the ridges and fingerprints files as an official means of criminal identification;
pores of the hands and feet. based his system of the pattern typed by Sir Francis Galton; and he
2. 1685-G. Bidloo published a treaty describing sweat pores and also claimed the first official criminal identification by means of
ridges. fingerprints left at the scene of crime.
3. 1685-Midle wrote a book, “Human Anatomy,” in which he 11. In 1892, at La Piata, Argentina, a woman named Rojas who had
included a drawing of the thumb print showing the ridge murdered her two sons and had cut her own throat, though not
configuration of the whorl pattern. fatal, blamed the attack on a neighbor. Bloody fingerprints on a
4. 1686-Professor Marcelo Malpighi, an Italian anatomist door post were identified by Vucetich as those of the woman
(GRANDFATHER OF DACTYLOSCOPY according to Dr. herself which led to her confession.
Edmond Locard – “Father of Poroscopy”), commented in his 12. 1892-Sir Francis Galton, an English Biologist, wrote his first
writings on elevated ridges on the fingertips and alluded to diverse textbook. He devised a practical system of classification and
figures on palmar surfaces. filing. 1894-Sir Francis Galton’s report on fingerprint as a
5. 1751-Hintzo wrote on the ridge formation, but dealt with the method of identification, along with his system, was read at
subject from the viewpoint of anatomy rather than identification. Asquith Committee of London, England. His system was
6. 1764-Albinus followed along the same lines as Hintzo had written. officially adopted on February 12, 1894.
7. 1788-J.C.A. Mayer stated in his book (Anatomische Kupfertafein 13. 1900-Alphonse Bertillon’s system of body measurement had by
Nebst Dazu Geharigen) that although the arrangement of the skin this time spread throughout the world.
ridges is never duplicated in two persons, nevertheless, the 14. 1901-Sir Edward Richard Henry was appointed assistant
similarities are closer among some individuals. commissioner at Scotland Yard. His system was so applicable that
8. 1823-Johannes Evangelist Purkinje, (FATHER OF Henry emerged as the “Father of Fingerprints,” at least as the
DACTYLOCOSPY) a Czechoslovakian professor of anatomy at first man to successfully apply fingerprints for identification. 1901-
the University of Breslau, published a thesis in Latin (Commentio marked the official introduction of fingerprinting for criminal
de Examine Physiogico Organi Visus Et systematis Cutansi – A identification in England and Wales.
Commentary of the Physiological Examination System: Dec. 15. The system employed was developed from Galton’s observation
22, 1823, Breslau, Germany) describing the ridges, giving them and devised by Edward Richard Henry, the Inspector-General of
names and established certain rules for classification (nine groups). Police in Bengal, India. He later became commissioner of
He involves vague differentiation of fingerprints or use them for London’s Metropolitan Police.
identification. 16. 1914-Fingerprints were officially adopted in France, replacing
9. 1856-Herman Welcker took the prints of his own palm. In 1897, Bertillon age.
(forty one years later) he printed the same palm to prove that the
prints do not change. (Principle of Permanency). What are the important dates concerning the development and use of
10. 1883-Kollman, an anthropologist who wrote his book on ridges fingerprint in the United States?
and pores. He did not associate fingerprints with identification.
1. 1882-Gilbert Thompson of the Us Geodetic survey used thumb
What are the historical events concerning Fingerprints as Method of print for camp orders on an expedition to New Mexico. This was
Identification? not official but it was proven useful (the record was dated Aug. 8,
1. 1858-Sir William J. Herschel (FATHER OF CHIROSCOPY), 2. 1902-Sir Henry P. Forest, chief Medical examiner of New York
in Hoogly, district of Bengal, India, he used fingerprints in India to Civil Service Commission and an American preacher in fingerprint
prevent fraudulent collection of army pay account and for science in the US for the New York Civil Service commission to
identification of other documents. He printed the palms of natives prevent applicants from having better-qualified persons to take the
in order to avoid impersonation among laborers. Prints of the test for them.
entire palms were used instead of signatures. The first person 3. The New York Civil Service Commission, on Dec. 19, 1902
Herschel printed appears to have been one RAJYADHAR required all civil service applicants to be fingerprinted. Dr. Henry
KONAI. P. Forest, put the system into practice.
2. 1880-Dr. Henry Faulds, an English (Scottish) doctor stationed in 4. 1903-New York State Prison in Albany claims the first practical,
Tokyo, Japan, wrote a letter to the English publication, systematic use of fingerprints in the US to identify criminals.
“NATURE” – “On the Skin Furrows of the Hand”, (dtd Oct.
28, 1880) on the practical use of fingerprints for the identification 5. 1903-Fingerprints identification was adopted in the following
of criminals. He recommended the use of a thin film of printers penitentiaries: Singing Sing, Napanoch, Auborn and Clinton
ink as a transfer medium and is generally used today. prisons
3. 1880-Sir Francis Galton, a noted British anthropologist and a 6. Captain James Parke of the institution installed the identification
cousin of scientist Charles Darwin began observation which led to system where the fingerprints of prisoners were taken and
the publication in 1882 of his book “Fingerprints.” Galton’s classified and the fingerprint system was officially adopted in June
of the year. Today, New York State uses the American system that
is similar to the Henry System and represents the system initiated 30. 1937-The Institute of Applied Science installed Photographic and
by Capt. Parke in 1903. Firearms Identification (Forensic Ballistics) laboratories. The
7. 1904-Maj. R. Mccloughry, the warden of the Federal Penitentiary institute was the first private school in U.S. which installed
of Leavenworth when the office of the Atty. General of the U.S. laboratories for instructional purposes only.
granted permission to establish a fingerprint bureau therein. It was 31. 1938-A book by Harry J. Myers II, “History of Identification of
the first national government use of fingerprints. fingerprints in U.S.” was published in Fingerprint and
8. 1904-John Kenneth Ferrer (Perrier) of the Fingerprint Branch of Identification Magazine (Chicago, Illinois, Vol. 20, no. 4, Oct.
the New Scotland Yard, attended the St. Louis Missouri Worlds 1938).
Fair. He had been assigned to guard the British Crown Jewels. 32. 1946-the 100th millionth fingerprint card was received in the
American police officials became interested in fingerprint through identification division of the FBI. The total grew to 152 million in
him and he became their instructor. May 11, 1959.
9. 1904-The City of St. Louis Missouri, became the first city to 33. 1967-“Minutiae” was initiated by the FBI, a computerized
adopt fingerprint. The police department officials adopted the scanning equipment to read and record fingerprint identifying
system on October 29, 1904. characteristics.
10. 1905-Fingerpritning was officially adopted by the U.S. Army. It 34. 1972-the prototype automatic fingerprint reader was delivered.
was known as the first military use of fingerprint. 35. 1973-implementation of the first phase of the automated
11. 1907-Fingerprinting was officially adopted by the U.S. Navy Identification System (AIS-1), which was to establish the
(January 11, 1907). database consisting of the name, description, and criminal record
12. 1908-Fingerprinting was officially adopted by the U.S. Marine of all first offenders with birthdates of 1956.
Corps. 36. 1978-Journal of Forensic Science – reported that certain
13. 1910-Frederick A. Brayley published what appears to be the first properties of perspiration and body oils contained in latent print
American book in fingerprints. residue will luminesce without pre-treatment and to a degree that
14. 1911-The State of Illinois, made the first criminal conviction based photographs could be taken when activated by continuous Argon-
solely upon fingerprint evidence. It was known as the first judicial ION Laser. Hence, the FBI’s Latent Print Detection System was
ruling on such evidence, (People vs Jennings, 252 Illinois 543-96 put into use.
NE 1007, 43 LRA (NS) 1206 for 1991). 37. 1979-AIS-2 replaced AIS-1. This phase involved the automated
15. 1915-The International Association for Criminal Identification searching by name and other descriptor information of incoming
was founded. The word “criminal” was later dropped from the fingerprint cards against the database.
Association’s name. It is the first organized body of professional 38. 1979 (Oct. 17, 1979)-A latent fingerprint was developed and lifted
identification experts. from the hand of a victim in Miami, Florida murder resulting in
16. 1916-The Institution of Applied Science established at Chicago, identifying the suspect. This was the first known case where a
Illinois was the first school to teach fingerprint identification (June fingerprint from a human skin was used in the identification,
16, 1916). prosecution and conviction of a perpetrator of a crime.
17. 1916-Frederick Kuhne published a book entitled “The 39. 1982-Missing Children Act was signed into law which requires
Fingerprint Instructor,” which probably the first authoritative book the Attorney General to acquire, collect, classify, and preserve any
in fingerprint to be circulated in the U.S. Munn and Co., served as information which would assist in the location of any missing
the publisher. person (including an unemancipated person as defined by the laws
18. 1919-Marked the publication of “Fingerprint and Identification of the place of residence of such person) or assist in the
Magazine” (Chicago). The first monthly journal devoted identification of any deceased individual who have not been
exclusively to fingerprint science, (July 1919). identified.
19. 1920-The Exceptional Arch, a new pattern, was adapted to 40. 1983-Completion of the conversion of the FBI criminal fingerpint
Henry’s system by American experts. The pattern was added after searching from manual to automated searching. Also, AIS records
the study made by the assembly members at annual convention of became available by mail upon request of the National Crime
the International Association for Identification in 1920. Information Center’s (NCIC’s) interstate identification index (III)
20. 1922-Haken Jersengen, the sub-director of police in Copenhagen, – an interstate record exchange.
Denmark introduced first a long distance identification to U.S. at a 41. 1984-AIS records became available “ON-LINE” through the
police conference here. The method was adopted and published in NCIC program. Records from the NCIC and AIS, and
a magazine entitled “Publications” of the International Police participating state and local telecommunication networks became
Conference, (New York City Police Department, 1932). available w/in seconds to authorized criminal justice agencies.
21. Mary K. Holland – the first American Instructress in 42. 1985 (Jan. 2) – a contract was awarded for building the final phase
Dactyloscopy. of the Identification Division Automated System (IDAS).
22. 1924-The Identification Division of the FBI was established after 43. 1989-IDAS implementation. Its features are: integrated
J. Edgar Hoover was appointed Director. document transport equipment; on-line automated technical
23. 1924-The book entitled “Single Fingerprint System” by T.K. fingerprint search; and simplified processing flow. All, for
Larson, was first published in U.S., (Berkley, Police Monograph expeditious response time of fingerprint cards.
Series) D. Application and Co., New York City.
24. 1924-The First National Bureau of Identification was created by What about Historical Development of Fingerprints in the Philippines?
the act of Congress. The bureau was established within the U.S.
DOJ (Washington DC). 1. 1900-Mr. Jones was the first to teach fingerprints in the Philippines
25. 1925-Harry J. Myers II installed the first official fact fingerprint in the Phil. Constabulary.
system for infants in Jewish Maternity Hospital in Philadelphia, 2. 1918-The Bureau of Prisons records show that carpetas
Pennsylvania, U.S.A. (commitment and conviction records) already bear fingerprints.
26. 1925-The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania used compulsory foot 3. Under the management of Lt. Asa N. Darby during the American
and fingerprinting of new born infants and mothers which was occupation in the Philippines, a modern and complete fingerprint
enacted into law by Act of General Assembly as approved on April file has been established for the Philippine commonwealth.
20, 1925. 4. 1937-The first Filipino fingerprint technician employed by the
27. 1932-The International Exchange of Fingerprint date was Phil. Constabulary was Mr. Generoso Reyes. Capt. Thomas Dugan
initiated with a number of other nations on February 15, 1932. of New York City Police Department and Mr. Flaviano C. Gurrero
28. 1933-The Bureau of Identification, U.S. Department of Justice, of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) gave the first
adopted the single fingerprint identification system. The first examinations in fingerprints.
national use of single print for identification purposes for certain 5. 1933-The first conviction based on fingerprints was handed by the
crimes only, (Feb. 1933). Supreme Court of the Phil. in the case People vs. Medina and this
29. 1933-Latent fingerprints section, for making technical examination case is considered the leading judicial decision in the Philippine
of latent prints or have inked prints on an individual basis was jurisprudence concerning fingerprinting (December 23).
instituted on November 10, 1933. The Civil Identification on
Section was established.
6. The science of fingerprinting was first offered as a subject in the given to the testimony of experts in the fingerprint identification is
Philippines through the effort of the Plaridel Educational a question for the jury.
3. Following the Illinois case was one in New Jersey, State vs.
Cerciello, in which fingerprint evidence was permitted to be

What are the basic principles of Fingerprint Science? (3 dogmatic 4. In the Cerciello Case, the defendant argued that it was an error to
Principles) allow the testimony by experts explaining the comparison of
fingerprints obtained from the defendant voluntarily with those
1. Principle of Individuality (Variation) – There are no two fingerprints found upon a hatchet near the body of the deceased
fingerprints that are exactly alike unless taken from the same when the body was discovered. The New Jersey Court of Errors
finger. and Appeals held, “in principle, its admission as legal evidence is
based upon the theory that the evolution in practical affairs of life,
2. Principle of Permanency (Constancy/Perennial/Immutable) – whereby the progressive and scientific tenderness of the age are
The configuration and details of individual ridges remain constant manifested in every other department of human endeavor, cannot
and unchanging till after the final decomposition of the body. be ignored in legal procedure.

3. Principle of Infallibility – That fingerprint is a reliable means of 5. In the case of State vs. Conners (87 N.T.L. 419, 94 Atl. 812
personal identification and all courts accept and adopt fingerprint (1915) ) it was held competent to show by a photograph the
as a means of personal identification. fingerprints upon the balcony post of a house entered, without
producing that post in court, and to show by expert testimony hat
What are the two main layers of the Skin? the fingerprints found on the post were similar to the fingerprints
of the defendant.
1. Outer scarf or Epidermis
2. Inner Scarf or Dermis
6. In the case of Lamble vs. State (Lamble V. State, 96 N. T. L. 231;
Take Note: 114 ATL. (N.J.) 346 (1921) ) which involved the discovery of
fingerprints on the door of an automobile, the court was of the
1. Stratum Malpighi or the layer of the Malpighi – the ridges are opinion that it was not necessary to produce the door as an
formed into patterns by virtue of the fact that the epidermis is evidence. The court stated that a photograph of the fingerprints
penetrated and molded by the dermal papillae noted on the door should be sufficient along with the identification
2. Damage to the epidermis alone does not result to permanent ridge of the fingerprints by an expert to show these of the defendant.
destruction, whereas damage to the dermis will result to permanent The court referred the case of States V. Conners (Supra).
ridge destruction
3. We can identify many fingerprints which we cannot classify. 7. In the case of Commonwealth vs. Albright, (101 Pa. Sup. C.L.
317 (1931) ) a fingerprint expert testified that the fingerprint on a
State the principal uses of fingerprints - Some of the uses of fingerprinting piece of glass, establish to be from a pane in a door that had been
include: broken to effect entrance to the house was the same as the
impression of the defendant’s left index finger and he explained in
1. Identification of criminals whose fingerprints are found at the detail the points of identity which led him to that judgment. The
scene of the crime court stated, “it is well settled that the papillary lines and marks on
2. Identification of fugitive through a comparison of fingerprints the fingers of every man, woman and child possess an individual
3. Assistance to prosecutors in presenting their cases in the light of character different from those of any person and that the chances
defendants’ previous records that the fingerprints of two different persons may be identical are
4. Imposition of more equitable sentence by the courts infinitesimally remote.
5. Furnishing identification data to probation and parole officers and
to parole boards for their enlightenment in decision making 8. In a California case, People vs. Coral (224 cal. 2d300 (1964( ), the
6. Exchanging of criminal-identifying information with identification court stated, “it is completely settled law that fingerprints are the
bureaus of foreign countries in cases of mutual interest strongest evidence of the identity of a person.” This Doctrine was
7. Means of personal identification reasserted in another California case, People V. Riser (47 cal.
8. Recognition by the government of honored dead 2d566 (1956) ) in which the court stated, “fingerprint evidence is
9. Identification of unknown deceased the strongest evidence of identity and is ordinarily sufficient alone
10. Prevention of hospital mistakes in the identification of infants to identify the defendant.”
11. Identification of persons suffering from amnesia where fingerprints
are on file 9. The US Supreme Court in the case of Schmerber vs. California
12. Identification of missing person (Schmerber v. California, 384 us, 757, 763 764 (1966) ), held that
13. Personal identification of victims of disaster works the introduction into evidence of fingerprint impressions taken
14. Identification of unconscious persons; and without consent of the defendant was not an infringement of the
15. Licensing procedures for automobile, firearms, aircraft and other constitutional privilege against self incrimination. The high court
equipment. held that it is constitutional to obtain real or physical evidence
even if the suspect is compelled to give blood in a hospital
Give some important Events, Dates or Personalities showing the basis of environment, submit to fingerprinting, photographing or
the Legality of Fingerprinting measurement, write or speak for identification, appears in court,
stand or walk, assume a stance or make a particular gesture, put on
1. In 1911, an Illinois court, in the case of the People vs. Jennings a cloth that fits him, or exhibit his body as evidence when it is
(252 Ill. 534, 96NE 1077 (1911) ) pass upon the admissibility of material. The Schmerber case points out the fact that the privilege
fingerprint evidence. against self-incrimination is related primarily to
2. In that case, fingerprint evidence was admitted as a means of
identification may give their opinions as to whether the 10. In the Philippines, several decided cases could be cited where
fingerprints found at the scene of the crime correspond with those fingerprint evidence was admitted, considered and appreciated by
of the accused. The court’s conclusion were based on a the appellate courts with even lesser number of ridge similarities.
comparison of the photographs of such prints with the impressions In the BILANGAWA vs. AMADOR case, (Court of Appeals No.
made by the accused, there being no question as to the accuracy or 37320-b), a fingerprint expert and constabulary sergeant testified
authenticity of the photographs. It was stated that the weight to be and successfully defended fingerprint evidence based on eight
identical ride points.
1. Fingerprints are already formed about 3 to 4 months of intra-
uterine life and will remain unchanged throughout life until the
11. People vs. Medina (59 Phil. 330) - The first leading judicial final decomposition of the body.
decision in the Philippine jurisprudence on the science of 2. The pattern formation formed by the papillary ridges contains
fingerprinting. peculiar characteristics upon which a person can always be
identified by fingerprint examiners.
Admissibility of Fingerprint Testimony 3. Almost every police and law enforcement agencies throughout the
world accept, adopt and utilize the fingerprint system as a means of
Expert’s testimony as to the identity of thumb marks or absolute identification of a person.
fingerprints is admissible. The method of identifying fingerprints is a science 4. The court and other authorities had taken cognizance of its
requiring close study. Where thumb impressions are blurred and many of the importance and reliability as a means of identification.
characteristic marks far from clear, thus rendering it difficult to trace the 5. That fingerprint will speak for itself as it shows the owner thereof
features enumerated by experts as showing the identity of the impressions, the in accordance with the principle of re ipso liquitor (a thing will
court is justified in refusing to accept the opinion that a distinct similarity in speak for itself).
some respects between the admittedly genuine thumb mark and the questioned
thumb mark is evident.
This method of identification of persons has become a fixed part of
our “SYSTEM OF JURISPRUDENCE”. Proof of the accused found in the Allied Sciences of Fingerprints
place where the crime was committed under such circumstances that they
could only have been impressed at the time when the crime was committed Dactyloscopy – identification of persons through examination and
may be sufficient proof of identity to sustain conviction. comparison of fingerprint. Taken from Greek words: Dactylos – a finger and
skopien – to examine
Number of Ridge Characteristics as Basis for Absolute Identity
1. Poroscopy – Science of palm print identification.
There are no national or international rules or laws that fix the 2. Chiroscopy – Science of palm print identification.
number of ridge characteristics that must be present in both the questioned and 3. Podoscopy – Science of foot print identification.
standard prints that should be used as a basis for establishing absolute identity.
Experts of different countries differ in the requirements of the minimum Pattern Interpretation
number. In England, the minimum is 16 and in USA, the minimum
requirement is 12. However, fingerprint experts in these countries believe that 1. Arches – 5%
identity can be established in lower number of guidelines laid down by the 2. Loops – 60%
famous French Criminalist Dr. Edmond Locard: 3. Whorls – 35%

1. Clearness of the pattern. Take Note: According to studies, the appearance of arches is less
2. Rarity of the type followed by whorls and the loops.
3. Presence of core or delta in the decipherable part
4. Presence of pores What are the Types of Ridge Formation?
5. The perfect and clear identity of the width of ridges and furrows,
of the direction of the lines, and the angular value of the furrows. 1. Recurving ridge – is a ridge that curves back in the direction in
which it started.
Weight of Fingerprint 2. Converging Ridges – Two or more lines forming an angle, a ridge
whose closed end is angular and serves as a point of convergence.
The weight to be given to evidence of correspondence of 3. Diverging ridges – Two ridges running side by side and suddenly
fingerprint when offered to prove identity of the accused as the person separating, one ridge going one way and the other ridge, another
committing a crime is for the determination of the court in the light of all the way.
surrounding facts and circumstances. 4. Bifurcating ridges – A single ridge which splits into two ridges
forming a “Y” shape formation or structure.
To warrant a conviction the fingerprints corresponding to those of 5. Island, Eyelet, lake or Eye – it is a single ridge which bifurcates
the accused must have been found in the place where the crime was where the bifurcating ridges converge at a certain point to form
committed under such circumstances that they could only have been again into a single ridge.
impressed at the time when the crime was committed. 6. Dot or Series of Dots – They are fragmentary ridges formed like a
dot or dots.
Can Fingerprint be destroyed? 7. Short or Series of Short Ridges – they are fragmentary ridges
formed by short or series of short ridges.
John Dellinger, a notorious gangster and a police character, 8. Ridge Ending - It is a termination or ending of ridge or ridges.
attempted to erase his fingerprints by burning them with acid but as time went 9. Fragmentary Ridges – They consist of disconnected sequences of
by the ridges were again restored to their “natural” feature. The acid he short ridges embodied intensely. These ridges are considered in
applied temporarily destroyed the epidermis of the bulbs of his fingers but re the classification of fingerprints if they appear as dark and as thick
occur later. as the surrounded ridges within the pattern area.
10. Ridge Hook – It is a ridge that divides to form two ridges which
Locard and Witkowsji of Lyons, who performed rather painful are shorter in length than the main ridge.
experiments on themselves by burning their fingertips with boiling water, hot 11. Ridge Bridge – This is a connecting ridge between two ridges.
oil and hot metal had shown that after the healing of the epidermis (outer 12. Incipient or Nascent Ridge – This is a kind of ridge which is
skin), the original patterns of fingerprints reappeared. madly formed, thin, short or broken which appears in the
depressions between two well formed ridges.
Can Fingerprints be forged? 13. Sufficient Recurve – The space between shoulders of a loop, free
of any appendage, and a butting at right angle.
The authorities conducted various experiments and although they 14. Appendage – A short ridge at the top or summit of a recurve
could almost make an accurate reproduction’s till there is no case on record usually at right angle.
known or have been written that forgery of fingerprints has been a complete 15. Core – It is a point on a ridge formation usually located at the
success. center or heart of a pattern.
16. Delta or Triradial Point – It a point on the first ridge formation at
Give the reasons why Fingerprints is one of the most Infallible Means of or directly in front or near the center of the divergence of the type
Personal Identification lines.
17. Envelop – Is a single recurving ridge enclosing one or more rods
or bars.
18. Friction ridges – Are strips of skin on the inside of the end joints 1. Ridge Counting – It refers to the process of counting the
of our fingers and thumbs by which fingerprints are made. They intervening ridges that touch or cross an imaginary lien drawn
are also called papillary ridges or epidermal ridges. between the core and the delta.
19. Furrows – Are depressions or canals between the ridges which
maybe compared with the low area in a tire tread. Take Note - It
20. Rod or Bar – is a single ending ridge at the center of a recurving applies only to loops.
ridge of a loop pattern.
21. Up thrust - Is an ending ridge of any length rising at a sufficient 2. Ridge Tracing – Is the process of tracing the ridges that emanate
degree from a horizontal place. from the lower side of the left delta towards the right delta to see
22. Dissociated ridges – are unusual ridge structures having no well where it flows in relation to the right delta.
defined patterns; the ridges are extremely short, appear like a series
of “patches” caused by a disturbance of developmental process at Divisions of Fingerprint Patterns
early fetal life of the individuals.
23. Shoulder of a loop – It is that point at which the recurving ridge A. LOOPS
definitely turns or curves. 1. ulnar
24. Puckering – As growth ceases at several ends, the ends curl 2. radial
25. Creases – Are thin, usually straight narrow white lines running B. ARCHES
transversely or formed side to side, across the print, causing the 1. Tented
puckering of the ridges. 2. Plain
26. Staple – Single recurving ridge at the center of the pattern area.
27. Spike – an ending ridge at the center of a pattern which forms the C. WHORLS
up thrust. 1. Plain whorl
2. Central pocket loop whorl
3. Double loop whorl
Type Lines and Pattern Area 4. Accidental whorl

1. Type line – basic boundaries of most fingerprints. RULES ON FINGERPRINT PATTERNS

2. Pattern area – The part of the fingerprint which lies within the
area surrounded by the type lines. 1. Radial Loop - “R” - derived its name from the radius bone of the
forearm; it is one type of fingerprint patterns in which the ridges
What are the Rules on Core and Delta Location? run its direction to the radius bone or to the thumb.

The rules in CORE location are: 2. Ulnar Loop is one type of fingerprint pattern in which the ridges
flow toward the ulnar bone or little finger. Ulnar loop therefore
1. The core is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient recurve. derived its name from the ulna bone of the forearm, or little finger.
2. When the innermost sufficient recurve contains ending ridges or Its symbol is letter “U” in classification purposes.
rod rising as high as the shoulder of the loop further from the delta.
The exemption to this rule is when both shoulders are equidistant Take Note - A pattern to be a loop must have the
to the center of the sufficient recurve. following four (4) essential requisites: