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1. Solids-Water-Air Relations and Index Properties of Soils (5H + 1.5H = 6.5H = 7.

8 P ≈ 8 P=4 C ) [5 C]
1.1 Phase Diagram
1.1.1 Describe construction of soil
1.1.2 Describe particulate nature of soil
1.1.3 2- phase, 3-phase and unit phase diagram
1.1.4 Importance of phase diagram in Soil Mechanics
1.2 Simple Definitions and Their Relationships
1.2.1 Volumetric and Gravimetric (Mass or Weight) Relationships; Numerical Examples
1.2.2 Volumetric Relationships: Volume -Volume Relations (e, n, s, a c, na); (Typical Range of e, n, S,
ac, na, w)
1.2.3 Weight (Mass)-Volume Relations (Total or Bulk or Mass or Wet or Moist or Wet Unit Weight
or Density; Dry Unit Weight or Density; Saturated Unit Weight or Density; Submerged Unit
Weight or Density; Unit Weight or Density of Soil Solids)
1.2.4 Weight -Weight Relations (Water or Moisture Content)
1.2.5 Unit Wight (or Density) – Unit Weight (or Density) Relations (Specific Gravity of Soil Solids;
Apparent or Mass Specific Gravity; Absolute Specific Gravity, Specific Gravity of Water)
1.2.6 Their Relationships (Analytically as well as Using Phase Diagrams); Numerical Examples
 ac = 1 – S
 na =
 Relation between Ws, W and w: W s=
1+ w
e n
 Relation between e and n: n= and e=
1+e 1−n
V e
 V s= and V v= .V
1+e 1+e
 Relation between e, w, G or Gs and S: Se = wG
 Bulk Unit Weight , γ t (or Density) in terms of G, e, w and γw :
G γ w (1+w)
(G+S e)γ w γt=
γt= and wG
1+ e 1+
 Saturated Unit Weight, γ sat (or Density) in terms of G, e and γw
 Dry Unit Weight (or Density) in terms of G, e and γ w
 γ d in terms of G, w, S and γ w
 e∈terms of γ d , G and γ w
 Submerged Unit Weight (or Density) in terms of G, e and γw
 Relation between γ t , γ d and w
 Relation between γ d , G, w and na
 Relation between γ d , G, w and γ w
1.3 Index Properties of Soils
1.3.1 Properties of Soils: Physical, Index, Structural or Engineering
1.3.2 What and Why? Types: Soil Grain Properties and Soil Aggregate Properties (examples)
1.3.3 Index Properties (Soil Grain Properties and Soil Aggregate Properties) of Fine and Coarse-
grained Soils
1.3.4 Grain/Particle Size
1.3.5 Grain/Particle Size Distribution (GSD or PSD)
1.3.6 Sieve Analysis: Mechanical, Dry and Wet; Sieve Sizes and Designations (as per IS, BS and
1.3.7 Sedimentation Analysis: Stoke’s Law
1.3.8 Hydrometer Analysis: (Soil Hydrometers: 151 H and 152 H) What, How and Why; Hydrometer
Corrections and Computation of % Finer and Particle Size, Numerical Examples
1.3.9 Pipette Analysis (just briefly)
1.3.10 GSD Curves, plotting, determining its parameters (Cu and Cc) and Significances of Curves and
1.3.11 Grain Shapes of Fine and Coarse-grained Particles
1.3.12 Soil Aggregate Properties: Permeability, Unconfined Compressive Strength, Sensitivity,
Thixotropy, Activity, Void Ratio, Unit Weight, Relative Density
1.3.13 Soil Aggregate Properties of Coarse Grained Soil: Relative Density or Density Index
1.3.14 Soil Aggregate Properties of Fine Grained Soil: Consistency of Clay, Various States of
Consistency, Atterberg’s or Consistency Limits and Indices (LL, PL and SL; Plasticity Index,
Toughness Index, Flow Index, Relative Consistency or Consistency Index, Liquidity Index,
Shrinkage Parameters (Shrinkage Ratio, Shrinkage Index, Volumetric Shrinkage, Linear
Shrinkage), Empirical Relations between Consistency and Unconfined Compressive Strength;
Unconfined Compressive Strength; Thixotropy; Sensitivity and Activity
1.3.15 Significances and Uses of Consistency Limits and Indices
1.3.16 Explanation of Typical Values of Index Properties for Granular and Cohesive Soils
1.3.17 Different States, Consistencies and Atterberg Limits
1.3.18 Consistency of Cohesive Soils Using Relative Consistency and Liquidity Index
1.3.19 Soil Classification Related to Plasticity Index
1.3.20 Stress-Strain Curves for Different Consistency States
1.3.21 General Relationships between Atterberg Limits and Engineering Properties
1.3.22 Classification Related to Sensitivity of Clays
1.3.23 Classification Related to Relative Density of Granular Soils
1.3.24 Classification Related to Activity of Clays
1.4 Determination of Various Index Properties
a. Water Content Determination Methods: Oven Drying, Pycnometer, Sand Bath, Calcium Carbide,
Alcohol, Torsion Balance and Radiation; Numerical Examples
b. Specific Gravity Determination Methods: Pycnometer, Density Bottle, Measuring Flask, Gas Jar,
Shrinkage Limit; Numerical Examples
c. Liquid Limit Determinations: Casagrande’s Apparatus Method, Single or One Point Method,
Multiple Point Method, Cone Penetrometer Method; Numerical Examples
d. Plastic Limit Determination; Numerical Examples
e. Shrinkage Limit Determinations: Mercury Displacement Method and from sp. gr. of Solids;
Numerical Examples
f. Determination of Consistency Indices; Numerical Examples
g. Determination of Field or in-situ Density: Sand Replacement, Core Cutter, Water Displacement,
Submerged Mass Density, Water Balloon, Radiation; Numerical Examples
h. Determination of Void Ratio, Relative Density; Numerical Examples
i. Determination of Particle Size Distribution; Numerical Examples
j. Determination of Shrinkage Parameters, Numerical Examples

2. Soil Identification and Classification (4H + 0.5H = 4.5H = 5.4P ≈ 6 P=3 C ) [3 C]

2.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Define Soil Identification, Soil Description and Soil Classification
2.2 Field Identification of Soil
2.2.1 Importance of Filed Identification of Soils
2.2.2 Methods of Field Identification of Soils
2.2.3 Describe Field Identification for Coarse-grained Soil: Gravel vs Sand; Sand vs Clay
2.2.4 Describe Field Identification for Fine-grained Soils: Wet Shaking or Dilatancy Test; Thread or
Rolling Test, Breaking or Dry Strength Test, Toughness Test; Dispersion Test and Others
2.2.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Field Identification of Soils
2.2.6 Consistency for Field Inspection
2.3 Soil Classification - Textural, ISSCS, MIT, BSCS, USCS and AASHTO Soil Classification System
2.3.1 What and Why Soil Classification or Soil Classification Systems?
2.3.2 Systems of Soil Classification: Pedological Classifications (Soil weathering, texture, chemistry,
profile thickness, etc.) and Engineering Classifications (Soil Texture/ Grain Size, Degree
Plasticity of Soils)
2.3.3 General Requirements of Soil Classification Systems
2.3.4 Criterion for Soil Classification Systems
2.3.5 Historical Development of Soil Classification Systems/ Various Soil Classification Systems
2.3.6 What is Soil Texture and Textural/ Triangular Soil Classification System, its Procedure to
Classify; Equilateral and Right Triangle Charts, Advantages and Limitations; Numerical
2.3.7 Description of MIT Soil Classification System, Advantages and Limitations
2.3.8 Description of Indian Standrard Soil Classification System for Coarse and Fine-grained Soils;
Plasticity Chart for Fine-grained Soils; Advantages and Limitations; Numerical Examples
2.3.9 Description of British Soil Classification System for Coarse and Fine-grained Soils; Plasticity
Chart for Fine-grained Soils; Advantages and Limitations; Numerical Examples
2.3.10 Description of Unified Soil Classification System for Coarse and Fine-grained Soils; Plasticity
Chart for Fine-grained Soils; Casagrande’s Plasticity Charts; Advantages and Limitations;
Numerical Examples
2.3.11 Description of AASHTO Soil Classification System for Coarse and Fine-grained Soils; Plasticity
Chart for Fine-grained Soils; Advantages and Limitations; Numerical Examples
2.4 Application of Soil Classification System
3.4.1 General Characteristics of Soils of Different Groups/ Comparative Engineering Properties of Soil
3.4.2 Comparative Study between Various Soil Classifications Systems (ISSCS vs USCS; USCS vs
3.4.3 Explain Boundary Classifications
3.4.4 Explain Practical Implications of Soil Classification Systems
3. Soil Compaction (3H + 1H = 4H = 4.8 P ≈ 5 P = 2.5 C) [3 C]
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Define Soil Compaction and Compaction Process
3.1.2 Purposes of Soil Compaction
3.1.3 Origin of Compaction Theory
3.1.4 Explain Compaction Theories/Principles: Lubrication Theory, etc.
3.1.5 Comparison between Compaction and Consolidation
3.1.6 Describe Moisture-Density Relationship
3.1.7 Describe Degree of Compaction
3.1.8 Mechanism of Soil Compaction with the help of 3-phase Diagrams
3.1.9 Applications of Soil Compaction in Various Civil Engineering Fields
3.1.10 Types or Methods of Compaction (Dynamic (Impact), Static, Kneading/Manipulation, Static
Pressure, Vibratory; Light Compaction and Heavy Compaction
3.2 Laboratory Tests
3.2.1 Objectives of Compaction Tests
3.2.2 Types of Laboratory Soil Compaction Tests
 Standard Proctor Test: Specification of Test and Equipment; Test Procedure, Results and
Interpretation; Numerical Examples
 Modified Proctor Test or Modified AASHTO Test: Specification of Test and Equipment; Test
Procedure, Results and Interpretation; Numerical Examples

 Dietert Compaction Test

 Harvard Miniature Compaction
 Abbot Compaction Test
 Jodhpur Mini-Compactor Test
 Gyratory Compaction
3.2.3 Explain Salient Features of Compaction Curves [Optimum Moisture Content (OMC),
Maximum Dry Density (MDD) or Proctor Density, Line of Optimums, Dry Side of Optimum or
Dry of Optimum, Wet Side of Optimum or Wet of Optimum, Air Void Line (AVL), Zero Air Void
Line (ZAVL)]; Numerical Examples
3.2.4 Comparative Study between Compaction Curves of Standard and Modified AASHTO Tests
3.2.5 Variation of Dry Density with w/c with the help of Phase Diagrams and Compaction Curve
3.2.6 Selection of Compaction Water Content for Different Civil Engineering Projects
3.2.7 Comparison of Dry of Optimum and Wet of Optimum Compaction
3.3 Factors Affecting Compaction
5.3.1 Explain Various Factors Affecting Compaction: Water Content, Compaction Effort or Energy
Transmitted to the Soil, Types of Soil, Methods of Compaction, Admixtures
5.3.2 Factors Affecting Compaction in the Field: Types of Compaction Equipment, Weight of Rollers or
Rammers/ Energy Applied per Unit Weight of Soil, Number of Passes, Thickness of Lift, Speed of
Rollers/Time of Contact of Rollers or Rammers
3.4 Structure and Engineering Behaviour of Compacted Cohesive Soils
3.4.1 Effect of Compaction on Soil Structure, Permeability, Compressibility, Swelling/Swellability,
Shrinkage, Stress-strain Behaviour, Strength, Pore Water at Failure, Water Deficiency and
Sensitivity (with Curves if possible)
3.4.2 Compaction Characteristics of Cohesionless Soil (Sand) with Curve
3.4.3 Shapes of Compaction Curves of Cohesionless and Cohesive Soils
3.5 Compaction Specification and Field Control
3.5.1 What and Why Compaction Specification?
3.5.2 Relative Compaction; Numerical Examples
3.5.3 Types of Compaction Specification: Method Specification and End-Result or Product
3.5.4 Explain Field Compaction and Field Compaction Control
3.5.5 Methods of Field Compaction Control or Field Control Tests: Destructive and Non-destructive
3.5.6 Describe Compaction Control by Sand Replacement, Core Cutter, Proctor Needle Methods;
Numerical Examples
3.5.7 Compaction of Cohesionless Soils in the Field
3.5.8 Compaction of Moderately Cohesive Soils in the Field
3.5.9 Compaction of Clays in the Field
3.5.10 Equipment for Field Compaction
3.5.11 Suitability of Various Compaction Equipment
4. Principle of Effective Stress, Capillarity and Permeability (5H + 2H = 7H = 8.4 P ≈ 9 P=4.5C ) [5 C]
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Chemical Interaction between Solid Phase (Mineral Skeleton) and Fluid Phase (Pore Fluid) Fluid
(Water) influences the nature of mineral surface and affect the bonding forces between
adjacent soil grains as dealt in Chapter 4: Soil Structure and Clay Mineral
4.1.2 Physical Interaction between Solid Phase (Mineral Skeleton) and Fluid Phase (Pore Fluid) – Fully
Saturated Soil Mass is Considered, No Flow Condition/Hydrostatic Case and Flow (Seepage)
Conditions/Hydrodynamic Cases (Upward and Downward Flows) are Considered, Permeability,
Capillarity, Quick Sand Conditions
4.2 Principle of Effective Stress
4.2.1 Explain Stresses in Subsoil-Describe Concept of Stress for a Particulate System; Describe
Geostatic Stress in Soil with Horizontal Surface
4.2.2 Describe Principle of Terzaghi’s Effective Stress/Effective Stress Concept
4.2.3 Interpretation of Effective Stress
4.2.4 Significances of Effective Stress Principles in Various Field of Civil Engineering
4.3 Physical Meaning of Effective Stress
4.3.1 Discuss the Physical Interpretation of the Effective Stress Equations
4.3.2 Describe Effective Stress in a Soil Mass Under Hydrostatic Conditions
4.3.3 Discuss Effects of Static Water Table Conditions on Effective Stress; Numerical Examples
 Case (a): Dry Soil
 Case (b): Submerged Soil Mass with WT above the Ground Surface
 Case (C): Submerged Soil Mass with WT at the Ground Surface
 Partly Submerged Soil Mass
 Partly Submerged Soil Mass with Surcharge
 Soil Mass with Capillary Fringe
4.3.4 Discuss Effects of Surcharge on Effective Stress (with or without WT at Different
Locations/Depths); Numerical Examples
4.3.5 Discuss Effects of Layered Soil on Effective Stress (with or without WT at Different
Locations/Depths); Numerical Examples
4.3.6 Draw Stress Profiles or Pressure Distribution Diagrams for Total Stress, Neutral or Pore Water
Pressure and Effective Stress; Numerical Examples
4.3.7 Effective Stress in a Partially Saturated or Unsaturated Soils
4.4 Capillarity in Soils
4.4.1 Describe Surface Tension with Examples
4.4.2 Significance of Surface Tension in Soil
4.4.3 Describe Capillarity with Examples
4.4.4 Derive an Expression for Maximum Capillary Rise Through Bore Glass Tube; Numerical
4.4.5 Discuss Pressure Variation in Capillary Tube with Figure
4.4.6 Describe Height of Capillarity or Capillary Rise, Capillary Tension in Water, Capillary Pressure,
Soil Suction, Capillary Potential, Capillary Siphoning, Contact Pressure, Capillary Pressure in
Side Walls in Glass Tube, Capillary Zones (Zone I: Zone of Contact Water; Zone II: Zone of
Partial Saturation and Zone III: Zone of Capillary Saturation)
4.4.7 Effect of Capillary Rise with Temperature; Numerical Examples
4.4.8 Relation between Radius of Meniscus and Diameter of Bore Tube; Numerical Examples
4.4.9 Describe Capillarity Phenomenon in Soils and Factors Affecting it
4.4.10 Derivation and Estimation of Capillary Rise in Soil Deposit; Numerical Examples
4.4.11 Pore Size in Soils by Hazen, 1910 and Empirical Relationship by Terzaghi and Peck, 1948;
Numerical Examples
4.4.12 Typical Ranges of Capillary Rise in Soils
4.5 Permeability of Soils
4.5.1 Discuss Soil-Water Interaction
4.5.2 Various Forms of Water in Soils/ Modes of Occurrence of Water in Soil: Free or Gravitational
Water and Held Water (Structure, Adsorbed/Hygroscopic, Capillary Water)
4.5.3 Define Soil Permeability or Permeability of Soils
4.5.4 Importance of Permeability in Soils
4.5.5 Basic Concepts of Fluid Flow: Steady Flow, Unsteady Flow, Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow,
Reynolds Number, One or Two or Three-Dimensional Flow
4.5.6 Describe Darcy’s Law and Darcy’s Experiment; Assumptions Made Defining Darcy’s Law;
Validity (Limitations) of Darcy’s Law
4.5.7 Explain and Derive Relationship between Seepage Velocity and Superficial Velocity
4.5.8 Differentiate between Seepage Velocity and Superficial Velocity
4.5.9 Explain Factors Affecting Permeability (Taylor, 1948)
1. Characteristics of the permeant (Permeant fluid properties/Properties of pore fluid):
Viscosity of fluid or water and Unit weight of water
2. Soil Characteristics
a. Particle/grain size and shape
i. Particle/grain size
ii. Shape of particles
b. Void ratio
c. Composition of soil
d. Soil fabric, structure of soil mass (structural arrangement of soil particles)
e. Soil stratification or Layered soil deposits
f. Degree of saturation
g. Presence of entrapped air
h. Presence of foreign matter – Impurities in water

i. Adsorbed water
6.5.9 Explain and Derive Permeability in Layered/ Stratified Soils: (a) Flow perpendicular/normal to
the layers/bedding planes and (b) Flow parallel to the layers/bedding planes
4.6 Determination of Coefficient of Permeability: Laboratory and Field Methods
4.6.1 Difference between Laboratory and Field Methods to Find k
4.6.2 Describe Constant Head Test and derive Expression for k; Numerical Examples
4.6.3 Describe Falling or Variable Head Test and derive Expression for k; Numerical Examples
4.6.4 Difference between Constant Head and Variable Head Permeability Tests
4.6.5 Discuss Horizontal Capillarity Method (Just Brief)
4.6.6 Describe Various Field or In-situ or In-place Methods to Find K
4.6.7 Discuss Pumping tests and their Types: Pumping Out Tests and Pumping-In Tests
4.6.8 Explain the terms: Inverted Cone of Depression, Radius of Influence, Drawdown Curves,
Efficiency of Well; Specific Capacity of Well; Coefficient of Transmissibility
4.6.9 Discuss and Differentiate between Confined and Unconfined Aquifers
4.6.10 Discuss Pumping Tests through Confined or Pressure or Artesian and Unconfined or Gravity
or Non-Artesian Aquifers
4.6.11 Discuss Dupuit’s and Thiem’s Assumptions and Limitations
4.6.12 Derive Dupuit’s Equilibrium Formulae (Expression for K in the Field by Pumping Out Tests) for
Unconfined and Confined Aquifers; Numerical Examples
4.6.13 Derive Thiem’s Equilibrium Formulae (Expression for K in the Field by Pumping Out Tests) for
Unconfined and Confined Aquifers; Numerical Examples
4.6.14 Discuss Fully Penetrating Artesian Gravity Well; Numerical Examples

4.6.15 Describe Pumping - In Methods

i) Constant Water Level Method
ii) Packer Method
a) Single Packer Method
b) Double Packer Method
6.6.15 Bore Hole Tests: a) Constant Head Method and b) Variable Head Method
6.6.17 K from In-situ Measurement of Seepage Velocity
6.6.18 K from Indirect Methods or Empirical Methods
a) Computation Based on Grain Size
b) Computation Based on Specific Surface
c) Computation Based on Consolidation Test Data
4.7 Types of Head, Seepage Forces and Quick Sand Conditions
4.7.1 Explain Flow Through Soil Mass with Figure; Numerical Examples
4.7.2 Explain Types of Head in Water Flow as per Bernoulli’s Equations
4.7.3 Explain Types of Heads in Water Flow Through Soil Mass; Numerical Examples
4.7.4 Explain and Derive Seepage Pressure, Seepage Forces and Seepage Force per Unit Volume;
Numerical Examples
4.7.5 Discuss of Effect of Seepage on Effective Stress or Describe and Derive Effective Stress in a
Soil Mass Under Hydrodynamic Conditions (or Seepage or Flow (Upward and Downward)
Conditions); Numerical Examples
4.7.6 Discuss Hydraulic Gradient and Critical Hydraulic Gradient
4.7.7 Describe and Derive Quick Sand Condition/Phenomenon: Total Stress Approach and Effective
Stress Approach; Numerical Examples
4.7.8 Discuss Necessary Conditions for Quick Sand Condition
4.7.9 Discuss Likelihood of Quick Sand Condition in Sands than in Clays
4.7.10 Discuss Hazards and Remedial Measures of Quick Sand Condition
4.7.11 Discuss the Effect of Surcharge and Submergence on Quick Conditions
4.7.12 Discuss Quick Sand Phenomenon and Liquefaction
4.7.13 Discuss Soil Heaving/Bottom Heave and Factor of Safety Against it; Numerical Examples
5. Compressibility of Soil (6H + 2H = 8H = 9.6 P ≈ 10 P=5 C ) [5 C]
5.1 Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile
5.1.1 Define Compression and Compressibility of Soil
5.1.2 Causes of Decrease in Volume or Compression of a Soil Mass

5.1.3 Discuss Causes and Implications of Settlement

5.1.4 Discuss Components of Settlement and Types of Settlement (Elastic/Immediate/Initial,
Primary and Secondary)
5.1.5 Define Contact Pressure and Discuss Settlement Profile
5.1.6 Explain Factors Affecting Contact Pressure Distribution
5.1.7 Discuss Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile on Sand, Saturated Clay and c – ɸ Soil

5.2 Fundamentals of Consolidation

5.2.1 Describe Compression of Sand
5.2.2 Describe Compression of fine grained soil (Clay)
5.2.3 Discuss Settlement vs Time (in case of clayey soil
5.2.4 Discuss Void Ratio-Effective Stress and Compression-Time Plots for Clay
5.2.5 Define Consolidation Process
5.2.6 Discuss Consolidation of Laterally Confined Soil
5.2.7 Explain Effects of Consolidation Process
5.2.8 Discuss Factors Causing Consolidation
5.2.9 Describe Terzaghi’s Spring-Mass Analogy
5.2.10 Discuss Types of Consolidation
5.3 One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test
5.3.1 Purposes of Consolidation Test
5.3.2 Significances of Consolidation Test
5.3.3 Discuss Types of Consolidometer or Oedometer: Fixed Ring Type and Floating Ring Type
5.3.4 Describe 1-D Consolidation Test (Equipment Required, Preparation of Undisturbed and
Remoulded Soil Samples, Procedure, Observations, Calculations and Results); Numerical
5.3.5 Discuss with Expression Important Soil Properties found by 1-D Consolidation Test;
Numerical Examples
5.3.6 Discuss Time-Deformation Plot during Consolidation for a Given Load Increment
5.3.7 Define Coefficient of Compressibility and Coefficient of Volume Change or Volume
Compressibility; Numerical Examples
5.4 Voids Ratio - Pressure Plots
5.4.1 Discuss Results of Consolidation Test: Voids Ratio - Pressure Plots
5.4.2 Explain the Methods of Determination of Void Ratios: Height of Solids Method and Change in
Void Ratio Method; Numerical Examples
5.5 Normally Consolidated and Over Consolidated Clay
5.5.1 Discuss Factors Affecting the Consolidation Characteristics of Clay Soils
5.5.2 Discuss Under Consolidated, Normally Consolidated and Over Consolidated Clays
5.5.3 Describe Normal Consolidation, Over Consolidation and Pre-Consolidation of Clays
5.5.4 Differentiate between NC and OC Clays
5.5.5 Discuss Mechanisms Causing Over-consolidation
5.5.6 Discuss Reasons for Over Consolidation
5.5.7 Define Over Consolidation Ratio (OCR) and its Values for NC and OC Clays
5.5.8 Discuss Mechanism Causing Pre-consolidation
5.5.9 Define and Describe the Graphical Procedure for Determination of Pre-Consolidation
Pressure; Numerical Examples
5.6 Effect of Disturbance on Voids Ratio – Pressure Relationship
5.6.1 Define Virgin Compression Curve or Field/In-situ Void Ratio-Pressure Curve
5.6.2 Compare Laboratory and Field Void Ratio-Pressure Curves
5.6.3 Explain the Procedure for Determining Field Void Ratio-Pressure for NC Clays and OC Clays;
Numerical Examples
5.7 Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation
5.7.1 Estimate Settlement from 1-D Primary Consolidation; Numerical Examples
5.7.2 Estimate (Primary) Consolidation Settlement by Coefficient of Volume Change Method and
Compression Index Method (for NC and OC Clays); Numerical Examples
5.7.3 Discuss Graphical Procedure for Estimating Consolidation Settlement; Numerical Examples
5.8 Compression Index and Swell Index
5.8.1 Define Compression Index, Swell Index, Re-compression Index, Expansion Index; Numerical
5.8.2 Significances of Index
5.8.3 Discuss Correlations for Compression Index; Numerical Examples
5.9 Secondary Consolidation Settlement
9.9.1 Discuss Secondary Consolidation Settlement; Numerical Examples
5.10 Time Rate of Consolidation
5.10.1 Define Time Rate of Consolidation and Degree of Consolidation or Consolidation Ratio
5.10.2 Discuss Assumptions of Terzaghi’s 1-D Consolidation Theory for Saturated Clays
5.10.3 Derive the Governing Equation for Terzaghi’s 1-D Consolidation Theory for Saturated Clays
5.10.4 Solution of Terzaghi’s 1-D Consolidation Theory for Saturated Clays; Numerical Examples
5.10.5 Discuss Limitations of Terzaghi’s 1-D Consolidation Theory for Saturated Clays
5.10.6 Estimate Time Rate and Degree of Consolidation for Different Cases: U in Terms of
Settlement; Porewater Pressure Dissipation; Void Ratio Change; Change in Effective Stress;
Numerical Examples
5.10.7 Show Consolidation Pressure Distribution Diagrams
5.10.8 Discuss Average Degree of Consolidation
5.10.9 Describe the Terms: Single (or 1-Way) Drainage; Double (or 2-Way) Drainage; Time Factor
5.10.10 Discuss Variation of Average Degree of Consolidation with Time Factor; Numerical Examples
5.11 Coefficient of Consolidation
5.11.1 Define Coefficient of Consolidation and its Significances
5.11.2 Describe Graphical Procedures to Find Coefficient of Consolidation: (a) Logarithm-of-Time
Method (proposed by Casagrande and Fadum, 1940); (b) Root-of-Time Method (proposed by
Taylor, 1942) and Others (Just in Brief) (c) Hyperbola Method (Sridharan and Prakash, 1985)
and (d) Early Stage Log-t Method (Robinson and Allam, 1996); Numerical Examples
5.11.3 Compare between Square-Root-time and Log-of-time Methods
5.11.4 Discuss Which Method of Curve Fitting is to be Used.
5.12 Calculation of Consolidation Settlement Under a Foundation
5.12.1 Estimate the One-Dimensional Settlement of a Foundation; Numerical Examples
5.12.2 Discuss Simpson's Rule to Estimate 1-D Settlement if the Pressure/Stress Increase Varies
Parabolically; Numerical Examples
5.13 Methods of Accelerating Consolidation Settlement
5.13.1 Discuss Necessity of Accelerating Consolidation Settlement
5.13.2 Describe Methods of Accelerating Consolidation Settlement: Sand Drains and Prefabricated
Vertical Drains (PVDs)