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Module-05

GASKETS

DESCON ENGINEERING LIMITED


Plant Maintenance & Services
Contents
Page No.

Abbreviations and Terminology................................................. 5

1 Introduction ………………………………………………………….. 6

2 Types of Gaskets......................................................................... 8

2.1 Sheet Material Gaskets..................................................... 8

2.2 Composite Gaskets.......................................................... 10

2.3 O-rings............................................................................... 11

2.4 Metal Gaskets.................................................................... 13

2.5 Liquid Gaskets and Sealants........................................... 15

3 Flange Gaskets............................................................................ 16

3.1 Full-face Gaskets.............................................................. 17

3.2 Ring Gaskets..................................................................... 18

3.3 Spiral-wound Gaskets...................................................... 20

3.3.1 Spiral-wound Gasket Identification...................... 23

3.4 Insulating Kits................................................................... 26

4 Gasket Fitting............................................................................... 27

4.1 Preparation........................................................................ 27

4.2 Bolt Load........................................................................... 27

4.2.1 Pressure Effect....................................................... 28

4.2.2 Temperature Effect................................................ 29

4.3 Tightening Procedure....................................................... 30

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Contents
Page No.

5 Making a Gasket.......................................................................... 33

6 Summary...................................................................................... 35

7 Glossary....................................................................................... 36

Appendix A................................................................................... 37

Appendix B................................................................................... 40

Exercises 1- 5............................................................................... 43

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Induction in PM&S department.
Pre-Requisite
At least one turnaround (preferable)

The Job Training Mechanical Engineers Course is the


Course
phase of the development programme. It is intended
Objectives
specifically for Mechanical Maintenance Development.
On completion of the Course, the developee will have
acquired an awareness of some of the equipment,
terminology, and procedures related to mechanical
maintenance of various plants.

On completion of this module, the developee will be


Module
able to correctly :
Objectives
 state the purposes of gaskets
 identify different types of gaskets
 use colour coding charts for spiral-wound gaskets
 state the reasons for using correct tightening
sequences and torques
 follow tightening procedures
 cut a non-metallic gasket for a given application

The above will be achieved through the following:


Methodology
 pre-test
 classroom instruction
 audio visual support
 tasks & exercises
 post-test

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Abbreviations and Terminology

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers


CAF Compressed asbestos fibre
CBN Carbon
® Registered trade name

Annealing A heat treatment process that softens metals.


Blowout (gasket) The result of fluid pressure forcing out between the joint
surfaces, pushing the gasket out parallel to the surfaces.
Deformed Having a changed shape (or form).
Elastic limit The greatest amount by which a material can be stretched
without being permanently deformed.
Elasticity The ability to return to the original shape and size after
deformation.
Elastomer A polymer (plastic material) that behaves like rubber—it is an
elastic
material (see elasticity above).
Engine distributor Component of a 4-stroke spark-ignition engine that sends
(distributes) electric current to each sparking plug at the correct
time during operation.
Expand Increase in size, usually due to something other than a force.
Extend Increase in length, usually due to a force.
Galvanic corrosion Corrosion caused by small electric currents flowing between
different metals or two locations on a single metal. Differences
in the metal structure form a kind of electric cell.
Greaseproof Paper, treated so that it is not affected by grease.
Mating (surfaces etc.) Mating items fit together: e.g. mating surfaces, mating threads.
Micron 10-6 metre or one thousandth of a millimetre.
Roughness Opposite of smoothness. Roughness can be measured and an
average value for the ‘ups and downs’ on a surface given in
microns.
Spigot A circular protrusion that fits into a recess for aligning
components. Also sometimes used to mean a tap (like a
water tap).
Surface finish A measure of the roughness and flatness of a surface.
Tensile (force) Axial force that causes or tends to cause stretching.
Trade name A name given to an item by a particular manufacturer, e.g. Coke.

Work hardening A process that makes some metals harder when they are
hammered or bent.

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1 Introduction

In the last module of this course (Pipework) you learnt about flanges and the
need for gaskets in flange joints. In this module you will learn more about the
different types of gaskets that are available and their applications.

Gaskets are a type of static seal. They form leak-proof joints between
surfaces that do not move relative to each other. Figure 1.1 shows examples of
typical gaskets.
Static means not
moving or stationary.

Figure 1.1: Gaskets

Gaskets do two jobs:

 prevent fluid from leaking out from between the surfaces of a joint

 prevent any dirt etc., from entering at the joint

They are used between pipe flanges, the halves of split casings, on inspection
covers in containers, etc.

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In the Pipework module, you learnt that surface finish of flanges is important.
The roughness of a surface is measured in microns (thousandths of a
millimetre). A surface may look very smooth to your eye but, if you magnify it,
you will see that it is not. You saw this when you learnt about friction in the
Bearings module and it is shown again in Figure 1.2.

The same surface


magnified

Surface that seems smooth

Figure 1.2: Surface Roughness

It is very difficult, and expensive, to machine metal surfaces so that they are
flat and smooth enough to provide a leak-proof joint. Gaskets are made of
relatively soft materials. When a gasket material is squashed in a joint, it fills
the spaces caused by the roughness of the surfaces being sealed.

For some very low-temperature applications on the plant, gaskets are not
used. The flanges must then have a very good surface finish: they must be
very smooth, and that makes them very expensive.

The choice of gasket for a joint depends on the fluid being contained, its
pressure and temperature and the surrounding atmosphere. It is, therefore,
very important to use the correct gasket for every application.

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2 Types of Gaskets

The type of gasket used for any application and the material it is made of
depends on four things:

 fluid being contained

 operating pressure

 operating temperature

 Surrounding atmosphere—high temperature; humidity; sea water; etc.

2.1 Sheet Material Gaskets

The simplest gaskets are made of sheet material. The material used depends
on the four things listed above and on the surface finish of the surfaces
being sealed. The thinnest sheet gaskets can be made of paper. If the
contained fluid damages ordinary paper, it can be treated with varnish or
greaseproof paper is used. Handle paper gaskets carefully as they break
easily. Figure 2.1 shows some typical paper gaskets.

(a) Inspection Cover or Oil Sump Gasket

(b) Ring Gasket (c) Oval Gasket

Figure 2.1: Paper Gaskets

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Paper gaskets may be already cut to shape by the manufacturer. If you do not
have a ready-made gasket, you can make one if you have the correct type
and thickness of paper for the application. This procedure is described in
Section 5 of this module.

Paper gasket material comes in a range of thicknesses from very thin to


quite thick card. If paper is not suitable for the application, sheet-material
gaskets can be made of:

 Rubber—a very flexible material that comes in Synthetic materials are man-
made, usually from petroleum
different densities and sheet thickness. Synthetic products in a petrochemical
plant.
rubbers (elastomers) are not affected by oils and
many chemicals.

 cork—also very flexible and available in different sheet thicknesses

 Asbestos—once a very common gasket material for high-temperature


applications. Now being replaced by other materials because it is a
health hazard.

 Synthetic materials—many different synthetic gasket materials are


available. They may be plastics (polymers) or made up of fibres.
Different synthetic materials are made for use in many applications and
are replacing asbestos for high-temperature gaskets.

Examples of gaskets made from these materials are shown in Figure 2.2.

(a) Rubber Gaskets (b) Cork Gaskets

(c) Synthetic and Fibre Gaskets

Figure 2.2: Other Sheet-material Gaskets

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2.2 Composite Gaskets

A composite gasket is made up of (or composed of) more than one material.
These materials are in different layers. This type of gasket is usually ready-
made. Some examples of composite gaskets are shown in Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3: Composite Gasket Materials

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2.3 O-rings

Rubber o-rings are circular-section (‘O’-section) rings. They are located in a groove
in one of the surfaces being sealed. Figure 2.4 shows a rubber o-ring and its
section when cut through.

Cut surface showing


circular or ‘O’-section

Figure 2.4: Rubber O-ring

O-rings usually form static seals between two surfaces. Figure 2.5 shows
an o-ring located in its groove in a small water pump casing.

O-ring

Figure 2.5: O-ring Seal in Pump Casing

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The pump cover flattens the o-ring in the casing groove, as shown in Figure 2.6.

Cover

O-ring
groove
O-ring
Casing

Figure 2.6: Cover Compressing O-ring

O-rings are also used where there is some occasional


Occasional means
movement between surfaces. Figure 2.7 shows an o-ring sometimes, but not
often.
fitted into a groove on an engine distributor location spigot.

The circular-section spigot locates the distributor body in the engine


crankcase and the o-ring stops lubricating oil from leaking. To adjust the
engine timing, the distributor body is turned before clamping in position.

Engine
crankcase

Distributor
clamp bolt Distributor
Spigot body
O-ring

Figure 2.7: O-ring on Distributor Body

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2.4 Metal Gaskets

Metal gaskets may be:

 solid metal

 hollow metal o-rings

 metal jacketed

Solid metal gaskets are made of a soft metal like copper or aluminium.
Like all gaskets, they should normally only be used once. Squashing a
metal gasket work hardens it. You can re-use some solid metal ring-gaskets
by heat treating them before replacing them. This heat treatment is called
annealing. It is a process that softens a work hardened metal. This is only
done where you can not get a new replacement gasket. Figure 2.8 shows
solid metal ring-gaskets.

Figure 2.8: Metal-ring Gaskets

Metal o-rings are hollow to allow them to be more easily crushed. You cannot
re-use them. Figure 2.9 shows a metal o-ring before and after use. It also
shows a drawing of the o-ring section before and in operation.

Before use

In operation

Before use After use

(a) Before and After Use (b) Hollow Section

Figure 2.9: Metal O-rings

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Metal-jacketed gaskets have a metal outer later (the jacket) that is filled with a
softer material. The jacket and filler materials depend on the gasket
application.

Figure 2.10 shows examples of two types of metal jacketed gaskets.

Metal jacket Filler Metal jacket Filler

(a) Heat Exchanger Gasket (b) Corrugated Gasket

Figure 2.10: Metal-jacketed Gaskets

Metal-jacketed gaskets are often used where complicated shapes are needed.
A wide range of temperature and pressure is possible as there is a large
range of materials and styles that can be used. The soft filler material can be
completely or partially enclosed in the metal jacket. Heat exchanger
gaskets are often of the type shown in Figure 2.10(a) above.

Corrugated gaskets have a wavy surface that can help form a good seal.
This is shown in Figure 2.10(b) above.

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2.5 Liquid Gaskets and Sealants

In some cases, if a gasket is not available, it is possible to use a jointing


compound that forms a seal between surfaces. This is normally in the form of
a liquid or paste. The material sets, or partially sets to form the seal. A liquid
sealant is shown being applied in Figure 2.11(a).

Another form of sealant is a flexible expanded PTFE strip. The strip is usually
self- adhesive and is applied as shown in Figure 2.11(b).

®
(a) Loctite Liquid Sealant (b) PTFE Sealant

Figure 2.11: Sealants

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3 Flange Gaskets

As a mechanical maintenance engineer, you have to understand opening or


closing of flange joints. You will have to fit new gaskets each time you re-make
a flange joint.

What has been said so far about gaskets is also true for flange gaskets.
Because flange gaskets perform such an important job on plants, we will
look at them in more detail in this section.

Flange gaskets can be divided into two main types:

 ring gaskets

 full-face gaskets

Ring gaskets fit inside the circle of flange studs and so do not have holes for
the studs. Full-face gaskets cover the whole flange face so they need stud
holes. Simple examples of these two types of gaskets are shown in Figure
3.1.

(a) Ring Gasket (b) Full-face Gasket

Figure 3.1: Sheet-material Flange Gaskets

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3.1 Full-face Gaskets

Full-face flange gaskets are described by the five dimensions shown in Figure 3.2.

OD

PCD

ID

OD Outside Diameter
Stud
ID Inside Diameter Diameter

PCD Pitch Circle Diameter

Material
thickness

Figure 3.2: Full-face Gasket Dimensions

Full-face gaskets are used with flat-face (FF) flanges. Flange types are
described in the Pipework module. A flat-face flange with a full-face gasket is
shown in Figure 3.3.

Gasket

Figure 3.3: Full-face Gasket on FF Flange

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3.2 Ring Gaskets

Ring gaskets fit inside the circle of studs. They have no stud holes and their
dimensions are described by their OD, ID and thickness only. Do not fit ring
gaskets to cast iron or bronze flanges. These materials are brittle and
tightening down causes uneven loading that can crack the flange.

You can fit ring gaskets to flat-face or raised-face flanges as shown in Figure 3.4.

(a) Ring Gasket on Flat-face Flanges (b) Ring Gasket on Raised-face Flanges

Figure 3.4: Ring Gaskets on FF and RF Flanges

If the fluid pressure being contained is very high, the gasket can blowout
across the flange face. This happens as the fluid in the pipe tries to
escape between the flange faces, see Figure 3.5(a).

Ring gaskets that fit into a groove in the flange can take higher pressures.
The groove stops the gasket from being pushed outwards (radially), see
Figure 3.5(b).

Fluid
Fluid pressure
pressure

(a) FF Flanges with no Groove to Stop Blowout (b) Groove-to-flat Flanges Reduce Blowout Risk

Figure 3.5: Gasket Blowout

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The flange joints used for high-pressure applications are:

 groove-to-flat (Fig. 3.6(a))

 tongue and groove (Fig. 3.6(b))

 male-female (Fig. 3.6(c))

 ring-type joint (RTJ) (Fig. 3.6(d))

(a) Groove-to-Flat (b) Tongue and Groove

(c) Male-Female (d) Ring-type Joint (RTJ)

Figure 3.6: High-pressure Flange Joints

Appendix A shows some applications using ring gaskets.

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3.3 Spiral-wound Gaskets

The gasket shown in Figure 3.6(d) on the last page is a special type of ring
gasket. It is called a spiral-wound gasket. A spiral is the name of a shape that
can by coiled up on a flat surface, as shown in Figure 3.7(a). It is often
confused with a helix, shown in Figure 3.7(b).

(a) Spiral (b) Helix

Figure 3.7: Spiral and Helix

All spiral-wound gaskets have a v-section metal strip wound in a spiral. There
is a filler material between each coil of the spiral that helps to seal the joint.
Some spiral- wound gaskets have an outer ring, some an inner ring and
some have both rings. A section through a typical spiral-wound gasket with
inner and outer rings is shown in Figure 3.8.

Outer ring

Inner ring

Filler Metal strip

Figure 3.8: Section Through Spiral-wound Gasket

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Without the rings, the gasket has little resistance to blowout. It is usually
fitted to male-female flanges or tongue and groove flanges as shown in Figure
3.9.

Gasket section—spiral only


Male-female flanges

Tongue and groove flanges

Figure 3.9: Spiral-wound Gasket with no Inner or Outer Ring

An outer ring makes it easier to align the gasket centrally inside the studs.
The ring gives the gasket more radial strength, reducing the risk of blowout. It
can also protect the spiral winding from the outside atmosphere, which might
be corrosive. A gasket with an outer ring is usually fitted to raised-face
flanges, as shown in Figure 3.10.

Gasket section
spiral
outer ring

Figure 3.10: Spiral-wound Gasket with Outer Ring

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An inner ring protects the spiral winding from the fluid in the pipe, which
might be corrosive. It also brings the gasket flush with the pipe ID. This allows
smoother flow of fluid through the flange joint. An inner ring also gives
strength to resist blowout. Figure 3.11 shows this type fitted to male-female
flanges.

Gasket section
spiral
inner ring

Figure 3.11: Spiral-wound Gasket with Inner Ring

Gaskets with both rings have the advantages of both the last two types.
They are usually fitted to raised-face flanges as shown in Figure 3.12.

Gasket section
spiral
outer ring inner ring

Figure 3.12: Spiral-wound Gasket with Inner and Outer Rings

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3.3.1 Spiral-wound Gasket Identification

Spiral wound gaskets are identified by their size, rating and materials.

Identification information is shown on the face of the gasket as shown in Figure 3.13.

Figure 3.13: Spiral-wound Gasket Identification Information

There is a range of materials available for the:

 metal spiral winding

 non-metal filler

 outer ring

 inner ring

The correct material for each of these parts of the gasket depends on its application.

As shown in Figure 3.13, the materials of the outer and inner rings are
marked as codes on those parts of the gasket; in this example the code is
304 for both. If the

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material is carbon steel (CBN steel), or PTFE (for the inner ring) no code is
shown.

The material for the winding and filler is also shown as a code, marked on
the outer ring; in this example it is 304/FG. If the gaskets are made to the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standard B16.20, winding
and filler materials are also color coded. These color codes and the number
codes for stainless steels are shown in Figure 3.14.

Figure 3.14: ASME B16.20 Color Codes for Spiral-wound Gasket Metallic Windings and Non-
metallic Fillers

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The color of the outer ring tells you what the winding material is.

The band of color on the outer edge of the gasket tells you what the filler

material is. Look at Figures 3.13 and 3.14 and you will see that:

 the code marked on the outer ring is 304—the outer ring is 304 stainless steel

 the code marked on the inner ring is 304—the inner ring is 304 stainless steel

 the color of the outer ring is yellow—the winding is also 304 stainless steel

 the color band on the outer edge is grey—the filler is flexible graphite (FG)

Note that the code marked on the outer ring surface for the winding and
filler also shows 304/FG: 304 stainless steel and flexible graphite.

Appendix B shows the Piping Specification G1 for LNG applications. If you


look at the gaskets section you will see that spiral-wound gaskets are
specified.
®
Note that the filler material is a trade name for flexible graphite (FG).
FLEXICARB

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3.4 Insulating Kits

Sometimes it is necessary to electrically insulate one section of piping from


another. This may be for safety reasons or to help reduce corrosion. Small
electric currents passing from one metal to another or between two parts of
the same piece of metal can cause serious corrosion. This is called galvanic
corrosion.

Insulating kits fitted to bolts and flanges stop the flow of electric current. A
typical insulating kit is shown in Figure 3.15.

Figure 3.15: Flange and Stud Insulating Kit

Electric current passes easily through metals. They are good electrical
conductors (i.e. poor insulators). Current can pass from one metal flange to
the other directly across the flange faces and through the metal fixing studs.
The insulation kit makes sure that no metallic item on one side of the flanges
touches the other side.

A gasket made out of a poor conductor of electricity (i.e. a good insulator) fits
between the flanges. This insulates one face from the other.

Insulating sleeves fit inside the stud holes. These stop studs from touching
the sides of the holes. Insulating washers between the back of the flange and
the steel washers stop nuts and washers from touching the flanges. The kit
shown in Figure 3.15 has one-piece insulating washers and sleeves.

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4 Gasket Fitting

Gaskets are designed to seal between mating faces. These faces should have
a surface finish that is suitable for the application and the gasket specified.
4.1 Preparation

After removing a gasket, you must make sure that the faces to be sealed are
completely clean before re-fitting. Remove any pieces of old gasket
A trace is a very
carefully. If a sealant has been used, clean all traces of the small quantity of
something.
sealant from the faces. You may need to use a scraper to do
this but make
sure that you do not scratch or damage the surface. Any material remaining
on the faces or any damage to them reduces the surface finish. This affects
the ability of the gasket to seal the joint.

Always use a new gasket.

Do not re-use an old gasket when you re-assemble a gasketed joint. Even if
it does not look damaged, a gasket is compressed during service. It may
have been under high pressure and temperature. Once it has been used, its
properties will have changed. It will not meet the required specification and
could fail in service.

Make sure the gasket is aligned accurately with the edges of the face and
any bolt holes. Paper and other thin gaskets can be difficult to keep in place
during assembly.
A thin smear of light grease or Vaseline® on one face can hold the
gasket in place.
A smear is a
thin coating.
4.2 Bolt Load

The clamping force on a gasket must be enough to make it Irregularities of


a shape are
changes that
compress and fill all the irregularities in the mating surfaces. seem to have no
pattern.
But, it must not crush the gasket too much or it will not perform
properly.

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A gasket can only seal a joint properly if it is compressed by the correct amount
when it is in service. You have seen in earlier modules that large forces
can stretch (extend) or squash (compress) a material like steel. This is what
happens when you use interference fits; as when you fit a bearing into a
housing. You have also seen that a temperature change can make materials
like steel bigger (expand) or smaller (contract). This is why expansion joints
are needed in some pipelines.

4.2.1 Pressure Effect

Fluid under pressure pushes outwards on its container. If the container is a


pipe or pressure vessel with a gasketed joint, the pressure has two effects:

 it pushes outwards between the joint faces, trying to blowout the gasket

 it pushes parallel to the fixing bolts, trying to stretch them

Figure 4.1 shows the forces that act on the gasket and the bolts because
of fluid pressure inside a container.

Tensile force on
bolts due to fluid
pressure

Fluid
pressure

Blowout force on
gasket due to
fluid pressure

Fluid
pressure

Figure 4.1: Forces Acting on a Gasketed Joint

The axial force on the bolts is a tensile force.

Tensile force causes a body to be stretched or extended.


Gaskets/Rev. 0.0 Page 28 of 43
Pressure acting on a joint extends the fixing bolts. This reduces the clamping
force on the gasket. The designer calculates the tightening torque of the nuts
so that the correct minimum load acts on the gasket at all times. This is why
you should not tighten to less than the recommended torque.

If you tighten the fixing bolts too much, the fluid pressure acting on them can
damage them. Materials like steel have a property called elasticity. They can
be extended by a force and then return to their original length when the
force is removed, like a spring. But, there is a limit to how much you can
extend them without damaging them. If you extend a material too much, it
will not return to its original length, it becomes permanently stretched or
deformed. If you keep adding more force, the material breaks (or fails)

The point at which the material becomes permanently deformed is called the
elastic limit.

If nuts are tightened too much, the bolt material goes past its elastic limit. The
bolts become permanently deformed. If you continue to tighten them, or if
something like fluid pressure adds more tensile force, they will break. This is
why you should not tighten nuts to more than the recommended torque.

4.2.2 Temperature Effect

When the temperature of the fixing bolts increases, they get bigger. We say
that they expand. When they expand, their length increases. This reduces
the clamping force on the gasket. Tightening torques must be enough to
allow for this expansion in service.

If operating temperatures are very low, as in LNG production and storage,


metals contract. This can cause loads on flange bolts it increase as they get
shorter. Even if the tightening torque does not take the material past its
elastic limit, the extra force when the bolt contracts might.

Joints that contain high pressure and/or high temperature fluid in service
must be tightened to the manufacturer’s recommended torque values.

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 If tightening torques are too low, clamping force on the gasket
becomes too small when high service pressures and temperatures are
reached.

 If tightening torques are to high, gaskets may be crushed, studs and


bolts can be permanently deformed or may break, especially in low-
temperature applications.

4.3 Tightening Procedure

Tighten all gasketed joints gradually and in sequence. Tightening sequences


for flanges were described in the earlier module in this course: Pipework.
The general rule described for flanges in that module was to work from one
diameter to another, tightening both nuts on the same diameter before
moving to the next. Diameters are then chosen so that the flange is pulled up
evenly. Do not tighten one side of a joint more than another. The tightening
sequence shown in Figure 4.2(a) is the one described for an 8-stud flange in
the Pipework manual.

1st dia. 4th dia.

start
start
1 7 1 4

6 4
end
6 5

3 5
2nd dia.

8 2 3rd dia. 3 2
end

(a) 8-bolt Flange (b) 6-bolt Flange

8 4 1 5 9

12 13

11 14

7 3 2 6 10

(c) ) Non-circular Spiral Sequence


Figure 4.2: Tightening Sequences

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The sequences shown in Figure 4.2(a) and (b) for flanges are not the only
correct sequences. Always follow the rule of working on one diameter at a
time and moving around the flange to spread the load evenly.

For the rectangular layout in Figure 4.2(c), one correct way is to start from the
central nuts and work outwards in a spiral, as shown.

Make sure that all threads are clean, then lubricate them with oil or grease.
Dry and dirty threads can cause the torque wrench to give a false reading.
Some torque is used to overcome friction if a thread is difficult to turn. Then,
only part of the set torque is used to tighten the nuts.

Finger-tighten all nuts first. Then use the torque wrench, following any
recommendations from the equipment manufacturer or standing instructions.

If no tightening instructions are given, tighten the nuts in a suitable


sequence, to no more than 30% (about 1/3) of their final torque. Then go
round at least two more times, increasing the torque each time. When you
reach the recommended torque, go around one more time at the same
torque. This time do not follow the tightening sequence, tighten each nut in
turn as shown in Figure 4.3, to make sure that you have not missed any.

start
1 2
end
8 3

7 4

6 5

Figure 4.3: Final Pass Sequence

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So, the steps for fitting gaskets are:

1. remove the old gasket and clean the mating surfaces

2. clean and lubricate nut and bolt threads

3. use a new gasket

4. align the gasket and mating surfaces accurately

5. finger-tighten all nuts

6. follow a correct tightening sequence

7. tighten gradually—make more than one pass until you reach the final torque

8. make a final pass at the recommended torque, going around the nuts in turn

Gaskets/Rev. 0.0 Page 32 of 43


5 Making a Gasket

You can make your own gaskets out of sheet material. Of course, you can
only use these where simple, sheet material gaskets are specified. Always
be aware that the gasket type and material is important for many
applications on the plants. Always replace a gasket with one of the same
specification.

You can measure and mark out a gasket, as you would any work piece.

You may be able to mark out the shape by covering the metal sealing face
with something that transfers to the gasket material, like grease or engineers
blue. Then, pressing the metal face onto the gasket material marks it with
the shape of the face and shows any hole positions.

With these methods you need to cut out the gasket shape with snips or a
sharp blade.
Figure 5.1 shows these two cutting methods.

®
(a) Cutting with Snips (b) Cutting with a Stanley Knife

Figure 5.1: Cutting Sheet Gaskets

Gaskets/Rev. 0.0 Page 33 of 43


Use a punch to cut small round gaskets and holes for bolts, etc. Figure 5.2
shows a hole punch, or wad punch, that has been used to cut a small ring
gasket.

Punch

Gasket
material

Blank
Ring gasket

Figure 5.2: Cutting Gaskets with a Punch

Another way to make simple gaskets is to use a ball pein hammer as shown in
Figure 5.3(a) and (b).

(a) Cutting an External Profile (b) Cutting an Internal Profile

Figure 5.3: Cutting a Gasket with a Hammer

Gently hammering around the metal edge cuts through the gasket material.

Gaskets/Rev. 0.0 Page 34 of 43


6 Summary

In this module you have seen examples of the many different gaskets.

You know that gaskets perform two tasks:

 they keep fluid in

 they keep everything else out

You have learnt the importance of selecting the correct gasket for the job.

You have also learnt more about tightening sequences and the importance of
using the correct torque values when tightening gasketed joints.

Gaskets/Rev. 0.0 Page 35 of 43


7 Glossary

Here are some words used in this module that might be new to you. You will
find these words in coloured italics in the notes. There is a short definition in
a box near the word in the notes.

First Part of
Word Meaning Example of Use
Used on Speech
Page:
Irregularities 27 noun Sudden There were so many
changes— not irregularities on the
continuing in a track that we were
steady, being shaken to pieces
recognizable in our car.
pattern or
Occasional 12 adjective Not often normal
following Although I live in Abu
rules. Dhabi I have only
made the occasional
visit to Al Ain.

Smear 27 noun Thin layer or To make a good joint,


dirty mark put a thin smear of
adhesive on both
surface to be stuck.
Static 6 adjective Not moving Static electricity can
cause an electric shock
when you step out of
your car.
Synthetic 9 adjective Means ‘put Many items of clothing
together’. A man- contain polyester, a
made material, synthetic material from
not occurring the petrochemical
naturally. industry.
Trace 27 noun A very A trace of blood on the
small murderer’s clothes led
amount of to his arrest.
something.

Gaskets/Rev. 0.0 Page 36 of 43


SHEET 1 OF 2
PIPING SPECIFICATION 'A'
ISSUE 3 DATE: MAY 1995
SERVICE: GENERAL PROCESS, SWEET FUEL GAS, LP STEAM, LIGHT DISTILLATE AND H F O, UTILITY AIR,
INST. AIR, NITROGEN, PROPANE, CARBONATE SOLUTIONS
DESIGN CODE CORROSION ALLOWANCE 0.05" RATING 150# RF CARBON STEEL
SERVICE TEMPERATURE
38 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 260 275 300 325 350 375 400
LIMITS: °C
(BASED ON PRESSURE
FLANGES) 20 19 19 18 16.75 16 15 14.0 13 12 12 11 10 9.3 8.4 7.4 6.5
BARG
NOTES:
1. WALL THICKNESS FOR 20" NB PIPE & ABOVE TO BE CALCULATED (SEE ALSO BECHTEL SUPPLEMENT L2).
2. FABRICATION AND INSPECTION TO BP GS 118-5.
3. CARBON CONTENT OF ALL STEEL TO BE LIMITED TO 0.25 PERCENT MAX.
4. N D T REQUIREMENTS TO BE ADVISED BY CORROSION AND INSPECTION DEPARTMENT.
5. WELDS TO BE STRESS RELIEVED ON CARBONATE & DEA DUTIES TO BP GS 118-5.
6. ALL METALLIC MATERIALS USED ON CARBONATE, DEA & SOUR GAS DUTIES TO N A C E SPEC. MR-01-75 LATEST
REV.
7. PARALLEL SLIDE GATE VALVES TO BE USED ONLY IN STEAM LINES OUTSIDE PROCESS AREAS.
8. STEAM SERVICE VALVES 8" & ABOVE TO HAVE INTEGRAL TYPE BYPASS.
9. SERVICE TEMP. OF SOFT SEAT BALL VALVES TO BE LIMITED TO 250°C MAX.
10. WN FLANGES TO BE USED ONLY FOR FTG TO FTG PURPOSE & STEAM LINES WITHIN PROCESS AREAS.
11. BURIED LINES TO BE COATED AND WRAPPED TO BP STD 144.
12. WHERE LINES ARE STRESS RELIEVED DO NOT USE SW VALVES. USE FLANGED VALVES SPEC. AS FOR 2"
FLANGED.

COMPONENT SIZE DESIGN & MATERIAL SPECIFICATION REMARKS


1½" &
800 # FS SW BS 5352, MATL. BS 1503. 221-430, 13% CR. TRIM NOTE 12
BELOW

2" - 12" 150# RF BS 1414, MATL. CS BS 1504-161 GR 480, 13% CR. TRIM NOTE 8

14" - 42" AS ABOVE WITH BEVEL GEAR OPERATION NOTE 8


GATE
VALVES
2" - 6" 150# RF PARALLEL SLIDE, MATL. CS BS 1504-161 GR. 480, 13% CR. TRIM NOTE 7

8" - 12" AS ABOVE WITH INTEGRAL BYPASS


NOTE 8
14" &
AS ABOVE WITH INTEGRAL BYPASS AND GEAR OPERATION
ABOVE
1½" &
800 # FS SW BS 5352, MATL. BS 1503-221-430, 13% CR. TRIM NOTE 12
BELOW
GLOBE
2" - 8" 150# RF BS 1873, MATL. CS BS 1504-161 GR 480, 13% CR. TRIM
VALVES

8" AS ABOVE WITH INTEGRAL BYPASS NOTE 8

1½" & 800 # FS SW PISTON TYPE BS 5352, MATL. BS 1503-221-430, 13% CR.
CHECK BELOW TRIM
NOTE 12
VALVES 150# RF SWING TYPE BS 1868, MATL. CS BS 1504-161 GR 480, 13% CR.
2" - 24"
TRIM

2" - 4" 150# RF BS 5353, MATL. CS BS 1504-161 GR. 480


PLUG
VALVES
6" - 24" AS ABOVE WITH GEAR OPERATION

BALL 150# RF FULL PORT BS 5351, MATL. CS BS 1504-161 GR. 480,


2" - 8" NOTE 9
VALVES PTFE SEALS, SS BALL
VENT
1½" & 800# FS GATE OESW/OESCRD API, BS 5352,
BELOW MATL. BS 1503-221-430, 13% CR. TRIM

Pipework/Rev. 0.0 Page 38 of 43


& NOTE 12
1½” & 800# FS SW LUBRICATED PLUG VALVES BS 5353 REG. PATTERN, LEVER
BELOW OP., MATL. BS 1503-221-430
DRAIN
VALVES

Pipework/Rev. 0.0 Page 39 of 43


SHEET 2 OF 2
PIPING SPECIFICATION 'A'
ISSUE 0 DATE: JULY 1993
COMPONENT SIZE WT. DESIGN & MATERIAL SPECIFICATION REMARKS
1½" & BELOW SCH. 80
2" - 6" SCH. 40
PIPING 8" - 16" SCH. 30 MATL. CS SMLS. API 5L GR. B OR ASTM A 106 GR. B
3
18" /8" THK

20" & ABOVE NOTE 1 MATL. API 5L, GR. B

2" - 6" SCH. 40

B. W. 8" - 16" SCH. 30


FITTINGS 3 DIMS. BS 1640, PART 3, MATL. GR. WPB/ASTM A 234 GR.
18" /8" THK WPB

20" - 24" NOTE 1

ALL 150# SO RF BS 1560, MATL. ASTM A 105 OR BS 1503-221-430


FLANGES
(GEN.) 2" - 6" SCH. 40

8" - 16" SCH. 30


150# WN RF BS 1560, MATL. ASTM A 105 OR BS 1503-221-
18" STD 430 Note 10

20" - 24" NOTE 1

2" SCH. 40
FLANGES 300# WN RF BS 1560, MATL. ASTM 105 OR BS 1503-221-430
(ORIFICE) 8" - 16" SCH. 30

1" - 16" 150# REVERSIBLE SPADE TO BP STD DRG. S-0755M,


SPADES -- MATL.BS 1501-151, GR. 400 OR
18" - 48" 150# RING & SPADE SET 430

BOLTING BS 4882, GR. B7 STUDS, GR. 2H NUTS


150# RING TYPE FOR FLANGES TO BS-1560,
GASKETS 1
MATL, BS 1832, / " THK CAF GRAPHITED
16
3000# DIMS. & MATL. BS 3799, GR. WPA/WPB

SW FITTINGS 1½" & BELOW SCH. NIPPLES API 5L, GR. B OR ASTM A 106
160 GR. B
SCH. 80 SWAGE NIPPLES BS 3799, GR. WPA/WPB
SCRD.
FITTINGS
SOCKOLETS 1½" & BELOW -- 3000# MATL. ASTM A 105

WELDOLETS 2" - 4" SCH. 40 MATL. ASTM A 105

1&
T BRANCH REINFORCEMENT
SMLR
1½ S T T = TEE
2 S S T UB = UNREINFORCED BRANCH
3 S S W T S = SOCKOLET
4 S S W W T W = WELDOLET
HEADER 6 S S W W W T NOTE: FOR BRANCH DETAILS
SIZES (IN
REFER TO BECHTEL STD
INCHES) 8 S S W W W UB T
DRG: AL-865
10 S S W W W UB UB T
12 S S W W W UB UB UB T
14 S S W W W UB UB UB UB
16 S S W W W UB UB UB UB
18 S S W W W UB UB UB UB
1&
1½ 2 3 4 6 8 10 12
SMLR
BRANCH SIZES (INCHES)

Pipework/Rev. 0.0 Page 39 of 43


SHEET 1 OF 2
PIPING SPECIFICATION 'G1'
ISSUE 3 DATE: MAY 1995
SERVICE: LNG
DESIGN CODE CORROSION ALLOWANCE NIL RATING 600# RF SS 321
SERVICE TEMPERATURE
-196 TO +38 100
LIMITS: °C
(BASED ON
PRESSURE
FLANGES) 99.3 83.0
NOTE 4 & 5 BARG
NOTES:
1. WALL THICKNESS FOR 8" NB PIPE & ABOVE TO BE CALCULATED
(SEE BECHTEL SUPPLEMENT L2)
2. FABRICATION AND INSPECTION TO BP GS 118-7
3. N D T REQUIREMENTS TO BE ADVISED BY CORROSION AND INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
4. LONGITUDINALLY WELDED PIPES AND ALL WELDS TO BE STRESS RELIEVED TO BP GS 118-7
5. LINES UP TO 6" N/B PRESS/TEMP. RATING IS BASED ON FLANGES
6. FOR CALCULATED PIPE, PRESS/TEMP. RATING MAY BE LIMITED BY THE PIPE
7. FOR FULL REQUIREMENTS ON CRYOGENIC SERVICE VALVES
REFER BECHTEL SPECIFICATION 9448-L-12 (i.e. VALVES OPERATING 0 DEG. C TO MINUS 196 DEG. C)
8. GATE, GLOBE AND BALL VALVES TO HAVE ONE SIDE CAVITY RELIEF

COMPONENT SIZE DESIGN & MATERIAL SPECIFICATION REMARKS


600 # RF FLEX WEDGE OR DOUBLE DISC, 304 SS TRIM, B/MATL. BS
1½" & BELOW
1504-3004C15LT 160 (FOR PSV’S & R.O. ONLY) EXT BONNET
600# RF BS 1414, FLEX WEDGE OR DOUBLE DISC, 304 SS TRIM
3" - 4" KEL F81 SEAT INSERT ONE SIDE B/MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160 EXT
BONNET
GATE VALVES NOTE 8

600# RF FLGD TO BS 1414 FLEX. WEDGE DOUBLE DISC. 304 SS


6" - 24" KEL F81 SEAT INSERT ONE SIDE, GEAR OPERATED,
MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160 EXT BONNET

600 # RF BS 5352, 304 SS TRIM


1½" & BELOW
BODY MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160 EXT BONNET
GLOBE VALVES NOTE 8
600# RF BS 1873, KEL F81 DISC INSERTS,
2" - 8"
304 SS TRIM MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160 EXT BONNET
600 # RF BS 5352, PISTON LIFT TYPE,
1½" & BELOW
304SS TRIM, MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160
CHECK VALVES
600# RF BS 1868, SWING TYPE,
2" - 24"
304 SS TRIM MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160

600# RF BS 5155, 304 SS TRIM, KEL F81 SEAL, GEAR OPERATED


BODY & DISC MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160
BUTTERFLY 8" AND
VALVES ABOVE

600# RF BS 5351, LEVER OP., KEL F81, FIRE SAFE DESIGN,


1½" & BELOW
BODY MATL. BS 1504-304C15LT 160
BALL VALVES NOTE 18
600# RF FLGDBS 5351BALL VALVE LEVER OPERATED 304SS
2" BALL & STEAM (KEL F81) FIRE SAFE DESIGN. BODY MATL. BS 1504-
304C15LT 160 EXT BONNET
SHEET 2 OF 2
ADGAS PIPING SPECIFICATION 'G1' ISSUE 0 DATE: JULY 1993
REMARK
COMPONENT SIZE WT. DESIGN & MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
S
1½" & BELOW SCH. 80
SS SMLS. ASTM A312 TP321
2" - 6" SCH. 40
8"
PIPING
10" - 16" NOTE 1
18" SS SMLS. ASTM A312 GR. TP321 OR ASTM A358 GR. TP321

20" & ABOVE

2" - 6" SCH. 40

8"
B. W. BS 1640, PART 4, MATL. GR. 321/ASTM A 403 GR. WP-S 321
10" - 16"
FITTINGS NOTE 1
18"

20" - 24"
1½" & BELOW SCH. 80

FLANGES 2" - 6" SCH. 40


(GEN.)
8"
10"- 16"
NOTE 1
18"
600# WN RF BS 1560, MATL. ASTM A 182 GR. F321
20" - 24"
2" - 6" SCH. 40
FLANGES
(ORIFICE) 8"
NOTE 1
10"
SPADES 1" - 8" 6000# RF REV. SPADE TO BP STD DRG. S-0755M,
-- MATL.BS 150, TP 321 S87
10" - 36" 600#RF RING & SPADE SET
BOLTING MATERIAL CARPENTER 20 CB 3

API 601 600# SPIRAL WOUND GRAPHITE FILL ‘FLEXICARB


GASKETS
INNER RING 304 SS OUTER 304 SS

SW FITTINGS 1½" & BELOW 3000# MATL. ASTM A 182 GR F321

SOCKOLETS 1½" & BELOW -- 3000# MATL. ASTM A 182 GR. F321

WELDOLETS 2" - 4" SCH. 40 MATL. ASTM A 182 GR. F321

1&
SML T BRANCH REINFORCEMENT
R
1½ S T T = TEE
2 S S T UB = UNREINFORCED BRANCH
3 S S W T S = SOCKOLET
4 S S W W T W = WELDOLET
HEADER
SIZES (IN 6 S S W W W T
INCHES) 8 S S W W W T
10 S S W W W T
12 S S W W W T
14 S S W W W T
16 S S W W W T
18 S S W W W T
1&
SMLR 1½ 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
BRANCH SIZES (INCHES)

Gaskets/Rev. 0.0 Page 42 of 43