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SECTION 33 49 23
STORM DRAINAGE WATER RETENTION STRUCTURES

1 GENERAL

SCOPE
A. This document provides specifications for the supply and installation of buried
geocellular storm water run-off attenuation / infiltration systems. The system shall
collect, store and release run-off at a reduced flow rate – through a flow control device
– into an appropriate outfall and / or provide a means of infiltration of water into the
ground. Inspection and maintenance shall be provided in accordance with the
requirements of Section 11 of this document.

REFERENCES
A. Reference shall be made to the following documents:
BS 8006-1:2010; Annex A Code of practice for strengthened / reinforced
soils and other fills
(Structural design guidance)

BD 31/01 The design of buried concrete box and portal


frame structures.
(Structural design guidance and loading cases)

PD ISO/TR 20432:2007 Guidelines for the determination of the long-term


strength of geosynthetics for soil reinforcement
Background Information for product selection

CIRIA C680 (2008) Structural design of modular geocellular


drainage tanks
General guidance for the use of modular
geocellular drainage tanks

CIRIA 697 (2007) The SUDS manual

BS 5955-6:1980 Plastics pipework (thermoplastics materials).


Code of practice for the installation of
unplasticized PVC pipework for gravity drains
and sewers
(Withdrawn 01 January 2009) Replaced By: DD
ENV 1401-3:2001

DD ENV 1401-3:2001 Plastics piping systems for non-pressure


underground drainage and sewerage.
Unplasticized poly(vinylchloride) (PVC-U)
Guidance for installation

BS 6100-2:2007 Building and civil engineering – Vocabulary –


Part 2: Spaces, building types, environment and
physical planning

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Manual of Contract Documents for Series 600 Earthworks


Highway Works Volume 1
Specification for Highway Works
BS 6906-1:1987 Methods of test for geotextiles. Determination of
the tensile properties using a wide width strip
Status : Superseded, Withdrawn
Published : December 1987
Replaced By : BS EN ISO 10319:1996, ISO
10319:1993

BS EN ISO 10319:2008 Geosynthetics – Wide-width tensile test


BS 6906-2:1989 Methods of test for geotextiles. Determination of
the apparent pore size distribution by dry sieving
Status : Superseded, Withdrawn
Published : January 1989
Replaced By : BS EN ISO 12956:2010

BS EN ISO 12956:2010 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products.


Determination of the characteristic opening size

BS 6906-3:1989 Methods of test for geotextiles. Determination of


water flow normal to the plane of the geotextile
under a constant head
Status : Superseded, Withdrawn
Published : November 1989
Replaced By : BS EN ISO 12958:1999

BS EN ISO 12958:2010 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products.


Determination of water flow capacity in their
plane

BS EN 1997-1:2004 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Part 1 –


General Rules

BS EN 752:2008 Drain and sewer systems outside buildings

CIRIA Special publication 124 Barriers, Liners and cover systems for
containment of land contamination

DEFINITIONS
A. The following definitions apply to this Specification are in part based on BS 6100-
2:2007 Building and civil engineering – Vocabulary – Part 2: Spaces, building types,
environment and physical planning.
1. Soakaway: A sub surface structure into which surface water is conveyed,
designed to promote infiltration
2. Surface Water: Water from precipitation which has not seeped into the ground
and which is discharged to the drain or sewer system directly from the ground or
from exterior building surfaces

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3. Attenuation: Water is collected, stored and released at a reduced flow rate through
a flow control device into an appropriate outfall
4. Geotextile: A non-woven, continuous filament needle-punched fabric that has a
high drainage capacity in both the horizontal and vertical planes
5. Geomembrane: An impermeable membrane used with soils, rock, earth or other
geotechnical material to block the migration of fluids.

TYPES OF GEOCELLULAR UNITS


A. The geocellular unit shall be in accordance with one of the following general
classifications providing the criteria elsewhere in this specification are met:
1. Injection moulded units, made from two or more components, with internal
columns
2. Sub-base replacement systems made from two injection moulded components
3. Honeycomb structures (not recommended for buried surface water infiltration
structures due to uni-directional water flow)
4. Plate structures with internal columns (box structures that are made from
individual injection moulded elements)
5. Plate structures without internal columns (box structures that are made from
individual injection moulded plates)
6. Plastic profiled sheet structures (not recommended for buried surface water
infiltration structures due to bi-directional water flow)

1.4.1 Injection moulded units with internal columns


A. These types of unit carry applied loads predominantly by closely spaced internal
columns. The columns support an external lattice framework of plastic members and
internal webs provide restraint to the columns.
B. The individual units shall be clipped together, as per the manufacturer’s specification,
to form a larger tank and also to prevent the units moving in relation to each other
during construction. The external framework shall provide support for the membrane
or geotextile used to surround the tanks.

1.4.2 Honeycomb structures


A. Units with a honeycomb structure comprise linked vertical columns of plastic that are
hexagonal in shape. The units shall be manufactured using extrusion techniques (as
opposed to manufacture from individual sheets that are glued or welded together –
see plastic profiled sheet structures). The minimum wall thickness shall be not less
than 1.0mm.
B. These types of structures are strong in the vertical direction but are flexible in the
horizontal direction, and this requires specific consideration in design as the initial
deflections can be quite large under lateral (horizontal) loading.
C. Consideration should also be given, both hydraulic and structural, to the method of
water distribution within the structure, due to the uni-direction flow within the
geocellular units.

1.4.3 Plate structures with internal columns


A. This type of box unit comprises flat plates (usually injection molded) that shall be

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clipped together to form a box. Plates can be placed inside the box unit to increase
its load capacity. The individual plates themselves are flat plastic frame structures
with vertical plates having semi-circular columns in each plate. The plates and
vertical columns shall provide a 95 % void ratio.
B. Bending moments in the various elements and joints of these units is a significant
factor that needs to be considered during testing and design.
C. These units may require on-site assembly; it is important that the manufacturer’s
assembly instructions are followed to ensure the structural integrity is not
compromised.

1.4.4 Plate structures without internal columns


A. This type of box unit comprises flat plates (usually injection moulded) that shall be
clipped together to form a box that has a fully open interior. The individual plates
themselves are flat plastic frame structures. Plates can be placed inside the box unit
to increase its load capacity.
B. Bending moments in the panels and joints of these units is a significant factor that
needs to be considered during testing and design.
C. These units may require on-site assembly; it is important that the manufacturer’s
assembly and installation instructions are followed to ensure unit structural integrity
is not compromised.

1.4.5 Plastic profiled sheet structures


A. This type of unit is manufactured by welding or gluing together individual profiled
plastic sheets to form the unit. The plastic sheets are extruded, formed and then built
up in layers. Each sheet is welded or glued to the adjacent ones to form the box units.
They behave differently to honeycomb units when tested.
B. These types of unit may not be clipped together and may rely on the weight of the
surrounding backfill to keep them together. They are usually flexible in the horizontal
(lateral) direction and there are typically high initial deflections when they are
backfilled. If this is the case the same considerations are required in design as for
honeycomb units. The strength of the welded or glued joints may influence the units’
performance under both vertical and horizontal load.

2 MATERIALS

SOURCE MATERIAL
A. Geocellular box units used in drainage systems shall be manufactured from one of
the following virgin materials:

 Polypropylene (PP)
 High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

B. Products and materials to be incorporated into the Works shall be subject to


compliance with the following general requirements:

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 Product data sheets shall be provided for all proposed materials and products,
with sufficient clarity and detail, for approval by the Engineer.
 Samples shall be provided where requested for inspection by the Engineer.
 Shall comply with a particular national or international standard shall be marked
with the certified trade mark associated with the organisation responsible for the
standard.
 Shall be packaged, transported, handled and stored in such a manner as to
avoid any damage or contamination, and in accordance with all applicable
recommendations of the manufacturers
C. The Contractor shall submit a list of the proposed suppliers and sources of materials
required for the execution of the works to the Engineer prior to placing orders for
materials.
D. The manufacturer shall demonstrate that they have suitable quality control testing
procedures in place to ensure that materials are consistent and will not cause
reduction in strength. The properties of the material used to manufacture the units
that are tested in compression to determine the design criteria shall be recorded. If
materials are used that vary from these baseline properties the units shall be retested
to determine the design parameters.
E. Recycled materials PP, HDPE and PVC shall not be used as feedstock.

TESTING OF MATERIALS
A. Testing of materials shall be in accordance with approved international test
procedures at an accredited of approved test facility to the satisfaction of the
Engineer. Test certificates shall be provided for all products and materials where
required by the Engineer which shall clearly state the standard or specification
against which the test has been undertaken and whether the product or material has
passed or failed.
B. To date there are no European or British Standard test methods for determining the
strength characteristics of modular geocellular plastic units. However there are a
number of National Bodies such as BBA in the UK, CSTB in France and RAL in
Germany who together with a number of manufacturers have evolved nationally
acceptable methodologies.
C. CIRIA Report C680 is a recognised British guide for determining the performance
characteristics of modular geocellular plastic systems. Test methods are provided in
Appendices A1 and A2 of CIRIA Report C680.
D. Appendices A1 and A2 shall be considered as a minimum level of testing. If required
the test method should be extended to ensure that it will be suitable for the particular
type of box being tested and that the testing replicates how the unit will perform in
practice.
E. The test results obtained at 40°C shall be used to determine the characteristic
strength and deformation properties of the units. These values are then used as the
basis of the structural design, see Section 3 of this document.

2.2.1 Static vertical load test


A. Static vertical load tests shall be carried out in accordance with the recommendations
of Section 3.2 and Appendix A2 of CIRIA Report C680. The test methodology shall

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represent the unrestrained loading condition – no lateral restraint. A minimum of three
samples shall be tested at a load rate of 10% of the yield load per minute.
B. The maximum deflection of a geocellular unit shall be: 1mm per every:
60 KN/m2 of applied pressure at 23°C ± 2°C
30 KN/m2 of applied pressure at 40°C ± 5°C

2.2.2 Lateral load test


A. Static lateral load tests shall be carried out in accordance with the recommendations
of Section 3.3 and Appendix A2 of CIRIA Report C680. The test methodology shall
apply load to the face of the unit that is vertical when installed in the ground. A
minimum of three samples shall be tested at a load rate of 10% of the yield load per
minute

2.2.3 Alternative lateral load test


B. An alternative lateral loading test for profile sheet or honeycomb structures is
described in Section 3.4 of CIRIA Report C680. A minimum of three samples shall
be tested.

2.2.4 Creep tests


A. Creep tests shall be carried out in accordance with CIRIA Report C680, Appendices
A1 and A2 at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C and 40°C ± 5°C. Further guidance is also
given in Section 3.9 of CIRIA Report C680.
B. If a full creep data set is unavailable, as a minimum, 2 creep tests should be
undertaken with at least one of the tests achieving creep rupture. In this instance the
unit should only be used where the expected imposed permanent load does not
exceed the creep test load, taking into consideration the partial factors of safety as
detailed in Section 3 of this document.
C. Creep test data obtained at 40°C shall be used in the structural design detailed in
Section 3 of this document.

2.2.5 Design life


A. The minimum design life of a geocellular tank shall be 50 years.
B. The 50 years design life is to be validated by a minimum 135 day creep test
extrapolated by two orders of magnitude.

2.2.6 Impact of high soil temperature on the load strength


A. The manufacturer shall carry out short term load tests at different temperatures
(23°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) and produce a graph for correction factors for 50 years.
The static proof shall be based on the individual correction factor for 40°C.
B. Test Parameters:
1. Conditioning of a single geocellular unit to 23°C and 40°C etc. (+/-2°C) in a water
basin or an equivalent method to bring the unit to test temperature.
2. Testing method: Force Controlled
3. Testing speed: 60kN/m2/min at 23°C and 30kN/m2/min at 40 °C

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4. Contact area: Continuous Deck

CHARACTERISTIC DESIGN PARAMETERS


A. The results from the laboratory testing shall be analysed to determine the
characteristic parameters used in the design of a particular unit in accordance with
the recommendations of BS 8006-1:2010. The load rate shall be 10% of the yield
load per minute.
B. The characteristic ultimate loading design parameters for the geocellular units shall
be a minimum of:-
Vertical loading on top Lateral loading on side
face face
Ultimate compressive 600 @ 23°C 55 @ 23°C

strength at yield (kN/m2) 440 @ 40°C 28 @ 40oC

Note: A partial safety factor for materials shall be applied to the characteristic ultimate
loading design parameters. See Clause 3.4 of this document.

C. The long term load values shall be used to determine the static proof load and will
thus determine the appropriate application, or exclusion, for a specific location for the
geocellular tanks.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
A. Material properties that shall be tested during manufacture are listed in the following
table:

Characteristic Test Parameters Test Method

Requirement Value

Density Temperature (23 + 2) °C ISO 1183-1

Tensile strength Speed 50 mm/min ISO 527


at yield
Temperature (23 ± 2) °C

Elongation at Speed 50 mm/min ISO527


break
Temperature (23 ± 2) °C

Thermal stability Temperature 200 °C EN 728


(oxidation
induction time)

Melt mass flow Temperature 230 °C ISO 1133


(MFR)
Loading mass 2.16kg

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Note: This table is reproduced from Table 2.1 of CIRIA Report C680. Refer to Section
2.2.6 above for method of determining temperature correction factor for 40°C.

B. In addition to testing the raw materials the units shall also be tested as part of the
manufacturer’s quality control procedures. Typical unit properties that shall be
measured are listed below:

 material properties of moulded products


 measurement of dimensions
 assembly calibration checks for components
 measurement of mass of unit
 visual inspection for defects
 drop test
 short-term compression tests
 heat resistance (oven) test
 impact test/falling weight

3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
A. The design of the geocellular attenuation tanks is to be carried out by the
manufacturer’s designer of the proprietary system to the Engineer’s approval. The
manufacturer(s) shall supply all test data to meet the requirements of this
specification.

LOCATIONS FOR GEOCELLULAR TANKS


A. Geocellular tanks shall only be used for installation in the following locations:

 Public open spaces, beneath landscaped areas and paths and areas used to park
cars. The landscaping scheme for the site shall be considered when assessing
the loads upon the tank.
 The vehicular access to the tank shall be restricted so as to exclude large vehicles,
in excess of the design vehicle load, from the area above the tank.

LOADS ON MODULAR GEOCELLULAR UNITS


A. The design of tanks constructed using modular geocellular units shall:

 take account of all applied loads, including accidental and temporary loading
 be based on appropriate laboratory tests
 use appropriate factors of safety
 analyse all appropriate limit states (or failure modes)
B. The determination of the loads to be carried by the geocellular units shall be
determined in accordance with the requirements of BS EN 1997-1 and BD31/01.

3.2.1 Permanent loads


A. The permanent vertical loads to be carried by the units shall be determined by the
designer from the approved design drawings for each individual geocellular tank.

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3.2.2 Variable loads
A. Variable loads shall be as follows:-
1. Characteristic distributed loads – minimum loading of 5 or 10 kN/m2 depending
on site use see Table 4.2 of CIRIA Report C680

2. Characteristic concentrated loads – wheel loads shall be assessed in accordance


with Table 4.2 of CIRIA Report C680

B. Both the distributed and concentrated loads shall be assessed; the appropriate value
is dependent on the structural check being undertaken and the proposed location of
the tanks.
C. To allow for variations that may occur over the life of a tank and to give a robust
design, the characteristic loads (un-factored) shall be increased by a partial factor of
safety (see Clause 3.4 of CIRIA Report C680).

3.2.3 Accidental loads


A. The risk of accidental loading occurring shall be considered and assessed in the
design process; i.e. pedestrian areas may be occasionally inadvertently trafficked by
HGVs for example and even landscaped areas can be used to park cars. It is often
assumed that any hard paved area will be able to support such occasional accidental
loading and geocellular tanks shall be designed to support accidental loading without
risk of collapse.
For Etihad Museum Project typical risks have been identified below. This list is not
exhaustive and any other risks pertaining to the project not listed below must also be
considered.

Location Risk

Landscaped areas Specialist vehicles used for maintenance of geocellular


tank and any separation system upstream of the tank
Illegal parking of private vehicles

Large vehicles used for routine maintenance of


landscaping and water features
Specialist vehicles used for erection / maintenance of
lighting systems
Erection of marquees / tents / stages / portable cabins for
public events
Large vehicles delivering equipment for public events

Cranes for installation of equipment

Generators used for public events

Planned parking of private vehicles during public events

Access for emergency vehicles – fire engines

B. If the tank has not been designed to carry accidental loading then special precautions
may be required to prevent it occurring. The area above a tank shall be fenced off or

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have other barriers / landscaping to prevent vehicle access. Warning signs shall be
provided to state that there is an area with limited load bearing capacity and restricted
access for vehicles.
C. The location of the tank and any loading restrictions shall be clearly identified in the
operation and maintenance manual for any facility.

3.2.4 Lateral loads


A. The lateral loads on the units due to earth and water pressure shall be assessed and
allowed for by the designer in accordance with the requirements for the design of
retaining walls given in BS EN 1997-1:2004.

3.2.5 Flotation or uplift


A. Where the tank system is located below the water table, the uplift force shall be
resisted by the dead weight of fill above the tank. Other surcharges that are not
permanent shall not be included in the assessment.
B. Uplift stability verifications shall be carried out in accordance with BS EN 1997-
1:2004.
C. The ground water level shall be the worst credible case, taking into account any
possible seasonal variation, as determined by a suitably qualified geotechnical
engineer.
D. For the purposes of this check, ground water shall be treated as a permanent action,
with the following partial factors of safety applied as a minimum:
Permanent action Unfavourable 1.1
(Destabilizing)
Favourable (Stabilizing) 0.9

3.2.6 Minimum cover


A. The minimum cover to units shall be as detailed below, unless the structural design
check indicates a greater depth of cover is required:
B. Landscaped areas: a minimum of 1.0m to allow for suitable planting over the tank.
C. The design of landscaping should be undertaken at the same time as the design of
the tank so that the impact of tree roots can be considered. Trees should not be
located closer than the canopy width at mature height from the tank. Trees should
not be planted directly over a tank or in such a position where maintenance work
would require the removal of the tree.

3.2.7 Maximum installation depth


A. The maximum installation depth, to base of units, shall normally not exceed the
height of 2.0m or three units if multiple unit layers are used, whichever is the greater,
plus the cover as assessed in Section 3.2.6. In all cases the stability of the structure
must be confirmed in the design calculations.
B. If a greater installation depth is required, the overall stability and strength of the tank
shall be assessed by a suitably qualified geotechnical engineer.
C. Lateral load thrust relief solutions can be designed to allow geocellular units to be

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installed at greater depths. These must be designed by a qualified geotechnical or
structural engineer.

LIMIT STATE DESIGN


A. Modular geocellular tanks shall be designed as structural components, using limit
state structural design theory. The design philosophy in this guide follows the
requirements for geotechnical design practice as described in Eurocode 7 (BS EN
1997-1:2004). Further guidance is given in Section 4.1 of CIRIA Report C680 and
BD 31/01.
B. The two most common limit states that shall be considered are:
1. Ultimate limit state – the structure shall not become unstable or collapse under
working loads or foreseeable overload. The main considerations are strength,
fatigue and creep. This also applies to parts of a structure (i.e. individual structural
elements should not fail). For tank structures external stability (bearing capacity,
overturning, sliding and deep seated slip failure) is not usually of concern
(although it may be in some specific circumstances). The main concern is internal
stability (i.e. failure of the tank to support the applied loads).

2. Serviceability limit state of deflection – deflections of the units and the


surrounding ground shall be at acceptable levels (for example to prevent cracking
in the overlying surfacing). Long-term deflections due to creep shall be
considered.

PARTIAL FACTORS OF SAFETY – LOADS


A. The characteristic loads determined are a best estimate of the load likely to be placed
on a structure during its design life. To allow for possible variations the characteristic
load shall be multiplied by a partial factor of safety to give a design load. This allows
for:

 statistical variations in load


 increased loads due to tolerances in construction
 some allowance for unforeseen load conditions
B. The guidance from Eurocode 7 for geotechnical design shall be used to determine
the partial load factors for plastic tank design.

FACTOR OF SAFETY – MATERIAL


A. The design strength of a unit shall be obtained by applying a material factor of safety,
appropriate to the geocellular unit parameter and limit state check.
B. To date the only available guidance on the derivation of material factors for
thermoplastic material in structural applications is BS 8006-1:2010: Code of practice
for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills, which references PD ISO/TR 20432.
However, it should be noted that this standard is based on relatively simple structural
reinforcing elements under tensile stress.
C. Derivation of appropriate material factors of safety shall incorporate a number of
reduction factors; each factor assessing the effect of manufacturing, installation or
environmental conditions on the long-term geocellular unit structural performance.
D. Material factors of safety shall include the following reduction factors, as a minimum:

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 intrinsic properties of the unit, including manufacture consistency and statistical
uncertainty of test data extrapolation
 effect of installation damage
 weathering
 chemical and environmental effects
E. Further guidance is given in section 4.6 of CIRIA Report C680.
F. The minimum material factor of safety for a design life of 50 years shall be:

 Ultimate limit state 2.0


 Serviceability limit state 1.5
G. Where sufficient test data to derive a material factor of safety in accordance with the
guidance given in CIRIA Report C680 is not available, then the following minimum
factor of safety shall be used:

 Ultimate limit state 2.75

3.5.1 In situ unit assembly


A. Where individual geocellular units require in-situ assembly, the quality of which is
critical to the units’ structural performance, consideration shall be given by the
designer to adjusting the partial factor which assesses manufacture constancy.
B. The magnitude of any increase shall reflect the quality of site supervision and
experience of site operatives expected.
C. Where the manufacturer is unable to provide supporting documentation to
demonstrate otherwise, a minimum additional reduction factor of 1.25 shall be
applied to the reduction factor for intrinsic unit properties.

Temperature
A. Where geocellular units are used within proximity of the ground surface they may
suffer from temperature variations as the surface heats and cools throughout the
year. Units shall be tested for the extremes of temperature that may be encountered
when installed in the ground. The range of temperatures used in the design shall be:

 Lower limit – a minimum of 5°C


 Upper limit – a maximum of 40°C
B. Ambient temperature can affect the performance of geocellular units. Variations of a
few degrees have been seen to affect the results of laboratory tests, therefore all
laboratory tests shall be carried out at a known temperature of 23°C ± 2°C and 40°C
± 5°C.
C. Polypropylene, which is widely used in the manufacture of geocellular units, has a
relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion, resulting in expansion and
contraction when subjected to variations in temperature. If this is prevented from
occurring, then loads develop in the units. The design of the units shall consider loads
induced by thermal expansion.

JOINTS
A. Unless otherwise specified herein or elsewhere in the Project Specifications, or

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directed by the Engineer, all joints shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s
specifications.

4 GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN REPORT


A. Eurocode 7 defines three Geotechnical Categories that may be used to establish
geotechnical design requirements. These range from Category 1 which covers the
most small and relatively simple structures up to Category 3 which covers complex
and large geotechnical structures or difficult ground conditions. Most geocellular
tanks that support vehicles are likely to fall into Category 2. Small tanks in landscape
areas may fall into Category 1 if there is only a negligible risk associated with failure
and the consequences will be minor.
B. For Category 1 structures the requirements of Eurocode 7 can be met based on
experience and qualitative geotechnical investigations. For Category 2 structures
quantitative geotechnical data and analysis is required to ensure that the
fundamental requirements of the Eurocode are satisfied (i.e. the design of the
geocellular tanks should include calculations that are based on site investigation
data). The designs shall be supervised by a qualified engineer with relevant
geotechnical training and experience.
C. A Geotechnical Design Report shall be prepared by the designer (specialist vendor)
where required by the Engineer in accordance with the requirements of Eurocode 7.
This document shall provide a record of the assumptions, methods of calculation and
the results of the verification of safety and serviceability. It shall also include details
of the supervision required during construction and a note of items to be checked or
requiring maintenance or monitoring. The level of supervision will depend on the
geotechnical category, with the requirements increasing with increasing category.
D. The Geotechnical Design Report shall be provided to the contractor, the client and
the Engineer so that they know what assumptions have been made during the design
of the tank, for example maximum vehicle loads. The geotechnical categories for the
design shall be assessed in accordance with the requirements of Table 4.1 in
Chapter 4 of CIRIA Report C680 and BS EN 1997-1:2004.

5 MANUFACTURE
A. The requirements for materials to be incorporated into the Works shall include the
following requirements:
1. The contractor shall submit to the Engineer full details of the manufacturing
process and the materials of manufacture including the source, names and
properties

2. The manufacturer shall supply the followings tests results:

i. Stress / strain curves for vertical and lateral compression


ii. Creep test under sustained long term loading

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3. All material shall be marked by stamp or other marking, before dispatch from the
manufacturer, displaying the following information as a minimum (where
applicable):

i. The manufacturer’s name, initials, or identification mark


ii. The dimensions in millimetres
iii. The classification of material
iv. The date of manufacture and batch number
v. A stamp, or other marking, to show that the material meet the required
inspection requirements at the point of manufacture
vi. Identification number – the same number shall appear on all record sheets
and documents relating to the manufacture, delivery and testing of that
particular material
vii. The manufacturing standard

6 GEOTEXTILES AND GEOMEMBRANES


A. The supply, storage and installation of all Geotextiles and / or Geomembranes shall
be in accordance with the Project Specifications and the manufacturer’s
specifications. In addition:
1. Joints between adjacent sheets of impermeable geomembranes shall be sealed
using appropriate welding techniques in accordance with the recommendations
of Table 6.8 of CIRIA SP 124:1996.
2. Joints shall be tested by non-destructive test methods in accordance with the
recommendations of Table 6.10 of CIRIA SP 124:1996.
3. Geotextiles shall
i. Have minimum puncture resistance of 1200 N when determined in
accordance with BS EN ISO 12236
ii. In both machine and cross-machine directions, sustain loads of not less than
5 KN/m at break and have minimum failure strain of 10 % when determined
in accordance with BS EN ISO 10319:1996
iii. Have a minimum tear resistance of 200 N when determined in accordance
with ASTM standard D4533-91 (1996)
iv. For infiltration structures, shall allow water to flow through it, at right angles
to its principal plane, in either direction, at a rate of not less than 10
litres/m2/sec under a constant head of water of 100 mm, when tested in
accordance with BS 6906: Part 3. The flow rate determined in the test shall
be corrected to that applicable to a temperature of 30°C using published
data on variation in viscosity of water with temperature.
v. The geotextile shall have a size distribution of pore opening such that the
mean 090 is between 100 and 300 microns, when tested in accordance with
BS 6906: Part 2.
vi. Joining of geotextile shall be by overlapping only and all overlaps shall be a
minimum of 500 mm or in accordance with the manufacturer
recommendations, whichever is greater

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vii. Any punctures or damage to geotextile shall be made good by overlapping
with geotextile of at least 500 mm from the edge of the damaged area, or in
accordance with the manufacturer recommendation, whichever is the
greater.
viii. Geomembranes will be protected with inner and outer protection fleece –
minimum weight 300 gm/m

7 DELIVERY, HANDLING AND STORAGE


A. Each geocellular unit shall be marked with identification, as mentioned in Section 5
above.
B. The transport, handling and storage of materials shall be carried out as follows:
1. In accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, subject to the approval
of the Engineer
2. Effective precautions shall be taken to prevent damage to the materials.
C. During transport:
1. Material shall be well secured and adequately supported
2. Bolsters and binding of appropriate type shall be used
3. No material shall overhang the end of a vehicle
4. Parts made of plastic material shall be covered
D. All material shall be subject to visual inspection before off-loading on site and before
storage and installation.
E. The acceptability of the materials on delivery to site will be based on the results of
tests carried out by one or more of the following:
1. The manufacturer, at the place of manufacture
2. The Engineer
3. A third party on behalf of the Engineer
F. Handling shall be carried out as follows:
1. Lifting shall be by means of a fork lift truck or slings (webbing or fabric) not less
than 250 mm wide
2. Use of wire rope and chains will not be permitted
3. Material shall not be dropped or bumped
4. Material shall not be dragged over the ground
G. Materials shall be stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations
and the following:
1. Material must be stored on a flat, level area free from small or sharp objects.
2. Material susceptible to ultra violet degradation shall be stored under an opaque
cover and well ventilated.
3. With efficient temporary anchorage to prevent any movement

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4. Material shall not be stacked higher than two rows, one above the other
H. The following procedures shall be followed for dealing with damaged material:
1. Material damaged during transportation shall not be accepted and returned to the
supplier
2. Material damaged during handling and storage shall be brought to the attention
of the Engineer
3. Material showing signs of corrosion or deterioration during storage shall
immediately be treated to arrest and prevent further deterioration, or removed
from site, as the Engineer directs
4. Proposals for repair shall be submitted, in writing as a method statement, to the
Engineer for approval
5. No attempt shall be made to repair damage without the Engineer’s approval
6. If in the opinion of the Engineer, the nature of any damage or deterioration is such
that the condition of the material has been impaired and cannot be repaired, the
material concerned shall not be incorporated in the Works
7. All rejected material shall be immediately removed from the site
8. Damaged material shall be replaced or repaired by the contractor at his own
expense, and such repairs shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

8 INSTALLATION

EXCAVATION
A. Excavation shall be in accordance with the Project Specification or as directed by the
Engineer.

FOUNDATION
A. For shallow single-layered installations, the base of the excavation shall have a sand
or gravel sub-grade layer. The depth and compaction shall be based on the in situ
ground conditions
B. The sub-base (formation level) of the excavation shall provide a minimum 3 – 5%
minimum CBR
C. For deeper or multi-layered installations, the base shall be designed by a suitably
qualified person to provide sufficient structural support to the installation. For
attenuation tanks, this shall include the provision of a concrete blinding layer.

BACKFILLING
A. The method for installation (backfilling) depends on the ground conditions, water
table and whether subject to heavy loads (i.e. traffic).
1. Backfilling around structures shall be undertaken in such manner as to avoid
uneven loading or damage
2. A coarse sand protection layer, minimum 100mm thick shall be placed over the
top of the units
3. For attenuation structures, the backfill material shall consist of natural or recycled
coarse aggregate complying with BS EN 13242, maximum size 40mm

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4. For infiltration structures, the backfill material shall consist of a single size granular
material of clean crushed solid sound rock from a source approved by the
Engineer. The nominal size shall be 20 mm and the following grading limits as
follows:
BS sieve size % passing
(mm) by weight
37.5 100
20 60-90
14 0-30
10 0-20
5 -

On completion of installation, the Contractor shall carry out an infiltration test. The
test method shall be approved by the engineer and shall include: sealing the
upstream outlet pipes at the nearest chamber and filling with water to a minimum
depth of 1.5 metres. The depth of water shall be recorded each hour for the first
twelve hours of the test and subsequently at time intervals as directed by the
Engineer.
5. Backfill to be compacted in layers, maximum 150mm thick in accordance with the
specialist tank manufacturer’s recommendations. Backfill shall be compacted to
95% of maximum dry density
6. A geogrid suitable for biaxial loading shall be placed in the backfill above the top
of the structure. The geogrid shall be specified by the designer and shall be
located at a minimum distance of 250mm above the top of the tank.

9 VENTING
A. Adequate venting shall be provided to the structure. A minimum of one 110mm
internal diameter air vent shall be provided for every 7500m2 of impermeable
catchment area to be drained to the tank.

10 TESTING OF MATERIALS
A. Testing of materials shall be in accordance with Project Specifications.
B.

C. The manufacturer shall carry out testing of materials in accordance with an approved
inspection and test plan. The results of these tests shall be made available to the
Engineer who shall also be permitted to witness some or all of these tests.
D. Test certificates shall be provided to the Engineer.
E. In addition to those test specifically required, the Engineer may request additional
samples of any material for testing by the Engineer. All expenses incurred in
obtaining samples for testing shall be borne by the contractor at no additional cost to
the contract.

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F. After successful completion of the testing of the equipment the contractor must clean
all equipment and ensure that it is free of debris before handing over to the client.

11 SUBMITTALS
A. The Contractor shall submit all details and information as required by the Engineer.
B. The contractor shall obtain the Engineer’s approval before placing orders for
materials, allowing for the limits of the construction programme. The following
documents shall be submitted to the Engineer:
1. Product data
i. Geotechnical Design Report
ii. Originals of catalogues and engineering data sheets for manufactured
items. Each item and option to be provided shall be clearly marked and each
item not to be provided shall be deleted
iii. Documentation to show that products provided meet the requirements for
material, construction, operation and tests
iv. Manufacturer’s installation instructions for all items
v. Certified reports for all tests and inspections designated herein, signed and
sealed, showing full compliance with referenced standards and
Specifications
vi. Maintenance requirements and procedures
vii. Period of guarantee for materials / products.

12 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
A. Regular inspection and maintenance is required to ensure the effective long-term
operation of below ground modular storage systems. Maintenance requirements for
modular systems shall be based on the details given in the following table.

Maintenance Schedule Required Action Recommended


frequency

Regular maintenance Inspect and identify any Monthly for 3 months,


areas that are not then six monthly
operating correctly. If
required, take remedial
action.
Remove sediment from Annually, or as required
pre-treatment structures

Remedial actions Repair/rehabilitation of As required


inlets, outlet, overflows and
vents
Monitoring Inspect/check all inlets, Annually and after large

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outlets, vents and storms
overflows to ensure that
they are in good condition
and operating as designed

B. Maintenance plans and schedules shall be developed during the design phase.
Specific maintenance needs of the system shall be identified, and maintenance
schedules adjusted to suit requirements.
C. Maintenance activities should be detailed in the Health and Safety File and a risk
assessment should be undertaken.

MAINTENANCE MANUAL
A. A maintenance manual shall be provided for all geocellular modular tanks. This shall
include the following:

 location of all geocellular tanks


 brief summary of how the tanks work, their purpose and how they can be damaged
 maintenance requirements (a maintenance plan) and a maintenance record
 procedure for carrying out maintenance of the tanks
 identification of any specialist equipment required for maintenance of the tanks
 explanation of the consequences of not carrying out the maintenance that is
specified
 identification of any areas with limited load bearing capacity and restricted access
for vehicles
 identification of areas where certain activities are prohibited (for example
stockpiling materials on pervious surfaces)
 an action plan for dealing with accidental spillages
 advice on what to do if alterations are to be made to a tank, if excavations or other
similar works are carried out that could affect the tanks.
B. The maintenance manual shall also include brief details of the design concepts and
criteria for the tanks and the maintenance requirements to ensure that any works
undertaken do not compromise these.

END OF SECTION

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