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The American Societyfor


The American Society

The Americrn Socieiy for NondesauctiveTesting,Inc.
1711Arliryate Lane
PO Box 28518
Columbus, OH 43228-0518
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photocopying,rccording,or oth€rwise,without the expressedpnor wriften permissionof the publisher

Coplrisht @ 2007 by The AmericanSocietyfor NondestmctiveT€sting,Inc. ASNT is not responsiblefor the authenticityor
accuracyof information herein.Productsor servicestha. are advertisedor mentioneddo not carry the endorsementm
recommendationof ASNT.

IRRSP,NDTEandbook,TheNDT TechnXian^rd www.asntorgare aademarksof The AmericanSocietyfor

NondestructiveTesting,lnc. ACCP,ASNT, Irrd /1 Stud)Guide,Materiah hahmtion, NondestructueTestinsHmdbook.
Researchin Norulestru:nvebaluation afi RNDE andareregis.eredhadenarks of The American Socielyfor

ASNT existsto createa saferworld by promotingthe professionand technologiesof nondestructivetesting.


Printedin the United Statesof America

02107frst printing

ii RecommendedPracticeSNT-TG1A(2006)
This Reconmendedhactice establishesthe generalframeworkfor a qualification andc€nification program.In addition.the
documentFovides rcconmendededucational,experienceandtraining rcquirementsfor the different testmethods.
Supplementarydocumentsinclude questionandanswerlists. which may be usedin conposing examinationsfor

This recommendedpracticeis not intendedto be usedas a strict specification.It is recognized,however,that contracts

requneplograms,which meet the intent of this document.For suchcontracts,purchaserand suppliermust agreeupon
acceptabilityof an employerh Fogram.

The verb "should" hasbeenusedtbroughoutthis documentto emphasizeihe rccommendationpresentedherein-It is the

employer'srcsponsibiliryb addressspecfic needsand to modify thesegrridelinesas appropriatein a wdtten practice.In tbe
employer'swdtten Factice, the ve$ "shall" is to be usedjn place of "should" to emphasizethe employer\ needs.

The 2006Edition of SMI-ZC-]A is arnotatedso that uselsof the 2001 edition caJlquickly and easily locatenew and
updatedmaterial.The vertical lines in the marginsof this documentindicatethat information in the text hasbeenmodified

Inquides relatedto this recomrnended

praclice shouldbe directedto ihe chair of the S ??C-lA Interp.etarionPanelat the

The AmericanSocietyfor NondestructiveTesting

PO Box 28518

Recommended (2006) iii

Pubiicationandrcview of this RecommeldedPractic€was underthe dircction of lhe SIV'ZZC-1AReview Committeewhich
is a committe€of the MethoalsDivision. The MethodsDivision rcpods to the Technical& EducationCouncnof the
ArnericanSocieryfor NondesEuctjve Testing.

Revle$,Committoe Membelg:
Thom Schafer,\4ce Chair
Bmd S. Kienlen, Secretary
CharlieLorgo, Staff Secretary
ClaudeD. Davis, SubcommitteeClnir

Carl Bortmas Edwad Macejak

Alfted Brcz JosephMackin
Wiliarn Cab€ Walter Matulewicz
Robst CameroD Ray Morasse
SteveCargil Ricky Morgan
Terry L- Clausing Phillip Mye$
JamesE. Cox Mark Pomp€
David Culbertson Bob Potter
G€Iald Hacker Michael Ruddy
Darell Hanis An&ew Skaggs
Gary H€ath Kilit Smat
Keith R. Holt Ray Tsukimura
ChesterJackson Jobr rYson
Jim Kelly Dave Vigne
Ron Kruzic Stephen\4]1ay
Kevin Kupitz Gary Workman

Technlcal & Educatlon Council:

Mofteza K. Jafari,Chair
Thom Schafer,\,ice Clnir/Secr€trry

iv RecommondedFracliceSNT-TC-1Af2006)
Review Conmitt€e iv
PersonnelQualiffcation and Certificatiotr ia Nondestructive T€stitrg I
Scope I
Definitions I
NondestrucliveTestingMethods 2
Levels of Qualification 2
Written Practice 2
Education,Training, and ExperienceRequ;rernents for Initial Qualification 3
Training Programs 3
Examinations 3
Cefificaaion 1
Teclnical PedormanceEvaluation 1
Teminatron 8
Reinstatement 8
Table6.3.1A 9
Table6.3.1B l0
Table6.3.1C 11
Basic Examination t2
ceneral Level m Requiremenis t2
Basicsof CommonNDT Methods l3
Basic Materials,Fabdcaiior. and hoduct Tecllnology l6
PDM Basic Bxamination- PredictiveMaintenance(PDM) Exanination Specjfication l8
Appendix 19
ExampleQuestions- l-€vel I andLevel I 19
AcousticEmissionTestingMethod 19
ElectromagneticTestirg Method 20
Eddy Curent TestingMethod 20
Flux lrakage TestingMetltod 20
I-erk TestingMethod 2l
Bubble Leak TestingMefiod 2l
HalogenDiode DetectorI-eaLTestinsMethod 22
Mass SpectometerLeak TestingMethod 23
hessure ChangeMeasurernentLeak TestingMethod 24
Liquid PenetradTestingMethod 25
MagneticParticleTestingMethod 25
Neuaon RadiographicTestingMethod 26
RadiographicTestingMethod 2',7
Themavhtared TestingMethod 2a
UltrasonicTestingMethod 28
Vihation AnalysisTestingMethod 29
Visnal TestingMethod 29
Answersto ExampleQuestions 31

Recommended (2006) v
vi RecomnendedPracticeSNT"TCI A (2006)
RecommendedPracticeNo. SNT-TC-IA
PersonnelQualificationand Gertificationin
L] It is recognizedthai the effeclivenessofnondestructivetesting (NDT) applicationsdependsupon the
capabilitiesof ihe penonnel who are responsiblefor, ard perfom, NIDT.This Recommeded Practicehas
beenpreparedio establishguidelinesfor the qualification and cetification of NDT personnelwhosespecific
jobs requirc appropriateknowledgeof the lechnicalpnnciples underlyingthe nondestructiveteststhey
perform.witness.monitor, or evaluate.
1.2 This document providesguidelines of a qualification
for the establishment andceiificatioi program
L3 Theseguidelineshavebeendevelopedby The American Societlrfor NondestructiveTesiing,Inc.. ro aid
employersin recosnizingthe esseniialfactorsto be consideredin qualifying personrel engagedin any of the
NDT nethodslistedin Section3.
1.4 It is rccognizedtha! theseguidelinesmay not be appropriatefor certainemployers'circumstancesand/or
applications.In developing a writtenpracticeasrequiredin Section5, theemployershouldreviewthe
detailedrccommendationspresentedhereinandmodify then, as necessary,io neet panicular needs.

2.0 Deffnitions
2.1 Tems includedin this documentare definedas follows:
2).1 Certiffcation: writien testimonyof quaLification.
2.1.2 Certifying Authority: tbe personor personsproperly designatedin the wriuen praciicero sign
certificationson behalf of the employer.
2.1.3 Certifying Agency: the enployef of the personnelbeing certilied.
2.1.4 Closed Book Elamination: an exami.ation admin;steredwithout accessto referencematerial
exceprfor malerialssuppliedwith or in theexanination(See8J).
2.1.5 Comparable:beingat an equivalent or similarlevelof NDT responsibility anddiffrcultyas
dererminedby ihe employer'sLcvel m.
2.l .6 Documented:rhe conditionof being in lvritten form.
2.1;7 Employer:thecorponte,private,or publiccntity,whichemployspersonnel for wages,salary.fees,
or other considerations.
2.1.8 Experience:work aciivitiesaccomplished in a specincNDT metbodunderthednectionof
qurlified sup€rvisionincluding rhe perfomance of the NDT meihod andrclatedactivitiesbut not
including tjne spentin organizedtraining progans.
2.1.9 Limited Certification:nondestructive testmethodsmaybe fu her subdivided into limited
disciplines or techniques to meetspecficemployer'sneeds;these areLevelII cenifications, but to
a limitedscope.
2.1.10 Nondestructive Testing:a process tharinvolvestheinspeciion, testing,or evaluation of materials,
componentsand assembliesfor materials'disconrinuities,propeniesandmachineproblemswithout
turther impairing or desnoyingthe pans serviceabiliiy.Tkoughoui this documentthe term NDT
appliesequally to thc NDT inspectionmethodsusedfor naterial inspection,flaw detectionor
prediciivemaintenance(PdM) applications.
2.1.1| OutsideAgencyia companyor individualwhoprovidesNDT LevelIll services andwhose
qualificationslo provide theseserv;ceshavebeenreviewedby the employerengagingihe company
or individual.
2.1.i2 Quslificatiotrrdenonstaredskill, demonstrated knowledge, documenred rraining,anddocumenred
experienc€rcquiredfor personnelto Foperly perform the dutiesof a specificjob.
2.1.13 Recommend€d Practice:a setof guidelines to assistthe employerin developing uniform
prcceduresfor dre qualillcation and certification of NDT personnelto satisfy the employer's
2.1.14 Training:ar organized programdeveloped to impantheknowlcdgeandskiLlsnecessary for
2-1.15 Written Practice:a writtenFoceduredeveloped by theenplo)cr thatdetailst|e requirements for
qualification andcertification of rheir employees.

Recommended (2006) 1
3.0 Notrdestructive T€stiq Methods
3.1 Qualificatior andcertificatior of NDT penormel in accordancewirh this Recommendedpracticeis
applicableto eachof the folowing methods:
I-€at TestitrS
Liquid PenetrantTesting
MagneticFlux l-ealage
fnaasonic Testing
Vibmtion Analysis
Visual Testing

4T Levels of Qualification
4.1 Therearetlree basiclevels of qualfication. The employernay subdividerhesetevelsfor situarionswhere
additionallevels aredeemednecessaryfor specfic skils andresponsibiliries.
4.2 Wtrile in the processof being initialy rrained,qualified, and cerrified,an individuat shoutdbe considereda
trainee.A trairc€ shouldwork with a cerrified individual. The rraineeshall not hdependentlyconduct,
interFet, evaluate.or rcport the resulrsof any NDT test.
4.3 The tlree basiclevels of qualification are as follow:
4.3.1 NDT I-€vel I. An NDT I-€vel I individuat shouldt'€ qulified ro poperty pedorm sp€cific
calibrations,specificNDT, and specnc evaluatioN for acceprance or rejection derermiDations
accoding to written instrucrionsandro recordresults.The NDT Level I shouldreceivethe
necessaryinstructionand supenisiotrftom a cerified NDT t_evetn or m individual.
4.3.2 NDT kvel II. An NDT Level II idividuat shouldbe qualfied to set up andcalibrareequipmenr
andto interpretandevaluatercsults with rcspectro applicablecodes,standards,andspecifications.
The NDT kvel II shouldbe rhorougblyfamiliar w;th the scopeand tinitarions of the nerhods for
which qualified and shouldexerciseassignedresponsibilityfor on-thejob training and guidanceof
traineesandNDT I-€vel I personnel.The NDT t evel tr shouldbe abteto oryanizeandrcport the
rcsultsof NDT tests.
4.3.3 NDT L€vel m. An NDT t evet III individual shoutdbe capabteof developing,qualifying, and
approvingpmcedures,establishingand appoving techniques,inrerpreringcodes,srandards,
specifrcations,andprocedures;and designatingrhe panicularNDT methods,techdques,and
proceduresto be used.The NDT lrvel m shouldbe responsibtefor rheNDT operationsfor which
qualified alrdassienedand shouldbe capableof interFering and evaluaringresuttsin rermsof
existing codes,standards,and specifications.The NDT Iavel III shoutdhave sufiicient pradjcal
backgroundiD applicablematedals,fabricatio4 andproducttecbnotogyro establisl recbniquesand
to assistin establjshingacceptancecriteria whennorc are otherwiseavailable.The NDT t evel III
shouldhavegeneralfamiliarit with other apprcpriareNDT methods,as demonstratedby anASNT
Level m Basic examinarionor orhermeans_The NiDTt €vet m, in rhe nerhods in which certified.
shouldbe capableol training and examiningNDT L€velI andtr personnelfor cerrificationin those

5t) Writtetr hactice

5.I The employershall esiablisha writren practicefor the conrrol and administrarionof NrDTpenonnel traidng,
5.2 The employer'swritten pmcticeshoulddescribethe responsibitityofeach level ofcertncarion for
determiningthe acceprabiliryof mareriatsor comporcnisin accordancewith the applicablecodes,srandarats,
5.3 The employer'swritten practiceshal1desclibethe raining, experience,andexarninatiorrequimnentsfor
The employer'swritten practiceshal be reviewedandapprovedby the employen NrDTL€vel m.
5.5 The employer'swdtten practiceshall be mai ained on file.

2 Recommended (2006)
6.0 Education, Thaining, and Experience Requirements for lnitial Qualificarior
6.1 Candidates for cetification in NDT should have sufficienl educaiion, training, and experience to ensue
qualification ;n those NDT methods in which lhey are being considered for certification. Documentation of
pdor certificalion may be used by an employer as evidence of qualficarion for comparable levels of
certification .
6.2 Docrmented traini'g and/or experience gained in posirions and activiiies comparable to those oflevels I.II.
and/or [I prior to establishment of the employer's writien praciice may be considered in satisfying the
cdteria of Section 6.3 .
6 .3 To be considcred for certification. a candidate should sarisfy one of the folowing criteria for the applicable
NDT levcl:
6.3.1 NDT Levels I and II
Table 6.3.1 A lists the.ecomnended training and experience facton to be considered by the
employer in establishing wnften practices for initial quaLification of L€vel I and Level II
Table 6.3.1 B tisls altemate tmining and expedence factors which may be considered by the
employer in establishing written pracdces for initial qualification of L€vel I and Level II
individuals.(The S,UZC // Review Committeeplans to removeTable 6.3.1 B with the nexi
Table 6.3.1 C lists initial training and experience factors which nay be considered by the employer
for specific limited applications as defined in the employer's wrilten practice-
6.3.2 NDT Levellll Havegraduated liom a mininum foxr yearcollegeor universitycurdculumwiih a
degreeh engineffing or science,plns one additioml yearof expenerc€beyondthe level
II requirementsin NDT in an assignmentcomparableto that of an NDT Level TTin the
applicableNDT medlod(s),or:
6-3.2.2 Have completedwith passinggradesat leasftwo yearsof engineenngor sciencestudy at
a,or iechnicalschool,plus two additionalyearsoI cxperiencebeyond
the level II requirementsin NDT in an assignmentat leastcomparablcto that of NDT
I-evel II i! the applicableNDT nethodG). or:
6.3 2.3 Have four yearsexperiencebeyondthe level ll requirementsin NDT in an assignmentat
leastcomp,Iableto tbat of an NDT Level II in the applicableNDT rnethodG).

The aboveLevel III requirementsnay be partially rcplacedby experienceas a cenified NDT Level II
or by assigtrments
at leastcomparableto NDT Level IT as defined in the employert wriuen pmciice.
7T Tlaining Programs
1-l Penonnelbeing consideredfor initial cenification shouldcompleresntricientoryanizedlraining to become
ihoroughly frniliar with the principlesand praciicesof ihe specifiedNDT mcthodrelatedto the level of
certification desiredand rpplicable to the processesto be usedand the produc.sto bc tested-
The iraining Fogram shouldinclude suffrcientexaminationsto ensureunderstandingof the necessary
1.3 Reconmendedtraining courseoutlinesandrefercncesfor NDT Levels l,Il, andIII personnel,which nay be
usedas rechnicalsourcematerial.are containedin 41r'S1/A,tT CP- 105 Topi&l OutlinesJor Qualifi.ation
4 Tbe employerwho purchasesoxtsidelraining serv;cesis r€sponsiblefor assuriDgrhat suchservicesmeet the
requirementsof the employert wrilten praciice-

8.0 Examinations
8.i AdministrationandGrading
8.1.1 An NDT Level III shall be responsiblefor the administrationandgradingof examhatioff specified
in Section8.3through8.8for NDT LevelI, tr, or otherLevelIII personnel. Theadministationand
gradingof examinationsmay be delesaiedto a qualified representativeof the NDT Level lll and
so recodcd. A qualified representativeof the employermay perfom the actualadministErionand
gradingofLcvcl III examinatio$specifiedin 8.8.
u.1.2 For LevelI and personnel. a composite gade shouldbe deiermined by simpleaveraging of the
resulis of the gencral,specific. andpnctical examinationsdescribedbclow. For Level III personnel.
thecomposite gradeshouldbedeteminedbysimpleaveraging of theresultsofthe basic.method,
andspecificexaminalions described below.
8.1.3 Examinationsadrninistcredfor qualification shouldresult in a passingcompositegradeof at leasr
80 percent,wift no individualexamination havinga passinggradelessthan70 pcrcent.
Recommended (2006) 3
8 . 1 . 4 Wt]en an examinationis administeredrDd gradedfor the employerby an oxtsidc agcncyxnd the
outsideagencyissuesrrades ofpllss or fail onl]'. on a ceiified report, then thc cnployer may
acccptthe passgradeas 80 perccntfor tbrt paticular examination.
8 . 1 . 5 Thc cmployer who purchasesoutsidescrviccsis responsiblefor ensuing that the examiiarion
scrvicesmeet the requirementsol thc cmployer's written practice.
8.2 Vision Exanrinati0n!
8.2.1 Ncar Vision Acuity. The enanination should ensurenaruralor conecrednear-dislanccrcuity in ar
leasronc cye suchthat the applicantis capablcofreading a mininum of JaegerNumber 2 or
eqxivalenttype and size letter at the distancedcsignatedon the chalt bur not lessrhan 12 inchcs
(30-5cm) on a srandardJaegertest chd. The abiliry to perceivean Oriho-Raterntuimum of I of
similar lest pattem is also acceptable.This shonld bc admnristeredannua1ly.
8.2.2 Color Contast Differentiation.The examinationshould demonstnterhe capabiliryof disringuishing
and difterenliatingconhastamong colors or shadesoI gray nsedi! rhe nethod as derenninedby thc
employer.This should be conductedupon iniiial certificationand at five-year inte als thcrerfter.
8.3 General(Written - for NDT Levels I and [)
8.3.1 The generaleraminations thebasicprinciplesofthe applicable
shouldaddress method
8.3.2 ln preparing thc cxrminations.
theNDT Level III shouldselecror deviseappropriaie
coveringthe applicablemethodto the degee requlredb] rbe cmployer's wrinen practice
8.3.3 Seethe AppendL for cxamplequestions.
8_3.4 The minimum Nmber ofquestions that sbould be given is as foltows:

Number of Numberof
Level I Level II
T€st Method Limited Certifications Questions Questions

AcouslicEmissionTesting 40
Testing 40
1. AllcmatirgCurent FieldMeasurement 40
2. EddyCurrent 40 40
3. Flux LeakageTestins 40 40
4. RcmoteFieldTesting 40 40
LaserTesting 30 30
Leat Tesling 20 20
Liquid PenclrantTesting
MagneticFlux Leakage 20 20
MagneticPffticleTesting 40
Nenton Radiographic Testing ,10
Radiographic Testnrg :10
Film Interprerer(from trainee) N/,{ ,10
Filn Interyreter N/A 20
DigiralRadioscopy 30
Thermal/InfiaredTcsting 40
UltasonicTcsting 40 40
Digiial Thickness Measwemenl N/A 20
A ScarThickressMeasurencnr N/A 30

Visual Testing

N/Ar Not Allowed

8.,1 Specific(Writlen for NDT LevelsI andII)
8.4.1 Thespecifi.exaninationshonldaddress rheequipnem!operating prccedures,
andNET techniques
thatlhe individualmavencountcrduringlpecificassignmenh to thedegreerequircdby the
8.,1.2 Thespecificcxlnrinationshoxldalsocoverthe specifications or codesandacceptance c.iteriaused
in the enploycr'sNDT procedures.
8.4.3 The ninimun numberof quesiions lhatshouldbe givenis as foltowsi

4 Recornmended
Number of Number of
Level I Level II
Test Methods a.ndTechnioues Limit€d Certificatiotr Questions Questions

AcousticEmissior Testing 20 20
l. Altematirg Cunenl Field Measurement 20 20
2. Eddy Current 2I) 20
3. Flux LeakageTesting 20 20
4. RemoteField Testing 20 20
Lrser Testing
1. Profilornety 20 20
2. Holography/Shearosraphy 20 20
Leak Testing
1. BubbleTest 15 15
2. AbsolutePressureLeak Test(PressweChange) 15 15
3. HalogenDiode Leak Test 15 15
4. Msss Spectrometerl€at Test 20 4t)
Liquid PenetrantTesting 20 20
MagneticFlux Leakage 20 15
MagnetjcPanicle Testing 20 20
NeutronRadiographi€Tesling 15 15
RadiosraphicTestjns 20 20
Filn Interpreter(from trainee) 20
Filn InterFeter (ftom L€vel I) N/A 15
Digital Radioscopy N/A 20
ThermavlnftaredTesting 20 20
UltrasonicTesting 20 20
Digital ThicknessTesting N/A 10
A-ScanThicknessTestiry N/A 15
20 60
Visual TestiDg 20 20

N/A: Not Alowed

8.5 Pracncal(fbr NDT l-€vel I andII)

8.5.1 The cadidate shoulddemonstatefamilimity with ard ability to opemtethe necessaryNDT
equipment,record,and analyzethe resultantinJormationto the degreerequired.
8.52 At leastoneflawed specimenor componentshouldbe testedandthe resultsof the NDT analyzed
by the candidate.
8.5.3 The descriptionof the sp€cimen,the NDT procedule,including checkpoints,end the resnltsof ihe
examinationshouldb€ documented.
8.54 NDT l€vel I PracticalExamination.Proficiencysl$uld b€ demonstratedin peforming tne
applicableNrDTon one or more specimensor rnachinepmblemsapFoved by the NDT l,evet Itr
andin evaluati.g the rcsultsto the degreeof responsibiliryas describedin fie employer'srrritten
Factice. At leastten (10) different checkpointsrcquiring an undentandingof testvariablesandthe
employer'sproceduralrcqunementsshouldbe includedin this Factical examination.
8.5.5 NDT Level tr PracticalExamination.Proficiencyshouldbe demonstratedin selecringand
perfo.ming the applicableNDT t€chniquewithin the methodand interpretingandevaluatingthe
resultson one or more specimensor machinep.oblemsapprovedby the NDT Level IIL At leastten
(10) ditrercnt checkpointsrequinng an understandingof NDT variables.nd the employer's
pmc€dwalrequirementsshouldbe includedin this Factical examination.
8.6 Samplequestionsfor generalexaminationsarepresentedin the separatequestionbookletsthat can be
obtainedfrom ASNT Headquarters. Thesequestionsare intendedas examplesonly and shouldnot be used
verbatimfor qualficalion examinations-The following is a list of the bookletsi

Recommended (2006) 5
Test Method Booklets

AcousticEmissionTesting G
ElectromagnericTesting E
l. Altemating Cunent Fietd Measurement EA*
2. Eddy Cunent EE*
3. Flux Leatage EF*
4. RemoreField Testing ER+
1. Profilonerry LP+
2. Holography/Shearography LH*
I-eak Testins
1. BubbleTest HB
2. PrcssureChangeMeasurcment HP
3. HalogenDiode I-eal(Test
4. MassSp€ctomed Test HM
Liquid Pe.etant Testing D
MagneticFlux LeakageTesting NF*
MagneticParticleTesting B
Neuaon RadiographicTesting F
Thermal/InfraredTesting J+
UltrasonicTestins c
VisualTesting I

* ln coune of preparation

8;7 Additional Written, Specific andPracdcalExaminationCriteria

8.7.1 I-€velI,II, andIII WriftenExaminatiors
8.7.1.i All l-evell.ll, andm writte. exaninations shouldbe closedbookexcepithatnecessary
data,suchas graphs,tables,specificatiom.Eocedures,codes,etc.. may be Fovided with
or in the examination.Questionsutilizins suchreferencenaterials shouldrquire an
understandingof ihe information ratherthan meretytocatingrhe appropriateanswe. Al1
questionsusedfor Level I and Level II examinarionsshouldbe approvedby the
rcsponsibleL€vel II1. A valid endorsementon anACCP Level II certificaretutfills the conesponding
examinationcriteria describedin paragraphs8.3 and 8.5 for eachapplicableNDT
13.7.2 Level I andll Specific Examinarions
The empioyermay delelethe specificexaminarionif the cdndidatehas a vatid ACCP Level II
certificatein the methodand if documenredexperienceexisrsto pemir such.
8J.3 hacticalExaminations
Successfulcompleiionof an ACCPLevel n generalhandson practicalexaminatjonmay be
conside.edasfulfiIing the requirenenrsof paragraph8.5.
8.8 NrDT/PdMLevel III Examinations
8.8.1 BasicExaminations NDT Basic Examination(requiredonly once whenmore.haDone methodexaminarionis
taken).The minimum numberof quesrionsrharshouldbe given is as follows: Fifteen(15)questions rclaringto understanding rheS ry 7C-1Adocumeni.
8.8.I .l .2 lkenty (20) queslionsrelaringro applicablemaierials,fabr;cation,and
8.8-l.l.3 Twenry(20)questions rhararcsimilarto published I_evelII questions
other appropriateNDT merhods.

6 Recommended
8 . 8 . 1 . 2 PdM Blr'lic Examination(requiredonly oncewhen moreth,tn one methodexaminationis
take.)-Theminimumnumberof questions thatshouldbegivenis asfollows: Fifteen(15)questions relatingto understanding thc.SN?1?C J.4document. Twenty(20)questions rclatingto applicablemachinerytechnology.
8.8.I .2.3 Thity (30) questionsdlat are similar to publishedLevel II quesiionsfor
other appropriateP(M methods.
8.8.2 Method Examination (for each method). Thirty (30) questionsrclating to fundamentalsand principlesthai arc similar to
publishedASNT Levelm questions for eachmetbod.and Fifteen(15)qucstions relaiingto applicationandestablisbment
of techniquesand
proceduesihat are similar to thc publishedASNT L€vel m questionsfor eachmethod, Twenty (20) questionsrelating to capability for interpreiingcodes.standatds,and

relatingto the method.
8.8.3 SpecificExamination(for eachmethod). Twenry(20)questions relating1ospecilications,
equipment, techniques,dndprccedues
appLcableio ihe employer'sproduct(s)andmetbodsemployedandto the adninistration
of rhe employer'swritten practice. The employerrnay deletethe specificexaminadonif the candidatehasa valid ASNT
NDT Level III or ACCP ProfessionalLevel III certificatein the methodand if
documentedevidenceof experienceexists,including the preparationof NDT procedures
to codes,standards.or specificationsandthe evaluationof testresults.
8.8.4 A valid endorsementon an ASNT NDT L€vel III certificatetulfills the examinalioncriieria
dcscnbedin 8.8.1and8.8.2for eachapplicable NDT method.
8.8.5 A valid endorsementof an ACCP ProfessionalLevel lll certificatetulfils ihe examinationcliieria
described in 8-8.1,nd 8.8.2for eachapplicable NDT method.
8.9 Reexamination
Thosefailing to attainthe requiredgradesshouldwait at leastthidy (30) daysor receivesuitableadditional
training as deiemined by the NDT Lcvel In beforereexamination.

9S Certificstion
9.1 Cerificationof a[ levelsofNDT personnel is thc rcsponsibility
ofthe employer.
9.2 Certification of NDT personnelshail be basedon demonstrationof satisfactoryqualification in accordance
with Sections 6,7. and8. asdescribed in lhe employer\wriuenpracticc.
9.3 At theoptionof theempioyer. an outsideagencymaybe engaged to provideNDT Levelm services. In such
instances, theresponsibility of cefificationof theemployees shallbe retainedby thecmployer.
9.1 Personnelcenification recordsshall be naintained on file by ihe employerlor the duration specified;n the
emploters wnfter practiceand shouidinclude the fblowing:
9-4.1 Namcofcerdfiedindividual.
9.4.2 Lcvel of cetification andNDT method.
9-4.3 Educationalbackg.oundandexperienceof cenified individuals.
9-4.1 Statemcnl indicatiDg sitisfactorycompletionoftaining in accordance with theemployer'swritten

9.4.5 Resulis of the vision cxam;nations prescribed in 8 .2 for the curent celtification pffiod.
9.1.6 Curent examination cop),(ies) or ev;dence of successfui completion of exaninarions.
Other suitable evidence of satisfactory qualifications when such quatfrcaiions are used in lieu ol
the specillc exadnation prescdbedin as prescribedin the employerk written Facticc.
9.4.8 CompositegadeG) or suitableev;denceof grades.
9.4.9 Signature of ihe Level III that vcrified qualifications of candidate for cenificarion.
91.10 Dates of ceriificalion and/or rccctific ion and the dates of assiqnments to NDT.
9r.ll Certification expiration date.
9r . l 2 Signarue of employer's certifying authority.
10. Perfbrmance EvaluatioD
i0.i NDT pcrsonnel may be reexamined any tine at the discretion of thc enployer and have their cenificates
extended or rcvoked.
10.2 Periodicaly, as dcfined in the employers wriuen Factice, the techdcal pcrfomarce of Level I and ll
pelsonnel shouid be cvaluated and documented by a NDT L€vel m. The evaluation and documentaiion
should fbllo\r the fomat and cuidelinesdescdbedin section8.5.

11,0 Interruptedservice
11.1 The employer'swritten practiceshouldinclude rules coveringthe typesand durationof interruptedseNice
that rcquiresre€xaminationandrecertification.
I I .2 The written practiceshouldspecify the requirementsfor reexaminationand/orrccertificationfor the

12.0 Recertification
l2.l All levels of NDT personnelshall be recetified penodically in accordancewith one of the following cdteria:
12.1.1 Evidenceof continuingsatisfactorytechnicalperformance.
12.1.2 Reexamination i.) tboseportionsof theexaminations in Section8 deemednecessary by the
employer'sNDT Level Itr.
12.2 Recommendedma{mum recertificaiionintervalsare 5 vearsfor all certification ievels.

13.0 Temination
13.1 The employet'scertification shal be deemedrvoked whenemploymentis ieminated.
13.2 A Level I. Level [. or Level [I whosecertificaiion hasbeentenninatedmay be certified to the forner NDT
level by a new enployer basedon examination,as desffibedin Section8, providedaI of the lollowing
conditionsa.e met to the new employer'ssaiisfactioni
13.2.1 The employe€hasproof of prior certification.
13.2.2 The employe€wasworkingin the capacityto whichcenifie.dwithin six (6) monthsoftermination.
13.2.3 The employeeis beingrcc€rtifiedwithin six (6) montbsof termination.
13.2.4 Prior to being examinedfor cedifrcation.employeesnot meetingthe abovercquirementsshould
receiveaddidonaltraining as deemedappropriateby the NIDTLevel III.

14.0 Reinstatement
14.1 A l,evel I, Level tr, or Level m whosecertification hasbeenterminatedmay be reinstatedto the former
NDT level,withouta newexamination, prcvidedall ofthe followingconditionsaremet:
14.1.1 The employerhasmaintainedthe personnelcertificationmcods requiftd in section9.4.
14.1.2 The employeet cefification did not expire during termination.
14.1.3 The employeeis being reinstatedwidin six (6) monins of temination-

8 Recommended
Table6.3.1A: RecommendedInitial Trainingand ExperienceLevels

passingg.ade of at Minimum
I{igh least2 Jearcof Required
School eng:neefingor Work
GIaduate sciencestudyat a Experience Total
Examination nniversity college in Method Hours in
M€thod LeY€I I€clnioue Eouivalen or lechnical school {hours) NDT
32 210 400
II 40 630 t200
40 24 210 400
It .10 40 630 1200
24 210 400
Eddy Cu.r!!
II 40 40 630 i200
40 24 210 400
II 630 1200
40 210 400
ll 630 1200
'10 t30
II 21 t2 tlo 260
Holognphy/ 40 36 210 400
II 36 630 t 200
2 2 l
B!bble Testirg
II z 35 65
24 t6 105 200
II l6 t2 280 520
12 6 105 200
tt 8 280 520
28 280 520
II 21 t6 420 800
4 70 i30
Il t40 270
l6 tz '10 130
II 1Z 8 210 400
t2 130
Il 2to 4{0
28 20 420 800
II 40 4A 1680 2400
30 210 400
II 40 35 630 1200
32 32 210 400
Il 31 32 1260 1800
40 30 210 400
II 40 630 1200
24 420 800
ll 72 1680 2400
8 70 130
u 16 8 i40 270

I 0 Fm trvcl tI .cni 6ca1ion.rheelpqience shanconts of tine ar iis qorlificd d:todly ro Level Il widr
F{niftd expdenc shal|.ois ol de eumdfthe limB cqun d forlf,ve rc shrll coisisr or rhc sun of &. houn EluiEn Iu

2.0 Fd 1lvel u cenificarion,n\e hc sun of di ime 'eqdncd for llver I lnd L€vel rhe rddirionrl ii
lppli.$le Thc tqditrl lomll trainiq I n trii i',g. plus stry addirioial fomiL hinins as definedin rhemployeas tr ntn pnc

30 l-istedtainins hom ybeadjuied d desdibedin d'e emdoyerswitrci lrr.jcadcpcidjngon rhccanJidlesadu.reducarioo

sndu@ ii sisjienns, er..

s0 lr & indilidurl i3 cuEntly linified in m !T t .bnique md a tull coune romar w{q u.n ro nccr &e iniriJ qulitc.tius in tba( techniqu
hous b q!,rify ir sdhd ET rtuhiiqdc 4 rhe sare level my b. rduced '4loyei\ wnki prdrica. lt e individud is cenifien

Table6.3.1B: AlternateInitial Trainingand ExperienceLevels
The lntent is to eliminatethis iable du no the next revision.
compretron wran!
passinggrade of 3t
High Ieast2 yearsof
school engineedngor science
gfaduate study at a university Experience
Examination collegeor technicrl L€vel
Method L€vel Tecbnique school
4A 32
I AC Field 24
tr 4IJ
I 24
Eddy Curent
II 40 40
44 24
II 40 40
40 24
I 8
II 12
I Holograpby/ 44 36
Il 40 36
I 2 2
II 4 2 0.5
I 24 i6 1.5
II 12
L€k T€6ting
I t2 1.5
Haloge! Diode
I 2a
lI 24 l6
II 8
l{agneiic I 12
II t2
I I2
II 8
I 28 2u
Il 4Q :t0 24
I 4\t 30
Il 44 35
32 30
Il 34 32 18
I 30
II 40
I 24 2A
II 72 48
I 6
tr 8

evel I or equiv.lenr. lf ! r{son bein!

aluied err{iene sball consni or ihe

he rtqoind c,Fncn@ shattcosisr of

r sd kvel n hlii.3. tlns 'iy rddiLion.t fomrl binine a3definedin rb
3 olisrcd triiing houn nay be adju dner pidice depeidins on $. candid& s &od enucadontevel, e g erltlmr $hml, cot

1.0 lni *psime my be erlfd simultueously itr No o fro* frdhods if rhe:

4.1 adid.E rpen& a mininum o fd rhi.h cnifl.droi i, sought.dd
42 €mriider of inc \ul Llnc lldinen s experieoe n spentin NIn oyds rn&n prac.i€.

6n r I iD indivjduat ! curendy
hom r. quarify in aiorhd ET @hnique al the sme levet mry be rduft e cnptoyr \ !n&n Fncrice. ]f r i
l0qiencc b qualify fd rnoth{ ET b

10 Recommended
Table6.3.1C: Initial Trainingand ExperienoeLevels
For Level ll Limited Certitications

Minimum Required Work

Elamitratiotr Limit€d Tecbnicians Formal Experience in Method
Method Certificarion Startins Point Traidns fiIours)
18 22
Radiography z 22
32 175
Dieital Thickffss 8 40
24 175

InterpretationofRadiographs roral = 22 bonrs

RADIOGRAIIiERS (cerlifi€d RT Level I)

Renesnerjnstructlo! - 2 hous Geomtrical unsharpncss,
ndioeraphic e$ilivity, mdiqraphic entrast, fln contnsl, subje.t cortnst, definiiion,
exlosw techniques,nmufactuing pusses dd associateddiscontlNili€s, & sla anls, code md preduet
InterpEt ion of adioerdphs 22 hous

RecommendedPfacliceSNT-TC-1A(2006) 11
GeneralLevel lll Requirements
The BasicExaminationwill cover t]ree (3) main topicat a&as:
I .0 Pe$onnelQualfication andCertificarionPrograms
1,2 ANSIIASNT.C P. 189
1.3 ASNT Level m Proeram
2.O Generalfamitiarity with otherNDT Merhods.
3.0 Genenl knowledgeofmaterials, fabricarion,andproducttecbnology.
SeparateMethodexaminationswill be given to cover eachol th€ folowing NDT Methods:
AcousucEmrssLon I es[ng
I-eaI Testing
Liquid PenetradTesting
MagnedcFlux Lealage
Radiogaphic Testing
tfitasonic Testing
Visual Testing
Eachof the Method examinationsis divided into tbreenain ropical areasl
l. Merhodfundamentalsandprinciples,
2. Generalknowledgeofkchniques wirhin rhe Methods,
3. Generalinterpretatiotrof codes,standards,and specifrcationsrclaring to the Merhod.
The Basic examinationand one or more Methodexaminationsmust be takenandpassedro quatiti for aI}ASNT L€vel m
Certificate.The endorsements
on the ASNT Certificarewill list the variousMethods,which the applicanrpassed.

The fo owing topical outlinesfurlher subdividethe nain topical areasof both Basic and Methodexaminations,cire litera-
ture rcferences,andhavesamplequestionsrypical of thosein the examinations.

Reconnennedhactice No. SNI-TC 1A

1.0 Scope
2.0 Detuitions
3.0 NondestructiveTesringMethods
4A Levels of Qualficarion
5.0 Written hactice
60 Education,TBining, andExperience
Training Programs
8.0 Examinaiions
9.0 Certificaiion
10.0 Temination

1.0 Scope
2.O Definitions
3.0 Levels of Qualificarion
4.0 QualficationRequircmenrs
5.0 Qualncadon and Certfication
6.0 Examinations
Expiration,Suspension,Revocarion,andReinstatementof Emptoyee'sCertificarion
8.0 EmployerRecertification
9.0 Recods

12 Recommended
10O ReferencedPublications
10.1 ASNT L€vel II CertificatioDPmgmm
IO.2 ASNT DocumenrNurnbers
10.3 CP-389
10.4 cP,4 86
10.5 cP s 87
10.6 CP 6 86

" InfomHtion, ASNT Level Prosram:A Review of rheASNT personnelCertification program,,,,tldre.uls
Eyalu,ltion,Vo1 43,No. 3, (RediReference Cuide/1984),pp s66.+
Hardison,R.R.(1991,June).ASNTSrandard. Mare.ialsbaluanon.Vot.19.No. 6, pp 798 806.+
Hardison,R.R. (1991,Febru3lt). PositionPaperon ASNT Certifications,Srandards,andRecornmeDded
pmcnces Materiats
hdluation. yol. 49, No. 2, pp 286-2A9. *
Wheele\ G.C. A Guideto PersonnelQ aLificdnonand Certificdnon. Colrmbus. OH: The AmericanSocieryfor
NondestructiveTesting. I 991.*
: Arailable fion The Anencm S@ieryfor NondesrucriveTesring.colunbls, OE.

Basics of Common NDT Methods

1.0 Acoustic Emission Testing
l.l Fundamentals
1 I .1 Principles/theoryof acousticemissiont€sting
LI.2 Sourcesof acousticemissions
1.1.3 Equipmentalrdmaiedal
1 . 2 Properselectionof acousricemissiontecbnique
1.2.1 Instrunentation andsignalprocessing
r.2.r.1 Cables(iypes)
12.1.2 Signalconditioning Signaldetection
i.2.1.,1 Noisediscrimination Electronictechnique Attenuationmaterials Datafilteringrechniques
1 . 3 Inter?retationand evaluationof resrresults

2.0 Electromagn€tic Testing

2.7 Fundamentals
2.1.1 Eleclronagneticfieldgenerarion
2.1.2 Properties ofeddy cuffenr
2.1.3 Effects of varying frequency
2.L1 Phasediscrimina6on
2.2 Electromagnetjcresring
2.2.1 Sensors
2.2.2 Basictypesofequipment;typesofreadour
2.2.3 Referencesiandards
2.2A Appljcations and testrcsult interFeration Flawderecrion
2-24.2 Conductivity andpermeabilirysorting
2.2.4-3 Thicknessgaging
2.2.4_4 Processconrrol

3.0 Leak Testing

3.1 Fundamentals
3-l.l Bubbledetecrion
3.1.2 Pressurechange
3.1.3 Halogendiodedetecror
3.1.4 Massspectromerer

{2006) 13
3.2 Leak testing
3.2.1 Systems factors RelatiYesensitivity Evacuatedsystems Pressurized systems; ambientfluids,tracerfluids Locatingleaks Calibration
3.2-2 Testrcsult interpretation
3.2-3 Essentials of safety
3.2-4 Testequipment
3.2.5 Applica.ions Pipingandpressure vessels Evacuatedsystems Low pressurefluid containmentvessels,pipes,andtubiry
3.2.5.,1 Hennericseals Electrical andelectonic components

4.0 Liquiil Penetrant Testing

4.1 Fundamentals
4.1.1 Interactionof penetrantsdd discontinuityopenings
4.1-2 Fluorescenceand contrast
4-2 Liquid penetranttentjng
4.2-1 Penetrantprocesses
4.2-2 Testequipmentand systemsfactors
4.2-3 Testresultinteryretation; discontinuity
4.2.4 Applications Castings
4.24.2 Welds Wrcughtmetals Machinedpafis
1.2.45 Leaks Fieldinspecrions

5.0 Magnetic Padicle Testing

5.i Fundamentals
5.1.1 Magneticfield principles
5.1-2 Magnetizationby meansof electnc cunent
5.1.3 Demagnetization
5-2 Magneticparticle inspection
5.2-1 Basic typesof equipmentand inspectionmaterials
5.2-2 Testresults interyretatio.;
5.2.3 Applications Welds Castings Wmught metals Machinedparts Fieldapplications

6.0 Neutron Ratliographic Tbsting

6.1 Fmdamentals
6.1.1 Sources X-rdy
6-I .1.2 Isotopic Neutron
6.1-2 Deiectors Inaging
6-1.2.2 Nonimaging
6.1.3 Na{ureofpenetratingradialion andinteractionswith matter
6.14 Essentials
of safety

14 Recommended
6.2 Neutronndiogaphic testing
6.2.1 Basicimagingconsiderations
6.2.2 Testrcsult interpretationidiscontinuityindicaiions
6.2.3 Systemsfactors(source/testobject/detecrorinreractions)
6.24 Applications
6.24.1 Explosives andpyrotechnic devices
6.23.2 Assembledconponents Bondedcomponents
6.24.4 Corrosiondecction
6.24.5 Nonmetallicmaterials

7.O Radiographic Testing

7.l Fnndamentals
1-1.1 Souces
7.1.1-2 Welds Assemblies Electroniccomponents
1.1.2 Detectors Imaging Nonirnaging
7.I .3 Natureof penetrating.adiation andinteractionswith natter
7.l A Essentialsof safety
1.2 Radiographictesting
7.2.1 Basicimagingcons;derations
t.2 ) lestresultinFrpFI;rion:di,conrinuiD indciuons
Systemsfacton (source/testobject/deteclorinteractions)
Applicaiions Castings Welds

8.0 Thermavlnlrared Testing

8.1 FuDdamenials
8.1.1 Principlesand theoryofthermayinfrared iesrirg
u.1.2 Temperaturemeasurementprinciples
8.t.3 koper seleciionof themal/infrared tecbnique
8.2 Equipnen materials
8.2.I lemperarure mea"urenenr equip'Denr
8.2.2 Heat flux indicators
8.2.3 Non contactdevices
8.3 Applications
8.1.1 Conraclrempemrurerrdicdror,
8.3.2 NoD-contactpyromete
8.3.3 Line-scamers
8.34 Themal imaging
8.3.5 Heat flux indicaton
8.3.6 Exothemicorendoiherrnicinvestigations
8.3.7 Frictionirvestigations
8.3.8 Fluid flow investigations
8-3.9 Thenmlresisianceinvestigations
8.3.10 Themal capacitance investigations
84 InterFetation andevatuanon

PracliceSNTTC-IA(2006) 15
9.0 Lltrasonic Tdting
9.1 Fundamenrals
9.1.1 Ultrasonicsoundbeams
9.1.1_1 Wavetravelmodes Reftacrion,rcflecrion, scattedng,and attenuarion
9.1.2 Tnnsducqs and souDdbeamcoupliry
Cl ulrrrsorucksring
9.2.1 Basic t ?es of equiprnent
9.2.2 Referencestandards
92.3 Testrcsult inrerpletatioq discontinuiryindicarions
9.2.4 Syslemfactors
9.2.5 Applications
e,Z),t Fta\tdetectron Thicknessrn@s@menr
92.53 Bolld evaluation
9.2.54 Process conhol
q.2.5.5 Fieldiispe_fiion

10.0 \tsual Testitrg

10.1 Fundamentals
10.1.1 Principlesandrheoryofvisuat tesrirg
10.1.2 Selectiotrof correctvisuattechdque
10.1.3 Equipmenrand materiah
10.2 Specficapplicatioa
10.2.1 Metal joining proc€sses
10.2.2 Pressurevessels
10.2.J Pumps
10.24 Vatves
10.25 Bolting
10.2.6 Casrhgs
10.2.7 Forgings
10.2.8 Extrusions
10.2.9 Nticroci'cui!s
l0.l lnFrpretadoDanderaluarion
10.3.1 Codesandstandards
10.3.2 Environmentalfacrors

Basic Materials, Fabricationand product Technology

1.0 Fundamentals of Mat€riat Technology
1.1 hoperties of materials
l 1.1 Strengthand etasticproperties
1.1.2 Physicalpropedes
1.1.3 Material pmpertiestesting
1.2 Origin of disconrinuitiesand failure modes
12.1 Inherentdbcontinuities
1.2.2 Process-induceddisconrinuities
1.2.3 Serviceinduceddisconrinuities
l-2-4 Failnresin metalic materiats
12.5 Failues in nonmetallicmaterials
1.3 Siatisticalnatureofdelectingandcharacterizingdiscortinuities
2,0 Fundametrtals of Fsbdcation and proiluct Technology
2.1 Raw materiabprocessing
2.2 Metals Focessing
2.2.1 Primary metals Metal itrgot Foduction Wroughrprimary metals

RecommendedPracticeSNT-TCnA (2006)
2.2.2 Castings Greensandmolded Metalmolded lnvestmentmolded
2.2.3 Welding
2-2.3.1 Commonprocesses Hard-surtacing SolidState
2.2.4 Brazrng
2.2.5 Soldering
2.2.6 Machiningandmaterialrcmoval Turning.boring,anddrilling Millins Grinding
2.2.64 Electrochemical Chenical Gerrsandbearings
2.2.1 Formins
2.2;7.1 Cold workingprocesses Hot-workingprocesses
2.2.8 Powdered metalprocesses
2.2.9 Heattreatmcnt
2.2.10 SurfacefinishingandcorosionFotecton
2.2.10.I Shorpeen:nr andg-irbla.'rp
2.2.102 Painting
2.2.i0.3 Plating
2.2.104 Chemicalconversion co3nngs
2.2.11 Adhesivejoinins
2.3 Nonmetalsand compositemalerialsFocessing
2.3.1 BasicmaierialsFocessingandprocess contll
2.1.2 Normeral'rnd compos.res labricalor.
2.3.3 Adhesivejoining
2.1 Dimensionalmetologf
2.4.1 Fundamentalunits andstandards
2.4.2 Gaging
2.4.3 Interlerometry

Barer,R.D..andB.F.Peterc.WhJMetalsFail.Ne\\ York:GordonandBreach,Science Publishe6.1970.
Da1las,Dadel 8., ed. Tbrl and ManufacturingEngineersHandbook,rhnd edi.ion. New York Societyof Manufacturing
Engineeff.Mccraw Hill BookCo. 1976.
Mateials & Processes for NDT Technologt. Coftmbus, OH: Americm Societyfor NondestructiveTesting.1981.*
SourceBookin FailurcArdbsir.MetalsPark,OH: AmericanSocietyfor Metals.197.1.
Tzylor, LL., eA.RasicMetaUur7yfor Nondrstructire Testing,rcrised e.lition. Essex,England:The Bitish lnstitute of
Nondestructive Testing.1988.+
we|ling Inspection.Miami,FLi AmedcanWeldingSociety.Latestedition.
* Availabiefron Tne Anrericd Societyfo NondestrucriveTesting,Columbus.OH.

Recommended (2006) 17
PdM Basic Examination
PredictiveMaintenance(PdM) ExaminationSpecification
The PdM Basic Examination,composedof 90 questiors,wilt cover rbreemain topicat areas:

1.0 PersonnelQualficalion and Cefification Progams 40 quesrions

1.1 SNTTC.]A
1.2 ANS]/ASNT.C P.] 89
1.3 ASNT Level m Programs
2.O Genenl faniliariry with otherPdM Methods- 30 questions
3.0 Generalknowledgeof machinery- 20 qrcstions

The PdM Basic examinationandone or morePdM Methodexarninations(eirherThermallnfrared Testingor Vibratior

Analvsis) must be takenandpassedro qualify for an ASNT pdM Level lII certificate. The endonemenrson the ASNT
Ce{ificate wil lisr rhe vfiious Methods.which rhe applicanrpassed.
1.0 Persorm€lQualificatiotr and Certifrcarion progalns
l.l Reconnended Pructie No.SNI-TC-IA
l 1.1 Scope
) .l .2 Definitions
LI.3 Nondestructivetestingmeihods
1.14 kvels of qualificarion
1.15 Writtenpractice
1.1.6 Education, rraining,andexperience
1.l ;7 Tminingprog"ms
L1.8 Examinations
1.1.9 Cedlication
1.1.10 Termination
1.2 ASNTStandaftlANSI.ASNI-CP 189
1.2.1 Scope
7.2.2 Definirions
1.2.3 L€vels of qualificarion
l-2.4 Qualificalionrcquiements
1.2.5 Qualncadon and cerrification
1.2.6 Examinarions
12.1 Expirarion,suspeDsion, revocation,andreinstatemenrof employee,scertificarion
1.2.8 Employerrccerti{icarion
1.2.9 Records
1.2.10 Referencedpublicarion.
i -3 ASNT Irvel [I Cefification prograrns
2-n Basics of Common P(lM Methods (pr€suming 30 questions)
2.1 Infrarcd Tesaing 7 questions
2.2 \4b.ation Analysis 7 quesrions
2.3 Oil/LubeAnalysis- 7 questions
).1 \4ororCircuirAnal).rs- J que.rion.
2.5 Alignment - 2 questions
2.6 ThermalTesring 2 quesiions
23 SystemPerfomance- 2 questions
3.0 Machinery Tbchnology(pr$uming Z) questions)
3.1 MachineDesign- 7 quesrions
3.1.1 Lube Systems
3.2 Electrical Componenrs- 5 quesrions
3 . 3 Maintenanc€Concems 3 quesrions
3.3.1 MillwrightConcerns
MachineComponents 3 quesrions
3.5 EngineeringMechanics- 2 questions
18 Recommended

Level I and Level ll
The purposeof this appendixis to provide a guidelinefor the preparationof the General, Level Lnd Levcl II written exami
nations.Extensivee$mples of representativequestionsfor degreeof ditriculty, type. etc., areprovided in scparatcqucslion
booklets,whichcanbe obtainedfromASNT Headquarters. Thesequestions arcintendedasexamplcs only andshouldnot be
usedverbatnnfor qualification examinations.

Note: A11questionsand answen shouldbe retbrencedto a recognizedsource.

Level I

1. A quakative description of the sustained siEral level produced by rapidly occuning acoustic emission events is ihe
accepted definition for:
a. burst emission.
b. acousticemissionsignature.
c. acousticemissionsignal.
d. conti uousemission.
e. none ofthe above.

2. Attenuationofa wave is best definedby which stalement?

a. A decreasein frequency with distance traveled.
b. A denease in amplitnde with distance traveled.
c. Adedease in wave speedwiih distancetaveled.
d. A change in dlrection as a tuncnon of lime.

3. The number of times the acoustic emission signal exceeds a Feset threshold during any selected ponio! of a test is
called the:
acousxcemrssron response,
acousticemissioncount rate.
d. acousticemissionenergy.

LeYel II

l When detectingimpulsive acousdcemissionsignalson Largeobjects,the pe* ofthe signalsnormrlly decreaseswith

incrcasingdistancefrom the source-This alteration.dependenton distance,must be explainedby:
ab$rpt;o!: ;.e..the elr.sticptrlsegraduallyconverlsinto heat.
dispersion:i.e.,thepulsegraduallysprcads ourin time because the differentwavesinvolvedtravel
with differentvelocities.
the geomeiriciactors: i.e., the energyin the pulseis disrribuiedinto everlarger volumes.

Which of lhe following factorswi tendto Foduce loi,-anplilude acousticenission rsponse during a tensile test?
a. low temperature
b. high stain Iaie
c. plasncdefbrmanon
d. cftck propagation

3. The Kaisereffectis:
,. \rlid orly $her lenrngcomponle5.
b. a physicallaw ofnaturethat is neverviolated.
c. not applicable whenxn ms recordineis bejngmade.
d. theabsence of detectable
acousticemissionuntil previouslyappliedstrcsslevelsareexceeded.

RecommendedPraciiceSNT-TC-1A12006) 19
Eddy Current Testing M6thod
L€veI I

r. The impedanceof ar eddy curent restcoil witl incrcaseif rhe:

!. ren lrequenc)
b. inductive reactanceof the coit decreases.
c. inductance ofthe coil decreases.
d. resis.ance of thecoil decrcascs.
2 which of the following restfrequencieswould produceeddy currentswith ihe targestdepthof penerrarion?
a. 100Hz
b. 10 kHz
c. l MHz
d. 10MHz
3. To genemlemeasurableeddy crmentsin a t€st specimen,the specimenmusrbe:

b. an insularor.
c. either a conducroror an insulator.
d. a feromagnericmarerial.
Level tr

1. The fill factorwhena 1.26cm (0.5in.) diarnerer

baris insertedin a 2.54cm (1 in.) djameiercojt is:
0.5 (50percent).
; 0.75 (75 percenr).
d. 0.25(25percent).

2. rrherharacterisiic frequency(fe) of a naterial is 125Hz, rhe restftequencyrequnedto give an flt ratio of l0

b. 12.5Hz.
d_ 12.5kHz.
3. For age-hardened
aluminrm and titanium a]loys.changesjn hadnessare indicatedby cha.gesin:
a. rctentivity.
b. permeabiliry.
c. conducrivity.
d. magnerost.icrion.

Flux LeakageTesting Method

Level I

r. Fluri leal(ageinspectioncan normaltybe apptiedto:

a. fe.romagneticandnonmagnericnaterial.
b. nonmagnericmaaedalsonty.
c. ferromagnetjcmaierialsonly_
d_ nonconductorsonly.
2. The raiio B/41is equivalentro a material's:
lield stlengah.
d. pffmeability.
e. retativepemeability.
20 Recommended
3. ln dre flux leakaseexaminationof tubular Droducts.which of the followins discontinuitiescan be detected?
longitudinaliy oriented
b. transvenelyoriented
all of the above

Level II

1. Tlre highest sensitivity of a Hall generator is obtained when the direction of the magnetic field in relation to tl€
iargest surface of ihe Hall pmbe is:
at an angleof45 degre€s.
at an ansle of 30 or 60 degrees.
d. perpendicular.

2. What particuln type of defectis not indicatedby flux lealage techniques?

b. grain boundarycrack
slag inclusion with crack
d. surfacecontamination

3. In the examinationof tubuiarproductswhereihe flux sensorneasuresthe leakagefield at the outsidesurfaceof the

ourside-diameierdiscontinuiiiesare detected.
b. both ourside-diameterand inside-diameterdiscontinuitiesmay be detected.
borh outside-diameterard inside-diametefdiscontiDuitiescar be detectedbut senerallvcannotbe
distinguishedftorn eachoiher.
both outside-diameterand iNide-diameterdiscontinuitiescan be detectedand seneraLlvcan be dis
tinsuishedftom eachorher.

Bubble Leak Teiting Method
Level I

1. Beforc performing a vacuumbox le3i( test,whicb of the followirg shouldbe checkedfo. requiredcalibration?
a. leak detectorsolution
b. evacuation deviceo. equipment
c. lightingequipment
o. Fessure tor vacNm, gage
2. Which factor can most affect the sensitivity auainableby a Fessurebubbleleat test?
a. operatoralertnessandtecllnique
b. size andshapeof the test specimen
c. time of day iesting is perfonned
d. numberof test technicians

L The letters"psia" mean:

a. presswereferredro National lnstitute of StandardsandTecbnology'sabsoiutepressure.
b. pascalsper squareinch absolute.
c. pressurestandardin absoluteunits.
d. poundsper squareinch absolute.

Level II

I. Wlich of the folowing directly determinesthc size of the b bble formation wheDtesdngusingthe bubbletest
methodof applicaiionof bnbblesolution
amountof leatage from a defector terk
size of the test specimen

). When a vacuun gageis narked wirh a nnge of 0-30 with the notanon"vacuum" on the face, the unils of

a. inchesof mercwy.
b. poundsper squareinch.
c. centimetersof vacuum.
d. feet of water.
l_ The type of leals that a.e most lil€ly to go undetectedduring a bubbleleak test are:
a. very smallleaksandveD'largeleaks.
b. leaksoccuningat weldedjo;.ts.
c. comer-conliguntionjoints.
d. a[ of the above.

Halogen Diode Detector Leak Testing Method

L€Yel I

I. Good operating Factice dictates that the period of time to allow for warm up of the halogen diode detector prior ro
a. 30 minutes.
b. 15 minutes-
c. t hour.
d. as reconmended b] the manufacturer.

2. While adjusnns a reseflot-type variable halogen standard leak, the operator accjdentdlly vents the gas lmm the only
standard leak available. Wlich of the following actions would quickly resolve the prublem?
a. Replace the standard leah.
b. Replace the cylinder in the standard leak.
c. Recharge the standard leat.
d. Send the siaMard leak to the manufacturer for recharging.

3. While pefoming a halogen-diode detector test, the leat detector becomes difficult to zero, and the pointer on the
leak rate metef rcpeatedly swings up scale. The mosi likely cause of (he problem could bc the Lrseof too high a
sensitivityrange,a shoted element,an excessiveheaiervoltage,or:
a. poor aidlow.
b. a sensjng element that is roo new.
c. a hish halogen background.
d. a thull leak r3le meter.

Level II

1_ Most leaks detected during a halogen sniffer test could have be€n de.ected and usually can be verified by:

b. ar nltasonic examination.
a \'isual examination.
d. a Fessurechangetest-

22 Recommended (2006)
2. The presence of small traces of halogen vapors in the halogen diode detector:
a. i n c . c a s erqh ee m i * i o n o f n e g f l i \ e i o n ' .
b. decreasesthe ernissionofposihve rons.
c. i n c r e d s ersl e e m i . . i o no f p . s i r i v e i u n s .
d. deneasesthe emissionofnegative ions.

3. A halogen standard leak of a cenain size produces a known signal on a halogen leak detector. To recejve this same
intensity si$al on the instument dffing the tesi of an object containing a 2 percent by volume halogen air mixtnre,
the size of the leak in ttle objeci causing the signal would theoredcally have to be at least - times lzrger than
ihe standard leak.
b. 50
d. 10

LeYel I

I. The sensitivity of a mass spectometer leak deiection system is the mass flow late of tracer gas:
a. that gives a ma{imum measurable signal.
b. that gives a minimum llleasffable signal.
c. at standard temperatue and Fessure.
d. in a leak.

2. The diftusion pump andmechanicalforc pump iD a massspectometerieak detectionsystem:

a. usethesametyp€of oil.
b. usedifferenttypesofoil.
c. operateusing tlre samemotor.
d. usethe sameprinciple of ope.ation.

3. The helium massspectometerdetector-Fobepressurelesttechniqueis:

a semnutomanctesi.

LeYel II

1 mm ofHg.
c. 1/760 of a standardatnosphere.
d. 760 mm ofHg.

2. When conducting helium mass spectrometer test of a vacuum vessel in the pressuft range of 10 4 to l0_3mm Hg,
which type gage could be used to measure the pressure?
a. alpnaFon gage
b. thermionic jonization gage
c. pfa gage
d. themocoqle gage

3. Helium standad leaks in the Iange of 10 6 to 1010 atm. ccls are known in general terms as:
a. reservoir standard leaks.
b. capjllary standard leaks.
c. pemeation standard ieaks.
d. adju$tablestandardleaks.

PracliceSNT-TCIA (2006) 23
PressureChange MeasurementLeak Testing Method
L€veI I

1. A Fesswe of 66.0,psig,in termsof absolurepessure at sealevet and srandardtemperatue,would be approximarel

a. 96.0psia.
b. 807 psia.
c. 51.3psia.
d. 36.0psia.
2. wl.n conductinga long-durationp'essu'e changetest, ir is necessaryto measureabsoruteprcssm or gagepressure
plus barometricpressurebecausethe ba.ometricprcssffe wil:

3. Wtuch one of ihe following is the correctretationshipfor conveftingtemperaturein degreesRanlin (oR) to

tenperaturein degreesKelvin (K)?
a. K = (5/9)"R
b. K=(5/9).R+273
c. K=460+.R
d. K=2J3"R
Level II

l. Wlen a system'sintemal dry bulbt intemal remperarmeand,in tum, toratpressurc,increasedudng pressure

changelealoge,ratetest,the water vaporpres$r€ ;n the systemundertest would normaly:
a. ncrease,
b. rcmainthe same.

d. oscillate.

2. For a pneumaticallypmssurizedconstant-volumesystemar an internattemperatur of 27

"C, wraL apploxlma€
percentagechangei! the sysremabsoluGpressurecan be expectedfor a systemiftemal temperatffe
of 1 'C?
3 percent
0.3 percent
d. l0 percent
3. One se.of intemal dry butb tenperaturedarafor a Fessurechangeteakagerate tesris:
(Tt + Tz + T)/3 ='7 1.8'7cF
(74- Ir|2= 72.32"F
(76+ Z7y2=',72.6a "F
(Ts+ to+ Trcn3= 13.O1"F

For eachof thesefour sectionsof this system,the rcspecriveweighting factorsarc 0.27,0.18, 0.22,
and0.33. The
meanabsolutedry butb rempentureof systemair for this tesrdatapo;t is:
a. 532J3 "R.
b. 345.53K.
c. 532.48"R.
d. 53248K.

24 Recommended
Level I

I. Which of the fo owing is gercraly the norc acceptablemethodfor cleaningpafis pdor to penerranttesting?
sand blasting
b. wirebrushns

d. vapor degreasing

2. The term usedto defiDethe tendencyof certainliquids to p€netrateinto smal openingssuchas cracksor fissuresis:

b. capillary action.
c. blo$ing.
d. wettrngagent.

3. visible dye penetrant

Which ofthe following is the most commontyusedmethodfor removingnon-water-washable
ftom tbe surfaceof a test specimen?
dipping in a solvent
d. blowing

L€vel II

1. when conductinga pene.ranttest, sphericalindicationson the suface of a pa.t could be indicativeof:

faiigue cracks.
b. porosiry.
weld laps.

2. A commoDlyusedmethodof checkingon the overall pedomance of a penetant materialsystemis by:

a. determiningthe viscosity ofthe penetrant.
b. measuringthe wettability of the penetrant.
c. comparingtwo sectionsof afificially crackedspecinens-
d. all of tbe above.

3. Whichofthe followingis a discontinuity

thatmightbe foundin a forging?
b. tap

d. laminaiion

LeYel I

I. which typ€ of current has a "skin eflect?"

har-wave recnfied

2. The best type of magnetic field to use to inspect a tubular product for surface defects along its length is a:
a. longitudinal field.
b. circular field-
c. swinging field.
d- yoke magnetization.

PracliceSNT-TC-IA{2006} 25
3. which of the following is most often usedfor dry magneticparticle inspection?
ful-cycle direct curent
b. half-wave altematingcurert
high'voltage, low amperagecunent
d. diect cuffent from electrolytic cells

LeYel II

t. wllen testinga barwith anL/D ratioof 4 in a lo-tumcoil, therequiredcurentwouldbe:

a. 45000A.
b. untnown; nore infomation is needed.
c. 18000A.
d. 1 1 2A

2. Whjch of tbesecracksmay appeff as an irregular,checked,or scattercdpattemof fine lines usuallycausedby

local overheating?
grinding cncks

d. HAZ oacks
3. ff a copperconductoris placedtkough a ferous cylinder and a curent is passedthmughthe conductor,then the
magneticfield (1'1uxdensity)in dle cylinder will be:
a. the sameintensity andpattemas in the conductor.
b. $eater than in the conductor.
c. lessthan in the conductor.
d. the sameregardlessof its prcximity to the cyljnder wall.

Level I

1. Neutronpenetrationis greatestin which of the following materials?

a- hydrogenousmaterial
b. water
c. lead
d. boronca$ide

2. cadolidum conversionsffeensarc usualy mountedin rigid holderscalled:

film racks.
d. diaplragms.

3. Which elementis commonlyusedfor direct neutronradiography?

d. Gd
Level II

1. W h i c h o f I h e f o l l o w i n gc o n v e r i o ns c ' e e n sh a cr h e l o n g e shr d l l - t i f e ?

d. gadotinium

26 Recommended (2006)
2. Neutronradio$aphy can be usedfor inspectingwhich of the folowing applications?
presenceof explosivesin a rnetaldevice
presenceof foreign materialssuchas oil
lubdcantsin metal systems
hydrogencontentin metals
all ofthe above

l. Reallime imagingof thermalneutronndiography canbe perfomed widr which of the fouowing dete.clors?
a. gadolinium
b. dysprosium
c. zinc sulfide + lithium fluoide
d. europrum

Lev€l I

I. The most widely usedunit of measurementfor measuringtbe rate at which the output of a gammaray so rce decays
is the:

d. MeV'

). ff an exposue tine of 60 secondswere necessaryusing a 12 m (4 ft) source-to-nlmdistancefor a particulal

exposue, what time would be ne.€ssaryif a 0.61 (2 ft) source-to-fllmdistanceis usedandaI othervariablesremain

b. 30 seconds
15 seconds
d. 240 seconds

3. The sharpnessof the outline in the imageof the radiographis a neasure ot

radiographic def inition

radiographic contrast.
d. film contrast.

Level II

t, Wher radiographingto the 2-2T quality level, an ASTM penetrameterfor 6.35 cm (2.5 in.) ste€lhasa thicknessot
1.27cm (0.sin.).
b. 63.5Um (2.5X i0 3 in.).
127pm (5 x 10 r in.).
1 270!,ln 5 X10, in.).

2. The approxinate radio$aphic equivalencefacton for steelandcopperat 22OkV are I -0 and I 4, respectively.lf it is
desimbleto radiographa (1.27 cn) 0.5 in. plate of copper,what thicknessof steelwould requireaboutthe same
a. 1.78cm (0.7in.) of steel
b. 0.89cn (0.35iD.)of ste€l
c. 3.s6cn (1.4in.) of steel
d. 2.s4cm (1.0in.) of steel

Recommended (2006) 27
3. ff a specinen were mdiogaphed at 40 kV and againat 50 kV with time compensalionto give the radiographsthe
samedensity,which of the following statementswould be true?
The 40 kV exposurewould havelower coDtrastand greaterlatitude than the 50 kV exposure.
The 40 kV exposurewould havehigher contrastand greaterlatitude thar the 50 Kv exposure.
The 50 kV exposurewould havelower contras.and greaterlatitude than the 40 kV exposure.
Ll. The 50 kV exposurewould havehigher contrastand greaterlatitude than the 40 kV exposue.

Questionsfor the Thermal,ilnfraredTestingMethodwere umvailable at the iime of this printing.

LeYel I

I. The amountof beamdivergenceftom a traDsducerelementis primarily dependenton the:

a. type of test.
b. tightnessofthe transducerelementbackingin the searchunit.
c. ftequencyandtransducerelementsize.
d. refractioD.

2. On the dreaamplitudeultrasonicstrndardtest blocks,the flat-bottomedholesin the blocks are:

all of the samediameter.
b. d;fferent;n diameter,increasingby 1/64in. (0.39 mm) inffements from the No. 1 block to the
No. 8 block.
largestin the No. I block and smatlestin the No. I block.
drilled to different depthsfrom the ftont surfaceof the testblock.

3. On many ultrasonictestinginstruments,an operatorconductingan immersiontest canremovethat ponion of the

soeen Fesentationthat rcFesentswater distanceby adjustinga:
pulselength control.
sweep-delay control.
d. sweeplength control.


I. ff a contactangle-beamtraDsducerproducesa 45 degrceshearwave in steel( ys = 0.323 cnls), the angleFoduced

by the sametransducerin an aluninum specimen(vr = 0.310 cnvs) would be:
a. lessdlan 45 desees.
b. grearerrhan45 degrer..
c. 45 degrees.
d. more informationis required.
2. A djscontinuityis locatedhaving an orientationsuchthat its long axis is para el lo rle soundbeam.Ihe indication
from sucha discontinoity will be:
large in propodion to the length of the disconti ity.
small in proportionto the length of the discontinuiry.
rpiesentative of tlle lengthof the discontinuiry
d. suchthat completeloss of back-reflectionwill result.

3. An ultasonic longitudinal wavetravelsin aluminun wirh a velocity of 635,000cnvs and hasa ftequencyof I MHz.
be $a\elene$ ol *Its dtra'onic uave rr:
d. 30 000A.

28 Recommended
Level I

1. The vibration ampliludeis really a responserhat rs:

a. invenely proportionalto ihe dyramic resistancein the system.
b. Fopodional to the amountof displacementin the signal.
c. rot rclatedat all to the dynamicforcesin the system.
d. meaninglessunlessit hasbeeninitialiy takenin acceierationunits

2. If a magneticis attachedto an accelerometer, it will:

a. lower the ftequencyrangecapability of the accelerator.
b. jncreasethe ftequencyrangecapability ofthe accelerator.
c. not allow the accelerometerto readin acceleratronunits anymorc'
d. inqeltse the amplituderangeof the accelerometer.

3. The enteror storekey on a proganrmableFFI Analyzer/Datacollector shouldbe pressed:

a. as soonas*re acceleratoris atlachedto the mountingsudace.
b. after a pauseof 30 secondsfrom the time the accelerometeris nounted.
c- after the readingshavesetileddown (usually3 secondsor longer)
d. inmediately when a display aPp€amon the scleen(to savetime)
Level II

1 A Lissajousorbit that hasa long elliptical (cigar shape)appeararceis an indication of:

b. misaligDment.
an oil whirt.
d. a rub event.

2. The puryoseof a Bode or Polar O.Iyquist)Plot is to lerify the presenc€of:

a. an eccentnclty.
b. a defedive bearhg.
c. a Esonance.
d. a bent shaft.

3. The.wo most commonproblemsthat will producea higher amplitudeat 2X RPM than at 1X RPM in a vibration

a. an eccentricpuley andmechanicallooseness(TypeA).
b. offsel misaligment andmechadcallooseness(TWe B).
c. a shaftbent betweenits bearingsand wom gearteeth.
d. atr unbalance.dshaft md mecharicallooseness(Ilpe C).

(2006) 29
Lev€l I

l_ mich of the folowing is rrue?

a. Alt disconrinuiriesarc defecrs.
b. Defeclstb affe{rlhe producr.s usetitness
arecaled drsconrinuirie5.
c. Di.condnujrie\lharaffe{rrheproducr.s usenr*" *..Jr"r l. .ir.
d. Ati disconrinuiri"" ao oou"c"jtaUt".

2. The dimensionindicatedon rhe skeichof a miffomerer

a. 3.25tun (0.128in.).
b. 5.97mm (0.23sinJ.
c. 3.20mm (0.126in.).
d. 8.33mm (0.328in.).

3. As a visual examinet you shall haveyour eyes

checkedat least:
a. every3 mo hs.
b. every 6 months.

u. everyJ years.
Lev€l II

l Handhetdmagnifien shouldfal inro which of

the followinS rarges?
a. 2xto 4X
b. 5X to 10x
c. lOX to 20X
d. 20X ro 30X
2. \4sual examinelswho perform visual e)(ams using
bmescopesiaJrdfiberscopesmust be:
color blind.
b. abterc meelfar_vilronrequrements(sne en
c. competentin theh use_
d. ambidexrrous.
3. Alanow fiel{i of viewFoduces:
masndjcaLjonanda greakrdeplhof fietd.
:o. Iel.,
anda sbonerdeprhof fietd.
c. lessmagdfication anda gearer deprhof field.
d. lessmagnificationand a shorterdepthof field.

30 Recommended (2006)
Answersto ExampleQuestions
Acoustic Emission Testing M€thod Liquid Penetratrt Terting Method
Lev€l I LeYel II Level I L€vel II
1. d l. d l. d
2 . b 2 . c 2 . b 2 . c
3 . b 3 . d 3 - c 3. b

Electromagrctic Testing Method Magn€tic Particle T€sting M€rhod

Eddy Current Testing MetLod Level I Level II
Level I Level II 1. a 1. d
l d 2 . b 2 . b
2 . a 2 . c 3. b 3 . b
3. a 3. c
Neutmn RadograpNc Testing Method
Flux L€akage Testing Method Level I Level II
L€veI I Level II 1. c
L c 1. d 2 . b 2 . e
2 . d 2 . d 3 . d 3 . c
3. d 3 . d
Radiogaphic Tbsting Method
Leak TesaingMethod LevelI Level II
Bubble Leak Testing Method 1. a 1 d
Level I LevelII 2 . c 2 . a
1. d 3 . b 3. c
2 . a 2 . a
3 . d 3 . a Thermallnfrared Testiq
(Questionsnot yet available)
Leak Testing Method
Ilalogen Diode Detector Llltrasonic Testing Method
Level I Level lI Level I Level II
l. d l a l c 1. a
2 . c 2 . c 2 . b 2 . b
3 . c 3. b 3. c 3 . c

Leak Testing Method Vibration Analysis Method

Mass Spectmmeter
Level I Lev€l II
Level I Levet II 1. a 1. b
1. b 1. c 2 . a 2 . c
2 . b 2 . b 3 . c 3 . b
3. b 3 . c
visual T€stins Method
Leak Testins Method
Lev€l I Level II
Prcssure Change Measurement
1. c 1 . b
Level I Level II 2 . ^ 2 . c
t. b 1. a 3 . c 3. b
2. .l 2 . c
3 . a 3 . a

i2006) 31