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Learning from Others

and Reviewing the

 A literature review is an evaluative report of studies found in the
literature related to your selected area.
The review should describe, summarize, evaluate and clarify this
literature. It should give a theoretical basis for the research and help
you determine the nature of your own research.
Why Do We Review Literature?
There are several reasons why you conduct a literature review, some of them

 Provide a context for the research

 Justify the research
 Enable the researcher to learn from previous theory on the
What Materials to Review?
 General References
Examples are indexes, reviews and abstracts
 Primary Sources
Examples are researches found on published journals.
 Secondary Sources
Publications where authors cite the works of others.
Examples are books, encyclopedias. Secondary sources are good
references for overview of the problem.
 Citing a source means that you show, within the body of your text, that you
took words, ideas, figures, images, etc. from another place.
 Citations are a short way to uniquely identify a published work (e.g. book,
article, chapter, web site). They are found in bibliographies and reference lists
and are also collected in article and book databases.

Citations consist of standard elements, and contain all the information

necessary to identify and track down publications, including:

author name(s)
titles of books, articles, and journals
date of publication
page numbers
volume and issue numbers (for articles)
Forms of Citation

 In-text citation – requires the writer to cite the details of

the reference used in a certain part of his/her essay. The
format of in-text citaton vary per style.

* APA style is required for business student majors (Sipacio and
Barrot, 2014)
Forms of Citation

 Reference Citation– refers to the complete

bibliographic entries of all references used by the
writer. This appears in the reference list found at the
last part of the paper.
Purpose for Citing Sources

 To give credit to the original author of the work

 To promote scholarly writing
 To help your target audience identify your
original source
Citation Style Guide

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological
The Modern Language Association Style Guide

Chicago Manual of Style


 APA (American Psychological Association) style is most

frequently used within the social sciences, in order
to cite various sources. This APA Citation Guide, revised
according to the 6th edition of the APA manual, provides the
general format for in-text citations and the reference page.
For a work with only one author (in-text citation)
 According to Sipacio (2014), APA style is required for business student majors.
 APA style is required for business student majors (Sipacio,2014)

For two authors, notice in the examples and use of “&” when the
citation are inside the parenthesis. (in-text citation)
 According to Sipacion and Barrot (2014), APA style is required for business student majors.
 APA style is required for business student majors (Sipacio & Barrot,2014)
 MLA (Modern Language Association) style
is most commonly used to write papers and
cite sources within the liberal arts and
Chicago Manual of Style
 The Chicago Manual of Style was first published in 1906 under
the title Manual of Style. From its first 203-page edition the
Chicago Manual of style involve into a comprehensive reference
style guide of 1,026 pages in its 16th edition. It was one of the first
editorial style guides published in the United States, and it’s largely
responsible for research methodology standardization, notably
citation style.
The Chicago Manual of style presents two
basic documentation systems;

 Notes and Bibliography

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the
humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style
presents bibliographic information in notes and often, a bibliography. It
accommodates a variety sources, including esoteric ones less
appropriate to the author-date system.
The Chicago Manual of style : Notes and
Ex: Book (One author) -REFERENCE LIST

Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A

Natural History of Four Meals (New York: PUBLICATION DATE

Penguin, 2006), 99–100. PAGE/S

The Chicago Manual of style presents two
basic documentation systems;

 Author-Date
The author date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social
sciences, in this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last
name and date of publication.
The Chicago Manual of style : Author-Date

Ex: Book (One author) – REFERENCE LIST AUTHOR


Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s

Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. TITLE OF THE BOOK

New York: Penguin. PLACE OF