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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT REPORT

RAPID PROTOTYPING AND MANUFACTURING

Course Name Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing


Course Code BNM 30403
Section 2
Programme Code BNM
Group Pair Work
Name Matrix No.
Group Members 1. Adi Imran Bin Mohamad DN150284
2. Muhammad Akram Bin Mohd Asseri DN150290
Lecturer Name Dr Muhammad Bin Zulkipli
Introduction /10%
Objectives /5%
Current Manufacturing /5%
Pro and Cons /5%
Procedures /20%
Product Analysis /25%
Assessment
Discussion /10%
Conclusion /10%
CAD Drawing and Photo of Printed
/5%
Parts
References /5%
TOTAL /100%

OVERALL ASSESSMENT PERCENTAGE /10%

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1. TABLE OF CONTENT

No. Content Page

1. TABLE OF CONTENT 2

2. INTRODUCTION 3- 4

3. OBJECTIVES 4

4. CURRENT MANUFACTURING 5

5. PRO AND CORNS 6

6. PROCEDURES
7 – 14

7. PRODUCT ANALYSIS 15 - 16

8. DISCUSSION 17

9. CONCLUSION 18

10. CAD DRAWING AND PHOTO OF PRINTED PARTS 19

11. REFERENCES 23

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2. INTRODUCTION

In 3D computer graphics, 3D modelling (or three-dimensional modelling) is the process


of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate
or living) in three dimensions via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model.
Someone who works with 3D models may be referred to as a 3D artist. It can be displayed
as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer
simulation of physical phenomena. The model can also be physically created using 3D
printing devices (Stanek et al., 2015).

Models may be created automatically or manually. The manual modelling process of


preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as
sculpting. 3D modelling software is a class of 3D computer graphics software used to
produce 3D models. Individual programs of this class are called modelling applications
or modellers (Team, 2015).

Lego bricks have always been made of plastic, but it’s not always been the same
kind of plastic. From 1949 until 1963, cellulose acetate was the polymer used. This is the
same substance that was once used in the movie industry for films. It’s also used in the
plastic frames of some eyeglasses to this day.

In 1963, Lego changed the plastic their bricks were made from to another
polymer, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). ABS has several advantages over
cellulose acetate: it’s stronger, warps less over time, and is more resistant to colour fading.
The only downside was that, unlike cellulose acetate, ABS is opaque, so transparent Lego
parts can’t be made from it. In these cases, a polycarbonate plastic is now used instead.
To get the various colours of Lego pieces, Macrolex dyes are added to the ABS.

The Lego manufacturing process starts with tiny granules of ABS, brought by the
lorry-load to factories. Here, they’re dumped into giant metal silos, then fed into moulding
machines where they’re heated to 230˚C (450˚F). This melts the granules, producing a
plastic goo which is automatically fed into Lego part moulds. The moulding machine
applies pressure to ensure that the Lego parts are perfectly formed, then they’re cooled

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and ejected. After this, any necessary decorations are added, and parts that need to be put
together, such as mini figures, are assembled.

In 2014, Lego manufactured an astonishing 60 billion parts. Of these parts, at least


318 million are miniature tyres for Lego vehicles – making Lego the biggest tyre
manufacturer in the world. These tyres are made from a slightly different polymer to
ABS, styrene butadiene styrene (SBS).

3. OBJECTIVES
Objectives of an Rapid Prototyping and manufacturing assignment as stated below :

 To redesign an assembly components commonly found in the daily life by


using SolidWorks software and print it using 3D printer
 Selected object should be more than ONE (1) components
 Total volume of all parts must not exceed 50 g.
 Selected object that has been selected must consist of catch mechanism or
snap latch to engage to each other part.
 Optional to modified or add some features with the existing object in term of
function, material reduction, easy assembly, etc.

In current manufacturing in producing new product, there should be many new idea and
the implementation from an idea into real product. As the new developing country, there
are also improvement of small product such as children toys. The new idea or design for
children toy is develop from the drawing and making a prototype. The production of
prototype is not suitable by using the current manufacturing in order to identify the defect
and its prevention of the problem. Thera are also the printing cost will increase if the
production is used for only prototyping product and it is not for marketing purpose.

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4. CURRENT MANUFACTURING

The Lego manufacturing process starts with tiny granules of ABS with
composition consists of styrene, acrylonitrile and polyburadiene. Styrene is made by
mixing ammonia gas with propylene, acrylonitrile is made by separating a fraction of the
steam cracking process of petroleum and polybutadiene is ,made from the
dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene.

The characteristics of ABS are impact Resistant, tough, translucent ivory to white
colour, resistant to aqueous acids and flammable at high temperatures. The Lego system
design uses a flow shop design, as the bricks produced follow a production line from the
creation of the breaks themselves to their later sorting and packaging. Other than that,
Lego could be recycling because they are composed entirely of ABS plastic, a polymer,
the entire product is recyclable and reused to created other polymer based products
(LEVASSEUR, 2015).

For manufacturing process, first step is the chemical bonding which are the
styrene, polybutadiene and acryonitrile are mixed together in a pressure vessel and are
copolymerized thermally. Secondly, ABS plastic arrives at the facility and is vacuum
stored in large silos. Thirdly, ABS travels via tubes to injection moulding machine. Next,
completed ABS bricks are deposited onto conveyer belt and then dropped into bins. Then,
certain multi-part pieces are assembled via mechanical fastening through autonomous
robots. Finally, the finished parts are put into boxes and prepared for global shipping.

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5. PRO AND CORNS

Advantages & Disadvantages of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Polymers

Advantage Disadvantage
- Very sturdy and hard - Made out of oil, so more damaging to the
- Suitable for machine or car parts environment
- Higher melting point - Deforms when not being print on a heated
- Longer lifespan surface
- Hot plastic fumes when printing
- Therefore, you need ventilation
- More difficult to print
- Not suitable for using with food

Advantage & Disadvantage of Poly lactic Acid (PLA)

Advantage Disadvantage
- Can be printed on a cold surface - Can deform because of heat (like a cassette
- More environmental-friendly in a car)
- Shinier and smoother appearance - Less sturdy (than ABS)
- Smell sweet when being print
- No harmful fumes during printing
- Higher 3D printer speed
- More detail

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6. PROCEDURE

Save Solid work drawing each part into ‘stl’ file

No Picture Description

1. Draw and design the selected


part by Solid Works Software.
2. change type of material into the
suitable one which is ABS plastic
1.
or PLA according to the printing
machine
3. Change the colour of part as
cosmetic in the setting menu.

1. Save as the part


2. Rename the part
2. 3. select the save destination of
the drawing

1. Choose Stl fine format to use


3. the drawing for printing process.
2. Click save

1. Repeat the same step of other


4. part which is tyre and wheel from
Solid Works file to ‘stl’ file

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Printing software ‘CURA Software’

No Picture Description

1. Open the CURA software

Click at the browser icon to find


the Stl file of part of model that
2.
have been save into Stl file
early.

Find the location of stl file of


3.
model part and click open.

Selected file of part will appear


in the square box on a platform
4.
which illustrate the position of
the part in printing machine.

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5. Used the move button icon to adjust the part
that will be print.

Used rotation icon to rotate the part in which


6.
position the printing process will begin.

1. Used scale button to change the scale of


the part that will be print.
2. The dimension of the part will change
7.
according to the scale that have been choose.
3. All the part will be print with scale
enlargement of 150%.

1. Insert all part that want to be print and


relocated the position of all part.
2. Used all the functional button to move,
8.
rotate or scale the part.
3. Used view button to change the view of
part.

1. Be sure the part does not place close to


each other.
9.
2. Aware of base of support structure also
will be print and the tolerance between parts.

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Setting printing process

No Picture Description

Ultimaker 3 Extended label the model of


1. machine that the code is used to run
printing process.

1. Select the arrow icon beside the


Ultimaker 3 Extended to change into
other model of machine.
2. 2. Select add machine and small window
will appear as picture beside.
3. Select Ultimaker 2+ and select Add
printer.

1.Set-up all the setting as picture


3. 2. Material PLA
3. Nozzle 0.4mm

Be sure the part is located in suitable


4.
place.

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No Picture Description

1. Select prepare to confirm the setting


and location of print.
5. 2. On this loading process, the software
has been allow to write the coding to
print part.

Save to removable drive appear but


6. select another option which is click at
arrow icon.

7. Select save to File

Select to File bar will appear and click


8.
on it.

1. Rename the file


2. Select the destination the file will be
save.
9. 3. Save the file into SD card
(Ultimaker 2+ only can revieve the
coding through SD card comparing to
Ultimaker 3 Extended its can receive

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from both Removable drive and SD
card.)

Printing handling during the process

No Picture Description

Used Ultimaker 2+ printing machine to


1.
print the model or part.

1. Insert SD card into the slot at the


machine
2. 2. Select print
3. To choose the option rotate big round
button at the machine.

1. Find the file that have been name earlier


and select.
3.
2. To select the file, push at the centre of
button

Heating process will automatically run after


4.
the file have been selected.

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No Picture Description

1. The nozzle of printing process will


5. make the base of the part.
2. The process is printing by layer

All the part have been finished and the


6. platform will goes down into the actual
position before the printing process.

Select back to menu and the SD card can


7.
be remove.

1. Take out the printed model using the


8. scraper.
2. Beware of sharp edge

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Post printing process
No Picture Description

The printed product have the support and


1.
need to clean up.

1. Used the file and small cutter to clean it.


2. 2. Beware of the small part cause its may be
brittle.

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7. PRODUCT ANALYSIS

Printing position

Printing position is one of important technique to determine the satisfaction of end


product after printing process. Position of printing can be categories into two position in
which the model have been print in flat/ horizontal position or vertical position. The
support structure will be attach to the lower part of model while the upper part of printed
model does not have any flaw comparing to other side.

There are variety of position of welding according to the technician or user. Be


alert, the position of printing also can affect the surface finished but also the quality of
printing when it comes to print an high precision design on small scale. There are example
of the printing position.

Table of an option to the positioning of part in CURA software.

No Figure Description

1. Horizontal position or flat condition of model

Horizontal positon which to determine the best


2.
surface facing upward.

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3. Vertical position of model

Vertical position of model and there will be


4.
more support structure.

Shape of design
Redesign of the selected product for this assignment have been done by Solid Works
Software. Design have been modified from the original model one which is a most
marketable LEGO product. The comparison of the design can be seen in in Figure below.
The improvement of the base part of model with additional shape.

Weight
Weight of the selected model is less than 2grams which is an actual size of model. After
undergo redesign and modification of the selected base part of model, the weight can be
evaluate using the Solid Work Software and the material should be change first. The
material of 3D Printing machine Ultimaker 2+ is Polyactic Acid (PLA). The weight of
the model also can be evaluate if the scale have been change into desire value.

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8. DISCUSSION

The position of model have been print on horizontal position as the Figure below
show the end product using 3D printing machine Ultimaker model 2+ using SD card.
The surface finished of the printed model give low quality of surface finished. The upper
side of model for LEGO base part must be position ate facing upward.

Shaped of the model have been done by adding some triangle shape to the base part
of model at both end. The rational of design the triangle shape of the base compare to
current design is the space between the wheel and the base can be expend. It is because
to prevent form the friction occur when wheel and base of model in contact. There are
also larger the base area of the model for more stability of

Weight of the model for printed model is larger than actual designated in Solid Work
Software. It is because to ensure the part of the snipping mechanism at the end of base
model does not break away. The 3D printing machine also

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9. CONCLUSION

A conclusion, we were successfully finished all parts of the project. The project
were to produce the three parts for assemble proposes for one components. Besides that,
the project is to redesign an assembly components commonly found in the daily life by
using SolidWorks software and save into compatible format that suit 3D printer to make
it fit with others during the assembly process before print. Moreover, the project were to
compare the existing product and rapid prototyping product. This project use interlocking
joints were common method for connecting components that are regularly assembled and
disassembled. The use of interlocking joints allows the ability to quickly
assemble/disassemble components. A reduction in the number of components in an
assembly. A simple method for connecting multiple parts together where printer
limitations such as overhangs, bridges or support removal interfere with the quality of a
print. The ability to print assemblies in multiple colours and materials. So overall we were
successfully achieved the objective of the project.

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10. PHOTO OF PRINTED PARTS CAD DRAWING AND

Real product vs printed product

A B C
Pictures A, B, C, and D show the printed product using Ultimaker CURA model 2+

D E F

G H I
Pictures E, F, G, H and I show actual selected product wheel and base of LEGO+

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Isometric drawing of assembly part

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11. REFERENCES

1. LEVASSEUR, W. (2015). 3D Printing Filaments. Expert Tech, 2–4.

2. Stanek, M., Manas, D., Manas, M., Navratil, J. A. N., Kyas, K., Senkerik, V., &

Skrobak, A. (2015). Rapid Prototyping Methods Comparison 2 Principles of Rapid

prototyping, 269–272. Retrieved from http://www.utb.cz

3. Team, T. BEGINNER ’ S GUIDE TO 3D PRINTING, Pub. L. No. Version 0.1, 0

(2015).

4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_modeling

5. http://www.compoundchem.com/2018/04/09/lego/

6. http://3dinsider.com/pla-vs-abs-plastic-pros-cons/

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