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Application Note

Mutual Coupling Measurements

Authors
Lutz Hulka | lutz.hulka@omicron.at
Markus Pütter | markus.puetter@omicron.at

Date
Jul 21, 2010

Related OMICRON Product


CPC 100

Application Area
Cables & Transmission Lines Analysis

Version
v1.0

Document ID
ANP_10002_ENU

© OMICRON Page 1 of 21
Contents
1 Using This Document...................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Operator Qualifications and Safety Standards ........................................................................... 3
1.2 Safety Measures ....................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Conventions and Symbols Used ............................................................................................... 3
1.4 Related Documents .................................................................................................................. 4
2 Safety Instructions for Connecting CP CU1 to Power Lines ......................................................... 5
2.1 Before Starting.......................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Recommended Current Range Settings .................................................................................... 5
2.3 Estimating the Open-Line Voltage ............................................................................................. 5
2.4 Connecting the Measurement Setup to Power Lines ................................................................. 7
3 k Factor and Mutual Coupling Factor Measurement...................................................................... 9
3.1 Why k Factor Measurement? .................................................................................................... 9
3.2 Mutual Coupling.......................................................................................................................10
3.3 Performing Measurements .......................................................................................................12
3.4 Interpretation of Measurement Results.....................................................................................17
3.4.1 Excel CPC 100 File Loader ........................................................................................................ 18

Please use this note only in combination with the related product manual which contains several important safety
instructions. The user is responsible for every application that makes use of an OMICRON product.

OMICRON electronics GmbH including all international branch offices is henceforth referred to as OMICRON.

© OMICRON 2010. All rights reserved. This application note is a publication of OMICRON.
All rights including translation reserved. Reproduction of any kind, for example, photocopying, microfilming, optical
character recognition and/or storage in electronic data processing systems, requires the explicit consent of OMICRON.
Reprinting, wholly or in part, is not permitted.
The product information, specifications, and technical data embodied in this application note represent the technical
status at the time of writing and are subject to change without prior notice.
We have done our best to ensure that the information given in this application note is useful, accurate and entirely
reliable. However, OMICRON does not assume responsibility for any inaccuracies which may be present.
OMICRON translates this application note from the source language English into a number of other languages. Any
translation of this document is done for local requirements, and in the event of a dispute between the English and a non-
English version, the English version of this note shall govern.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 2 of 21


1 Using This Document
Reading the AN CP0801 Application Note alone does not release you from the duty of complying
with all national and international safety regulations relevant to working with the CPC 100 and the
CP CU1. The regulation EN 50191 "The Erection and Operation of Electrical Test Equipment" as
well as all the applicable regulations for accident prevention in the country and at the site of
operation has to be fulfilled.

1.1 Operator Qualifications and Safety Standards


Working on overhead lines is extremely dangerous. The mutual coupling measurements described
in this Application Note must be carried out only by qualified, skilled and authorized personnel.
Before starting to work, clearly establish the responsibilities. Personnel receiving training,
instructions, directions, or education on the measurement setup must be under constant supervision
of an experienced operator while working with the equipment.

The measurements must comply with the relevant national and international safety standards listed
below:

• EN 50191 (VDE 0104) "Erection and Operation of Electrical Equipment"


• EN 50110-1 (VDE 0105 Part 100) "Operation of Electrical Installations"
• IEEE 510 "IEEE Recommended Practices for Safety in High-Voltage and High-Power Testing"
• LAPG 1710.6 NASA "Electrical Safety"

Moreover, additional relevant laws and internal safety standards have to be followed.

1.2 Safety Measures


Before starting a measurement, read the safety rules in the CPC 100 User and Reference Manual
and CP CU1 Reference Manual carefully and observe the application specific safety instructions in
this Application Note when performing measurements to protect yourself from high-voltage hazards.

1.3 Conventions and Symbols Used


In this document, the following symbols indicate paragraphs with special safety relevant meaning.

Symbol Description

Equipment damage or loss of data possible.

Personal injury or severe damage to objects


possible.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 3 of 21


1.4 Related Documents
The following documents complete the information covered in this Application Note:

Title Description
CPC 100 User Manual Provides basic information on the CPC 100
test system and relevant safety instructions.
CPC 100 Reference Manual Provides detailed hardware and software
information on the CPC 100 test system
including relevant safety instructions.
CP CU1 Reference Manual Provides information on the CP CU1 coupling
unit and the CP GB1 grounding box including
typical application examples.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 4 of 21


2 Safety Instructions for Connecting CP CU1 to Power Lines

2.1 Before Starting

Caution: A lightning discharge to the line under test can cause injury or possibly
death of the operating staff. Do not connect the measurement setup to overhead
lines if there is a possibility of a thunderstorm over any part of the lines to be
measured.

Caution: Connecting the measurement setup to overhead lines with a life parallel
system brings about high-voltage hazards. It is strongly recommended to take all
parallel lines out of service before proceeding.

Before connecting CP CU1 to overhead lines or power cables (further on referred to as power lines),
you must estimate the open-line voltage as described in 2.3 Estimating the Open-Line Voltage.
Follow the instructions below exactly and sequentially to protect yourself from high-voltage hazards.
In addition to the following safety instructions, observe "Safety Rules" on page 7 of the CP CU1
Reference Manual V1.4.

2.2 Recommended Current Range Settings


The highest current range allowed by the open-line voltage (see 2.4 Connecting the Measurement
Setup to Power Lines on page 7) provides the best measurement accuracy. However, depending on
the length of the power line under test, this setting may result in CPC 100 overload due to low
driving voltage. As a rule of thumb, the current range required for the power line length is given in
Table 1: Recommended Current Range Settings below. Set the current range switch of CP CU1 to
the value according to the table.

Line Impedance Line Length Current Range Compliance Voltage

0 ... 0.16 Ω 0…2 km/0…1.5 miles 100 A 50 V


0.8 ... 8 Ω 1…10 km/0.5…5 miles 50 A 100 V
4.0 ... 40 Ω 5…50 km/3…30 miles 20 A 250 V
> 16 Ω > 20 km/15 miles 10 A 500 V
Table 1: Recommended Current Range Settings

2.3 Estimating the Open-Line Voltage


To estimate the open-line voltage:

1. Switch off, short-circuit and ground the power line on both sides using an installed grounding
switch or, if no grounding switch is available on site, using grounding cables (further on, the
grounding switch or these extra grounding cables are referred to as grounding switch).
2. Make sure that the connection to ground at the far end of the power line is not removed during
the complete test procedure.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 5 of 21


3. In addition to the grounding switch, ground the line at the near end using a grounding set
consisting of three cables rated for the maximum short-circuit current possible on the line (further
on, this connection is called working ground).
4. Open the grounding switch at the near end of the power line and measure the current through the
working ground using a clamp-on ammeter on all three phases.
5. Close the grounding switch.
6. Calculate the estimated open-line voltage after removal of the grounding cables as follows:

𝑉𝑒𝑠𝑡 [𝑉] = 𝐼𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠 [𝐴] × 0.4[Ω/𝑘𝑚] × 2 × 𝐼𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 [𝑘𝑚] (1)

or

𝑉𝑒𝑠𝑡 [𝑉] = 𝐼𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠 [𝐴] × 0.64[Ω/𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒] × 2 × 𝐼𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 [𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠] (2)

where

𝑉𝑒𝑠𝑡 [𝑉] is the estimated open-loop voltage in volts,


𝐼𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠 is the highest measured current in amperes,
0.4[Ω/𝑘𝑚] = 0.64[Ω/𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒] is the constant of a typical overhead line per wire
and 𝐼𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 [𝑘𝑚] and 𝐼𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 [𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠] is the length of the line in km and miles respectively.

Caution: If the estimated open-line voltage is

• > 500 V, stop. The measurement is not possible due to high-voltage hazard.
Try to take parallel lines out of service.
• 250…500 V, the measurement is possible only in the 10 A range.
• 100…250 V, the measurement is possible in the 10 A or 20 A range.
• 50…100 V, the measurement is possible in the 10 A, 20 A or 50 A range.
• < 50 V, the measurement is possible in all current ranges.

7. If the current range allowed by the estimated open-line-voltage is lower as the current range set
according to Table 1: Recommended Current Range Settings on page 5, set the current range
switch of CP CU1 to the value allowed by the open-line voltage.

Caution: While the grounding switch at the near end of the power line is open, the
area around CP GB1 in the range of 5 m/15 ft and around CP CU1 in the range of
2 m/5 ft is a dangerous zone due to high-voltage and mechanical hazards. Do not
enter the dangerous zone. Keep the grounding switch open for a time as short as
possible.

Caution: If you see or hear anything uncommon in the test equipment, for
example noise of electrical discharge or lightening of surge arrestors, close the
grounding switch before touching the measurement setup.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 6 of 21


2.4 Connecting the Measurement Setup to Power Lines
If the estimated open-line voltage (see Table 1: Recommended Current Range Settings
Estimating the Open-Line Voltage on page 5) allows measurement in the current range you want to
use, connect the measurement setup to the power line as follows:

1. Make sure that the grounding switch is closed.


2. Connect CP GB1 to ground using the delivered cable near the place where the connection to the
line is made. Make sure that the grounding stud is in good condition, clean and free of oxidation.

Caution: Depending on the type of grounding points in the substation, the


appropriate connection set and socket clamp have to be used. Connecting socket
clamps of one type to a grounding point of another system is highly dangerous
on both the connection of the grounding set to CP GB1 and the connection of CP
GB1 to the grounding point in the substation. The 16 to 20 mm socket clamps are
designed and tested for fault currents up to 26.5 kA, the 25 mm (1 inch) socket
clamp for fault currents up to 30 kA, both for a maximum duration of 100 ms. On
locations where higher fault currents are possible, CP CU1 and CP GB1 must not
be used.

3. Disconnect the grounding cables from the ground (the grounding switch is closed!) and connect
them to the CP GB1’s line studs.
4. Position CP CU1 at a minimum distance of 5 m/15 ft from CP GB1.
5. Position CPC 100 at a minimum distance of 5 m/15 ft from CP CU1 and 10 m/30 ft from CP GB1.
6. Ground CP CU1 using a cable of at least 6 mm2 cross-section close to CPC 100 and the position
of the operator.
7. Connect CP CU1 with CP GB1 as shown in Figure 1: Wiring the Measurement Setup on page 7.

Connection using grounding


sets on site

L3/C L2/B L1/A

Figure 1: Wiring the Measurement Setup

© OMICRON 2010 Page 7 of 21


8. Ground CPC 100 using a cable of at least 6 mm2 cross-section close to the position of the
operator.
9. Connect CP CU1 with CPC 100 as shown in Figure 1: Wiring the Measurement Setup above.
10. Mark the area around CP GB1 in the range of at least 5 m/15 ft and around CP CU1 in the range
of at least 2 m/5 ft as dangerous zone.
11. Open the grounding switch and read the voltmeter on the CP CU1’s front panel from outside of
the dangerous zone.

Caution: If the voltmeter’s reading is

• > 500 V, stop. The measurement is not possible due to high-voltage hazard.
• 250…500 V, the measurement is possible only in the 10 A range.
• 100…250 V, the measurement is possible in the 10 A or 20 A range.
• 50…100 V, the measurement is possible in the 10 A, 20 A or 50 A range.
• < 50 V, the measurement is possible in all current ranges.

If the open-line voltage allows measurement, proceed as described in 3.3 Performing


Measurements on page 12.

Make sure that the grounding switch is always closed when no measurement is
performed and especially when the wiring is modified or the current range switch
of CP CU1 is set.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 8 of 21


3 k Factor and Mutual Coupling Factor Measurement

3.1 Why k Factor Measurement?


On most modern secondary distance protection relays, the value of the positive-sequence (line) and
zero-sequence (line-to-ground) impedance or the ground impedance matching factor (k factor) is
required to make the relay settings. The line impedance can be readily calculated but the chosen
values for the ground impedance often do not match the actual conditions. This is because that
nearby parallel systems have an influence on the measurement and thus discrepancies between the
calculated and actual values are generated. Therefore, the mutual coupling factor between two
systems has to be determined to consider these influences for the evaluation of the measurement
results. The accuracy of these settings is crucial to the operation of the relay because they directly
affect the reach of the different protection zones, for example in case of a line-to-ground fault.
Measurements show that in a significant number of cases the k factor of the measured lines is set
more than 20% from its actual value. This can result in zone under- or overreach and consequently,
the selectivity is lost. This situation is particularly relevant to underground power cables.
The k factors are line parameters independent of the fault location describing the ratio of the line and
ground impedances. The following k factor definitions are commonly used:

The complex ratio of the ground impedance 𝑍𝐸 and the line impedance 𝑍𝐿

𝑍
𝑍𝐸 � 0 −1�
𝑍1
𝑘𝐿 = = , (3)
𝑍𝐿 3

Note: 𝑍1 = 𝑍𝐿

the complex ratio of the zero-sequence impedance 𝑍0 and the positive-sequence impedance 𝑍1(see
Figure 2: Zero-Sequence Impedance Definition below)

𝑍0
𝑘0 = (4)
𝑍1

and a couple of real values


𝑅𝐸
(5)
𝑅𝐿

𝑋𝐸
(6)
𝑋𝐿

where 𝑅𝐸 and 𝑋𝐸 are the real and imaginary parts respectively of the ground impedance and 𝑅𝐿 and
𝑋𝐿 are the real and imaginary parts respectively of the line impedance.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 9 of 21


Figure 2: Zero-Sequence Impedance Definition

The single-phase zero-sequence impedance corresponds to a serial connection from the line
impedance 𝑍0 and the triple ground impedance 𝑍𝐸 . The k factor is an important setting of distance
protection relays. The precision of this setting affects the accuracy of distance protection relays
dramatically. The k factor can be calculated, but the calculation results give only a rough estimate of
the actual value. As a wrong k factor setting can cause worse power quality, higher risk to lose the
system stability and loss of power supply, k factor measurements are essential for fast, selective and
reliable distance protection.

Because there are usually strong disturbances by other lines in service, measurement at the mains
frequency is not feasible. All measurements running according to the templates are done below and
above the mains frequency and the results are interpolated. From these results the positive- and
zero-sequence impedances as well as the k factor in various formats are calculated.

3.2 Mutual Coupling


Basically, mutual coupling is nothing but a voltage induced in the parallel system II, which is caused
by a current in system I. Due to the voltage induced in system II, a current also flows in the parallel
system, which in turn induces a voltage in system I. This relation is shown in the following figure.

Figure 3: Mutual Coupling Between Two Wires

For measuring the coupling impedance 𝑍𝑀 , the template requires two measurements. The
advantage of this measurement is that no measurement is required on system II. Rather, all
measurements are conducted on system I. In the first measurement, system II is separated from the
ground on at least one end. Consequently, no current can flow through system II. The result is the
zero-sequence impedance 𝑍01 for the case that no current can flow in system II. For the second
measurement, both ends of the line have to be grounded to ensure a flow of current. However, the
voltage in system II becomes zero. The result of this measurement is the zero-sequence impedance
𝑍02. The coupling impedance 𝑍02 is now calculated from 𝑍01 and 𝑍02:

© OMICRON 2010 Page 10 of 21


𝑍 = 13��𝑍01−𝑍02 �×𝑍01 (7)

The coupling factor can be presented in two versions. The following equation shows the complex
coupling factor 𝑘𝑀 .
𝑍𝑀
𝑘𝑀 = (8)
𝑍1

In the two equations below, the real and imaginary components are split.

𝑅𝑀 𝑋𝑀
𝑎𝑛𝑑 (9)
𝑅𝐿 𝑋𝐿

© OMICRON 2010 Page 11 of 21


3.3 Performing Measurements
Connect the measurement setup to the overhead lines or power cables under test following 2 Safety
Instructions for Connecting CP CU1 to Power Lines on page 5.

Note: For line length below 5 km/3 miles it is recommended to connect the V SENSE input of CP
CU1 as close as possible to the VT of the line to reduce the additional impedance of the current feed
in the path. For longer lines, you can connect the V SENSE input with the Kelvin clamps directly on
CP GB1.

In the course of the k factor test procedure, the following measurements are performed:
• Line-to-line impedance measurements: L1-L2, L1-L3, L2-L3 (Figure 4: Line-to-Line
Measurements below shows the L1-L2 measurement as example.)

Far end

Overhead Line

Near end

V1 AC I AC I AC V1 AC I OUT
CPC 100 CP CU1
EXT. BOOSTER CP GB1
BOOSTER V SENSE

Figure 4: Line-to-Line Measurements

© OMICRON 2010 Page 12 of 21


• Line-to-ground impedance measurements: L1-E, L2-E, L3-E (Figure 6: Zero-Sequence
Impedance Measurement - System II is in operation below shows the L1-E measurement as
example.)

Far end

Overhead Line

Near end

V1 AC I AC I AC V1 AC I OUT
CPC 100 CP CU1
CP GB1
EXT. BOOSTER BOOSTER V SENSE

Figure 5: Line-to-Ground Impedance Measurements

Zero-sequence impedance measurements: L1||L2||L3-E (see Figure 6: Zero-Sequence Impedance


Measurement - System II is in operation, Figure 7: Zero-Sequence Impedance Measurement -
System II is off and
disconnected from the ground on at least one end, and Figure 8: Zero-Sequence Impedance
Measurement - System II is off
and connected to the ground on both ends below).

Short the three phases with the delivered three-lead cable as shown in "Shorting the Phases" on
page 17 of the CP CU1 Reference Manual V1.4.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 13 of 21


Far end

Overhead Line

Near end

V1 AC I AC I AC V1 AC I OUT

CPC 100 CP CU1

EXT. BOOSTER BOOSTER V SENSE

CP GB1

Figure 6: Zero-Sequence Impedance Measurement - System II is in operation

© OMICRON 2010 Page 14 of 21


Far end

Overhead Line

Near end

V1 AC I AC I AC V1 AC I OUT
CPC 100 CP CU1
EXT. BOOSTER BOOSTER V SENSE

CP GB1

Figure 7: Zero-Sequence Impedance Measurement - System II is off and


disconnected from the ground on at least one end

© OMICRON 2010 Page 15 of 21


Far end

Overhead Line

Near end

V1 AC I AC I AC V1 AC I OUT
CPC 100 CP CU1
EXT. BOOSTER BOOSTER V SENSE

CP GB1

Figure 8: Zero-Sequence Impedance Measurement - System II is off


and connected to the ground on both ends

The test procedure is controlled by templates available on the CPC Explorer CD-ROM shipped with
your CP CU1 or in the customer area of www.omicron.at.

It is recommended to use the same test current for all measurements. To find out the highest test
current possible, start the test procedure with the measurement featuring the highest impedance,
that is the L1-L3 measurement on power cables and the L1-E measurement on overhead lines.

After wiring the measurement setup to the line under test proceed as follows:

1. Configure CPC 100 as described in 2.3 Configuring CPC 100 on page 22 of the CP CU1
Reference Manual V1.4 for the CP CU1’s current range set by the current range switch.

Caution: The configured current range must not exceed the limit by the open-line
voltage.

2. Choose the XML template for the mains frequency


(e.g. "Line Imp CU1 60Hz.xmt" for the 60 Hz mains frequency) and open the template.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 16 of 21


Caution: Open the grounding switch at the near end before making the test and
keep it open only during the measurement. Close the grounding switch after the
test and before reconnecting the measurement setup.

3. Run the test procedure.


The following measurements are performed:
• Line-to-line measurements: L1-L2, L1-L3, L2-L3
For each measurement, connect the I OUT and V SENSE inputs of CP CU1 to the
corresponding CP GB1’s line studs.
• Line-to-ground measurements: L1-E, L2-E, L3-E
For each measurement, connect the I OUT and V SENSE inputs of CP CU1 to the
corresponding CP GB1’s line studs.
• Zero-sequence impedance measurements: L1||L2||L3-E
4. If an overload of CPC 100 occurs, reduce the test current or set a lower current range and run
the test procedure once again.
Lower test currents at the two highest frequencies are recommended.
5. Save the test procedure as a file on CPC 100.
6. Download the test file from CPC 100 to the PC using CPC Explorer.

Load the test file into the Microsoft Excel template.


The measurement results are displayed.

3.4 Interpretation of Measurement Results


To interpret the results of line impedance measurements correctly, you have to know details about
the overhead line or power cable under test. You will find below some useful notes about how to
interpret the measurement results.
Usually, the resistive part of the line impedance is relatively constant over the L1-L2, L1-L3 and L2-
L3 as well as L1-E, L2-E and L3-E measurements. If the measurement results differ considerably,
typically contact problems are the reason. In some cases, the grounding switches at the far end of
the line are not as good as necessary for the measurement. Additional grounding cables could help
to avoid the contact problems. For the lines under test shorter than 5 km/3 miles, do not connect the
V SENSE input of CP CU1 with the Kelvin clamps, but rather use additional clamps directly on the
wires of the power line.

The inductive part of the line impedance increases with the distance between the lines. This is
documented by the measurement results stored in an example file delivered with the line impedance
templates (see the marked results in Figure 9: Measurement Results on page 18). The measured
overhead line with the shortest distance between the lines L1 and L3 is shown in Figure 10:
Measured Overhead Line on page 19.

Note: For each line of measurement results there is a separate overload indication top right
on the CPC 100’s screen (or in the report) explained below.

No overload indication means no overload during that step of the measurement sequence.

Dotted overload indication means that there was an overload during that step of the
measurement sequence but not all the time.

Solid overload indication means a permanent overload during that step of the
measurement sequence.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 17 of 21


3.4.1 Excel CPC 100 File Loader

Excel CPC 100 File Loader allows loading XML files generated with CPC 100 into Microsoft Excel
templates for post-processing. Excel CPC 100 File Loader is installed with CPC Explorer. After the
installation, a shortcut to start Excel CPC 100 File Loader appears on your desktop. Templates are
pairs of XML documents and Microsoft Excel templates designed by OMICRON electronics or end
users for designated applications. The XML templates are predefined test procedures, often with
comments, that run on CPC 100 and guide the user through the test. Once completed, the XML file
is saved, downloaded to the PC using CPC Explorer and then loaded with CPC 100 File Loader into
the corresponding Microsoft Excel template. There the results are post-processed and a final test
report is generated. The template pairs facilitate and speed testing with CPC 100 and the evaluation
of results.

Figure 9: Measurement Results

© OMICRON 2010 Page 18 of 21


Click the button "Load XML-File" to open the browse menu to load the desired data to the template.
Click "Print Report" to print the calculated data. Under "Measurements", the results of the
impedances of the nine conducted measurements are shown in Cartesian and Eulerian form. The
relevant calculated impedances are listed under "Impedance Results". 𝑍1 is the arithmetic mean
value of the first three measurements. 𝑍0is the triple value of the measured three-phase zero-
sequence impedance and thus refers to one phase (see Figure 2: Zero-Sequence Impedance
Definition). The coupling impedance 𝑍𝑀 is calculated according to 𝑍= 13��𝑍01−𝑍02�×𝑍01 (7) on page
11. The coupling zero-sequence impedance 𝑍𝑀0 corresponds to the triple value of the coupling
impedance 𝑍𝑀 .

The "Residual Compensation Factor" is the k factor calculated from the determined data for setting
the relays. Under "Residual Compensation Factor Format", one of the three manufacturer-
dependent formats can be selected. Under "Mutual Coupling Factor", the mutual coupling factor is
indicated. Like for the k factor, three different display formats are available.

L2

L1 L3

Figure 10: Measured Overhead Line

The L2-E measurement features the lowest X component because the line is very close to the
ground wire. The X component of the L3-E measurement is decreased by a parallel system taking
course close to L3 on the other side of the tower. Short-circuiting of the parallel system during the
measurement would have increased the effect and would have lead to erroneous results because
this is not the normal operating condition.

Another interesting effect can be observed when measuring power cables. If the screen or shield is
very close to the conductors but the conductors are relatively wide from each other, the inductive
part of the line-to-line measurements is higher than the inductive part of the line-to-ground
measurements, resulting in a negative X component of the calculated impedance 𝑍𝐸 . This seemingly

© OMICRON 2010 Page 19 of 21


strange result is explained as follows. Recalling (see 3.1 Why k Factor Measurement? on page 9)
that the zero-sequence impedance is given by

𝑍0 = 𝑍1 + 3𝑍𝐸 (10)

and hence
�𝑍0 −𝑍1 �
𝑍𝐸 = (11)
3

where 𝑍1 is the positive-sequence impedance and is defined 𝑍𝐸 as a difference between the line-to-
ground loop measurement and a half of the line-to-line loop measurement, the X component of 𝑍𝐸
can become negative.

© OMICRON 2010 Page 20 of 21


OMICRON is an international company serving the electrical power
industry with innovative testing and diagnostic solutions. The application of
OMICRON products provides users with the highest level of confidence in
the condition assessment of primary and secondary equipment on their
systems. Services offered in the area of consulting, commissioning,
testing, diagnosis, and training make the product range complete.
Customers in more than 130 countries rely on the company's ability to
supply leading edge technology of excellent quality. Broad application
knowledge and extraordinary customer support provided by offices in
North America, Europe, South and East Asia, and the Middle East,
together with a worldwide network of distributors and representatives,
make the company a market leader in its sector.

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OMICRON electronics Corp. USA OMICRON electronics Asia Limited OMICRON electronics GmbH
12 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1510 Suite 2006, 20/F, Tower 2 Oberes Ried 1
Houston, TX 77046, USA The Gateway, Harbour City 6833 Klaus, Austria
Phone: +1 713 830-4660 Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R. Phone: +43 5523 507-0
+1 800-OMICRON Phone: +852 2634 0377 Fax: +43 5523 507-999
Fax: +1 713 830-4661 Fax: +852 2634 0390 info@omicron.at
info@omicronusa.com info@asia.omicron.at

For addresses of OMICRON offices with customer service


centers, regional sales offices or offices for training,
consulting and commissioning please visit our web site. www.omicron.at  www.omicronusa.com