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CHAPTER 1

Asking for and showing certainty; expressing and responding to


doubt; asking for repetition; showing concern; showing surprise or
wonder.
People are sometimes sure or not sure about something and they convey it
by using certain expressions. You say “I am sure that I will pass the test” when
you are sure that you will pass a test. When you want to ask whether someone is
sure that he or she will pass a test, you may say to him or her “Are you sure that
you will pass the test”.
People may also sometimes did not hear clearly what someone just said and want
to ask him or her to repeat it.

A. The following are some more examples of expressions for showing certainty,
doubt, repetition and surprises. Read aloud and study the expressions.

Certainty:
1. I’m sure about it.
2. I’m quite sure that he told the truth.
3. I’m absolutely sure about the news.
4. I’m no doubt about it.
5. I’m absolutely certain that he told the truth.
6. I’m sure/certain about …..
7. I’ve no doubt about ……
8. I’m sure/certain about …..
9. I’ve no doubt about ……

Doubt:
1. Sorry, I’m not sure about it.
2. I’m not really sure that he told the truth.
3. I’m not really sure about it.
4. I’m not too sure about the news.
Responses to expressions of doubt which show concern as well:
1. I think you don’t need to be worried about it.
2. Everything will be fine.
3. It’s all going to be okay.
4. Don’t be worried too much. Next time better

Repetition:
I am sorry. What did you say?
I am sorry. Would you repeat what you just said?
I am sorry. Would you mind repeating what you just said?
What?. Could you repeat what you just said?

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Surprises:
1. What a diligent student she is!
2. How diligent she is!
3. What a big surprise!
4. How surprising it is!

Asking for certainty:

Are you certain /sure that Bambang will come to the meeting on time?
that there will be no classes
tomorrow?
that she will keep her promise?
about that?

Showing certainty/doubt:
I am (not) that Bambang will come to the
certain/sure meeting on time.
that there will be no classes
tomorrow.
that she will keep her promise.
about that.

Asking for repetition :Part


I am sorry What did you say?
What? Would you repeat what you just said?
Would you mind repeating what you just said?

Showing surprises:
What a city!
a big city!
a diligent student
How big the city is.
How diligent the student is.

Practice reading with a friend the following short dialogues.

Situation 1
Amir : Tuesday, next week, is the due date for our assignment.
Ani : Sorry. Could you repeat what you just said?
Amir : I said Tuesday, next week, is the due date for our assignment
Ani : Yes, you are right, but, I ‘m sure that I can submit it before that. How
about you?
Amir : I’m not so sure I will be able to make it.
Ani : Yes, you can. I’m sure, you can

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Situation 2
Anang : Did you do the test very well, Andi?
Andi : No, definitely, not. I don’t have a hope of getting even 50.
Anamg : But are you sure?
Andi : Absolutely. Not a hope!
Anang : Don’t worry too much. Next time better.

Situation 3
Fatimah : Anisa, do you think that it will be possible to go on holiday to the
moon in the next fifty years.
Anisa : Well, I am sure it could happen. Why?
Fatimah : Well, I was just wondering it would be a great achievement.

Situation 4
Wahyu : Do you think that England will win the next European Cup?
Natsir : Yes, of course, they will. Why? Don’t you think so?
Wahyu : Well, I am doubtful about that. They have not made a better team,
yet.

Situation 5
Aning : What do you think of our new classmate, Fatimah?
Adi : She is really a diligent student.
Aning : I think so. She has never been late. She is always 15 minutes earlier
before the class starts.
Adi : Is she? What a diligent student she is!

Exercise 1

Fill in the blank in each of the following dialogues with the correct expression.
After that, answer the questions.

Dialogue 1
Tono : What do you think of Yuni?
Rini : I’ve never met such a clever student before in my life. She got 100 for
almost every subject. What ………………..!

Questions:
a. What type of student is Yuni?
b. Who is surprised?
c. Why is he/she surprised?

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Dialogue 2
Bambang : Do you see what the circus man has done?
Agus : Yes. How could not he miss the balloon on the girl’s head even though
he was blindfolded when he was shooting? What ……………….!
Questions:
a. What has the circus man done?
b. Who is surprised?
c. Why is he/she surprised?

Dialogue 3
Adi : Guess what, Aning. Our father just made a surprise on my birthday.
Aning : Really? What happened?
Adi : You’ll never guess. He promised to buy t me a new motorcycle if I get
at least 90 on Math, Science and English.
Aning : A motorcycle? What ……….! Are you sure about it?
Adi : Definitely.

Questions:
1. Who is Aning to Adi?
2. What are Adi and Aning talking about?
3. Who is surprised? List the expressions in the dialogue which show that she/
he is.

Exercise 2

Practice
a. Hi guys. I have good news. We are going to have an English native speaker next
week.
1. What will you say if you are not sure you are going to have an English native
speaker next week?
Your response: ……………………
2. What will you say if you want to check whether your friend is sure about
it?
Your response: …………………………
3. What will you say if you are surprised of the good news?
Your response: ………………………………
4. What will you say if you want the speaker repeat what he has just said?
You response : ………………………….
b. Your classmate says: “You know what? Next Wednesday is Satriyo’s birthday. He
will treat us all.”
1. What will you say if you are doubtful that Satriyo will treat you?
Your response:………………………………

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2. What will you say if you want to ask whether your classmate is sure that
next Wednesday is Satriyo’s birthday party?
Your response: …………………………..
3. What will you say if you are surprised of the news?
Your response: ……………………….
c. One of your classmates says to you, “Are you sure that there will be an English
quiz?”
1. What will you say if you are not sure?
Your response: ……………………………
2. What will you say if you are sure?
Your response: ………………………………
3. What will you say if you did not hear clearly what the speaker just said?
Your response : ……………………………
d. Another classmate says to you, “Are you certain that there will be an English
speech contest at our school?”
1. What will you say if you are not certain?
Your response: ……………………………………
2. What will you say if you are certain?
Your response: ………………………….
e. Andi, one of your classmates who is sick, says to you, “I am not sure that I will
join the study tour to Bali, next week. I might not get well by the time.”
1. What will you say if you have to respond to the statement of doubt and
show your concern as well?
Your response: …………..
2. What will you say if you are certain that he will get well soon and join the
study tour?
Your response: …………….

Exercise 3

Complete the following short dialogues with appropriate expressions and then
act them out.

You and your friend are discussing a football match before watching it on television.
Your friend : Are you sure that Arsenal will win the game?
You : …………………………………

You and your friend have arranged to meet a guest, but he has not arrived.
Your friend : Do you think he’s forgotten to come?
You : ………………………………………………

Your friend has invited you to go and see a horror film. You only rarely like such
films.

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Your friend : Would you like to come?
You : ………………………………………

Your mother has been taken to hospital. Your friend rings him for news.
Your friend : Sorry to hear about your mother. Is it serious?
You : ……………………………………………………………

Your friend is asking for your opinion that Indonesian will be an international
language in the future. You are sure about it.
Your friend : Do you think that Indonesian will be an international language
in the near future.
You : …… …………..

Your classmate is informing that he has just informed you happy news; he has just
got a good grade on TOEFL. You did not hear clearly the last word.
Your classmate : It’s a surprise. I got a good grade on my TOEFL.
You : …………….

B. Social function : To describe how something is accomplished through a


sequence of actions or steps

• First clean the shrimps, remove the heads, and keep the tails.
• Clean the garlic, and slice it thinly and then sprinkle over the shrimps.
• After that, make a mix of the flour and egg, with enough water, salt, and
pepper.
• Heat oil on a pan.
• Then, one by one, put the shrimps into the pan by first dipping it in the
mix
• above. Fry the shrimps until golden.
• Finally put the shrimps on a plate and pour tomato sauce over them..
• To make the tomato sauce, heat the tomato sauce, and add the sugar and
lime
• juice in it.
• Sweet and sour shrimps are ready to serve.

Exercise 4

The following is a dialogue about how to make a banana milkshake. Fill in the
blanks with the appropriate expressions.
A : Mmm, this is a wonderful dessert. What is it?
B : _______________________
A : Really? Is it easy to make?
B : _______________________.
A : Oh, good. What do you need?

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B : _______________________
A : And what do you do with the banana and ice cream?
B : _______________________
A : Yeah…
B : ______________________
A : Sure.

All you need is vanilla ice cream. And a banana, of course.


Don’t you know how to do it now? It’s a banana
milkshake!
You just put all the ingredients into a blender.
It’s pretty simple.
And mix them for thirty seconds.

Exercise 5

Individually make notes about your favorite snack.


What is it?
What ingredients do you need to make it?
How do you make it?

CHAPTER 2
Gerunds

1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the
verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement,
or the object of a sentence.
Examples:
 Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence
 Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence
 I enjoy reading. object of sentence

Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not."


Examples:
 He enjoys not working.
 The best thing for your health is not smoking.
2. Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to
learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the
object of a sentence.

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Examples:
 To learn is important. subject of sentence
 The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence
 He wants to learn. object of sentence
Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."
Examples:
 I decided not to go.
 The most important thing is not to give up.
3. Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a
sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like
normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the
following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in
everyday English. Infinitives emphasize the possibility or potential for
something and sound more philosophical. If this sounds confusing, just
remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or
complement of a sentence.
Examples:
 Learning is important. normal subject
 To learn is important. abstract subject - less common
 The most important thing is learning. normal complement
 The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less
common
4. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or
an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally
interchangeable. Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you
use a gerund or an infinitive.
Examples:
 He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund.
 He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive.
5. Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects. List of Verbs Followed by
Gerunds
Examples:
 She suggested going to a movie.
 Mary keeps talking about her problems.
6. Some verbs are followed by infinitives. List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives
Examples:
 She wants to go to a movie.
 Mary needs to talk about her problems.

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Exercise 1
Change into Gerund!
Verb Gerund Verb Gerund
Block Seek
Break Browse
Run Surf
Watch Beg
Tear Shake
Abandon Ennoble
Embarrass hear

Exercise 2

1. Dan enjoys (read) science fiction


2. Cheryl suggested (see) a movie after work
3. I miss (work) in the travel industry. Maybe I can get my old job back
4. Where did you learn (speak) Spanish? Was it in Spain or in Latin America?
5. Do you mind (help) me translate this letter?
6. He asked (talk) to the store manager.
7. You've never mentioned (live) in Japan before. How long did you live there?
8. If he keeps (come) to work late, he's going to get fired!
9. Debbie plans (study) abroad next year.
10. I agreed (help) Jack wash his car.

Exercise 3

1. I hope (graduate) from college next June.


2. The models practiced (walk) with a book balanced on their heads.
3. Mandy has promised (take) care of our dog while we are on vacation.
4. Mr. Edwards chose (accept) the management position in Chicago rather than the
position in Miami.
5. I don't know what she wants (do) tonight. Why don't you ask her?
6. Frank offered (help) us paint the house.
7. Sandra decided (study) economics in London.
8. Witnesses reported (see) the bank robber as he was climbing out of the
second-story window.
9. Stephanie dislikes (dislike) in front of a computer all day.
10. Mrs. Naidoo appears (be) the most qualified person for the job.

Exercise 4
Please make 5 sentences of gerund!

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CHAPTER 3
The Present Perfect Tense

(+) Subject + have / has + past participle of the main verb.


(-) Subject + have / has + not + past participle of the main verb.
(?) have / has + Subject + past participle of the main verb?

Positive sentences :

Subject Have Has Past participle


I have
You have gone to Baghdad
We have
They have
He has
She has watched the movie
it has

Negative sentences :

Subject Have Has Negative Past participle


I have
You have gone to Baghdad
We have
They have Not
He has
She has watched the movie
it has

Interogative sentences :

Have Has Subject Past participle


have I
have You gone to Baghdad
have We
have They
has He
has She watched the movie
has it

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We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified
time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present
Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week,
when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We
CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once,
many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc

Examples:

 I have seen that movie twenty times.


 I think I have met him once before.
 There have been many earthquakes in California.
 People have traveled to the Moon.
 People have not traveled to Mars.
 Have you read the book yet?
 Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
 A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

Exercise 1

1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars?"


B: I don't know. I (see, never) ……………………that movie.
2. Sam (arrive) …………………in San Diego a week ago.
3. My best friend and I (know) …………..each other for over fifteen years. We still
get together once a week.
4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write) …………….ten very creative short stories
in the last year. One day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway.
5. I (have, not) ……………this much fun since I (be) ……………..a kid.
6. I (tell) him to stay on the path while he was hiking.
7. Listen Donna, I don't care if you (miss) …………….the bus this morning.
8. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he (see,
never) ………………the ocean. He should come with us to Miami.
9. How sad! George (dream) ………………of going to California before he died, but he
didn't make it. He (see, never) ………………the ocean.
10. Jonny, I can't believe how much you (change) ………………….since the last time

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CHAPTER 4
Expressions to tell and Respond interesting news

Expressions to tell interesting news


• Guess what!
• Surprise!
• Funnily enough…
• Normally, ...
• Believe it or not, ...

Responding to interesting news or information


• You know what? This story is really interesting.
• Excellent!
• How great!
• Wow, I can’t believe it.
• This is the most marvelous news I’ve ever read, Sir/Ma’am.
• I believed that news is really interest you much, Sir?Ma’am.

Exercise
Listen to the dialogue from the tape carefully. Then, arrange the expressions in
italics into the correct order.
Loki : Hi, Tari. What’re you doing?
Tari : Hi, Loki. I’m reading the story Si Pungguk from West Sumatra. ssgue
thwa, this is the second time I’m reading it.
Loki : Well, what’s so special? Tell me more.
Tari : This story is about powerful love. Pungguk was a poor good-looking
young man. He fell in love with Princess Purnama Bulan, although they
were in love with each other, Purnama Bulan already had a 􀃀 ance. One
day, Purnama Bulan gave Pungguk a veil. When Pungguk walked, Purnama
Bulan’s 􀃀 ance noticed the veil, and thought that Pungguk stole it. With
his sword, he killed Pungguk. elvebile ti ro ton, from Pungguk’s dead body
grew some mushrooms, it changed into living creatures, birds. Those birds
were called Pungguk, they used to sit on the highest branch of a tree
looking at a full moon. rsrpisiupngyl, they called“Pungguk! Pungguk!”.
Loki : What an interesting story! Well, unfortunately, it ended sadly.

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CHAPTER 5
The Past Perfect Tense

(+) Subject + had + past participle of the main verb.


(-) Subject + had + not + past participle of the main verb.
(?) Had + subject + past participle of the main verb?

Positive sentences :

Subject Had Past participle


I had
You had Seen this movie
We had
They had
He had
She had Broken this fan
it had

Negative sentences :

Subject Had Negative Past participle


I had
You had Seen this movie
We had
They had Not
He had
She had Broken this fan
it had

Interogative sentences :

Had Subject Past participle


had I
had You Seen this movie
had We
had They
had He
had She Broken this fan
had it

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The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another
action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time
in the past.

Examples:

 I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.


 I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
 Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
 Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
 She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
 Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
 We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in
advance.
 A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

Exercise!
1. You look really great! (you, work) ………….out at the fitness center recently?
2. A: What (you, do) ………………….when the accident occurred?
B: I (try) ………………… to change a light bulb that had burnt out.
3. I (have) …………………… the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking
about buying a new one.
4. A: What do you call people who work in libraries?
B: They (call) ………………………..librarians.
5. I came to England six months ago. I started my economics course three
months ago. When I return to Australia,
6. I (study) …………………………for nine months and I (be) ……………………..in England
for exactly one year.
7. Sam (arrive) ………………………..in San Diego a week ago.
8. Samantha (live) …………………………. in Berlin for more than two years.
9. she (live) ……………….there when the Berlin wall came down.
10. The Maya established a very advanced civilization in the jungles of the
Yucatan; however, their culture (disappear, virtually) …………………..by the
time Europeans first (arrive) ………………………….in the New World.

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CHAPTER 5
Polite expressions

Polite expressions
• May I help you .... • Shall I ....
• All right, Sir/Ma’am. • That will be fine ....
• Would you mind .... • Would you please ....
• Could you please .... • Thank you very much for ....

Below is the dialogue for making a hotel reservation. Study the


italicized sentences/phrases carefully. Then, practice it with your
friend.

Receptionist : Good evening, Sir. May I help you?


Guest : Yes, please. My name’s Anderson. I reserved two
rooms for my wife and family.
Receptionist : Ah yes, Mr Anderson. Shall I complete the
registration form for you?
Guest : Oh, thank you. The name’s Anderson. A-N-D-E-R-S-O-N.
Receptionist : And what is your first name, Sir?
Guest : Morgan. M-O-R-G-A-N.
Receptionist : And your private address, Sir?
Guest : 20 Flamboyant Street, Daventry, England.
Receptionist : I’m sorry, Sir. Could you please spell that address for me
again?
Guest : 20 Flamboyant. F-L-A-M-B-O-Y-A-N-T Street. Then
D-A-V-E-N-T-R-Y, Daventry England.
Receptionist : Could you please tell me your passport number, Sir?
Guest : Sure. One moment . Ah, it’s 6 oh 5, 5-7-1-T.
Receptionist : And finally, Sir. How do you intend to pay?
Guest : By credit card. American Express.
Receptionist : That’ll be fine, Sir. Now, we’re putting you in room 265
and 266. You’ve arrived today, the 6th March. How long
are you going to stay with us, Sir?
Guest : Five days.
Receptionist : All right, Sir. I’ll get the porter to show you the room
now. I hope you and your family enjoy staying with us.
Guest : Thank you very much.

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Exercise
Choose the correct answer either a, b, c, or d based on the
dialogue above!
1. Where does the dialogue take place?
a. A restaurant. b. A hotel.
c. A afec. d. A bungalow.
2. What is the name of the guest?
a. Andrew. b. Daventry.
c. Morgan ndAerson. d. Anderson Morgan.
3. How many rooms did he reserve?
a. Two. . b. One.
c. Three d. Four.
4. What should he do after making the reservation?
a. Pay the hotel. b. Make sure that his rooms are ready.
c. Fill in hotel cheques. d. Fill in the registration form.
5. Where does he come from?
a. Bournemouth. b. Spain.
c. England. d. Europe.
6. What is he?
a. A manager. b. A purchasing manager.
c. In PT Heat Exchangers International. d. In England.
7. What is the number of his passport?
a. 6-5-5-7-9-1-T. b. 5-5-7-9-1-T.
c. 5-7-9-7-T. d. 5-7--1-T.
8. How does he intend to pay?
a. Cash. b. By American Express.
c. By credit. d. By debit card.
9. What room is he going to stay in?
a. Room 165. b. Room 166.
c. Room 265. d. Room 266.
10. When is he going to leave the hotel?
a. 10th arMch. b. 11th March.
c. 12th March. d. 13th March.

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CHAPTER 6
Modal Auxiliaries

A. Special Finites ‘May’ and ‘Might’

May
"May" is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to
give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common.

Examples:
 Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. possibility
 Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner.
give permission
 May I use your bathroom? request permission

Using "May" in Present, Past, and Future


Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study
the chart below to learn how "may" behaves in different contexts.

Positive Forms Negative Forms


You can
Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. =
also use:
Past 3. = Future Future

1. Jack may be upset.


I can't really tell if
he is annoyed or
1. Jack may not be upset.
tired.
Perhaps he is tired.
2. Jack may have
may 2. Jack may not have been
been upset. I couldn't might
possibility upset. Perhaps he was tired.
really tell if he was
3. Jack may not get upset, even
annoyed or tired.
if you tell him the truth
3. Jack may get upset
if you don't tell him
the truth.

1. You may leave the 1. You may not leave the table.
table now that you're You're not finished with your
may
finished with your dinner yet.
give can
dinner. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED
permission
2. SHIFT TO "BE TO"
ALLOWED TO" You were not allowed to leave

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You were allowed to the table because you hadn't
leave the table after finished your dinner.
you finished your 3. You may not leave the table
dinner. until you are finished with your
3. You may leave the dinner.
table when you finish
your dinner.

May I borrow your


eraser?
may May I make a phone
can,
request call? NO NEGATIVE FORMS
might
permission Requests usually
refer to the near
future.

Might

"Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in


conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make
suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English.
Examples:
 Your purse might be in the living room. possibility
 If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. conditional
 You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit.
suggestion
 Might I borrow your pen? Request

Using "Might" in Present, Past, and Future


Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study
the chart below to learn how "might" behaves in different contexts.

Positive Forms Negative Forms You can


Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. also
Future = Future use:

1. She might be on the bus. I 1. She might not be on


think her car is having problems. the bus. She might be
might 2. She might have taken the walking home. could,
possibility bus. I'm not sure how she got to 2. She might not have may
work. taken the bus. She might
3. She might take the bus to have walked home.

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get home. I don't think Bill will 3. She might not take the
be able to give her a ride. bus. She might get a ride
from Bill.

1. Even if I entered the


1. If I entered the contest, I
contest, I might not win.
might actually win.
2. Even if I had entered
might 2. If I had entered the contest,
the contest, I might not
conditional I might actually have won.
have won.
of may 3. If I entered the contest
3. Even if I entered the
tomorrow, I might actually win.
contest tomorrow, I
Unfortunately, I can't enter it.
might not win.

1. NO PRESENT FORM
1. NO PRESENT FORM
2. PAST FORM
2. You might have tried the
might UNCOMMON
cheese cake. could
suggestion 3. You might not want to
3. You might try the
eat the cheese cake. It's
cheesecake.
very calorific.

Might I have something to


might
drink? could,
request NEGATIVE FORMS
Might I borrow the stapler? may,
(British UNCOMMON
Requests usually refer to the can
form)
near future.

B. Special Finites ‘Can’ and ‘Could’

Can
"Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be
used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and
to show possibility or impossibility.
Examples:
 I can ride a horse. ability
 We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. opportunity
 She cannot stay out after 10 PM. permission
 Can you hand me the stapler? request
 Any child can grow up to be president. possibility

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Using "Can" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study
the chart below to learn how "can" behaves in different contexts.

Positive Forms Negative Forms


Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = 1. = Present 2. = You can also use:
Past 3. = Future Past 3. = Future

1. I can speak
Chinese. 1. I can't speak
2. SHIFT TO Swahili.
"COULD" 2. SHIFT TO
I could speak Chinese "COULD"
can when I was a kid. I couldn't speak
be able to
general ability 3. SHIFT TO "BE Swahili.
ABLE TO" 3. SHIFT TO "BE
I will be able to ABLE TO"
speak Chinese by the I won't be able to
time I finish my speak Swahili.
course.

1. Even with a burst


1. With a burst of of adrenaline, people
adrenaline, people can can't pick up
pick up cars. something that
2. SHIFT TO "BE heavy.
ABLE TO" 2. SHIFT TO "BE
With a sudden burst ABLE TO"
can
of adrenaline, he was Even the weight
ability during
able to lift the car lifter, couldn't lift be able to
a specific
off the child's leg. the car off the
event
3. SHIFT TO "BE child's leg.
ABLE TO" 3. SHIFT TO "BE
With a sudden burst ABLE TO"
of adrenaline, he will Even three men
be able to lift the working together
car. won't be able to lift
the car.

1. I have some free 1. I don't have any


time. I can help her time. I can't help
can now. her now.
be able to
opportunity 2. SHIFT TO "BE 2. SHIFT TO "BE
ABLE TO" ABLE TO"
I had some free time I didn't have time

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yesterday. I was able yesterday. I wasn't
to help her at that able to help her at
time. that time.
3. I'll have some free 3. I won't have any
time tomorrow. I can time later. I can't
help her then. help her then.

1. I can drive 1. I can't drive


Susan's car when she Susan's car when she
is out of town. is out of town.
2. SHIFT TO "BE 2. SHIFT TO "BE
ALLOWED TO " ALLOWED TO "
I was allowed to drive I wasn't allowed to
can
Susan's car while she drive Susan's car may
permission
was out of town last while she was out of
week. town last week.
3. I can drive 3. I can't drive
Susan's car while she Susan's car while she
is out of town next is out of town next
week. week.

Can't I have a glass


Can I have a glass of
of water?
water?
Can't you give me a
can Can you give me a lift
lift to school? could, may
request to school?
Requests usually
Requests usually refer
refer to the near
to the near future.
future.

Anyone can become


rich and famous if It can't cost more
they know the right than a dollar or two.
people. You can't be 45! I
can
Learning a language thought you were
possibility, could
can be a real about 18 years old.
impossibility
challenge. This use is usually a
This use is usually a generalization or a
generalization or a supposition.
supposition.

Could
"Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make
suggestions and requests. "Could" is also commonly used in conditional
sentences as the conditional form of "can."

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Examples:
 Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. possibility
 Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. past ability
 You could see a movie or go out to dinner. suggestion
 Could I use your computer to email my boss? request
 We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend.
conditional

Using "Could" in Present, Past, and Future


Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the
chart below to learn how "could" behaves in different contexts.

Positive Forms Negative Forms


You can
Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. =
also use:
Future Future

1. John could be the one who 1. Mary couldn't be the one


stole the money. who stole the money.
could 2. John could have been the 2. Mary couldn't have been might,
possibility one who stole the money. the one who stole the money. may
3. John could go to jail for 3. Mary couldn't possibly go
stealing the money. to jail for the crime.

1. Even if I had more time, I


1. If I had more time, I could
couldn't travel around the
travel around the world.
world.
2. If I had had more time, I
could 2. Even if I had had more
could have traveled around
conditional time, I couldn't have
the world.
of can traveled around the world.
3. If I had more time this
3. Even if I had more time
winter, I could travel around
this winter, I couldn't travel
the world.
around the world.

1. NO PRESENT FORM
2. You could have spent your
could
vacation in Hawaii. NO NEGATIVE FORMS
suggestion
3. You could spend your
vacation in Hawaii.

could I could run ten miles in my I couldn't run more than a be able
past twenties. mile in my twenties. to

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ability I could speak Chinese when I I couldn't speak Swahili.
was a kid. "Could" can be used in
"Could" cannot be used in negative sentences in which
positive sentences in which you describe a momentary or
you describe a momentary or one-time ability.
one-time ability. Yesterday, I couldn't lift the
Yesterday, I could lift the couch by myself. Correct
couch by myself. Not Correct

Could I have something to Couldn't he come with us?


could drink? Couldn't you help me with can,
polite Could I borrow your stapler? this for just a second? may,
request Requests usually refer to the Requests usually refer to the might
near future. near future.

Exercise
1. Please make five sentences from may form!
2. Please make five sentences from can form!
3. Please make five sentences from could form!
4. Please make five sentences from migt form!

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CHAPTER 7
Conjunctions

Definition
Some words are satisfied spending an evening at home, alone, eating ice-
cream right out of the box, watching Seinfeld re-runs on TV, or reading a good
book. Others aren't happy unless they're out on the town, mixing it up with other
words; they're joiners and they just can't help themselves. A conjunction is a
joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence .
Study the following explanation about coordinators and connectors.
The sentence connectors are used to link the ideas between sentences.
Coordinating Sentence Connectors Meaning
Conjunctions
and furthermore, besides, additional idea
but, yet in addition contrast idea
for (untuk) more over, also reason
or however, nevertheless choice of two
possibilities
so still in contrast result
nor otherwise negative choice
consequently, therefore, thus,
accordingly

1. AND
 Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a
response."
 Willie heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house.
 Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality.
 Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban
blight.
 Use your credit cards frequently and you'll soon find yourself deep
in debt."
2. BUT
 Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to
live quite comfortably.
 The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage
investment counselor.
 Everybody but Goldenbreath is trying out for the team."

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3. OR
 You can study hard for this exam or you can fail."
 We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat
leftovers.
 Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the country, or
so it seems to most Smith College alumnae.

4. NOR
 He is neither sane nor brilliant.
 That is neither what I said nor what I meant.

5. YET
 John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton.
 The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued
to play golf every day.

6. SO

 So, the sheriff peremptorily removed the child from the custody
of his parents.
Exercise
1. Please make 5 sentences for conjunction and!
2. Please make 5 sentences for conjunction but!
3. Please make 5 sentences for conjunction or!
4. Please make 5 sentences for conjunction nor!
5. Please make 5 sentences for conjunction yet!
6. Please make 5 sentences for conjunction so!

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