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1.1.

Basic ORC Description


ORC is an outstanding technology for distributed production of combined heat and power (CHP)
from various sustainable energy sources. The primary difference between an ORC and a
conventional steam Rankine cycle is the use of an organic working fluid, such as ammonia,
pentane or a halocarbon. The application of organic working fluids allows the extraction of
energy from a low temperature resource at a higher efficiency than conventional steam cycle
technology (Macián, Serrano, Dolz, & Sánchez, 2013). The ORC system consists of four major
components, evaporator, turbine, condenser and pump. The schematic and temperature entropy
diagram of basic ORC is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. The schematic and temperature entropy diagram of basic ORC

Process 1 to 2 in evaporator, working fluid receives heat from heat source at constant pressure
and then expands in turbine at process 2 to 3. Process 3 to 4 in condenser, working fluid is
condensed and rejected heat at constant pressure. Finally, process 4 to 1, working fluid is
pumped back to evaporator. The main difference between steam Rankine cycle and ORC is the
working fluid; in steam cycle is the enthalpy drop during the expansion, is much higher than
organic fluid. For analysis facilitate, the Pressure Enthalpy Diagram for basic ORC is shown in
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Pressure Enthalpy Diagram for basic ORC
The heat received by working fluid in the evaporator, Qev is shown in equation 1.

Qev = ṁr x [h2 − h1 ] ……………………………………….1


The work of turbine, Wt, taking isentropic efficiency of turbine, ƞtu, into consideration. It is
shown in equation 2.

Wt = ṁr x ƞtu x [h2 − h3 ] ……………………………………….2

The heat rejected by the working fluid in the condenser, Qcon is shown in equation 3.

Qcon = ṁr x [h2 − h3 ] ……………………………………….3


The work done by pump, Wp is shown in equation 4.
ṁr x [h1 −h4 ]
Wp = ……………………………………….4
ƞpu

Thermal efficiency of the basic ORC system, ƞtu is shown in equation 5.


Wt −Wp
ƞth = ……………………………………….5
Qev

The ORC system thermal efficiency depends on system components, working fluid, and
operating conditions of heat source, sink and cycle. Parametric optimization was used to analyze
the effect of operating conditions and to find the optimum operating range of operating
conditions for maximum value of thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and net power. The
average thermal efficiency of ORC system vary from 0.02 to 0.11, small systems lower than 5
kW have lower thermal efficiency [Muhammad I, et al., 2014].
1.2. Single stage regenerative ORC cycle

The schematic and temperature entropy diagram for Single Regenerative ORC is shown in Fig.
3. Single regenerative ORC system has an extra pump and feed heater compared to basic ORC
system. In single stage regenerative ORC system, some amount of the working fluid is taken out
between two stages of expansion and used as feed heater before evaporator.

Fig. 3. The schematic and temperature entropy diagram single regenerative

The fraction of mass flow rate into the feed heater, x1, is shown in equation 6.
ℎ −ℎ
𝑋1 = ℎ2 −ℎ1 ……………………………………….6
5 1

The heat received by working fluid, Qev, is shown in equation 7.

Qev = ṁr x [h4 − h3 ] ……………………………………….7

The work of turbine during expansion at stage 1 and stage 2, Wt, is shown in equation 8.

Wt1 = ṁr x ƞtu x [h4 − h5 ] ……………………………………….8

Wt2 = ṁr x (1 − 𝑥1 ) x ƞtu x [h5 − h6 ]

The heat rejected by the working fluid in condenser, Qcon, is shown in equation 9.

Qcon = ṁr x [1 − x1 ] x [h6 − h7 ] ……………………………………….9

The work of both pumps, before and after feed heater, Wp, is shown in equation 10.
ṁr x [1−x1 ] x [h1 −h7 ]
Wp1 = ……………………………………….10
ƞpu

ṁr x [h3 −h2 ]


Wp2 = ƞpu

Thermal efficiency of the single stage regenerative ORC, ƞtu, is shown in equation 11.
Wt −Wp {Wt1 +Wt2 }−{Wp1 +Wp2 }
ƞth = = ……………………………………….11
Qev Qev

Turbine and pump are designed on basis of isentropic efficiency of 0.65 and 0.75 respectively
while heat evaporator and condenser are designed on basic of LMTD method. Similar approach
is adopted for condenser. The evaporator is divided into three sections, pre heater, evaporator
and super heater and each section is designed separately. The heat transfer area of each section is
redesigned for iteration. The total heat transfer area is sum of these three sections. The heat
transfer in the single phase section, Qsp is shown in equation 12.

𝑄𝑠𝑝 = 𝑈𝑠𝑝 𝑥 𝐴𝑠𝑝 𝑥 𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷𝑠𝑝 ……………………………………….12

Usp is the overall heat transfer coefficient of single phase. The value a given from kind the heat
exchanger material and heat transfer condition. LMTDsp is log mean temperature. The value a
given from logarithmic between maksimum temperature and minimum temperature. The single
pressure drop for both cold and hot side consist of only frictional pressure drop, the pressure
drop due to elevation and port pressure loss is neglected for single phase. Evaporator and
condenser designed are based on pressure drop limitation of less than 5% of inlet pressure for
working fluid.

Working Molar mass Critical pressure Critical temperature ODP GWP Type
fluid (kg/kmol) (MPa) (K)
R245fa 134.05 3.64 427.2 0.0 950.0 Dry
R123 152.93 3.66 456.8 1.3 0.012 Isentropic
R11 137.37 4.40 471.1 45 1.000 Isentropic
R141b 116.95 4.46 305.2 0.086 700 Isentropic
R134a 102.03 4.06 374.2 0.0 1550 Wet
The result from [Muhammad I, et al., 2014] for five working fluids (R245fa, R123, R11, R141b,
R134b), R11 has highest both exergy and thermal efficiency for double stage regenerative.
However the specific investment cost (SIC) also highest compared single stage regenerative or
basic ORC.
The exergy efficiency are 0.56 for double stage regenerative, 0.55 for single stage regenerative
and 0.50 for basic ORC. The result of the thermo-economic optimization from basic to single
stage regenerative ORC is 1.01% of the average increase in thermal efficiency with an additional
cost average 187 $/kW while from basic to double stage regenerative ORC is 1.45% of thermal
efficiency with an additional cost average 297 $/kW. This result explain
Results show that double stage regenerative ORC has highest exergy efficiency than basic ORC.
The working fluid R11 has higher exergy efficiency, 0.56 for double stage regenerative
compared than 0.55 for single stage regenerative and 0.50 for basic ORC. The result of the
thermo-economic optimization from basic to single stage regenerative ORC is 1.01% of the
average increase in thermal efficiency with an additional cost average 187 $/kW while from
basic to double stage regenerative ORC is 1.45% of thermal efficiency with an additional cost
average 297 $/kW. Optimization results are rough approximation of thermal and economic
performance of ORC for a capacity range of 30–120 kW. It condition carried out due to
evaporator and condenser designed is based on pressure drop limitation of less than 5% of inlet
pressure for working fluid with heat sources are cost free and only the cost of components is
considered in economical modeling without cost of piping and operator. The optimum
evaporation was between 13 and 16 bar. Each working fluid had a specific range of pressure for
maximum thermal efficiency and minimum SIC.

the increase in expansion and associated enthalpy at the lower condensing temperature. One way
to take advantage of the lower condensing temperatures is with a variable geometry expansion
device. If an expander could take advantage of the increased expansion that occurs at lower
condensing temperatures and associated pressures, the efficiency of an ORC system could be
increased.

The objective function was exergy efficiency and the decision variables were turbine inlet
temperature and pressure.
In this paper, Author also discussed a methodology for sizing a standardized, modular ORC
power-plant for general application. This is due to their flexible nature and the possibility to
precisely adapt to the temperature difference between the heat source and heat sink by proper
selection of working fluid.

The ORC systems which Energetic-Economic optimization in this review is employed a wide
range of heat source. The system consists of six main components; consist of evaporator,
recuperator, condenser, fan, pump, and turbine. The recuperators designed to helps maintain a
high injection temperature; to increases thermal efficiency, and reduces the thermal condenser
load. The heat exchangers are represented by a counter-flow shell and tube configuration, with
working fluid flowing in the shell of the evaporators and in the tube of the air-cooled condensers.
The pump is centrifugal with a variable speed drive. The turbine is equipped with nozzle-vanes,
which are also controlled with an electric drive. The objective function was exergy efficiency
and the decision variables were turbine inlet temperature and pressure. Selection of the working
fluid was found to be a constraining factor in the design.
The unit is a 1 kW double regenerative ORC consisting of four key components: evaporator,
expander, condenser and pump. Turbine and pump are designed on basis of isentropic efficiency
of 0.65 and 0.75 respectively while heat evaporator and condenser are designed on basic of
LMTD method.