Electric Arc furnace (EAF) represents one of the most
intensive and disturbing loads in the electric power system. Utilities
are concerned about the effects such load can cause and try to take
precautions to minimize these effects. Therefore, an accurate model
of an arc furnace is needed to test and verify proposed solutions of
mitigation. One of the most important solutions for the voltage
fluctuations mitigation is the Static Var Compensator (SVC). This
study presents the results where arc furnace is modeled using both
chaotic and deterministic elements. Voltage fluctuations are
captured using the well-studied circuit whereas a dynamic model in
the form of differential equation is used for the electric arc. A more
accurate simulation of developed model is done in Sim-Power-
System environment of the MATLAB 7.12 Version and
Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) for Main
Receiving Substation (MRSS) of EZDK.

© All Rights Reserved

33 tayangan

Electric Arc furnace (EAF) represents one of the most
intensive and disturbing loads in the electric power system. Utilities
are concerned about the effects such load can cause and try to take
precautions to minimize these effects. Therefore, an accurate model
of an arc furnace is needed to test and verify proposed solutions of
mitigation. One of the most important solutions for the voltage
fluctuations mitigation is the Static Var Compensator (SVC). This
study presents the results where arc furnace is modeled using both
chaotic and deterministic elements. Voltage fluctuations are
captured using the well-studied circuit whereas a dynamic model in
the form of differential equation is used for the electric arc. A more
accurate simulation of developed model is done in Sim-Power-
System environment of the MATLAB 7.12 Version and
Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) for Main
Receiving Substation (MRSS) of EZDK.

© All Rights Reserved

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using MATLAB & ETAP

Ahmed M. Hassan Tarek El-Shennawy Amr Abou-Ghazala

Al-Ezz Dekheila Steel Alexandria National Refining and Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of

Co.(EZDK) Petrochemicals Co. (ANRPC) Engineering, Alexandria University

Alexandria 21537Egypt Alexandria 23111 Egypt Alexandria 21544 Egypt

ahmedh@ezzsteel.com.eg tshennawy@yahoo.com a.ghazala@electroopower.com

Abstract— Electric Arc furnace (EAF) represents one of the most general approaches to the problem of arc furnace modeling:

intensive and disturbing loads in the electric power system. Utilities stochastic and chaotic. In most of the previous studies, stochastic

are concerned about the effects such load can cause and try to take ideas are used to capture the periodic, nonlinear, and time-

precautions to minimize these effects. Therefore, an accurate model varying behavior of arc furnaces [4-6]. In [4], the arc furnace

of an arc furnace is needed to test and verify proposed solutions of

load is modeled as a voltage source. The model is based on

mitigation. One of the most important solutions for the voltage

fluctuations mitigation is the Static Var Compensator (SVC). This representation of the V-I characteristics using sinusoidal

study presents the results where arc furnace is modeled using both variations of arc resistance and band limited white noise.

chaotic and deterministic elements. Voltage fluctuations are Research study shows that, the electrical fluctuations in the

captured using the well-studied circuit whereas a dynamic model in arc furnace voltage have proven to be chaotic in nature. Some

the form of differential equation is used for the electric arc. A more chaos-based models reported in specialized literature [7-8] have

accurate simulation of developed model is done in Sim-Power- been applied to simulate ac [9-10] and dc arc furnaces [11].

System environment of the MATLAB 7.12 Version and This paper intends to present an integrated simulation

Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) for Main

modeling of EAF and SVC networks instead of using single

Receiving Substation (MRSS) of EZDK.

valued piece-wise linear V-I characteristics of the arc furnace

Keywords-component— Electric Arc Furnace, Static Var load, a dynamic and multi-valued V-I characteristics are obtained

Compensator, Harmonic Analysis, Power Quality, Flicker by using corresponding differential equations [10]. The output of

Mitigation, MATLAB, ETAP dynamic model developed is modulated with low frequency

chaos signal to produce the arc furnace model. The model

I. INTRODUCTION developed is connected to actual power system model to study

Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) is a widely used device in the voltage fluctuation.

metallurgical and processing industries. It is a nonlinear time The paper is organized as follows; Section II introduces the

varying load, which can cause many problems to the power modeling of EAF. Section III discusses the SVC theory of

system quality such as unbalance, harmonic inter harmonic and operation and background history. Section IV describes the Case

voltage flicker [1]. Thus study of electric arc furnaces has Study for Integrated Model of EAF and SVC. Finally, the

potential benefits for both customers and utilities. An accurate conclusion is presented in section V.

modeling of an EAF will help in dealing with the problems

caused by its operation. Minimization of the undesirable impact II. MODELING OF EAF

of EAFs can improve electric efficiency and reduce power A. Arc Furnace Operation

fluctuations in the system.

Electric arc furnaces are available in both alternating current

The description of an arc furnace load depends on the (AC) and Direct current (DC) models. A transformer directly

following parameters: arc voltage, arc current and arc length energizes furnace electrodes in a high current circuit in arc

(which is determined by the position of the electrodes). Based on furnaces, whereas dc furnaces employ a controlled rectifier to

the study of above essential parameters, many models are set up supply dc to the furnace electrodes. Arc furnace operation may be

for the purpose of harmonic and flicker analysis [2]. In general, classified into stages, depending on the status of the melt and the

they may be classified as follows, a) Time domain analysis time lapse from the initial energization of the unit.

method (Characteristic Method, Time Domain Equivalent

Consider the case of the processing of scrap steel in an ac

Nonlinear Circuit Method), and b) Frequency Domain analysis

EAF. During the melting period, pieces of steel create

method (Harmonic Voltage Source Model, Harmonic domain

momentary short circuits on the secondary side of the furnace

Solution of nonlinear differential equation). Each method has its

transformer. These load changes affect the arc characteristics,

own advantages and disadvantages. Comparison and

causing fluctuations of current. The current fluctuations cause

commendation of different arc furnace models were presented in

variations in reactive power, which cause a momentary voltage

[3]. Most of the existing models make some kinds of

drop or flicker, both at the supply bus and at nearby buses in the

approximation on the characteristic of arc. There have been two

interconnected system. The arc currents are more uniform during

16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

the refining period and result in less impact on the power quality (i) At least one locally active reactor

of the system. Arc furnaces also create harmonic load currents

(ii) At least one nonlinear element.

and asynchronous spectral components. Harmonics represent an

important power quality issue, because they may cause (iii) At least three energy storage elements

undesirable operating conditions such as excess losses in Chua’s circuit satisfies the above requirements.

transformers, mal-operation of drive controllers etc. [1]. Fig.1

shows typical installation of EAF. C. Matlab Simulink Model Of EAF

The development of general dynamic arc model in the form

of a differential equation is based on the principle of conservation

of energy. The approach is fundamentally different from those

methods where some empirical relation is used to represent the

electrical arc. In the dynamic model such relations which are

implicit for steady state conditions are not pre defined and give

result for different conditions depending on both frequency and

current magnitude. Here the arc furnace is modeled in two stages.

First dynamic electric arc modeling is done and the obtained arc

voltage is then modulated with chaotic signal to produce final arc

Fig. 1. Typical installation of EAF furnace model.

Fig.2 shows actual and piece-wise linear approximation of V- The power balance equation for the arc is

I characteristic of an Arc Furnace Load where Vig is the ignition

(1)

voltage and Vex is the extinguish voltage.

Where

P1 represents the power transmitted in the form of heat to the

external environment.

P2 represents the power, which increases the internal energy

in the arc, and which therefore affects its radius.

P3 represents the total power developed in the arc and

converted into heat. The above equation can be represented in the

form of differential equation [13] of the arc:

(2)

Fig. 2. Actual and piece-wise linear approximation of V-I characteristic of an

Arc Furnace Load Where

B. Chaotic Dynamics In Electric Arc Furnaces r is the arc radius and is chosen as the state variable instead of

Chaos, also known as the strange attractor, does not generally taking arc resistance or conductance.

have an accepted precise mathematical definition. Usually from a k1, k2 and k3 are constants relative to EAF melting conditions.

practical view point, it can be defined as the bounded steady-state

behavior that does not fall into the categories of the other three m is the variations of the resistivity with temperature.

steady-state behaviors i.e. the equilibrium points, periodic n is the conditions of cooling.

solutions, and quasi periodic solutions [8]. The equilibrium

points are zero dimensional and periodic solutions are one The arc voltage is given by:

dimensional, where as strange attractors are more complex and

their dimension is a fraction. A chaotic system is a deterministic (3)

system that exhibits random movement and it is a nonlinear

system that exhibits extreme sensitivity in the state trajectory Where

with respect to the initial conditions. It has been observed that the

electric fluctuations in an arc furnace are chaotic in nature [12]. g is defined as arc conductance and is given by the following

equation:

The chaotic component of the arc furnace voltage is obtained

from the chaotic circuit of Chua [10]. To exhibit chaos, the (4)

circuit consisting of resistors capacitors and inductors has to

contain the following:

16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

It is possible to represent the different stages of the arcing III. SVC BACKGROUND AND THEORY OF OPERATION

process by simply modifying the parameters of m and n. The By definition, capacitors generate and reactors (inductors)

complete set of combination of these parameters for different absorb reactive power when connected to an ac power source.

stages of electric arc can be found in [11]. They have been used with mechanical switches for (coarsely)

The state space equations of the above mentioned system controlled var generation and absorption since the early days of

would be in this case: ac power transmission. Continuously variable var generation or

absorption for dynamic system compensation was originally

Ro = - (5) provided by .over- or under-excited rotating synchronous

machines and, later, by saturating reactors in conjunction with

V=i* (6) fixed capacitors.

Implementing the above equations using Simulink blockset as Since the early 1970’s high power, line-commutated

shown in Fig.3, taking the parameters K1= 2500; K2 = 1; K3 = thyristors in conjunction with capacitors and reactors have been

0.0001; n=2; m= 0 the dynamic voltage/current characteristic of employed in various circuit configurations to produce variable

the electric arc are modeled as shown in Fig.4. reactive output, [19]. These in effect provide a variable shunt

impedance by synchronously switching shunt capacitors and/or

reactors "in" and "out" of the network as shown in Fig.6

system voltage is low the SVC generates reactive power (SVC

capacitive). When system voltage is high it absorbs reactive

power (SVC inductive) as shown in Fig.7.

This model is then combined with the band limit white noise

to create the chaotic nature of the arc furnace voltage and current

parameters as shown in the control structure of EAF as shown in

Fig.5 [14-18]

Fig. 5.Control Structure of Arc Furnace

16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

IV. CASE STUDY FOR INTEGRATED MODEL OF EAF AND The fault is cleared and the network restores normal operation.

SVC

4) Case 4 from time 0.5 till 0.7 sec

The integrated model built in the simulink environment is The SVC is in service and the TCR and number of capacitors

based on Pierre Giroux and Gibert Sybille (Hydro-Quebec) SVC reacts with the B.B MVAR.

detailed model in SimPowerSystems™ first and Second

Generation software after eliminating the switching on the filter 5) Case 5 from time 0.7 till 0.9 sec

circuits and integrate the model with the EAF. A three phase short circuit is applied on the furnace B.B

while the SVC is online.

The combined model represents actual complete case study

network of EZZ-DEKEILA Main Receiving Substation with 6) Case 6 from time 0.9 till 1 sec

Point of Common Coupling (PCC) and the configuration is as The fault is cleared.

described in the following table:

Network Data

PCC (kV) 220/66

Substation incoming feeders installed capacity (MVA) 3x380

220/33,

Power Transformers kV, MVA 2x125/150

(ONAN/ONAF)

EAF’s MVA 58 MVA

Short Circuit Capacity, MVA 8000

System X/R Ratio 10

SVC Data

Thyristor Controlled Reactors (TCR), MVA 265

2nd Harmonic Filter, MVAR 35

3rd Harmonic Filter, MVAR 52.5 Fig. 9 Cases shown in the simulation of fault analysis

4th Harmonic Filter, MVAR 40

5th Harmonic Filter, MVAR 52 In Fig.10 an Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program

(ETAP) simulation is implemented to simulate the same network

In order to study the behavior of the network a fault breaker is but in this case to check the total harmonic distortion levels on

added as shown in Fig.8 to simulate the following various cases: the 220 kV level and on the 33 kV level and ensure satisfying

required standards.

Fig. 10 ETAP simulation for THD levels

1) Case 1 from time 0 till 0.2 sec

A. Results & Discussion

During this time the EAF start while the SVC is offline, refer

to Fig.9 As shown in case 1, during normal operation the SVC TCR

reacts from full conduction (90o) to no conduction (180o)

2) Case 2 from time 0.2 till 0.4 sec according to the required reactive power to keep the reference

A three phase short circuit is applied on the furnace B.B voltage 1 p.u.

while the SVC is still offline.

In case 2, when the SVC is offline the fault makes the B.B

3) Case 3 from time 0.4 till 0.5 sec current multiples of normal current and a voltage drop occurs.

16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

In case 5, when the SVC is in service the response of the [7] M. P. Kennedy, ―Three steps to chaos, Part 1:Evolution,‖ IEEE

system is better regarding the damping of the fault current and Trans. Circuit Syst. I, vol. 40, no. 10, Pp. 640–656, October 1993.

the voltage drop on the B.B. [8] M. P. Kennedy ―Three steps to chaos, Part 2:A Chua’s circuit

The THD on the 220 kV level is (0.4%) which is within primer,‖ IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Vol. 40, pp. 657–674, Oct.

standards limit and penalties due to harmonic pollution can be 1993.

easily avoided. [9] E. O’Neill-Carrillo, G. Heydt, E. J. Kostelich, S. S. Venkata, and

A.Sundaram, ―Nonlinear deterministic modeling of highly varying

V. CONCLUSION loads,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 14, pp. 537–542, Apr. 1999.

The EAF Matlab model in this paper gives more realistic [10] O. Ozgun and A. Abur, ―Development of an arc furnace model

simulation to the EAF taking into consideration its chaotic nature. for power quality studies,‖ Proc. IEEE-PES Summer Meeting 1999,

Vol. 1, Pp. 507–511, 1999.

The fault analysis during various conditions also gives a

[11] G. Carpinelli, F. Iacovone, A. Russo, P. Verde, and D. Zaninelli,

better understanding to the system behavior during different fault

―DC arc furnaces: Comparison of arc models to evaluate waveform

scenarios and the interaction between the SVC Model and

distortion and voltage fluctuations,‖ in Proc. IEEE Power Engineering

developed EAF model.

Society 33rd Annual North America Power Symp., Pp. 574–580,2009.

ETAP Modeling showed the harmonic analysis of the [12] Santo Banerjee, Mala Mitra ― Applications of Chaos and

complete network and the contribution of the SVC in eliminating Nonlinear Dynamics in Engineering – Springer Science+Business

system harmonics. Media, 2011.

A techno economical study can be made based on this work [13] E. Acha, A. Semlyen, and N. Rajakovic, ―A harmonic domain

to present the feasibility study of the SVC and its role in computational Package for nonlinear problems and its application to

increasing the EAF efficiency and hence increasing tons of electric arcs,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 5, Pp. 1390–1397,

molten steels produced per year. July 1990.

[14] M.A.Golkar, M.Tavakoli Bina and S.Meschi, ― A Novel Method

VI. REFERENCES of Electrical Arc Furnace Modeling for Flicker Study, 2007.

[1] M. H. J. Bollen, ―Understanding Power Quality Problems— [15] Rahman Hasani, Islamic Azad, ― Design Optimal Controller For

Voltage Sags and Interruptions‖ Piscataway, New York: IEEE Press Reduce Voltage Flicker and Harmonic Distortion in Power System

2000. Base on SVC‖ International Journal of Engineering and Innovative

Technology (IJEIT) Volume 3, Issue 1, July 2013.

[2] M.M. Morcos, J.C. Gomez ―Flicker Sources and Mitigation‖ IEEE

Power Engineering Review, Pp. 5-10, November 2002. [16] Bincy K Jose, ― Evaluation of Power Quality in Arc Furnace

[3] T. Zheng, E. B. Makram, and A. A. Girgis, ―Effect of different arc Using Iec Flicker Meter ‖ International Journal of Engineering and

furnace models on voltage distortion,‖ in Proceedings of the Eighth Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 2008.

International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHPQ), [17] Rolf GrOnbaum, Tomas Custafsson― Improved SVC

, Pp. 1079–1085, Oct.1998. Performance for Flicker Mitigation of an Electric Arc Furnace‖ The

[4] R. C.Bellido and T. Gomez, ―Identification and modeling of a Iron and Steel Technology Conference and Exposition (AISTech), St.

three phase arc furnace for voltage disturbance systems,‖ IEEE Trans. Louis, Mo., 2009.

PWRD. Vol. 12, Pp. 1812–1817, Oct. 1997. [18] Mostafa Azimi, Arash Dehestani Kolagar, Arash Kiyoumarsi

―Voltage Flicker Severity Improvement In A Power Distribution

[5] G. C. Montanari, M. Loggini, A. Cavallini, L. Pitti, and D. Zanielli,

―Arc furnace model for the study of flicker compensation in electrical System Including Electric Arc Furnaces ‖ 22nd International

networks‖ IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 8, Pp. 2026–2036, Oct. Conference on Electricity Distribution, 2013.

1994. [19] Narain G. Hingoranl, Laszlo Gyugyi, Mohamed E. El-Hawary

―Understanding FACTS Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC

[6] S. Varadan, E. B. Makram, and A. A. Girgis, ―A new time domain

Transmission Systems ‖IEEE Power Engineering Society, 2000.

voltage source model for an arc furnace using EMTP,‖ IEEE Trans.

Power Delivery, Vol. 11, Pp. 1685–1690, July 1996.

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