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Harvard Guide

Referencing in the Text


(In Text Referencing)

This guide to using the Harvard system of referencing complies with:


BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. 1990. BS5605 :1990. Recommendations for citing and
referencing published material. 2nd ed. London: BSI and BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. 2010.
BS ISO 690:2010. Information and documentation : guidelines for bibliographic references and citations
to information resources. London: BSI

The use of the Harvard system of referencing has been accepted as University of Wales, Newport policy.
The policy, originally accepted by Academic Board in 28 November 1996, was re-approved at the June
2002 and November 2002 meetings of the Board. The policy states that all undergraduates,
postgraduates and staff should use the Harvard referencing system.

University of Wales, Newport supports the bibliographic management tool RefWorks an online
bibliography and database manager that allows users to create their own personal bibliography.

April 2013

CELT at Newport / CELT yng Nghasnewydd
1. Referencing in the text (in text referencing)

Referencing in the text or in text referencing is where all the sources (text based and electronic) which
you have referred to in your assignment, essay or dissertation are acknowledged (cited). Unintentional
plagiarism can occur if you fail to follow the rules regarding in text referencing of summarised,
paraphrased and quoted work. Every piece of information you use in the text of your assignment, essay
or dissertation that is not part of your own original research, be it an argument, opinion, fact, idea or
theory must be cited in the text and then later listed in alphabetical order by author/editor/artist surname
at the end of the work in the reference section or list.

1.1. Summarising the Work of Others


Summarising or briefly describing the work of another person.

1.1a Where the author name is cited directly and is part of the sentence -put the year of
publication in brackets after the author’s name.

e.g.
McLeod (2011, p. 71) points out there are many ways of gathering qualitative accounts of
experience.

1.1b Where the author name is not cited directly - put authors’ name, the year of publication and
page number in brackets at the end of the summary.

e.g.
It is possible to collate qualitative data using various methods (McLeod 2011, p. 71).

 If you need to use a direct quotation from an e-book that does not have page numbers, we
recommend using the chapter number in your in-text citation instead.

 If you need to use a direct quotation from a web page that does not have page numbers, we
recommend using the browsers ‘print preview’ function to obtain the page number information.

 Note: For summaries (brief descriptions of work) and for indirect quotations some tutors may ask
you to also include a page number. If in doubt, always check.

 When quoted in text or listed in a bibliography, titles of books, journals, newspapers, plays,
novels, collections of essays, poems, films etc., should be italicised.

1.2. Paraphrasing the Work of Others


Paraphrasing the work of another person or putting their theories or ideas in your own words and in
your own style must be cited, or it will be viewed a plagiarism.

The original:

Enormous harm had been done to America, and the country was grieving. Many Americans were
angry and vengeful.

The paraphrased version:

America had suffered greatly and was damaged and sorrowful. A great number of the people
wanted revenge (Poole and Richardson 2006, p. 126).
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1.3. Listing the Work of Others
This is a straight forward list of studies/reports/research in a particular subject field.

e.g.
Further studies which have pursued the issue of women’s language or powerless language are
Leet-Pellegrini (1980), Beattie (1981) and Woods (1989).

1.4. Quotations
There are two types of quotation you can use when writing your assignment, essay or dissertation - the
direct or indirect quote. The direct quote is where you use the author’s own words directly as it was
written in the original work. If you do not use direct quotations i.e. the exact words of the author, but you
can still make reference to what they have written; this is indirect quotation.

Direct quotes are also treated differently in the text depending on whether they are short or long.

1.4a Direct quotes (Short)


Short quotes (under 4 lines of prose) should be placed in the body of the text and enclosed in quotation
marks.

e.g.
As Bell (1993, p. 23) says, ‘finding information in the first place can be hard enough. Finding it
again sometimes afterwards can be even harder unless your methods of recording and filing are
thorough and systematic.’

1.4b Direct quotes (Long or block quotes)


Longer quotations should be preceded by a colon and begin a new line. They should be set off from the
text and indented at least or 2.5 cms (1inch). Quotation marks should not be used. You must include
the page number of the quoted passage, with both long and short quotations.

e.g.
Some of the most sensible advice for anyone carrying out literature search and on keeping
records of their findings states that:

In the early stages of an investigation it may seem enough to jot down a reference on the
back of an old envelope, but old envelopes thrown into a box will not provide you with a
reliable resource, and the likelihood is that references will be incomplete and difficult to
track down at a later stage. If you are going to need half a dozen references, then scraps
of paper may serve, but as your investigation proceeds, you accumulate many sources of
information, and an orderly system is necessary from the beginning (Bell 1993, p. 23).

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Note: Some tutors may ask you to indent a long quote from the right margin as well as the left. If in
doubt, always check.

e.g.
Some of the most sensible advice for anyone carrying out literature search and on keeping
records of their findings states that:

In the early stages of an investigation it may seem enough to jot down a


reference on the back of an old envelope, but old envelopes thrown into a
box will not provide you with a reliable resource, and the likelihood is that
references will be incomplete and difficult to track down at a later stage. If
you are going to need half a dozen references, then scraps of paper may
serve, but as your investigation proceeds, you accumulate many sources of
information, and an orderly system is necessary from the beginning (Bell
1993, p. 23).

With direct quotations (words lifted directly from your source):

 Be accurate.

 Use them discreetly to emphasise a point and prove the author did write what you claim.

 Use them only if they are really worth using.

 Use square brackets [like these] within a quotation to signal your words, not the person you are
quoting from. You can also use these brackets to edit words that were in the quotation.

 Use [sic] to indicate an error in the quotation itself, so as not to make it look as though you copied
it out wrongly.

 Three dots…mean words are missing i.e. you split the quotation, or cut it off before the sentence
had finished.

 If you use quotation marks, make sure you use ‘ ‘ NOT “ “. The latter are speech marks, used
for direct speech.

1.4c Secondary referencing


If an author has quoted or mentioned the work of another author and you wish to cite this reference, you
should first try to read the original item. If that is not possible, you must use secondary referencing to
acknowledge both sources.

A direct reference:
Hutton (1987; cited in Duff 1992, p. 547) concluded that there was 'a considerable homogeneity…'..-

An indirect reference:
Duff (1992, p. 547) cites the work of Hutton (1987) who surveyed the surviving churchwardens' accounts
for Mary's reign.

When citing the reference in the reference list, cite only the work that you have read i.e. Duff, not Hutton.

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