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# ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 1 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 2

## Chapter 2 Transformation of Stress and Strain Applications

Learning Objectives:
 Study the states of stress and strain at points located
on oblique or inclined planes using transformation of
stresses and strains
 Determine principal stresses & strains and maximum
in-plane shear stress & strains
The cracks in this concrete beam were
 Determine the absolute maximum shear stress and These turbine blades are subjected caused by tension stress though the beam
was subjected to both an internal moment
strain in 2D cases to a complex pattern of stress. For
and shear. The stress-transformation
design it is necessary to determine
 Applications to thin-walled pressure vessels where and in what direction the equation can be used to predict the
maximum stress occurs. direction of the cracks and principal normal
stresses that cased them.

## A closed-end cylindrical tank is constructed with a helical weld that makes

an angle   500 about the longitudinal axis and supported by two cradles as
shown in the Fig. (a). The vessel has inner radius r  2 m, wall thickness
At a particular point A on the t  10 mm, and is subjected to an internal pressure of p  500 kPa. Find (a)
surface of an aircraft making a The tangential and axial stresses. (b) The normal and shear stresses
landing, the stresses have the acting perpendicular and parallel to the weld, respectively.
magnitudes and directions
depicted on the stress element in
Figure. Find
(a) The normal and shear
stresses acting on an inclined  y  xy
plane parallel to line a-a.
 x
(b) The normal and shear
stresses acting on an inclined t
plane parallel to line b-b.

a
ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 5 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 6

## y Convention for Denoting Stress (3D Element)

• Normal stress,  ij
z x i – indicates the direction of a normal to the
y plane on which the stress component acts;
 yy j – indicates the direction of the stress.
Usually denoted by  ij , e.g.  xx
 yx
 yz For simplicity
 xy
(a) Internal forces acting on a section of a body acted upon by external forces.  xx  zy  xx  xx is written as  x
(b) Components of an internal force ΔF acting on a small area centered on point O. O  zx  yy is written as  y
 xz
Normal Stress:
Fx dFx  zz x
 xx   x  lim  As dA 0, stress state is at the point O. • Shear stress
A0 A dA
Shear Stresses:  yy i – indicates the direction of a normal to the
Note: Stress values depend on z plane on which the stress component
Fy dFy magnitude of dF and also the
 xy  lim  acts;
A0 A dA direction of dF. j – indicates the direction of the stress.
F dF e.g.  xy
 xz  lim z  z
A0 A dA

## Stresses in 3D Element The cube is stationary (in equilibrium)

y y
Stresses shown are all positive Take moment about z-axis
 yy on a cube of 1 unit length  yy
 yx  xy (11) 1   yx (11) 1
 yx  yz
 yz  xy   xy   yx
 xy For a small isolated element  xx  zy
 xx  zy  xx  xx
O  zx with planes perpendicular to O  zx
1  xz From equilibrium (i.e. taking
1  xz coordinate axes and surrounding
 zz x moment about any axis), we
 zz x a point O, there are 9 stress 1
1 1 can show that
1 components:
 yy  xy   yx
 yy 3 normal stresses
z z  xz   zx
6 shear stresses
Hence, number of “unknown”  yz   zy
As the size of parallelepiped reduces, in the limit, these 9 stress stresses reduced to 6. i.e.
components will define completely, the state of stress at point O.  xx   x ,  yy   y ,  zz   z , xy , xz , yz
ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 9 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 10

## Stress Component in 2D Case  z   xz   yz  0 Stress Component in 2D Case (continued)

Remaining stresses  x ,  y , xy
y

 yx 
x y
xy
 xy 
x x x
z

y

## Consider an arbitrary plane whose normal makes an angle θ with horizontal

(a) Thin plate with in-plane loads
(b) Element in plane stress Q. What are the values of  x , xy in terms of  x ,  y and  xy ?
(c) Two-dimensional (2D) presentation of plane stress

## ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 11 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 12

Consider a cut section of 1 unit of thickness on the element Resolving forces in the x-direction
y
y y
 yx 
x
C Ty  xy  x  AC 1   yx  AB 1  Tx  BC 1
x  C Ty
y x  xy x 1 x
 y
x Tx  Divide the above equation by BC
1 x Tx
 xy y  xy
AC AB
1 Tx   x    yx 
 yx  yx BC BC
A B x B
A x
y y
Let Tx and Ty be the stress components of  x and  xy in x- and y-
directions on the cut plane BC.
ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 13 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 14

y
y y x
AC C
 cos  Ty
BC  x
C  xy
Ty   Tx   x cos    yx sin 
x AB
 sin  x Tx
y BC
   xy 1 Ty   y sin    xy cos 
x Tx AC AB  yx
Tx   x    yx  B x
BC BC A
 xy 1 y
  yx   x cos    yx sin 
A B x Consider the equilibrium of forces on plane BC.

## y In the x direction:  x  BC  1  Tx  BC  1  cos   Ty  BC  1  sin 

AB AC   x  Tx cos   Ty sin 
Likewise, we can show that Ty   y    xy 
BC BC In the y direction:  xy  BC  1  Ty  BC  1  cos   Tx  BC  1  sin 
  y sin    xy cos    xy  Ty cos   Tx sin 

## ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 15

y
Substitute for Tx and Ty into Eqs. for  x and  xy  y x
 yx 
 x   x cos2    y sin 2   2 xy sin  cos  x

xy
 xy   xy (cos2   sin 2  )  ( y   x ) sin  cos  
x  xy x

## Note that when the value of  is increase to    / 2

 x is equivalent to  y , hence,  y can be found by
substituting    / 2 for  in the expression for  x y
y
 y   x cos2 (   / 2)   y sin 2 (   / 2)
 2 xy sin(   / 2) cos(   / 2)
z x
  y   x sin 2    y cos2   2 xy sin  cos 
Tx   x cos    yx sin 
Ty   y sin    xy cos 
Q: Is  y the same stress as  xy ?
 x  Tx cos   Ty sin 
 xy  Ty cos   Tx sin 