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MPA Questions:

1) Differentiate between an emergency and a disaster.

o The community’s capacities are sufficient enough to cope with the vulnerabilities.
o RA 10121 defines emergency as unforeseen or sudden occurrence, especially danger, demanding immediate action.
o When a community has certain vulnerabilities and insufficient capacities to respond to it. In disasters the capacities of the
community cannot cope with the situation.
o RA 10121 defines disaster as a serious disruption in the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human,
material, economic, or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope
using its own resources.
o Often described as a result of the combination of:
! The exposure to a hazard
! Conditions of the vulnerability that are present
! Insufficient capacities or measures to reduce or cope with the potential negative consequences
o Impacts may include:
! Loss of life ! Damage to property
! Injury ! Destruction of assets
! Disease ! Loss of services
! Negative effects on human, ! Social and economic disruption
physical, mental, and social ! Environmental degradation

2) What is risk reduction? Discuss in terms of hazards, vulnerabilities, and capacities

• Risk Reduction aims to reduce damage caused by natural hazards like earthquakes, droughts, floods, and cyclones through prevention. It
is conducted through systematic efforts to analyze and reduce the causal factors of disasters. Specifically it aims the:
o Reduction of exposure to hazards
o Lessening of vulnerability of people and property
o Wise management of capacities, namely land and environment
o Improvement of preparedness and early warning for adverse events.
• It is a proactive minimal approach to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks to minimize loss of life, livelihood, and property.
• Furthermore it incorporates aspects of good governance, sustainable development, risk (natural; human; and climate risks) assessments,
knowledge and education, risk management, vulnerability reduction, disaster preparedness and response – guided by principles of human
rights and security, gender equity and equality, cultural sensitivity and empowering participation.

3) What is zero-casualty goal? Please discuss in terms of objectives, strategies, and activities across all phases of disasters: pre-disaster,
during disaster, and post-disaster.
• The zero casualty goal is a target of reaching zero or no deaths, injuries, missing, and negligible damages throughout a disaster.

Pre-disaster During Disaster Post Disaster

Objectives • Prevention of injury, deaths, missing, and • To establish Emergency Relief and • Recovery or Early Recovery
only have negligible damages. Response • To build back a better and a more resilient
• Mitigation • To have no persons injured, dead, or community.
• Preparedness missing.

Strategies • Preemptive evacuation • Augmentation • Rehabilitation in order to have a fast

• Early warning system • Assumption of response activities recovery
• Reconstruction
Activities • Issuance of alert messages from • Protocoled search and rescue operations • Continuation of Relief Operations
NDRRMC, Pag-asa, MGB, PHIVOLCS, • Augmentation of resources based on rapid • Disease surveillance
and DOH. needs assessment of the affected LGU • WASH
• Early evacuation procedures • Deployment of support resources and • Post-response operation evaluation
• Establishment of evacuation routes teams • Transitional housing
• Formation and training of local disaster • Emergency food and water distribution • Road clearing
committees • Provision of temporary shelter • Water system rehabilitation
• Engineering mitigation • Road and social infrastructure
• Risk mapping reconstruction


4) What are the salient provisions of RA 10121? Please discuss the impact of these salient features with regards to disaster risk management.

Coherence with the international framework RA 10121 was based on the Hyogo Framework for Action. It is congruent with the international
framework’s aims namely the promotion of a systematic and strategic approach to reducing
vulnerabilities and risks to hazards.
Strengthened institutional mechanism for DRRM

Integrated, coordinated, multi-sectoral, inter-agency, and

community-based approach to disaster risk reduction

Adherence to universal norms, principles, and standards of

humanitarian assistance

Good governance through transparency and accountability

Empowerment of local government units (LGUs) and civil

society organizations (CSOs) as key partners in disaster risk

Integration of the DRRM into the educational system

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Fund (DRRMF) at

the national and local levels

Providing for provisions on the declaration of a state of

calamity, remedial measures, prohibited acts and penalties

5) What are the international commitments of the Philippines? Please discuss the international bodies and its contributions in times of


1. Make disaster Risk Reduction A Priority
• Ensure that DRR is a national and local priority w/ a strong institutional basis for
2. Know the risks and take action
• Identify, assess, and monitor disaster risks, and enhance early warning
3. Build understanding and awareness
• Use knowledge, innovation, and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all
4. Reduce underlying risk factors
• Vulnerabilities and exposures
5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels
• Focus on population’s vulnerabilities and capacities

AADMER or ASEAN Agreement on It is a proactive regional framework for cooperation, coordination, technical assistance, and resource mobilization in
Disaster Management and Emergency all aspects of disaster management. It also affirms ASEAN;s commitment to the HFA and is the first legally-binding
Response HFA related instrument in the world.

IHR or International Health Regulations Represents an agreement between 196 countries including all WHO Member States to work together for GLOBAL
Countries agree to build their capacities to detect, assess, and report public health events. W.H.O. plays the
coordinating role in the IHR. It helps countries prevent, detect, inform about, and respond to public health events in a
facilitated manner.


8 Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for development

Sustainable Development Agenda 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

(Goals) 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages
4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
8. Promote sustained inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work
for all.
9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation
10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable.
12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (taking note of agreements made by the UNFCC
14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development
15. Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat
desertification and halt & reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss.
16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build
effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels.
17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

Seven Global Targets (Sendai 1. Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030
Framework for DRR) 2. Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030.
3. Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product by 2030.
4. Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them
health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
5. Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
6. Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable
support to complement their national actions for implementation of this framework by 2030.
7. Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk
information and assessments to the people by 2030.

Various UN Agencies and Organizations Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Committed to Reducing Disaster Risks International Labour Organization (ILO)
International Organization for Migration (IMO)
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
United Nations Development Program – Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (UNDP/BCPR)
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat (UNFCC)
United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA)
United Nations Human Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT)
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
World Food Program (WFP)
World Health Organization (WHO)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
The World Bank
General Assembly
The Inter-agency Standing Committee (IASC)


Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative Objective: enable the UN and other ISDR system members to support governments build and implement a
(CADRI) coherent framework for developing rational capacities for disaster risk reduction including preparedness for
emergency response.

Brings together six UN organizations: UNDP, UNICEF, OCHA, WHO, WFP, FAO
Collaborative mission: deliver as one on capacity development in disaster risk reduction

Center for Research on the Active for 30 years in the fields of international disaster and conflict health studies, with research and training
Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) activities linking relief, rehabilitation, and development. It promotes research, training, and technical expertise on
humanitarian emergencies, with special focus on public health and epidemiology.

Maintains the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). – Serves the purposes of the humanitarian action at national
and international levels. It aims to rationalize decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as providing an
objective base for vulnerability assessment and priority setting. It contains essential core data on the occurrence and
effects of 18, 000 mass disasters from 1900 to present from various sources.

6) Please discuss the principles in disaster risk reduction and management.

DRRM should be: CP-RICC-FP

1. Comprehensive
2. Progressive
3. Risk-driven
4. Integrated
5. Collaborative
6. Coordinated
7. Flexible
8. Professional

Comprehensive Taking into account all hazards, all phases, all stakeholders, and all impacts.

Progressive Anticipate future disasters and take preventive and preparatory measures to build disaster-resistant and disaster-
resilient communities.

Risk-driven Use of sound risk management principles (hazard identification, risk analysis, and impact analysis) in assigning
priorities and resources.

Integrated Ensuring unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community

Collaborative Creating and sustaining broad and sincere relationships among individuals and organizations to encourage trust,
advocate team atmosphere, build consensus, and facilitate communication.

Coordinated Synchronizes the activities of all relevant stakeholders to achieve a common purpose.

Flexible Use of creative and innovative approaches in solving disaster challenges

Professional Values a science and a knowledge-based approach based on education, training, experience, ethical practice,
public stewardship, and continuous improvement.

• Taking into account all hazards, all phases, all stakeholders, and all impacts.
• All hazards – thorough risk assessment and prioritization based on impact and likelihood of occurrence
• All phases – four phases of emergency management: MITIGATION, PREPAREDNESS, RESPONSE, and RECOVERY
• All impacts – broad spectrum in terms of impact on infrastructure, human services, and economy. All impacts or predictable consequences
relating to hazards must be analyzed and addressed.
• All stakeholders – maintain or build close working relationships among all levels of government, the private sector, and the general public.


• Anticipate future disasters and take preventive and preparatory measures to build disaster-resistant and disaster-resilient
• Emergency managers must be strategic in their thinking.
o Role must evolve from no longer being a technician to a manager and senior policy advisor
o Must oversee a community-wide program to address all hazards and all phases of the emergency management cycle.

• Use of sound risk management principles (hazard identification, risk analysis, and impact analysis) in assigning priorities and
• The following should be based upon the specific risks identified:
o Mitigation strategies o Continuity of operations plans
o Emergency operations plans o Pre and post disaster recovery plans
• Resources should also be allocated appropriately to address those at risk

• Ensuring unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community
• Unity of effort – dependent on both horizontal and vertical integration
o This means at the local level, emergency programs must be integrated with other activities of government.
o Plans at all levels of local government must ultimately be integrated with and support the community’s vision and be consistent
with its values.

• Creating and sustaining broad and sincere relationships among individuals and organizations to encourage trust, advocate team
atmosphere, build consensus, and facilitate communication.
• Collaboration
– Attitude or organizational culture
– Characterizes the degree of unity and cooperation that exists within a community.
– Creates the environment in which coordination can function effectively

• Synchronizes the activities of all relevant stakeholders to achieve a common purpose.
• Strategically thinking and seeing the big picture and how each stakeholder fits in that mosaic.
• Emergency manager facilitates the identification of agreed-upon goals and then persuades stakeholders to accept responsibility for
specific performance objectives

• Use of creative and innovative approaches in solving disaster challenges
• Being able to provide alternate solutions to stakeholders and then having the flexibility to implement these solutions is a formula for
success in emergency management

• Values a science and a knowledge-based approach based on education, training, experience, ethical practice, public
stewardship, and continuous improvement.
• Professionalism is not about the emergency manager’s personal attribute but his commitment to emergency management as a profession.

7) Identify the common environmental health problems related to air, water, and land pollution.
Emerging Environmental Health Issues


8) E
• Climate change • Water quality/pollution • Deforestation
• Ozone depletion • Water availability • Fertilizers and pesticides
• Risk from new chemicals or • Surface waters (rivers, lakes, oceans) • Pollution from:
technologies − Organic pollution − Solid waste
• Noise − Over fishing − Liquid waste
n• New air pollution problems (indoor − Coral degradation − Hazardous material (healthcare waste,
and outdoor) − Heavy metals heavy metals from mining)
− Oil spill


how pollutants adversely affect the various components of the environment.


• Emission into the air of hazardous • Infectious diseases organisms can • Accidental chemical spills
substances at a rate exceeding the capacity contaminate drinking water − Soil contaminants are spilled onto
of natural processes in the atmosphere to • Agricultural activities: leading cause of water the surface through many different
purify it. pollution activities
• Presence of air contaminants in sufficient − Sediment eroded from lands • Improper disposal of chemicals and
quantities of such duration as to threaten − Fertilizers and pesticides industrial waste
human, plant, or animal life or to property. − Bacteria from livestock and food − Atmospheric fallout or fume
• Health effects – deteriorative effects processing wastes emissions from metal refining
• Affects properties of materials • Chemicals used in agriculture, industry, works
• Visibility transportation, and homes can spill and leak − Toxic and hazardous chemicals
• Quality of life in general – decreasing into groundwater and make it undrinkable • Agriculture
• Cruise line pollution and coastal water − Agricultural practices & chemicals
pollution could lead to raw sewage, sewage • Mining and quarrying
and agricultural runoff, harmful algal blooms, − Surface/open pit/ strip mining –
and oxygen-depleted zones. undertaken if mineral is near the
earth’s surface
− Processed ore (tailings) – slurry
− Tailing dams – toxic due to
unextracted sulfide minerals,
cyanide, or mercury.
• Sewage sludge
− Untreated sewage can
contaminate land and bodies of
− Land application of raw or
untreated sewage sludge can
contaminate the soil.
• Household solid waste
− Uncontrolled or improper solid
waste disposal
− Open dumping of solid waste

9) Discuss the methods of preventing and controlling environmental pollution.


• Dilute in the atmosphere • Water quality monitoring (level of dissolved • Proper waste disposal (chemical,
• Prevent formation oxygen, chemical analysis) industrial, agricultural, household solid
• Reduce the quantity • Reduction of water pollution from Nonpoint waste etc.)
• Change the process or equipment sources • Minimizing or practicing judicious use of
• Apply air cleaning technology − Prudent use of pesticides agricultural chemicals
− Mechanical cyclonic collectors − Tougher pollution regulations • Responsible mining and quarrying
− Electronic precipitators − Proper waste management (domestic, • Sewage treatment
− Wet scrubbers agricultural, and industrial) • Bioremediation
− Fabric filters or bag houses • Sewage treatment − A treatment process that uses micro-
• Legislation/Law − Septic tank system organisms (yeast, fungi, or bacteria)
− Clean Air Act − Wastewater or sewage treatment plans to break down or degrade hazardous
(primary and secondary sewage substances into less toxic or nontoxic
treatment) substances (CO2 and Water)
• Laws/Legislations
− Clean water act
− Ecological solid waste management act
− Sanitation code of the Philippines
− Toxic and Hazardous Waste Control Act