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SECTION 5

THE
IMPLEMENTATION

1
INTRODUCTION

This section will discuss the


implementation of TQM in an
organisation. Some of the sub-topics that
will be discussed are continuous
improvement, employees empowerment,
benchmarking, communication, training,
etc

2
The implementation of TQM in an
organisation can be divided into 3
stages or phases:

-- Preparation,

-- Planning, and

-- Execution

3
1. Preparation:
During preparation stage, top mgt commitment and
support is very crucial to ensure successful
implementation.
Top mgt will form a team known as Total Quality
Steering Committee (TQSC).

-To develop vision, mission and guiding principles


and set objectives with regards to TQ.
- publicise to all employees
- identify strengths and weaknesses (SWOT
Analysis)
- identify advocates and resistance to TQ.
- determine customers needs and employees
attitude. 4
2. Planning;
Based on information gathered TQSC will
plan the implementation approach using
Deming‘s cycle or PDCA.

TQSC will identify the project and project


teams.

Project teams will be trained on how to carry


out the projects.

5
3. Execution:
Teams are activated to carry out the
projects.

Feedback are used to aid in the execution


stage.

Modifying infrastructure is done when and


as necessary.

Infrastructure could include procedures,


processes, organisational structure, and
award or recognition system.
6
CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

@ Continuous improvement (kaizen) is


essential to TQ,
@ TQ oriented organisations
relentlessly improve their processes,
products and services as well as
their people (through training) day by
day over years to come.
@ It is the cumulative effect of
thousands of small improvements
that creates dramatic change in
performance.
7
8
HOW CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT IS
PRACTICED
Plan – Do – Check – Act (PDCA) cycle provides the
basis for continuous improvement:

@ Specify the problem

@ Identify the causes of the problem

@ Develop a list of potential solutions

@ Analyse the potential benefits of the solutions and


choose one

@ Implement the solution chosen


9
Persistence is the key in continuous improvement
QUALITY – ORIENTED CHANGE
AND ORGANISATION THEORY (OT)
@ The reason for OT change: improve
productivity/job satisfaction

@ The source of OT change: top


management

@ Types of OT change: changes in values


and norms

@ OT change versus TQ change: OT change


limited in scope and duration
10
ORGANISATION THEORY
PRINCIPLES AND TQM

Principles of OT management change applied


to TQM:

@ Unfreeze people‘s attitude and behavior


before the change

@ Change can only succeed with effective


leadership

11
ORGANISATION THEORY
PRINCIPLES AND TQM

@ Change agent must manage


interdependencies

@ Effective change must involve the


people whose jobs are being changed

@ Refreezing is needed to make gains


permanent

12
SUMMARY

@ Organisational change is essential in TQ

@ Three types of change practiced in TQ:

- Cultural Change

- Continuous improvement

- Process redesign

@ Some of the recommendations made by


OT are applicable to TQM 13
Empowerment is to provide everyone with
the responsibility and the resources to
display real leadership with their own
sphere of competence

- M.J. Kiernan, Academy of Management Executive

14
INTRODUCTION TO EMPOWERMENT

# Giving people throughout the organisation


the power to make a difference, contributes
greatly to providing quality products and
services to their customers

# Empowerment is a natural extension of


employee involvement

# Empowerment represents a high degree of


involvement in which employees make
decisions themselves and are responsible
for their outcomes

15
INTRODUCTION TO
EMPOWERMENT
# For empowerment to occur, managers must
undertake two major initiatives:

- Identify and change organisational


conditions that make people powerless,
and

- Increase people‘s confidence that


their efforts to accomplish something
important will be successful

# Empowerment embodies ―vertical‖ teamwork


between managerial and non-managerial personnel16
Definition:
Many use the term empowerment without
understanding what it really means. A
literature review resulted in no clear definition
of the concept, especially one that could
cross-disciplinary lines.

Empowerment can be defined as a multi-


dimensional social process that helps people
gain control over their own lives. It is a
process that fosters power in people for use in
their own lives, their communities and in their
society, by acting on issues they define as
17
important.
Empowerment can also be defined in
terms of management as giving
someone power- granting the authority
to do whatever is necessary to satisfy
customers, and trusting employees to
make the right choices without waiting
for management approval.

18
To begin to expose the concept of
empowerment, we need to understand the
concept broadly in order to be clear about
how and why we narrow our focus of
empowerment for specific programs and
projects (specific dimension or level, etc.)
and to allow discussion of empowerment
across disciplinary and practice lines.

At the core of the concept of empowerment


is the idea of power.

19
The possibility of empowerment depends
on two things.

First, empowerment requires that power


can change.
If power cannot change, if it is inherent in
positions or people, then empowerment is
not possible, nor is empowerment
conceivable in any meaningful way.
In other words, if power can change, then
empowerment is possible.

20
Second, the concept of empowerment
depends upon the idea that power can
expand.

This second point reflects our common


experiences of power rather than how we
think about power.

21
To clarify these points, we first discuss
what we mean by power.

Power is often related to our ability to


make others do what we want, regardless
of their own wishes or interests (Weber,
1946).

Traditional social science emphasizes


power as influence and control, often
treating power as a commodity or structure
divorced from human action (Lips, 1991).
22
Conceived in this way, power can be viewed
as unchanging or unchangeable. Weber
(1946) gives us a key word beyond this
limitation by recognizing that power exists
within the context of a relationship between
people or things.

Power does not exist in isolation nor is it


inherent in individuals.
By implication, since power is created in
relationships, power and power relationships
can change.

Empowerment as a process of change, then,


23
becomes a meaningful concept.
THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPOWERMENT

# Only employees involved in the system day-


to-day have an in depth understanding of the
current system

# Giving employees responsibility for their own


work has led to improvement in quality,
productivity, motivation, customer service,
speed of decision making and morale

# Employee involvement creates the


organisational context need to support quality
Improvement processes
24
THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPOWERMENT

# Empowerment led to greater levels of


satisfaction among the workforce

# Empowered employees give faster and


friendlier service to their customers

# Employee satisfaction strongly related to


customer satisfaction

# Maintaining an enjoyable work environment


frees people to concentrate solely to the
needs of their client
25
HOW EMPOWERMENT LEADS TO
QUALITY
Continuous
improvement

Quality
empowerment products and
customer
service

Job
satisfaction

26
PRINCIPLES OF EMPOWERMENT
1. Empower sincerely and completely

@ Empower for improvement value, not


for public relations value

@ Semi empowerment does not work,

@ Set clear guidelines on responsibility


and authority

@ Managers need to be patient on


results 27
PRINCIPLES OF EMPOWERMENT
2. Establish mutual trust:

@ Trust must be backed up by actions.

@ Managers must not take advantage from


increased productivity by cutting the
workforce.

@ Provide employees with business


information.
Sharing business information with
employee relates directly to quality,
customer services and competitiveness. 28
PRINCIPLES OF EMPOWERMENT

3. Ensure that employees are capable:

# To operate in an empowered
environment, the employees need the
technical and interpersonal skills

# Ensure employee capability by


selecting and training employees

29
PRINCIPLES OF EMPOWERMENT

4. Do not ignore middle management

Roles for middle managers:

# Maintain focus on the organization's


values

# Manage solutions to system-level


problems

# Act as teachers and coaches


30
PRINCIPLES OF EMPOWERMENT

5. Change the reward system;

@ Intrinsic rewards – that are part of


the job itself and the personal
satisfaction of accomplishing
something worthwhile i.e.
responsibility, challenge, autonomy,
purpose and feedback or rewards
that are self-administered

31
@ Extrinsic rewards, including pay
for skills and profit sharing

Extrinsic: rewards that are external to the


job, i.e., pay, bonuses, promotion,
incentives, fringe benefits or tangible
awards; or rewards that are administered
by someone else (i.e. the carrot.)

32
EMPOWERMENT IN ACTION

SEMCO;

# Cross-functional teams setting their


own work hours, strategies and
salaries

# Cut back eleven levels of management


to three

# Information is widely shared


33
EMPOWERMENT IN ACTION

RITZ-CARLTON:

# ―Ladies and gentlemen serving ladies


and gentlemen‖

# Employees empowered to commit


company funds when needed to
satisfy customers

# twice as much employee


―complaints‖ as customer complaints
34
Empowerment In Action

Los Alamos National Bank

Employees complete a personal self


assessment of their strength and of
opportunities to improve their customer-
service skills and technical competence

Employees are expected to create value


for customers, and they are given the
authority and resources to act proactively and
decisively. 35
When Empowerment Doesn’t Work

1. Management support and commitment is


non existent or not sustained

2. Empowerment is used as a manipulative


tool to ensure employees complete tasks and
assignments without giving them any real
responsibility or authority

3. Managers used empowerment to abdicate


(give up) responsibility or task accountability,
accepting accolades (awards) for successes
and assigning faults to others for failure. 36
When Empowerment Doesn’t
Work

4. Empowerment is deployed selectively,


dividing the workforce into those who are
empowered and those who are not

5. Empowerment is used as an excuse not to


invest in training or employee development

6.Managers fail to provide feedback and do not


recognise achievement

37
EMPOWERMENT AND THEORIES
OF MOTIVATION
Job Characteristics Theory (JCT):

# TQM increases skill variety and task


identity, hence jobs become more
meaningful

# Empowering people will increase


employees‘ motivation
38
EMPOWERMENT AND THEORIES
OF MOTIVATION

Acquired Needs Theory :

# People are motivated by work that


fulfills their needs

# TQ fulfills need of affiliation ( in


teamwork )
39
EMPOWERMENT AND THEORIES
OF MOTIVATION
Goal Setting Theory:

# People who have clear goals will


work quicker, perform better and are
more motivated

# TQ highly goal related, even though


TQ strives for continuous
improvement
40
SUMMARY
# Empowerment improves quality by
allowing people to use their resources
to address quality problems and by
changing conditions that lead to poor
customer service.

# Principles of empowerment include


developing trust between
management and employees and
sharing business information widely in
the organisation. 41
Cont’d

# Empowerment is associated with


several OB (organisation- business)
theories, including job characteristics
theory, acquired needs theory and
goal setting theory

42
BENCHMARKING

HISTORY:

1979, Xerox Corp. initiated a process


called ‗competitive benchmarking‘ due to
stiff competition from the Japanese.

By 1981, benchmarking was adopted as a


corporate wide effort within Xerox.

43
1983, Xerox CEO announced they would
become leaders through quality.

Benchmarking then moved from


manufacturing aspects to service and
from competitor benchmarking to other
methods of benchmarking.

44
Actually the term benchmarking was first
used by cobblers to measure people's feet
for shoes. They would place someone's foot
on a "bench" and mark it out to make the
pattern for the shoes.

Benchmarking is used to measure


performance using a specific indicator (cost
per unit of measure, productivity per unit of
measure, cycle time of x per unit of measure
or defects per unit of measure) resulting in a
metric of performance that is then compared
to others.
45
What is Benchmarking?

Benchmarking is the process of


comparing one's business processes and
performance metrics to industry bests
and/or best practices from other industries.

Dimensions typically measured are quality,


time, and cost. Improvements from
learning mean doing things better, faster,
and cheaper.
46
Benchmarking involves management
identifying the best firms in their industry, or
any other industry where similar processes
exist, and comparing the results and
processes of those studied (the "targets") to
one's own results and processes to learn
how well the targets perform and, more
importantly, how they do it.

47
a number of reasons for benchmarking,
including to:

* improve productivity and lower costs,

* accelerate and manage change,

* achieve breakthroughs and innovation,

* set performance targets, and

* create a sense of urgency.

48
Definition;

According to David T Kearnes (former


CEO of Xerox):

Benchmarking is the continuous process


of measuring products, services and
practices against the toughest
competitors or those companies
recognised as industry leaders.

49
Benchmarking Clearinghouse defines
benchmarking as:

―Benchmarking is the practice of being


humble enough to admit that someone
else is better at something, and being
wise enough to learn how to match and
even surpass them at it‖.

50
Grinyer and Goldsmith said that
benchmarking is:

― the ongoing structured process of


measuring and improving products,
services, practices and processes
against the best that can be identified
worldwide to achieve and sustain
competitive advantage‖.

51
BENCHMARKING

Benchmarking is the search for best


practices that will lead to superior
performance:

# Determine which functions to


benchmark

# Identify key performance indicators to


measure 52
BENCHMARKING
# Identify the best – in – class
companies

# Measure the performance of the


best – in – class companies and
compare the results to your own
performance

# Define and take actions to meet or


exceed the best performance 53
Benchmarking Methodology

Phase 1: Plan—establish the project scope,


develop the data collection
approach and requirements, and
set the criteria for peer groups.

Phase 2: Collect—collect data.

54
Phase 3: Analyze—analyze and validate
information collected to identify
performance levels, leading practices,
enablers, and proven templates and
other tools.

Phase 4: Adapt—report and develop


action plan for change.

55
Types of benchmarking:

1. Competitive Benchmarking – comparison


of the organisation‘s performance against
one or more competitors.

2. Functional Benchmarking – a variation of


process benchmarking that compares a
function of the organisation to the same
function in other organisations.

56
3. Generic Benchmarking – a variation of
process benchmarking that compares
like processes of two or more
organisations without limitation to
competition of the same industry.

4. Industry Benchmarking – comparison


of processes within organisation in the
same industry, but not necessarily
competitors

57
Benefits of Benchmarking.
1. Defines the gap between the organisation‘s
performance and other organisations‘
performance creating a desire to change for
the better.

2. Integrates the best policies into the


organisation.

3. Creates a culture of continuous


improvement.

4. Gives positive impact on employee pride


58
and morale.
5. Develops effective measurement
systems

6. Improve individual and team creativity

7. Identifies strengths and weaknesses of


an organisation.

8. Helps in setting realistic targets and


implementation plans.

59
Just-in-Time (JIT)

Relationship to quality:
 JIT cuts cost of quality

 JIT improves quality

 Better quality means less inventory and


better, easier-to-employ JIT system

60
Just-in-Time (JIT)
● ‗Pull‘ system of production/purchasing
- Customer starts production with an order

● Involves ‗vendor partnership programs‘


to improve quality of purchased items

● Reduces all inventory levels


- Inventory hides process & material
problems

● Improves process & product quality 61


Just-In-Time (JIT) Example

Work in process inventory level


(hides problems)

Unreliable Capacity
Scrap
Vendors Imbalances
62
Just-In-Time (JIT) Example

Reducing inventory reveals


problems so they can be solved.

Unreliable Capacity
Scrap
Vendors Imbalances
63
Taguchi Techniques
● Experimental design methods to
improve product & process design
- Identify key component & process
variables affecting product variation

● Taguchi Concepts
- Quality robustness
- Quality loss function
- Target specifications

64
Quality Robustness

 Ability to produce
products uniformly .

regardless of
manufacturing
conditions
 Put robustness in
House of Quality
matrices besides
functionality

© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

65
Quality Loss Function

 Shows social cost ($) of deviation from


target value
 Assumptions
 Most measurable quality characteristics
(e.g., length, weight) have a target value
 Deviations from target value are undesirable
 Equation: L = D2C
 L = Loss ($); D = Deviation; C = Cost

66
Quality Loss Function
High Loss
Unacceptable

Poor
Loss

Fair

Good

Best
Low Loss
Target-oriented quality
yields more product in
the "best" category
Frequency

Conformance-oriented
quality keeps products
within 3 standard
deviations

Lower Target Upper


Distribution of Specifications for Products Produced
67
Target Specification
Example
A study found U.S. consumers preferred Sony TV’s made
in Japan to those made in the U.S. Both factories used
the same designs & specifications. The difference in
quality goals made the difference in consumer
preferences.
Freq. Japanese factory
(Target-oriented)
U.S. factory
(Conformance-
X oriented)
LSL Target USL
68
Taguchi Methods

Taguchi methods are statistical methods


developed by Genichi Taguchi to improve
the quality of manufactured goods, and
more recently also applied to, engineering,
biotechnology, marketing and advertising.

Professional statisticians have welcomed


the goals and improvements brought about
by Taguchi methods, particularly by
Taguchi's development of designs for
studying variation, but have criticized the
inefficiency of some of Taguchi's proposals. 69
Taguchi's work includes three principal
contributions to statistics:

1. Taguchi loss function; - a way to show


how each non-perfect part produced,
results in a loss for the company

2. The philosophy of off-line quality


control; and

3. Innovations in the design of


experiments (DOE)

70
71
The Fundamental Taguchi
Concepts
The definition of quality given by the Taguchi
methodology is customer orientated.

Taguchi defines quality in a negative manner:

"Quality is the loss imparted to society


from the time the product is shipped.

This "loss" would include the cost of


customer dissatisfaction that leads to the loss
of company reputation. 72
This differs greatly from the traditional
producer-orientated definition which
includes the cost of re-work, scrap,
warranty and services costs as
measures of quality.

The customer is the most important part


of the process line, as quality products
and services ensure the future return of
the customer and hence improves
reputation and increased market share.

73
In general, there are four quality concepts
devised by Taguchi :

1. Quality should be designed into the


product from the start, not by inspection
and screening.

2. Quality is best achieved by minimising


the deviation from the target, not a
failure to confirm to specifications.

74
3. Quality should not be based on the
performance, features or characteristics
of the product.

4. The cost of quality should be measured


as a function of product performance
variation and the losses measured
system- wide

75
Quality Concept One

Quality should be designed into the product


from the start, not by inspection and
screening.

Quality improvements should occur during


the design stages of a product or process,
and continue through to the production
phase.

76
This is often called an "off-line" strategy.
Poor quality can't be improved by the
traditional process of inspection and
screening (on the production line).
According to Taguchi, no amount of
inspection can put quality back into a
product; it merely treats the symptom.

77
Quality concepts should therefore be
developed by the philosophy of prevention ;
problems are tackled at the source and not
down stream.

Taguchi emphasizes that quality is


something that is designed into a product,
to make it robust and immune to the
uncontrollable environmental factors in the
manufacturing phase.

This leads us to the next quality concept of


minimising variation in a product.
78
Quality Concept Two

Quality is best achieved by minimising the


deviation from the target, not a failure to
confirm to specifications.

The product should be designed so that it


is robust or immune to uncontrollable
environmental factors - e.g. noise,
temperature and humidity.

79
This concept mainly deals with actual
methods of affecting quality.

Reducing variation is the key to improving


quality.

By specifying a target value for critical


parameters, and ensuring manufacturing
meets the target value with little deviation,
the quality may be greatly improved.

80
Quality Concept Three
Quality is not based on the performance,
features or characteristics of the product.

Adding features to a product is not a way of


improving quality, but only of varying its
price and the market it is aimed at.

The performance and characteristics of a


product, can be related to quality, but should
not be the basis of quality.

Instead, performance is a measure of


product capability. 81
Quality Concept Four
The cost of quality should be measured as a
function of product performance variation and
the losses measured system-wide.

From given design parameters, the deviations


from a target are measured in terms of the
overall life cycle costs of the product.
This includes costs or re-work, inspection,
warranty servicing, returns and product
replacement.
It is these costs that provide some guidance
as to which major parameters need
controlling. 82
Purpose
A technique for the optimisation of
products or processes, Taguchi involves
a two-stage experimental design that
gives the benefits of robustness and
efficiency with the minimum number of
experiments.

83
When to use?

During design, commissioning or post-


commissioning when seeking the
optimum operating characteristics of a
product or process.

84
Benefits

Taguchi methods give a fast and pragmatic


approach to the optimisation of products
and processes.

They can also be used for tolerance


design: the setting of the statistically based
tolerances, allowing either improved
performance through tighter tolerances or
cheaper designs in non-critical areas; and
for fast type approval testing
85
STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION

# The Japanese deploy strategy


through a process known as
Hoshin Planning, or Policy
Deployment

# Policy Deployment is a systems


approach to managing change in
critical business processes

86
STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION

# It emphasises organisation – wide


planning and setting of priorities,
providing resources to meet
objectives, and measuring
performance as a basis for improving
performance
# Policy Deployment holds management
responsible for designing the vision and
building the organisation‘s commitment
through communication

87
# STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION
All levels of employees participate in
generating a strategy and action plan to attain
the vision

# Plans are hierarchical, cascading


downward from top management‘s
plan

# Policy Deployment provides frequent


evaluation and modification based on
process feedback 88
STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION

# Policy planning has a high degree of


detail

# The emphasis is on the improvement


of the process, as opposed to a
result-only orientation

# Policy Deployment extensively uses


the Seven Management as the
planning tool described previously

89
Policy Deployment
(Hoshin Kanri)
 Top management vision leading to long-
term objectives
 Deployment through annual objectives and
action plans
 Negotiation for short-term objectives and
resources
 Periodic reviews

90
HOSHIN KANRI

Hoshin kanri is a method devised to


capture and cement strategic goals as
well as flashes of insight about the
future and develop the means to bring
these into reality.

91
Also called Policy Deployment or Hoshin
Planning, it is a Strategic planning/Strategic
management methodology, based on a
concept popularised in Japan by Professor
Kaoru Ishikawa in the late 1950s.

He said that each person is the expert in his


or her own job and Japanese TQC (Total
Quality Control) is designed to use the
collective thinking power of all employees to
make their organisation the best in its field.

92
Purpose

To delight the customer through the


manufacturing and servicing process
by implementing the quality goals of
the organisation

93
The hoshin planning process basically
consists of the following steps:

1. identification of critical business issues


that the organization faces;

2. establishment of business objectives to


address these issues;

3. definition of the company's over-all


goals;

4. development of strategies that support


the over-all goals; 94
5) definition of sub-goals or tactics that
support each strategy;

6) establishment of metrics or indicators for


measuring process performance; and

7) establishment of business fundamental


measures.

The first 3 steps of this process are


handled by top management, with the
defined over-all goals supported by the
rest of the organization through steps 4-7.
95
HOSHIN PLANNING PROCESS

96
Benefits

It shows the employee what the overall


goals of the organisation are and
where he/she fits in so that everybody
pulls in the same direction towards
clearly defined goals

97
IMPLEMENTING A TQ STRATEGY

A TQ strategy has several elements;

# customer focused vision

# Concept of the voice of the customer

# Way of learning from outstanding


companies

98
# expression of caring for
employees

# Means of removing barriers to


achieving quality

# Measurement plan

99
IMPLEMENTING A TQ STRATEGY

Roles in implementing Quality Strategy:

# Senior Management

# Senior Managers must ensure that


the organisation is focusing on the
needs of the customers

100
# Senior Managers promote the
vision, mission and values of
the organisation

# Senior Managers identify the


processes that need
improvement

# Senior Managers must review


progress

101
IMPLEMENTING A TQ STRATEGY

Roles in implementing Quality Strategy:

# Middle management

# Middle Managers must improve the


operational processes that are the
foundation of the customer
satisfaction

102
# Middle Managers must yield
the spirit of teamwork

# Middle Managers must


implement continuous
improvement process

# Middle Managers must identify


and develop future leaders of
the organisation

103
IMPLEMENTING A TQ STRATEGY

Roles in implementing Quality Strategy:

# Workforce

# The Workforce must develop


ownership of the quality
improvement process

104
# The Workforce must be trained
in communication and
problem-solving skills

# Management must work with


Unions

# Management and Unions must


have equal representation

105
COMMON IMPLEMENTATION
MISTAKES
# TQM is regarded as a program
# The process is not driven by a focus on
the customer
# Structural elements in the organisation
such as compensation systems and
functionalisation blocked change
# Goals are set too low
# The organisation is too successful and
complacent
106
COMMON IMPLEMENTATION
MISTAKES

# Training is not properly addressed


# The focus is on products not on
processes
# little empowerment is given and what
is given is not supported in actions
# Senior management is not personally
and visibly committed and actively
participating
107
5 TQM Deployment Mistakes - And
How To Avoid Them

There are five problems in TQM


deployments, which, if not handled well, will
derail a deployment effort.

By recognizing these mistakes and working


to avoid them, a team can stay on track.

108
Problem #1: Leadership Indifference
Support and commitment for a TQM
deployment from the leadership of an
organization is the key driver for success.

Leadership must walk the talk and


continuously emphasize the importance of
TQM at all forums.

109
Support should be forthcoming not only
from senior leadership, but also from
leadership at all levels in the
organization.

No amount of good intentions,


resources, effort or time will make up for
missing sustained leadership support.

110
Problem #2: Faulty Deployment
Strategy

A deployment strategy helps to align


organizational business goals to expected
deployment results and to maintain the
sustenance of TQM in the organization.

111
Lack of alignment may cause
confusion among the key
stakeholders and associates about
the value of the entire effort; this gap
delays deployment in many
organizations.

112
Problem #3: Stress on Training
and Certification

Training and certification are important


aspects of an overall TQM deployment
effort because they build competency
within the organization.

113
But sometimes teams are more focused
on training and certification goals, and
fail to support project execution.

Without adequate mentoring and


coaching support after their initial
training, Belts may select projects
simply to meet the certification targets
or projects may be inordinately
delayed.

114
Problem #4: Incorrect Project
Selection
A lack of focus on project selection and
prioritization can lead to projects that lack
data or business focus or projects
focused on process areas that are outside
the Green Belts‘ and Black Belts‘ realm of
control.

This results in delayed or scrapped


projects, and quick disillusionment among
the Green Belts and Black Belts.
115
Problem #5: Segregating the Effort
Every individual member of an organization
has a stake in its growth and progress;
therefore, each is responsible for
contributing to and facilitating a successful
deployment.

Yet sometimes deployment teams fail to


communicate the benefits of the TQM
deployment to the key stakeholders.

Often only the deployment team will make


formal goals relating to TQM results. 116
STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS

@ Successful companies have sharp


focus on quality through planning
@ Top management is heavily involved
@ Customer focus is integrated across
functions
@ Employee participation is high

117
INTERNATIONAL QUALITY STUDY
# A large percentage of businesses in the
US do not evaluate quality at all or do
so less than once each year,
compared to Japanese businesses
# More emphasis is placed on
incorporating consumer research in
new product and service design in
Japan than in the US
# Japanese companies has the highest
rate of employee participation regarding
quality 118
SUMMARY
# Successful implementation of TQ
based strategies depends on the
commitment and involvement of all
employees: senior management,
middle management and the
workforce including union leadership

# Today‘s managers must constantly


improve their approaches to meet
competitive challenges 119