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2017 IEEE 8th International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST 2017)

Temperature Control with Fuzzy Neural Network

Bin Dai, Ren Chen Rung-Ching Chen
School of Computer and Information Engineering Department of Information Management
Xiamen University of Technology Chaoyang University of Technology
Xiamen, China Taichung, Taiwan

Abstract—Temperature control is a very common scene in fuzzy logic based fuzzy control systems and neural network
industrial control. Combined with our previous research, the control systems.
temperature control of drinking water is an important aspect of
improving human health. Traditional temperature control Thanks to the great progress of scientific computing power
methods include PID control, or considering multiple input and computer technology, in the late 80s, artificial neural
factors, fuzzy control is used to adjust and control temperature. network also ushered in a high-speed development and
However, the deficiency is that the control accuracy is not ideal, universal application stage [3]. For example, the multi-layer
and the feedback control is relative slow. It is a good idea and back propagation learning algorithm (BP algorithm) [4] has
solution to optimize the condition of judging rules in been the most popular neural network in many fields. It has
temperature control by using the method of combining neural been widely used in pattern recognition, adaptive control and
network and fuzzy control, and combining the optimization of classification using its powerful computing power.
algorithm to improve the precision and speed of temperature
regulation. In this paper, the architecture of fuzzy neural In the industrial control field, it is precisely because of
network for drinking water temperature control and the neural network has the characteristic of good fault tolerance, it
algorithm design method are proposed, and the precision of can adapt to the control requirements with offline or online
temperature control and the improvement of regulation speed way, it also can approximated to any nonlinear function [5], so
are provided. combine with the advantage of neural networks and fuzzy
control are very natural research ideas and methods.
Keywords — Fuzzy neural network; temperature control; fuzzy From the common point of view, both fuzzy systems and
logic; BP neural networks have the ability of parallel data processing,
and the intelligent processing and judgment of the proposed
I. INTRODUCTION targets and the estimation of the cost. The difference is the way
of samples processing, the storage methods, and reasoning
Fuzzy control logic system has been widely used in system methods. Neural networks generally use samples to learn,
modeling and control since it was born. The fundamental whereas fuzzy systems usually acquire knowledge from expert
reason is that the fuzzy system can make good use of the systems. Under normal circumstances, we can use the fuzzy
expert system [1], and it also can transfer non- accurate system to determine the structure of the problem, and using
information into control strategy and reasoning system, you neural networks to build the system learning and processing
can use the rules to solve a lot of problems that cannot be capabilities. Comprehensive combine fuzzy systems and
precisely modeling. Its advantages are very obvious, Fuzzy neural network advantages to enhance the overall structure of
control does not require controlled objects to have accurate learning ability and expression, is one of the focuses of our
numerical description, and the generated inference rules have research.
good robustness and can handle complex logic systems [2].
Therefore, the fuzzy control model has good human-computer In temperature control field, how to improve the accuracy
interaction ability, and can be widely used in the current of temperature control is a topic of concern. The traditional
intelligent system. method of fuzzy system is usually using experience and
valuation methods to build the rules, the outputs are often not
Intelligent control theory is based on the non-model or accurate and lack of adaptability to the environment
non-accurate models for features closer to the control theory of temperature changing. Using equivalent module in fuzzy
human thinking mode, which is based on knowledge and systems with neural networks, to generate fuzzy inference
information as the basis for learning and reasoning, the rules with learning ability and mapping ability of neural
heuristic method to guide the solving process, with complexity, network, it can enhance the learning ability and adaptive
uncertainty and ambiguity and unknown algorithms of ability of structure of temperature controlling, it also can
non-traditional mathematical formula the process of divination. combine the knowledge representation of fuzzy system to
Among all kinds of intelligent control methods, fuzzy control, optimize the conventional neural network [6]. The practical
neural network control and expert control are regarded as three problem we face is that it is a nonlinear system that controls
typical intelligent control methods. At present, rule-based and identifies and optimizes the problem. The advantage of
traditional expert systems are also gradually giving way to using both fuzzy neural networks is a worthwhile attempt.

978-1-5386-2965-9/17/$31.00 © 2017 IEEE

2017 IEEE 8th International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST 2017)

In the traditional fuzzy control design, the control strategy to be dealt with, the fuzzy processing method can describe the
is constructed by means of non-deterministic numerical and input factors as fuzzy sets, and each fuzzy set can be expressed
expression methods. Most of the advantages of traditional by the corresponding membership function. The process of
fuzzy control systems are the single input output system converting a crisp input value to a fuzzy value is called
(SISO), which uses the change rate of error and error as input "fuzzification" [6]. In fuzzy logic, rules are actually used to
to obtain the best effect of PD and PI. However, in our actual deal with similar problems or to make use of the data in expert
system requirements, such as drinking water temperature systems. The process of defuzzification is actually the process
control. In the case of multivariable input, the results of of converting uncertain data into deterministic data. [7].
accurate reasoning will encounter big problems, such as
consuming a lot of computing time. In the research of this
paper, using the neural network to resolve the fuzzy system
rules complexity and optimization the process of learning,
automatic adjustment rules, and optimization and accurate
output is our focus.
The contradiction between the diversity of control
objectives and the various goals makes it necessary to consider
various factors in the design of the controller. The
conventional control method is mainly aimed at linear dynamic
systems with lumped parameters. The object must be
quantized and all kinds of quantization parameters are required
The relation can be described by differential equations or Fig. 1. The infrastructure of the fuzzy system
difference equations, that is, the system has a precise
mathematical model. With respect to linearity, nonlinearity is Taking water temperature control as an example, the input
absolute and global. Linear systems in general sense are factors may include multiple factors, including environmental
idealized or approximate descriptions of nonlinear systems. temperature, age, sex, and specific diseases. For each factor,
The remarkable characteristics of nonlinear systems are the the corresponding membership function can be designed. For
existence of multiple equilibrium, limit cycles, bifurcation and example, environment temperature can be set to low-low, low,
chaos. The description methods of nonlinear systems are much middle, high, high-high. In the fuzzy sets, the triangular
more complex than linear systems. So far, there is no accepted membership functions are used because they have been proven
model description. to be successful in many places.
In 1965, Lotfi Zadeh, published his famous paper "Fuzzy The fuzzy temperature control structure is shown in Fig. 2.
sets". Zadeh extended the work on possibility theory into a
formal system of mathematical logic, and introduced a new
concept for applying natural language terms. This new logic
for representing and manipulating fuzzy terms was called
fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic emphasized on describing the
different level of the things in real life, it extended the range of
truth values to all real numbers into the interval between 0 and
1. Unlike two-valued Boolean logic, fuzzy logic is
multi-valued. It deals with degrees of membership and degree
of truth. Fuzzy logic uses the continuous values between 0 and
1 to represent that things can be partly true and partly false.
Fig. 2. The fuzzy temperature control structure
The general fuzzy logic and infrastructure can be
represented in figure 1. Fuzzy logic can accept linguistic As shown in the fig above, the temperature control is ok
variables as input data. The input variables in a fuzzy system and the temperature is around 22Υ. But the result is not good
are in general mapped by sets of membership functions similar because the difference of temperature is a little big. The reason
to this, known as "fuzzy sets". The process of converting a is that the fuzzy sets are not good. In summary, the result
crisp input value to a fuzzy value is called "fuzzification". proves that the fuzzy logic can control the temperature well.
Inference engine is actually the processing stage invokes each
appropriate rule coming from rule base and knowledge base III. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK FOR
and generates a result for each, then combines the results of the TEMPERATURE CONTROL
rules. The system structure is showed in Figure 1 and the To construct temperature control fuzzy neural network,
detailed explanation is as follows. whose basic structure still takes advantage of the basic logic of
We can use Fig. 1 to describe the general fuzzy logic and fuzzy system, includes fuzzification, rule inference and
its infrastructure. Typically, fuzzy control logic can handle defuzzification. At the same time, using neural network to
nondeterministic problems. For the specific problems that need solve the problem of initialization and training etc. Learning

978-1-5386-2965-9/17/$31.00 © 2017 IEEE

2017 IEEE 8th International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST 2017)

algorithm can have a variety of options according to the type The last layer is the output layer, also known as the
of neural network; the neural network can generate an defuzzification layer, which can be expressed in vector form
n-dimensional training data, through which to optimize the [8].
structure and output rules.
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
W=⎢ ⋮ ⎥ α=⎢ ⋮ ⎥
⎢ ⋮ ⎥ ⎢⋮ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

W is the central value of the membership function, that is,

the weight value.
Neural networks and fuzzy logic systems are two effective
methods in modeling and control of nonlinear systems. With
the development of science and technology in related fields,
the research of fuzzy theory and neural network technology
Fig.3. Temperature control fuzzy neural network infrastructure has made remarkable achievements and breakthroughs in their
respective disciplines. Especially the universal approximation
As shown in Fig. 3, the first layer in the architecture is the theorem of theoretical results of three layer network in neural
input layer, and its nodes correspond to the input factors. The network can realize continuous nonlinear mapping and fuzzy
function is to transfer the input values X = {x1, x2, ..., xn} T to logic system, which plays an important role in the modeling
the next layer. The number of nodes is equal to the number of and control of nonlinear system identification. Since the turn
input factors. Here is the assumption that there are N input of the century, the system of fuzzy theory has been developed
Fuzzy technology has been gradually improved, and
Each node in the second layer represents the fuzzy subset achieved great success in the industrial control application,
of each input factor, that is, the membership function. The especially once again neural network research upsurge, many
function is to compute the membership function U of each people naturally look to the combination of the fuzzy logic
input factor [8]. system and neural network is an important direction. From the
μ = μ (X ) ġġġġġġ (1) end of the century to the beginning of the 20th century, the
integration of fuzzy logic systems and neural networks began
j=1, 2, 3…n, i=1, 2, 3,….l, N is the number of input factors, to attract academic attention. In recent years, the integration of
and j is the number of fuzzy subsets. If the membership these two methods has become a new hot spot in the research
function uses the Gauss function, then we can get the of intelligent control methods.
following formula [9]: The adjustment of drinking water temperature under multi
ġ factor condition can be accomplished by using the traditional
fuzzy control method. The rules of fuzzy control mainly
depend on people's experience, but the experience is likely to
μ (xj)= exp[−( ) ]ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ (2) be wrong, which will inevitably affect the accuracy and
accuracy of control. At the same time, when the input factor
Where α and σ represent the center and width of the increases, the sharp increase in the number of rules is also a
membership function respectively. The total number of nodes big problem.
in the second layer is Using the method of fuzzy neural network to complete this
N2=∑ (3) kind of problem has many advantages, the neural network can
have self-learning and self-adjustment function, and neural
Each node of the third layer represents a rule that matches network can combine fuzzy control architecture and the use of
the fuzzy rule and calculates the suitability of each rule. weights in the processing parameters of fuzzy control. With
the appropriate algorithm, the training times of fuzzy neural
networks can enhance their learning ability. In the temperature
α = min{μ , μ , μ , … . μ } ġ (4) control problem, the fuzzy neural network can enhance the
control accuracy and shorten the feedback control time.
For the input factor, the value of the variable near the
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